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Spec

Biostatistics Team

Mohamad Adam Bin Hj. Bujang

Abdul Muneer Abdul Hamid

Premaa a/p Supramaniam

Tassha Hilda Adnan

Nurina Musta'ani Bt Hamedon

Siti Sara Bt Mat Lazim

Mariana Bt Mohamad Ali

Nor Aizura Bt Zulkifli

Shahrul Aiman Bin Soelar

Evi Diana Omar

Nurakmal Baharum

Nadiah Binti Saat

Tg Mohd Ikhwan B. Tg Abu Bakar Sidik

Let's Calculate NA

Special thanks to my beautiful wife, family and friends.

(2007)

dan matiku, hanyalah untuk Allah, Tuhan yang memelihara dan

(2008)

mentadbirkan sekalian Alam. (Maksud Surah Al-Anam ayat 162)

(2009)

(2009)

(2009)

(2010)

(2011)

(2011)

(2011)

(2012)

(2012)

(2013)

(2013)

PLEASE USE AN

datku, hidupku

emelihara dan

Developed by sir-NA

PLEASE USE AND SHARE WITH OTHERS

Description:

Julious (2005) recommends a minimum sample size of 12 per group as a rule of thumb and justifies this

Suggested citation:

Julious SA. Sample size of 12 per group rule of thumb for a pilot study. Pharmaceutical Statistics 2005 4

Description:

Sim and Lewis (2012) suggest a sample size of at least 50 per group.

Suggested citation:

Sim J, Lewis M: The size of a pilot study for a clinical trial should be calculated in relation to considerat

as a rule of thumb and justifies this based on rationale about feasibility and precision about the mean and variance.

calculated in relation to considerations of precision and efficiency. J Clin Epidemiol 2012, 65:301-308.

:301-308.

Unpaired

Type of data : Numerical

Significant level () : 0.05

Power (1-) : 0.80

Objective

EXAMPLE

1.

2.

3.

4.

Note: SD = Standard Deviation

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using two population means formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar,

of {Objective} of the {Group 1} group are {Mean in Group 1} and {SD in Group 1}, respectively. If the

Group 2}, we will need to study {Sample Size Per Group} samples per group to be able to reject the null

test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will use an independent t-test statistic to evaluate this null hypothe

Per Group} samples per group.

Hypothesis (Equality)

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Group 1

Mean

41.670

SD

4.590

Group 2

Mean

40.220

SD

4.055

Drop-out :

Corrected Sample Size Per Group :

ormulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation

SD in Group 1}, respectively. If the mean and standard deviation of {Group 2} group are {Mean in Group 2} and {SD in

er group to be able to reject the null hypothesis with probability (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this

statistic to evaluate this null hypothesis. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size

141

20%

0 samples

1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation

ation of {Group 2} group are {Mean in Group 2} and {SD in

ity (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this

20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size

140.0334

157.30

0.00

122.77

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Mean G).sav"

Click

Output

Paired t-test/Depen

Type of data : Numerical

Significant level () : 0.05

Power (1-) : 0.80

Objective

EXAMPLE

1.

2.

3.

4.

Note: SD = Standard Deviation

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using the population means formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, L

of {Objective} of the {Time 1} are {Mean in Time 1} and {SD in Time 1}, respectively. If the mean and

to study {Sample Size} samples to be able to reject the null hypothesis with probability (power) 0.8. The

use an Paired t-test statistic to evaluate this null hypothesis. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the s

Hypothesis (Equality)

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Time 1

Mean

41.670

SD

4.590

Time 2

Mean

40.220

SD

4.055

Drop-out :

Corrected Sample Size :

rmulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation

me 1}, respectively. If the mean and standard deviation of {Time 2} are {Mean in Time 2} and {SD in Time 2}, we will need

s with probability (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will

additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size} samples.

Sample Size

79

20%

0 samples

1990). Prior data indicate that the mean and standard deviation

ime 2} are {Mean in Time 2} and {SD in Time 2}, we will need

ssociated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will

Sample Size} samples.

78.6497

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

78.65

0.00

61.38

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Mean T).sav"

Click

Output

Type of data : Categorical

Significant level () : 0.05

Power (1-) : 0.80

Objective

EXAMPLE

1.

2.

3.

4.

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using two population proportions formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, K

{Objective} of the {Group 1} group is {Proportion in Group 1}. If the proportion of {Group 2} group is

reject the null hypothesis with probability (power) 0.8. The Type I error probability associated with this te

null hypothesis. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size} sam

Hypothesis (Equality)

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Group 1

Group 2

Proportion

0.800

Proportion

0.667

Drop-out :

Corrected Sample Size Per Group :

ons formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the proportion of

he proportion of {Group 2} group is {Proportion in Group 2}, we will need to study {Sample Size} samples to be able to

or probability associated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. We will use an Pearson Chi-square test to evaluate this

ize is {Corrected Sample Size} samples.

est

173

20%

0 samples

, we will need to study {Sample Size} samples to be able to

is 0.05. We will use an Pearson Chi-square test to evaluate this

172.2893

0.00

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Proportion G).sav"

Click

Output

1

Click

Descriptive Sta

Type of data : Categorical

Significant level () : 0.05

Precision : 0.10

1.

2.

3.

4.

Objective

EXAMPLE

gait, balance & fear of falling

Description:

Sample size estimation was performed using the population proportion formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Kl

is {Proportion}. If the Type I error probability and precision are 0.05 and {Precision}, we will need to stu

{Corrected Sample Size} samples.

Without Finite Population Correction:

References

Lemeshow S., Hosmer D. W., Klar J., Lwanga S. K., & Organization W. H. (1990). Adequacy of sample s

Descriptive Statistics

Proportion

0.733

0.300

Population Size

Drop-out :

Corrected Sample Size :

n formulae (Lemeshow, Hosmer, Klar, Lwanga, & Organization, 1990). Prior data indicate that the proportion of {Objective}

and {Precision}, we will need to study {Sample Size} samples. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is

Sample Size

76

81

20%

102 samples

es. With an additional of 20% dropout rate, the sample size is

75.1816

80.6706

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

81

101.25

Open the file "Pilot Study (Compare Proportion G).sav"

Click

Output

Relibility Analysis

1.

2.

3.

4.

Objective

EXAMPLE

mix

Description:

Scale} = {Definition of Scale}. For reliability and exploratory factor analysis purposes, Bujang, Ghani,

of 20% drop out rate, the sample size is {Corrected Sample Size} samples.

References

Bujang Mohamad Adam, Ghani Puzziawati Ab, Soelar Shahrul Aiman, Zulkifli Nor Aizura. Sample size

scales, Statistics in Science, Business, and Engineering (ICSSBE), 2012. doi: 10.1109/ICSSBE.2012.639

Number of Questions

21

15

Number of Scales

4

11

Rule of Thumb

1:3

1:3

Drop-out :

Corrected Sample Size :

ated to {Objective}. A {Number of Scales}-point Likert scale will be used, ranging from {Minimum of Scale} = {Definition of Scale}

r analysis purposes, Bujang, Ghani, Soelar and Zulkifli (2012) emphasised {Rule of Thumb} as rule of thumb to calculate the sample si

mples.

n, Zulkifli Nor Aizura. Sample size guideline for exploratory factor analysis when using small sample: Taking into considerations of diff

012. doi: 10.1109/ICSSBE.2012.6396605

Sample Size

63

45

20%

57 samples

s rule of thumb to calculate the sample size. With an additional

45

56

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