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Lecture13HomeostasisofBloodGasLevels

Aims:
Todescribegasexchangeinlungsandbetweenbloodandtissues

Toexplainthemechanismsofuptake,transportandreleaseorrespiratorygases(O
,
2
CO
)inthebloodandthehomeostasisofbloodgaslevels
2

TransportingO
2
1.5%ofO
isdissolvedinplasma.
2

2+
3+
98.5%ofO
readilybindstocentralFeion(alternatesbetweenFe
andFe
)inhaem
2
groupofhaemoglobin.
OneO
perFeion(perhaemgroup).
2
Fourhaemgroupsandfourglobinperhaemoglobinmolecule.

Hb+4O
HbO
2
8
Hb=haemoglobin,HbO
=oxyhaemoglobin
8

AtPo
(inlungs)HbbindstoO
AtPo
(intissues)HbreleasesO
.
2
2
2
2
HbreleasesO
intissuesO
diffusesintocellsaerobicrespiration
2
2
Atrest2325%ofO
loadedonHbisreleasedtotissues.
2

AmountofO
releasedfromHbO
increaseswith:
2
8
1. Po
2
2. Pco
2
3. pH
4. temperature
Physicalexercise~73%ofO
loadedonHbreleasedintoskeletalmuscles.
2

O
demandO
unloading
2
2

TransportingCO
2
7%ofCO
isdissolvedinplasma:
2

CO
+H
OH
CO
(H
+HCO
)
2
2
2
3
3

H
CO
=carbonicacid,dissociatesintoprotonandbicarbonateioninsolution.
2
3
Carbonicanhydrasecatalysesbothforwardandbackwardreaction
+
[H
]determinesacidityofblood.
NB:Pco
intissues,Pco
inlungs.
2
2

Remaining93%ofCO
enterserythrocytes(redbloodcells):
2

23%combineswithglobincomponentofhaemoglobin.

CO
+Hb
HbCO
2
2
HbCO
=carbaminohaemoglobin
2
HbCO
dissociatesintoCO
(exhaled)andHbinlungsduetoPco
.
2
2
2
70%combineswithwaterforming(dissociated)H
CO
catalysedbycarbonic
2 3
anhydrasepresentinerythrocytesandcapillaryendothelialcells.
+

CO
+H
OH
CO
H
+HCO

2
2
2
3
3

ReversibleduetoPco
intissuesandPco
inlungs.
2
2

Gasexchangeintissues

HCO
passesintoplasmabecomingNaHCO
.
3
3

Gasexchangeinlungs

Controlofrespirationhomeostasisofbloodgaslevels
NB:Drivingforceregulatingbreathingis[CO
]
NOT
Po
.
2

2
e.g.Hypercapnia([CO
])fromholdingbreathstrongcompulsionto
2
breathe.

Medullaryrespiratorycenterinmedullaoblongatacontainschemoreceptorssensitive
+
+

tosmallincreasesin[H
]/decreaseinpHdueto
CO
+H
OH
CO
H
+HCO
.
2
2
2
3
3

RateanddepthofbreathingduemainlytochangeinPco
and[H+].
2


Effectsofaltitude
Atsealevel:
Atmosphericpressure=760mmHgor1atm(Po
=160mmHg)
2
Po
=100mmHg
2blood
Hbis98%saturated

At3000maltitude(effectofgravity):
Atmosphericpressure=525mmHg(Po
=110mmHg)
2

Po
=70mmHg
2blood
Hbis80%saturated
O
deficiencyfatigue,headachesandnausea(altitudesickness)
2

Bodilyadaptations:
detectionofPo
bycarotidandaorticbodies(chemoreceptors)incirculatory
2
systemventilationasrespiratorysystemisstimulated
renal(i.e.fromkidneys)erythropoietinsecretionerythrocytes

Respirationbelowsealevel
Pressureincreaseslinearlybelowsealevel(p=gh)andlungvolumedecreases
proportionately(Boyleslaw,p 1v ).
sealevel:1atmlungvolume4L
10mdeep:2atmlungvolume2L
20mdeep:3atmlungvolume1.33L

Solubilityofgasesincreaseswithdepth.
e.g.N
solubleinbloodatpressure(NB:AtsealevelN
comprises78%of
2
2
atmosphere)
Solubilitycoefficient(atsealevel)value,solutionathighpressure
CO
=0.05O
=0.02N
=0.01
2
2
2

Implications:
Descentdecreasedlungvolume
riskoflungstearingfromchestwall(pleuralconnectionlost)
Ascentincreasedlungvolume
riskofruptureofalveoliandmiscellaneouslungdamage
riskofnitrogennarcosis(reachingsaturationpointofN
and
2blood
interferingwithO
/CO
exchange),embolism(airbubblesinblooddue
2
2
tohypersolubility)anddecompressionillness(thebends)asblood
vesselsarestretched
DeepseadiversnowuseanO
/Hemixtureintanksas
2
prevention.