Human Body Systems

Animal organs are usually composed of more than one cell type. Organs perform a certain function. Most organs have functions in only one organ system. Organ systems are composed of organs, and perform a major function for the organism. Digestive System Multicellular organisms need to digest their food and filter the waste and the nutrients. The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical methods to break food down into nutrient molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. There are a few steps commonly involved to correctly digest: 1. movement: propels food through the digestive system 2. secretion: release of digestive juices in response to a specific stimulus 3. digestion: breakdown of food into molecular components small enough to cross the plasma membrane 4. absorption: passage of the molecules into the body's interior and their passage throughout the body 5. elimination: removal of undigested food and wastes Circulatory System Multicellular animals do not have most of their cells in contact with the external environment and so have developed circulatory systems to transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes. Components of the circulatory system include blood: a connective tissue of liquid plasma and cells • heart: a muscular pump to move the blood • blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins that deliver blood to all tissues Respiratory System The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system's means of getting oxygen to the blood. Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange •

takes place. A diaphragm pulls air in and pushes it out. Respiratory systems of various types are found in a wide variety of organisms. Even trees have respiratory systems. The Nervous System

Hormone Adrenocorticotropi c Growth hormone Follicle-stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone Prolactin Thyroidstimulating hormone Melanocytestimulating hormone Antidiuretic hormone Oxytocin

The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete chemical messages we call hormones. These signals are passed through the blood to arrive at a target organ, which has cells possessing the appropriate receptor. Exocrine glands (not part of the endocrine system) secrete products that are passed outside the body. Sweat glands, salivary glands, and digestive glands are examples of exocrine glands.
Gland Origin Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (anterior) Pituitary gland (posterior) Pituitary gland Target Tissue Adrenal cortex Throughout body Sex glands Sex glands Mammary glands Thyroid gland Melanin-producing cells Kidneys Uterus Function Triggers secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal gland Stimulates growth and development Stimulates female egg maturation and male sperm production Stimulates female ovulation and male secretion of testosterone Stimulates milk production in the breasts after childbirth Triggers secretion of thyroid hormones Controls skin pigmentation Regulates water retention and blood pressure Triggers contraction of the uterus during labor

(posterior) Melatonin Pineal gland Thyroid gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus Adrenal gland Adrenal gland Adrenal gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Pancreas Ovaries Ovaries Testes Kidney

Mammary glands Unclear, although possible target sites are pigment cells and sex organs Bones Throughout body Bones, intestines, and kidneys White blood cells Kidneys Throughout body

Stimulates milk letdown for breastfeeding after childbirth May affect skin pigmentation; may regulate biorhythms (awake/sleep patterns) and prevent jet lag Controls the level of calcium in the blood by depositing it in the bones Increases the body's metabolic rate; promotes normal growth and development Regulates calcium level in blood Promotes the growth and development of white blood cells, helping the body fight infection Regulates sodium and potassium levels in the blood to control blood pressure Plays key role in stress response; increases blood glucose levels and mobilizes fat stores; reduces inflammatation Increases blood pressure, heart and metabolic rate, and blood sugar levels; dilates blood vessels. Also released during exercise Increases blood pressure and heart rate; constricts blood vessels Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen (stored carbohydrate) into glucose (blood sugar); regulates glucose blood level Regulates blood glucose levels; increases storage of glycogen; facilitates glucose intake by body cells Causes sexual development and growth; maintains proper functioning of female reproductive system Prepares uterus for pregnancy Causes sexual development and growth spurt; maintains proper functioning of male reproductive system Produces red blood cells

Calcitonin Thyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone Thymosin Aldosterone Hydrocortisone

Epinephrine

Muscles and blood vessels Muscles and blood vessels Liver Throughout body Female reproductive system Mammary glands Uterus Throughout body Bone Marrow

Norepinephrine Glucagon Insulin Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone Erythropoietin

A reflex is an involuntary, or automatic, action that your body does in response to something - without you even having to think about it. You don't decide to kick your leg, it just kicks. There are many types of reflexes and every healthy person has them. In fact, we're born with most of them. Reflexes protect your body from things that can harm it. For example, if you put your hand on a hot stove, a reflex causes you to immediately remove your hand before the message, "Hey, this is hot!" even gets to your brain. The three types of neurons are arranged in circuits and networks, the simplest of which is the reflex arc.

In a simple reflex arc, such as the knee jerk, a stimulus is detected by a receptor cell, which synapses with a sensory neuron. The sensory neuron carries the impulse from site of the stimulus to the central nervous system (the brain or spinal cord), where it synapses with an interneuron. The interneuron synapses with a motor neuron, which carries the nerve impulse out to an effector, such as a muscle, which responds by contracting.