THE UNIVERSE

Electromagnetic radiation is what is emitted from energy. When the big bang occurred, violent gamma rays were shot out, slowly over time, these rays turned into x rays, radio waves, UV rays, microwaves and visible light. By looking at how old the radiation is, and what type it is, and how it is distributed, it shows how the universe was, and how it is uniformed now The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. Its position outside the Earth's atmosphere provides significant advantages over ground-based telescopes — images are not blurred by the atmosphere, there is no background from light scattered by the air, and the Hubble can observe ultra-violet light that is normally absorbed by the ozone layer in observations made from Earth. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was the first satellite built dedicated to cosmology. Its goals were to investigate the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) of the universe and provide measurements that would help shape our understanding of the cosmos. Bion 1 was a Bion satellite. It carried several dozen rats, six boxes of tortoises, a mushroom bed, four beetles, and living bacterial spores. It provided data on the reaction of mammal, reptile, insect, fungal, and bacterial forms to prolonged weightlessness. White Dwarf: A small, hot star near the end of its nuclear fusion period. Red Giant: A star of great size and brightness that has a relatively low surface temperature. Nebula: A large cloud of gas and dust in space. Most are dark and obscure the light from background stars. Others glow brilliantly from the energy of hot star within them. Black Hole: An extremely small region of space-time with a gravitational field so intense thet nothing can escape, not even light. Supernova: A huge stellar explosion involving the destruction of a massive star and resulting in a sudden and tremendous brightening. Pulsar: A rotating neutron star whose radiation is observed as regular pulses.

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Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter something contains, while Weight is the measurement of the pull of gravity on an object. Mass is measured by using a balance comparing a known amount of matter to an unknown amount of matter. Weight is measured on a scale. The Mass of an object doesn't change when an object's location changes. Weight, on the other hand does change with location. Gravity is the repulsion and the attraction involving large objects. The larger the mass, the more gravity it has. By having more gravity, it can bring anything

lower that its own gravity into its influence (orbit). However, the larger the distance, the less gravity is experienced. The strength of gravity on the Earth's surface is 10 newtons per kilogram. Calculate the weight of a car with a mass of 1500 kg. Weight = 1500 × 10 = 15000 newtons