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- Closed Coil Helical Springs
- Handbook of Spring Design Part 1
- Mechanical Springs Wahl
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- ASTM A689.pdf
- Spring Designers Handbook - Harold Carlson - 0824766237
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- ANSI-AGMA-2001-D04
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Mechanical

Springs

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macHiNE Design

SERIES

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Mechanical

Springs

by

A. M. Wahl

First Edition

PI BUSHED BY

CLEVELAND, OHIO

1944

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Copyright, 1944

CLEVELAND, OHIO

Printed in U.S.A.

FOREWORD

vices, in the past such springs too often have been designed on

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drawn upon. Much of the material in the book has also been based

several years.

siderable detail, but much emphasis also has been laid upon

torsion, spiral, volute and ring springs have been treated. Be-

is not possible to cover all the factors which enter into the

author feels that for best results in any particular design, close

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entation.

A. M. Wahl

May 4, 1944

VI

CONTENTS

Chapter I

Chapter II

of Pitch Angle

Chapter III

Chapter IV

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Chapter V

Chapter VI

Chapter VII

vn

CONTENTS

Chapter VIII

Chapter IX

Test Data

Chapter X

Chapter XI

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Chapter XII

Application of Formulas

Chatter XIII

Chapter XIV

Loading

vi it

CONTENTS

CHarTER XV

DeflectionsSimplified Calculation

Chapter XVI

Chapter XVII

Chapter XVIII

Coils in Contact

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Chapter XIX

Calculation

Chapter XX

Chapter XXI

Chapter XXII

Chapter XXIII

rx

LIST OF SYMBOLS

a = constant

b constant

b = width inch

c, C = constants

c = distance inch

c spring index

J, D diameter inch

F = force lb

h = thickness inch

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k, K = constants'

l = length inch

nt = integer, constant

n = constant, integer

n = factor of safety

N = normal force lb

P = load lb

LIST OF SYMBOLS

q = sensitivity index

q ratio

r, R = radius , inch

R = radial load lb

t = thickness inch

t = time sec

I = temperature degrees

V = volume hi.

\V = weight lb

I, y, z = rectangular co-ordinates

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z = constant

P constant, ratio

7 = constant, ratio

S deflection inch

f = small quantity

* = curvature >n-

* = small quantity -

M = Poisson's ratio

M = coefficient of friction

p = radius inch

1> constant

f, t = co-ordinates

xi

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MECHANICAL SPRINGS

CHAPTER I

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

IN SPRING DESIGN

distort under load, they are not all considered as springs. Thus

remain rigid.

spring.

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the deflection will be doubled. The relation will hold true even

.-1

MECHANICAL SPRIXGS

FUNCTIONS OF SPRINGS

of impact when the car goes over a bump. These also function as

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spring supplies the force which holds the valve follower against

DEFLECTION

used under nuts and bolt heads also function essentially as springs

deflection curves

DEFLECTION f

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is present.

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

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pivot. Because of low internal friction such pivots often have real

SPRING MATERIALS

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Since both the deflection and load for most springs are propor-

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

by using one per cent carbon steel and heat treating after form-

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springs are usually heat treated after forming, the latter being

done hot. Smaller sizes of helical springs, on the other hand, are

'Typical specifications for different spring materials, including data on heat treat-

pounds per square inch for 1/32-inch wire. Phosphor bronze also

being obtained.

TYPES OF LOADING

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MECHANICAL SPRINGS

times during the life of the spring. Such springs are known as

where the valve is expected to pop off but a few times during

its life; springs for producing gasket pressure, typified by the con-

anisms where the breaker operates but a few times in its life.

amount this means that as time goes on, the load should not drop

off by more than a small amount (usually a few per cent). This

laxation of the material after a period of time, the valve will pop

off at lower pressure than that for which it was designed. Similar-

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sure usually may be tolerated, too much renders the spring in-

stant deflection and if the stress is too high, there will be a slow

kept well below the elastic limit or yield point of the material,

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in

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

gested that for the usual spring material which has some duc-

stress at the edge of the hole is around three times the stress

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does not remain constant, but varies with time. For example, an

loading. Fig. 12 shows such stress cycles for such a spring sub-

tions A.S.M.E., May, 1941. Page 363. Aln "Relaxation Resistance of Nickel Allov

page 312. gives a further discussion of stress concentration; also Theory of Elasticity.

11

constant stress tr1. equal to half the sum of maximum and minimum

able stress is equal to half the difference between a,x and ami*,

to torsion stresses.

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12

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

true of freight car and locomotive springs. In such cases the de-

since fatigue test data giving results for cases where the variable

the minimum stress is known as the stress range; this is also twice

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of the spring.

nal of Applied Mechanics, December, 1937, gives a further discussion of this problem.

