TABLE OF CONTENTS

How is Friction affected by lubricants?
Darshil Shah

Page 2 – Introduction Page 3 – I. AIM II.HYPOTHESIS III.EQUIPMENT IV.METHOD V.RESULTS Page 4 – VI.ANALYSIS OF RESULTS VII.DISCUSSION VIII.CONCLUSION

OPEN ENDED INVESTIGATION REPORT
1

How is Friction affected by lubricants?
Darshil Shah
Friction is the force between two surfaces rubbing together. It is high if the surfaces are dry and rough and it is low if the surfaces are smooth and wet. Friction can bee seen in both ways, good and bad, but there are some things which cannot exist without friction and some things where friction is the main obstacle. For instance, without friction, walking would be too hard, and there would be no stop once started. However, machines all over the world suffer from friction which slows down or limits the functionality. There are two main types of friction; Static and Kinetic Friction. Static Friction occurs when two objects are not moving relative to each other (like a rock on a table). Along with this, there is rolling friction which occurs when one object rolls on another (like a cars tyre on the road). Kinetic friction occurs when two objects are moving relative to each other (like a sled on the ground). If ground has force going the opposite side, and the object put on the ground has force greater than or equal to the opposing force (on the ground) then negative work is produced. However if it is the opposite, positive work is produced. In any kinetic friction movement, heat is produced, and because of the heat objects are slowed down or have to be operated differently. There are also other effects of friction such as noise and wear and tear, but heat is what causes the most damage or complications. Friction can also be caused by the surface texture, which causes a “rough” bond between the two objects. Reducing the amount of friction in a machine increases the machine’s efficiency. Less friction means less energy lost to heat, noise, and wearing down of material. People normally use two methods to reduce friction. The first method involves reducing the roughness of the surfaces in contact. For example, sanding two pieces of wood lessens the amount of friction that occurs between them when they slide against one another. Applying a lubricant to a surface can also reduce friction. Common examples of lubricants are oil and grease. They reduce friction by minimizing the contact between rough surfaces. The lubricant’s particles slide easily against each other and cause far less friction than would occur between the surfaces. Lubricants such as machine oil reduce the amount of energy lost to frictional heating and reduce the wear damage to the machine surfaces caused by friction. In this investigation, the aim is to find how friction is affected by the use of lubricants. The lubricants can reduce the friction between two objects which can prevent heat, noise and wear and tear. Lubricants can be used to keep moving things apart, and prevent fatigue between two moving parts. This is used in all machinery, in hard drives all the way to the airbuses. Lubricants also help reduce friction, and hence reduce heat, transfer heat (radiator in cars), carry away containments/debris (filtering system in engines), transfer power (hydraulics), and prevent corrosion by forming a chemical bond to prevent rust. Friction can only reduce when a lubricant is applied. There are many types of lubricants, but they are mainly liquid and typically contain 90% base oil and less than 10% additives. Additives deliver reduced friction and wear, increased thickness, improved viscosity index, resistance to corrosion and oxidation, aging or contamination, etc. There are also non liquid lubricants such as grease, powders, and Teflon. This can be used in areas where there is a joint connection. Friction can do well, and can do bad, but in most cases, lubricants have to be used to ensure friction, wear & tear and heat is reduced. Lubricants help reduce the friction between two moving objects and provide great efficiency for the machines that everyone depends on today. Without lubricants, there would be no machines, and mass production would never occur. 2

AIM: To find how friction is affected by lubricants II. HYPOTHESIS: Friction will be reduced when any lubricant is applied to the two moving objects. In the case of the wheel and bearing, the wheel will be able to turn faster and easier. In the case of the gears and grease, the gears will turn smoother without must noise and limitation. Lastly in the case of the lever, the oil will aid the joint to bend (open/close) faster and easier. III. EQUIPMENT: Vegetable oil spray, grease, bearings, 1 skateboard wheel, 2 gears, battery powered motor, 1 arch lever (from file). IV. METHOD: 1. Take the wheel and turn it. 2. Observe the effects without lubrication (bearing). 3. Apply the bearing to the wheel and observe how fast and smooth it turns 4. Record both observations 5. Take the 2 gears and connect it to the motor. 6. Observe the turning of both gears. 7. Apply the grease and observe the turning of the gears. 8. Record both observations 9. Take the arch lever and open and close it 10 times. 10. Observe the ease of closing and opening. 11. Spray the vegetable oil twice on the lever and open and close it 10 times. 12. Observe the difference. 13. Repeat the test 14. Record the results in a table. V. RESULTS: Test 1 (observations) Without LubricantWith Lubricant Potential Difference Gears More strength Less strength Phenomenal Required to turn, Required to turn, Reduction in heat Produced heat. Heat is almost gone. less energy is And Required to run it. Wheel Slow turning, noise, Smooth, fast, heat More speed, Heat produced. Reduced. Reduced noise, Reduced heat. Arch Lever Less flexibility More flexibility Larger range of Squeaking and Noise gone, less Angles and more Struggle Power required toEfficient. Operate Test 2 (observations) Without LubricantWith Lubricant Potential Difference Gears More strength Less strength Phenomenal Required to turn, Required to turn, Reduction in heat heat. Heat is gone. And less energy is Required to run it. Wheel Slow turning, noise, Smooth, fast, heat More speed, Heat produced. Reduced. Reduced noise, Reduced heat. Arch Lever Less flexibility More flexibility Larger range of I. 3

Squeaking and Noise gone, less Angles and more Struggle/signs Power required toEfficient. Of tear Operate VI. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: The Results show that wherever a lubricant is used, any type of common friction is reduced in that movement. The results are repeated in both tests which mean that the results are accurate, and reliable. Lubrication on any type of movement has not only reduced friction but also in some cases eliminated it. VII. DISCUSSION: The results in this experiment are ensured to be reliable and accurate by doing two tests and having controls for each test. The accuracy and reliability can be improved by having more than three different types of movements which require different lubricants and ultimately produce different types of friction. VIII. CONCLUSION: Friction is present everywhere, and in some cases, it’s the only thing helping us walk, but in some cases it’s only something that limits us in further technologies and the optimal use of machinery. Over the years, Lubricants have been discovered which either naturally or synthetically help reduce or completely get friction out of the picture. Lubricants are in use against friction reduced friction, either dramatically or the slightest bit which in the long term improves efficiency. Without lubricants the operations of some vital devices in everyday life it would make it impossible to live with a world of machinery. XIV. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569794/Friction.html

4