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: Marcoms: collection of all elements in a brands MM that facilitate exchanges by

establishing shared meaning with brands customers


Elements IMC: Personal selling: Direct P2P, attempt to persuade C to purchase, flexible,
tailored msg to specific needs, immediate feedback, difficult to uniform msg
Advertising:control message, cost effective, high cost,images & symbolic appeals, difficult
to determine effictiveness, cluter hard
Sales promo:extra incentive 2 purchase, appeals to price sens, short-run impact, quick
gains at expense of longterm BE.
PR:activity developing support btw company & public, 1.PROACTIVE: -offensive, opportunity
seeking (P release, statements, articles (of newsworthy issues)) 2.REACTIVE: repair rep.
Strats-Attack head on, ignore, neutralise. PR=credible, low cost, generate WOM, lack of
control, can be ve or +ve.
Direct Mktg: definite offer, comm direct with TC to gen yes or no answer, selective
customised msg, easiest msg to access effectively.
Brand Equity: C Familiarity and stored (Favourable,unique,strong) associations of brand.
Band awareness: whether brand comes to mind when particular product category is though
of & ease w which it is evoked. 1.Recall (unprompted beer-xxxx) 2.Recognition (prompted:
flying kangaroo-Qantas-Airline)
Brand attitude/image/preference: associations in mind when contemplation
brand(strong,favourable,unique)
BE enhancement:name awareness, +ve associations, perceived quality & strong brand
loyalty
Functional needs: toilet paper Symbolic:desire for self enhancement
IMC:total mktg communications strategy, recognises how all mktg activities, communicate
with customers(eg.price measures quality)
Changes in MC: faith in mass media, reliance on target comms, effort to asses
comms ROI
CONSUMER RESPONSE STAGES: exposure, processing, understanding, TA action (works
like funnel)
IMC planning stages: 1. Mktg objectives and setting budget 2. TA selection 3. Comm
objectives & brand positioning 4. Creative strategy/overall IMC strategy 5. Media strategy 6.
Campaign tracking and evaluation
Ethical Issues: Green advertising, packaging response, seal of approval, cause oriented
programs, POP
Segmentation: Demographic, geographic, psychographic (activities, opinions, beliefs, vales,
lifestyle)
Geodemographic: reside in similar areas (3031) & may share demographic & lifestyle
similarities
Behaviouristic Groups: -NCU(enter category by buying our brand) Brand Loyals (our brand)
FBS (occasionally buy ours and other brands) OtherBS (buy other brands not ours) OBL (other
than ours) Msg according to each TA.
Brand loyalty: key to success in MC: is repeat purchase of brand based on awareness
(recall/recognition), inelastic to price promos of comp. Brand Loyalty 1. Awareness 2. Attitude
3. Behaviour Concept. Behaviouristic segmentation, TA = Buyer groups (FBL) + descriptor
(kids)
TA: those whom a marcoms campaign is directed.
Target Market: Those whom entire MM is directed
Mktg objectives: Trial is initial action objective for new brand categories, new brands & new
TAs. After Trial success of Brand depends on repeat purchases.
IMC budget methods: Percentage of sales (anticipated/past), objective and task (role
expect IMC to play for brand-set bud accordingly), Competitive parity method(off comp.),
affordability method (whats left).
: Behavioural process: WHAT decision stages preceding including & following purchase?
WHO are the decision participants & what are their roles? WHERE are locations of decision