Also "Damage and Ovcrstress in the Fatigue of Ferrous Metals", by Russell and

13

when the variable stress is low, tests show that the curve tends

I-

STATIC

STRESS

TIME

loss in load.

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equidistant from the dot and dash line c which represents the

variable stress

that at any point P the ordinate of the mean stress line c repre-

14

MECHAXICAL SPRINGS

distance between the mean stress line and either the upper or

lower curve gives the variable stress component o>. The upper

a and b as indicated.

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plicity.

15

vided the values av and a, are taken as the yield point and

the yield stress. On the basis of this elliptical law, the factor

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of safety n becomes

Fig. 16Simplification of

STATIC STRESS

16

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Equation 1.

rather high values, they are among the few available for such

55

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however, that the straight line law, Fig. 16, is safer to use in

17

60,

40 60

StEADY StRESS

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stress. The results of one such test1 on .7 per cent carbon steel

bars are given in Fig. 18, the full lines being results for speci-

l<lFederstaehleHoudremont and Bennek, Stahl und Eisen, Vol. 52, page 660.

18

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

must be admitted that available fatigue test data made for the

that, until further test data are at hand, stress increases due to

not exceed the yield point since the material will merely yield

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INFREQUENT OPERATION

nTo take into account the fact that the material may not be fully sensitive to

stress concentration (i.e., that the actual stress range as found by test may be greater

than the calculated figure usinu theoretical stress concentration factors), a reduction

in the stress range may be made, provided test data are available. Further discussion

and Comparison with Fatigue Tests" Peterson and Wahl, Journal of Applied Mechanics,

March, 1936.

19

Fig. 19. It appears that for this type of stress application, the

eoooor

when the loadings are relatively few. In most cases the increased

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20

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

base of the crack. Actual tests have shown that a very thin layer

inch. When the surface was left untouched, the endurance range

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the stress data do show how important are the surface conditions.

had been heat treated after grinding to size. In this case there

steel and given the same heat treatment but having a thin layer

ther tests were made on specimens which had been heat treated

""Fatigue Strength of Carbon and Alloy Steel Plates as Used for Laminated

oratory Tests"Hankins and Ford- Journal Iron and Steel Institute, 1929, No. 1,

Page 317.

These investigators found that, where the wires had been ma-

in

in

160000

- ft

80000

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I20O00

St.

RBVCE MA

CHINE

,__SURFAC

E UNI

cue

HED

40000

L.

0s io5 o'

22

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

untouched and those having the surface layer ground off. Prob-

ably this may be explained by the fact that this material has a

was small.

pelling small steel shot at high velocity against the spring sur-

ently the peening action of steel shot propelled against the sur-

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face of the spring tends to cold work and thus increase the

CORROSION EFFECTS

tigue tests must be carried out for many more than the usual

Nov. 1940, Page 62. Also Lessells and Murray"The Effect of Shot Blasting and Its

23

the value was obtained for a spring steel with a plating than

place.

VARIATIONS IN DIMENSIONS

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and wire diameter of only 1 per cent will result in a 7 per cent

slightly reducing the coil diameter. In most cases, this slight re-

24

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

FACTOR OF SAFETY

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CHAPTER II

Among the reasons for wide acceptance and general use are

the following:

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The present chapter discusses the theory for stress and deflec-

25

26

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

the deflections per coil are not too large (not more than half

HELIX ANGLE

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large and where the helix angle is small. Since the elementary

theory does not take into account the difference in fiber length

between the inside and outside of the coil which arises because

or moderate indexes.

'Effects of large initial pitch angles combined with large deflections are considered

in Chapter III.

HELICAL SPRINGS 27

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2S

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

.(4)

lePr

ird3

indexes for two reasons: (1) The effect of direct shear stress

axially loaded

the axis (Fig. 24), this element, after deformation, will rotate

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t...

16Pr

.(5;

HELICAL SPRINGS

2')

the bar with respect to the other will be, using Equation 5,

J^Jrnr y pit

(6)

64PH/i

&=pr=

Gd'

.(7)

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(Stress is greater at h

than at a)

IP \

^////////yy//////'

,^y^v////////.

ii

H|

for fairly small spring indexes and for large helix angles. Tests

30

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

in Chapter IV.

that the failure starts from a fatigue crack near the inside of the

pected that the maximum stress occurs at the inside of the coil

near point a', Fig. 26a. The reasons for the existence of the maxi-

mum stress at this point are: First, the fiber length along the

inside of the coil is much less which means that a higher shear-

cross sections. Thus in Fig. 26b, if the radial sections bb' and

aa' rotate through a small angle with respect to each other and

about the bar axis, the inside (and shorter) fiber a'b' will be

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stress due to the direct axial load P is added to that due to the

is that the stresses on the inside of the coil reach values around

shown both by test (Chapter IV) and theory; for larger indexes

(elementary theory)

This type of fracture with the fractured surface making an angle of 45 degrees

with the axis is typical of fatigue fracture of a straight cylindrical bar under alter-

nating torsion.

