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Basic Six Sigma details

Basic Six Sigma details

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- Statistics Handbook
- ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Six Sigma Green Belt Exam Study Notes
- Yellow Belt Training
- Fu Ch10 Categorical
- STPM Mathematics T Questions For Revision
- Adoption of Six Sigma DMAIC to Reduce Cost of Poor Quality
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- Six Sigma Case Study, Automating Input Data
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- Tools and Techniques Repository
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- MktRes MARK4338 Lecture6 011
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- Nonparametric Tests Laboratory
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- 6BI06_1A_pef_20160817

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Phase

Objective

Output

Define

Develop Project Charter

Prepare High Level Process Map

Complete Stakeholder Analysis

Kanos model

Project Charter - Business Case, Problem

Statement, Goal Statement, Project /

Process Scope, Project Team, Project Plan

SIPOC & Stakeholder analysis

Goal, Project Scope

Timelines

Process Map

SIPOC

Stakeholder Analysis

Metrics Tracker

Measure

Measurement System Analysis

Estimate Current Capability

Understand As-Is Process

Identify Potential Causes & Data

Collection

Understand Data Distributions

Capability Analysis Attribute Data &

Continuous Data

Process Maps, VSM & IPO metrics

Potential cause identification

Brainstorming (Ishikawa), Affinity

diagram, Defect Log, FMEA

Prioritization Matrix

Data Collection Plan

As Is Process Map

Value Analysis & List of Quick Wins

Improved Process Map

Measurement System Analysis

Data Collection Plan for Y

Normality, Stability Testing & Capability Analysis

Identification of IPO metrics

Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa)

Conversion of Causes to Xs

Cause - Effect Matrix

Y Data Treatment

Y Data

Treatment

Normality

Stability

Capability

Tools

MinitabNormality Test

Graphical

Summary

Run Chart

Histogram

Control Chart

Minitab or Excel

tools

Interpretation

Action ahead

Check Stability

non-normality is because of few data points

caused due to special causes?

If yes- handle those data points separately.

caused because of

special reasons.

Check normality again.

inherent nature of process

fits the data

Check capability

Check whether un-stability is because of few data

points caused due to special causes?

caused because of special

causes and check for

stability again.

1. Check whether un-stability is because of mixing

of more than one process outputs

2. Check for excessive noise factors

processes outputs

2. take action to filter out

noise

Comments

important insight

for scoping the

project further

- 1

+ 1

68.27%

- 2

95.45%

- 3

+ 2

99.73%

- 4

99.9937%

- 5

+ 3

+ 4

+ 5

99.99994%

- 6

+ 6

99.9999998%

Z Score Calculation

Process Capability

Continuous Data

Discreet Data

CP CPK

DPU

Number of Defects

DPU =

; Yeild = e -dpu

Number of Defects Processed

DPU to Z Score:

Z = x-Mean/Standard

Deviation

DPMO

Number of Defects

DPMO =

X 106

Number of Units x Opportunities per Unit

Z= NORMSINV *

( 1 -( DPMO / 1,000,000))+ 1.5

USL LSL

CP =

X LSL

; CPK = Min (

6s

,

3s

USL - X

)

3s

CP to Z Score: ( X - )

CPK to Z Score:

Z=

; Z = 3* CPK

Data Types

Continuous data

Count data

TAT.

errors in a Transaction.

Data type

Binary Data

Pass/ Fail, OK/ Not OK,

Win/ Loss.

Ordinal data

Satisfaction index- 1=Strongly

disagree; 2=Disagree;

3=Neutral; 4=Agree;

5=Strongly agree.

Discrete data/ Attribute data

Count or category type

Nominal data

Race/ethnicity has values

1=White, 2=Hispanic,

3=American Indian, 4=Black,

5=Other

Specification

characteristics

Specification limits are established for the process and do not reflect how the

process is actually performing.

Control limits are calculated based on the existing performance of the

process.

LSL

Target

USL:

anything above this is a defect.

LSL:

anything below this is a defect.

Target:

USL

Data

Measurement

Repeatability

Accuracy

Repeatability & Reproducibility)

These acceptable limits are given as a guideline and you can fix different limits

based on your No. of Error categories and No. of Appraisers.

Tata Consultancy Services

Mean

Range

Median

Standard Deviation

Mode

Coefficient of variation

Purpose of Sampling

Formula

Estimate Average

( For continuous data )

E.g. Time taken for

Query resolution

2s

d

Estimate proportion

( For Discrete data )

2

d

resolved

p 1 p

Total Z to + infinity

Z

Area Under Curve

from Z to positive

infinity

Area from -Z to +Z

-Z

Z-1.5

Defect

Defect Free

-Z

-Z to +Z

negative infinity to Z-1.5

+Z

-infinity to -Z

plus

+Z to + infinity

+Z

(negative infinity to -Z)

PLUS

(+Z to positive infinity)

Z-1.5

Area Under Curve

Z-1.5 to positive

infinity

-infinity to -Z

plus

+Z to + infinity

- Z Convert +Z

(negative infinity to -Z )

PLUS

(+Z to positive infinity)

into PPM

Total Z-1.5 to + infinity

Z-1.5

Convert Area Under

Curve (Z-1.5 to positive

infinity) into PPM

Analyze

Hypothesis Testing

If P is Low, Ho must Go !

Continuous Data

Discrete Data

Comparing

Proportions

1-Proportion

Test

2-Proportion

Test

Chi-square

Test

Ho : There is significant difference between the

expected and observed result.

Ha: There is no significant difference between the

expected and observed result.

Comparing

Means

Two Samples

2-Sample

t-Test

One

sample

Comparing

Variances

Multiple

Samples

1-Sample

t-Test

ANOVA

Two

Sample

Test of equal

Variances

Ho : 1 = Ref

Ha : 1 = > < Ref

Y =

f(x1,x2,x3,x4,,xn)

30+ variables

15-20 variables

10-15

variables

A

N

A

L

Y

Z

E

5-10

variables

3-5

variables

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Improve

Questions to be asked

Are the vital few Xs statistically significant?

Is the solution identified are sufficient enough?

Is solutions are validated with improvement achieved?

Can Xs be monitored on regular basis?

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Control

All processes display variation and there are two types of variation:

1)

Common cause

2) Special cause variation

alone by identifying and eliminating the Special Causes

Data Types

Variable Data

No Subgrouping

Discrete Data

Sub grouping

Present

Range (I MR) Chart

Defectives Data

Defects Data

X Bar R Chart

Sample Size

Constant

Sample Size

Variable

Sample Size

Constant

Sample Size

Variable

np Chart

p Chart

c Chart

u Chart

UCLx , LCLx = X A2 * R

np = average of a number of

defectives inspected in study

C=

C

U = Sum of C / Sum of N

alternating up and down

A single point outside 3

control limits

Nine points in a row on the

same side of the centerline

Six points in a row, all

increasing or all decreasing

Two out of three

successive points more than

2 on the same side of the

centerline

Four out of five successive

points beyond 1 on the

same side of the centerline

1.

2.

To ensure that the change is detected,

determined, eliminated & avoided of the

re-occurrence.

Tata Consultancy Services

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