stages?(to plan media selection) WHEN is the time & timing of each?(plan for MS) HOW
does decision come?
Decision roles: initiators (make aware) influences (comms reason to buy) deciders
(persuade to select)Buyers, Users (actually use).
Hierarchical effects: Cognitive (thought, info, facts) Affective (emotions) Behavioural
(desires). AWARENESS (C) KNOWLEDGE(C) LIKING(A) PREFERENCE(A) CONVICTION(B)
PURCHASE(B)
Comms Objectives: 1.Category need(actual desired state) 2.Brand Awareness
(recognise/recall product) 3.Brand Attitude(meet emotional/rational needs)4.Brand Purchase
intention
INFO motivations: +VE sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, social approval VE
problem removal, problem avoidance, incomplete satisfaction, mixed approach, avoidance
Communication Process: Source (encode) memsg channel
receiver(decode) NOISE!
Persuasive Techniques: Reciprocation(offer P free/easy to ask for), scarcity, authority
(follow expert), commitment (small), liking (attractiveness,similarity), consensus(majority
rules)
CPM: Behaviour is rational, highly cognitive, systematic and reasoned
HEM: Driven by emotions in pursuit of fun, fantasies and +ve feelings
Rational Processing: 1.EXPOSURE (contact w msg) 2. SELECTIVE ATTENTION
3.COMPREHENSION & AGREEMENT (comp alone not influence, A credible) 4.RETENTION
STORED 5.RETRIVAL 6.DECISON MAKING 8.ACTION
SALIANCE: = Evaluation of alternatives (vertical, brands want to be at top)
POSITIONING: TCB MODEL TA Category need Key Benefit WHAT is it, Who is it for,
What does it offer?
POSITIONING done through IMC Generate brand recall/recognition to increase BAwareness
and BE
POSITION PROCESS: 1.TCB 2.POSITIONING OBJECTIVE 3.POSITION THROUGH IMC
4.EVALUATE CAMPAING TRACKING
POSITIONING: breaks clutter. Not what you do to the product but to mind of consumer.
Leader(1st) Follower (gap)
Line-extension trap: A 2nd or more products gets free ride on back of well-known brand. P
line extended, so to is meaning of the name. (can cause problems)
POSITION statement: Our TA is___to this audience our (brand) is the brand of (category)
that offers key brand benefits of (detailed benefit(s)).
5/6: New Products: MC facilitate successful new product introductions and reduce the
product failure rate
Strategic adoption factors: Relative advantage (better than existing alternatives)
Compatibility (fit into way of doing things) Complexity (perceived difficulty) Trail,
Observability
WOM: +ve critical to success of new P ve can be devastating
Brand name & logos: affects speed with which C become aware of brand and influences
image (good N = memorable, compatible w image & P design) (Good L=recognise, evoke
+ve feelings)
Packaging: Breaks through comp. clutter at POP. Draw attention to brand. Justify price/value.
Signify features/benefits. (Colour=reflective surface for elegance+prestige) (Design & shape
good eye flow and point of focus) (Packaging size) Product info (new, bonus, improved
slogan)
Functions of POP: Informing, Merchandising, Encouraging, Reminding. POP must satisfy the
retailers need and C need. (size, fit store dcor, user friendly, convenient)
Effective advertising: looks at C views, persuasive, not overwhelm, deliver on promise,
break clutter, sound strat. Remote Conveyor: Attract people to an ad that they are forced to
then think about. Apple 1894.

Creative Strategies: Generic (no claim of superiority other than main benefit of P) & Preemptive (aims to convice superior key benefit good for emerging market) Inherent
Drama (create a story) Unique Selling Position (superiority claim on a unique and
desirable feature) Brand Image (C buy benefits, not P, psychological/symbolic
differentiation, claims are prestige related,4 homogenous goods)Positioning(occupy mental
niche, can reposition own brand or comp, Long term)Resonance (evoke stored experiences,
requires understanding of TA (hard). Emotional (involvement through emotion, dont push
sell) Execution (not what you say, how you say it, requires break clutter that makes brand
different from comp)
Creative strat Qs: 1. For TA recognition or recall? 2.For TA purchase reason informational (ve motivation) or transformational (+ve)? 3. For T.A is purchase low or high involvement?
Possiter-Percy-Bellman Grid: Provides recommended creative tactics for advertz in all
media. LI Trail exp sufficient HI search and conviction
Brand Awareness: (recognition)- clear and realistic pack/logo be prominent visibly &
length of time & distinct color used. Easily link brand to category.
BA (recall) use repetition to strongly link category & brand. Can use celeb, jingle. Recall
helped by brands names that are easy to remember, spell & associate.
Low Involvement(L.I)/Informational: keep msg simple. Focus one key benetfit.
Exaggerate to attract curiosity. Get msg though showing problem brand comes to rescue as
hero. Cust dont need to like ads. ( asprin, soap EXPERTISE)
L.I/Transformational: form an attachment to the brand and see it as desiable. Main benefit
that captures emotion or style of brand in unique way. Consumers need to like these ads
need to seel product not just entertain. (Basic cosmetics, regular beer, snacks. LIKEABILITY)
H.I/Informational: numerous benefits need to be presented & the order matters. Use cred
celeb. Dont exaggerate to much. Do comparison of brands for consumers in your comss.
Media carefully chosen/balanced. (housing, insuarance, professional equipment. EXPERTISE &
OBJECTIVITY)
H.I/transformational: People appearing in this comms need to be aspirational role models.
Important customers understand emotional message as well as rational elements. Media
choice must reflect nature of brands (cavtions, fashion...SIMILARITY)
Celeb endorsement:Use celebs who are liked and respected y TA, could also use typical
person (Jarrod) endorses anti-celeb strat.
Celeb selection criteria: Visibility, credibility (expertise, objectivity), attractiveness
(similarity or liking) celeb/product match-up (meaningful relationship btw celeb, audience and
P) miscellaneous considerations ($ of celebrity, how likely are they to endorse)