HELICAL SPRINGS

31

accurate for practical use (within about 2 per cent for practical

27a, the forces acting on this element are resolved into a twisting

nuerschnitt." V.D.I. 1913. Page 1907, but the final numerical results are only slightly

different. See also author's paper "Stresses in Heavv Closely Coiled Helical Springs",

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32

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

sections aa' and bb' will rotate with respect to each other through

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some point O', Fig. 29, which is displaced toward the axis of the

on the axis aa' Fig. 27b. Point O' may be found as follows:

When the sections aa' and bb' have rotated through a small angle

axially loaded

HELICAL SPRINGS

33

(b)

r= (8)

Tx xGdp

(r-y x)d8

, 19)

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34

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

*J 1 y

16r d1 1

V + TeW

16r

.(10)

practical springs d/2r seldom greater than 1/3 and hence t/2/16r-

xGdu

d-

(11)

x)de

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de

32Mr

-*dtG~

(12)

HELICAL SPRINGS

35

wd'fr

32xMr

~ 16r

(13)

a.

in

u. i

<

_ 16M / 4c-1 \

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(14)

16M / 4c+l

/ 4c+l \

7Td2 V 4c+4 /

(15)

36

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

direct axial shear force P, assuming that the pitch angle is small.

shearing stress at a and a! (Fig. 27b) due to the direct axial load

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(16)

(17)

16Pr

(18)

HELICAL SPRINGS

37

4c-1

4c-4

.615

.(19)

that for a spring of index 3 the factor K=1.58, which means that

IjOL

- 2r

8 10 12

= SPRING INDEX

14

16

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the case, the maximum stress may be less than that calculated.

However, even for such cases where yielding occurs, the formula

38

MECHANICAL SPR1NGS

EXACT THEORY

being p and z and if the pitch angle is small so that the elements

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+ ., + 0 (20)

dp dz p

at , + JK_-z>.0 (21)

(22)

sektor", Ing.-Arch. Vol. 2, 1931, Page 381; and "Die Berechnung Zylindrische Schraub-

HELICAL SPRINGS 39

troduced. Taking

dp \ dp' dz- p dp /

( + -)= 0 (25,

dz \ dp- dz- p dp /

, + +2c' = 0 (26)

dp- dz- p dp

as follows:

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+ + + 2c' = 0 (27)

a? d(- Jt \ ai

1 f-

1 + - f -+ - "" (28)

! 1 r r-

40

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

*-*rr*i+*H (29)

where

d? df2

*i satisfies = 0

d? dp r d*

dp d{2 r d$ r2 d{

0 - f) st 0 - 7) at

The total twisting moment acting over the spring cross sec-

tion will be

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1 2 3P

rr1 + - + -r + <32)

(,.!), '"

springs.

pitch angle is

HELICAL SPRINGS

41

16Pr

/ c 1 .J_\

(33)

where c2r/d.

\6Prcos a

TCP

1(d\1(dV

2p'

1+

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2p,

~3~

16

+.

tan'a

-{-hi

(34i

ing the pitch angle into account. The first term of this equation

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

ing formulas may be used with an accuracy within one per cent:

.(36)

16Pr cos a / 5 7 1 \

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ing moment Pr cos <x and the direct shear P cos a. However, there

spring this bending stress o-,.r must be combined with the tor-

HELICAL SPRINGS

43

pitch angles a

1.04,

I 03

g .9B|

Or

--

10*

'

as*

5*

III

II

II

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^ c d WFE DIAMETER

used for the calculation of torsion stress t,,,j. Final results are:

25m3+41m2+28m+8

4Hm2(m

r-28m+8 \

+ 1) )

-() +

1) \2p'/

V 2p' / 1

}...(3S)

32Pr sin a

wd3

.64

0 + -87+

V 2P' / Id

(}--&)

(39)

2p'J J

where p'r/cos2cx. The last term in the brackets d/8r yields the

'Ing. Archie, 1931, Pace 381. Also Theory of ElasticityTimoshenko, Page 361.

44 MECHANICAL SPRINGS

4 P sin a/ircP; the remainder yields the stress due to the bending

cessive approximations.

pitch angles and small indexes. For the usual case the following

I' - ,

25m3+41m"-+28m+8

48m2(m + l)c5 J

(40)

f mox ~

/ 1.12 .64\ , , (

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stress t,ai and the bending stress o-,uj. which act at a given

bending stress am<1i and a shearing stress tm<u act at a given point,

theory is1

4(rm0x)2

.(42)

Hencky theory). This theory states that failure will occur when

12Timoshenko, loc. cit. Part 2, Page 479 gives a further discussion of this theory.

