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Biostatistics Team
Abdul Muneer Abdul Hamid
Premaa a/p Supramaniam
Nurina Musta'ani Bt Hamedon
Siti Sara Bt Mat Lazim
Nor Aizura Bt Zulkifli
Shahrul Aiman Bin Soelar
Evi Diana Omar
Nurakmal Baharum
Tg Mohd Ikhwan B. Tg Abu Bakar Sidik

Let's Calculate NA
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(2007)
dan matiku, hanyalah untuk Allah, Tuhan yang memelihara dan
(2008)
mentadbirkan sekalian Alam. (Maksud Surah Al-Anam ayat 162)
(2009)
(2009)
(2009)
(2010)
(2011)
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(2012)
(2012)
(2013)
(2013)

datku, hidupku
emelihara dan

-Anam ayat 162)

Developed by sir-NA
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Description:
Julious (2005) recommends a minimum sample size of 12 per group as a rule of thumb and justifies this
Suggested citation:
Julious SA. Sample size of 12 per group rule of thumb for a pilot study. Pharmaceutical Statistics 2005 4

Description:
Sim and Lewis (2012) suggest a sample size of at least 50 per group.
Suggested citation:
Sim J, Lewis M: The size of a pilot study for a clinical trial should be calculated in relation to considerat

as a rule of thumb and justifies this based on rationale about feasibility and precision about the mean and variance.

dy. Pharmaceutical Statistics 2005 4(4):287-91.

calculated in relation to considerations of precision and efficiency. J Clin Epidemiol 2012, 65:301-308.

mean and variance.

:301-308.

Unpaired
Type of data : Numerical
Significant level () : 0.05
Power (1-) : 0.80

Objective
EXAMPLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Note: SD = Standard Deviation

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using two population means formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar,
of {Objective} of the {Group 1} group are {Mean in Group 1} and {SD in Group 1}, respectively. If the
Group 2}, we will need to study {Sample Size Per Group} samples per group to be able to reject the null
test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will use an independent t-test statistic to evaluate this null hypothe
Per Group} samples per group.

Hypothesis (Equality)

Formulae for Sample Size Calculations

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Unpaired t-test/Independent t-test

Group 1
Mean
41.670

SD
4.590

Group 2
Mean
40.220

SD
4.055

Drop-out :
Corrected Sample Size Per Group :

ormulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation
SD in Group 1}, respectively. If the mean and standard deviation of {Group 2} group are {Mean in Group 2} and {SD in
er group to be able to reject the null hypothesis with probability (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this
statistic to evaluate this null hypothesis. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size

Sample Size Per Group

141

20%

0 samples

1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation
ation of {Group 2} group are {Mean in Group 2} and {SD in
ity (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this
20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size

140.0334

157.30

0.00

122.77

Test using IBM SPSS Stati

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Mean G).sav"

Click

Output

ing IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows

Paired t-test/Depen
Type of data : Numerical
Significant level () : 0.05
Power (1-) : 0.80

Objective
EXAMPLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Note: SD = Standard Deviation

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using the population means formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, L
of {Objective} of the {Time 1} are {Mean in Time 1} and {SD in Time 1}, respectively. If the mean and
to study {Sample Size} samples to be able to reject the null hypothesis with probability (power) 0.8. The
use an Paired t-test statistic to evaluate this null hypothesis. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the s

Hypothesis (Equality)

Formulae for Sample Size Calculations

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Paired t-test/Dependent t-test

Time 1
Mean
41.670

SD
4.590

Time 2
Mean
40.220

SD
4.055

Drop-out :
Corrected Sample Size :

rmulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation
me 1}, respectively. If the mean and standard deviation of {Time 2} are {Mean in Time 2} and {SD in Time 2}, we will need
s with probability (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will
additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size} samples.

Sample Size
79

20%

0 samples

1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation
ime 2} are {Mean in Time 2} and {SD in Time 2}, we will need
ssociated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will
Sample Size} samples.

78.6497
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

78.65

0.00

61.38

Test using IBM SPSS Stati

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Mean T).sav"

Click

Output

Pearson Chi-square test/F

Type of data : Categorical
Significant level () : 0.05
Power (1-) : 0.80

Objective
EXAMPLE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using two population proportions formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, K
{Objective} of the {Group 1} group is {Proportion in Group 1}. If the proportion of {Group 2} group is
reject the null hypothesis with probability (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this te
null hypothesis. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size} sam

Hypothesis (Equality)

Formulae for Sample Size Calculations

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

son Chi-square test/Fisher's exact test

Group 1

Group 2

Proportion
0.800

Proportion
0.667

Drop-out :
Corrected Sample Size Per Group :

ons formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the proportion of
he proportion of {Group 2} group is {Proportion in Group 2}, we will need to study {Sample Size} samples to be able to
or probability associated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will use an Pearson Chi-square test to evaluate this
ize is {Corrected Sample Size} samples.

est

173

20%

0 samples

ation, 1990). Prior data indicate that the proportion of

, we will need to study {Sample Size} samples to be able to
is 0.05. We will use an Pearson Chi-square test to evaluate this

172.2893

0.00

Test using IBM SPSS Stati

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Proportion G).sav"

Click

Output

ing IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows

1

Click

Descriptive Sta
Type of data : Categorical
Significant level () : 0.05
Precision : 0.10

1.
2.
3.
4.

Objective
EXAMPLE
gait, balance & fear of falling

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using the population proportion formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Kl
is {Proportion}. If the Type I error probability and precision are 0.05 and {Precision}, we will need to stu
{Corrected Sample Size} samples.

Formulae for Sample Size Calculations

Without Finite Population Correction:

With Finite Population Correction:

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Descriptive Statistics

Proportion
0.733
0.300

Population Size

Drop-out :
Corrected Sample Size :

n formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the proportion of {Objective}
and {Precision}, we will need to study {Sample Size} samples. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is

Sample Size
76
81

20%

102 samples

ion, 1990). Prior data indicate that the proportion of {Objective}

es. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is

75.1816
80.6706
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
81

101.25

Test using IBM SPSS Stati

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Proportion G).sav"

Click

Output

ing IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows

Relibility Analysis

1.
2.
3.
4.

Objective
EXAMPLE
mix

Description:

The questionnaire consisted of {Number of Questions} questions related to {Objective}. A {Number of S

Scale} = {Definition of Scale}. For reliability and exploratory factor analysis purposes, Bujang, Ghani,
of 20% drop out rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size} samples.

GUIDELINE TO USE MINIMUM SAMPLE SIZE

References

Bujang Mohamad Adam, Ghani Puzziawati Ab, Soelar Shahrul Aiman, Zulkifli Nor Aizura. Sample size
scales, Statistics in Science, Business, and Engineering (ICSSBE), 2012. doi: 10.1109/ICSSBE.2012.639

Relibility Analysis/Exploratory Factor Analysis

Number of Questions
21
15

Number of Scales
4
11

Rule of Thumb
1:3
1:3

Drop-out :
Corrected Sample Size :

ated to {Objective}. A {Number of Scales}-point Likert scale will be used, ranging from {Minimum of Scale} = {Definition of Scale}
r analysis purposes, Bujang, Ghani, Soelar and Zulkifli (2012) emphasised {Rule of Thumb} as rule of thumb to calculate the sample si
mples.

n, Zulkifli Nor Aizura. Sample size guideline for exploratory factor analysis when using small sample: Taking into considerations of diff
012. doi: 10.1109/ICSSBE.2012.6396605

Sample Size
63
45

20%

57 samples

imum of Scale} = {Definition of Scale} to {Maximum of

s rule of thumb to calculate the sample size. With an additional

45

56

Depression