HELICAL SPRINGS

45

foregoing is:

In this case a, may refer either to the yield point or the endur-

ance limit.

compression.

r.-rm.,Jl + (44)

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*--^+^j^-+(r,)' (45)

, = ^-y(--+{t^Y (46)

t,=0 (47)

tion 44 is obtained.

"The derivation of those formulas for principal stress for combined tension and

46

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

apply rigidly only as long as the deflections per turn are small

(relative to the coil diameter) so that the coil radius and pitch

stresses are set up when the deflections per turn approach the

37 may be used. Then cos < x = .978 and tan a = .2126. Using

Equation 37

32Pr

'r23

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Hence

1.444

= 2 tan a-

1.551

16Pr

This differs but slightly from the value obtained by using the

HELICAL SPRINGS

47

tion per turn is not large11 relative to the coil radius and that the

tion isir'

64Pr"7t

G* I _3

16

(^))

(48)

where c is the spring index. It is seen that this is simply the or-

spring index, the nearer will this term approach unity. How-

ever, even for the exceptionally small index of 3, the term in the

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the deflection will be about 2.3 per cent smaller than that cal-

where a and a are the final and initial pitch angles, respectively.

This assumes that the deflection is small so that the coil radius

ture, which is

COS2 a COS2 a

A = (49)

"The case of large deflections (which may occur without excessive stress only for

Page 421.

48 MECHANICAL SPRINGS

COS a

3- Q (51)

where

COS a ZLr .

3 cos* a E

1+

16 c2-l

the pitch angle sc. In Fig. 32 values of the constant <p have been

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negligible effect on the value of i^. The dashed curve for zero

It may be seen that for practical springs where the pitch angle

is usually less than 10 degrees and for the smaller indexes the

value of ip is less than unity, which means that the actual deflec-

This seems surprising at first since one would expect that the

direct shear would act to increase the deflection over that given

in actual springs the effect is usually very small; thus for indexes

HELICAL SPRINGS

49

will be under 2% per cent. For most springs where a<10 de-

grees and c>4 the difference is under one per cent, a figure which

sions: Outside diameter % in., mean coil radius r=.286 in., wire

initial pitch angle 7% degrees, working load 140 lb, the deflec-

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CHAPTER III

THEORY

die initial pitch angle is under 10 degrees and the deflection per

turn less than, say, half the coil radius. However, for cases

where the initial pitch angle is large or where the deflection per

turn is large, some error in the use of the usual formula, Equa-

grees and deflections per turn equal to the initial coil radius. The

reason for this error in the usual formula is partly that the

tion shown in Fig. 33a to that shown in Fig. 33b, the mean coil

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which takes the pitch angle into account. If the spring deflec-

tions per turn are large, however, this formula will also be some-

.50

51

rotate with respect to the other about the spring axis. If this

hooked ends where the hooks are not rigidly held but have some

freedom to rotate about the spring axis. If, however, the ends

about the axis of the coil are set up which tend to prevent this

2. The sanie except that ends are fixed so that rotation about the

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the ends being assumed free to rotate about the coil axis. If

a is the helix or pitch angle and r the actual coil radius, the

16Pr cos ,

r z (53)

32Pr sin a , (

'i#"(54)

52

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

direct shear load P cos a and the tension P sin a will be neglected

tc is

r.=- (55)

stress becomes

16Pr . 16Pr

xa1 to1

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Table I /

0 1.000

5 1.001

10 l.OOfi

IS 1.012

20 1.020

30 1.040

viding the coil radius r is taken as that actually existing when the

Trrf3" 3

53

and under 4 per cent for angles below 30 degrees, ( Table I).

Id) UNLOADED

(b) LOADED

flection per turn and initial coil radius, and of the initial pitch

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51

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

64PrM

'= GdT(58)

16Pr 16PrK,

Fig. 34Open-coiled

axial load

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per turn 8/n is not more than the initial coil radius r, the

errors in the stress formula due to pitch angle changes are under

6 per cent. This error may reach 15 per cent if the angle a

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56

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

15 degrees and 8, nr< .5, the error is under 3 per cent and,

and 20, this factor will vary from 1.07 to 1.14 and is thus of im-

to use expression for t,ni and amax given by Equations 34 and 38,

Chapter II.

ly loaded with the ends free to rotate as the spring deflects, Fig.

COS'a COS2a

r r

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An- (60)

where r and r are the coil radii corresponding to the initial and

Pr sin a=/(Ax)

EI

;"--) (6D

From elastic theory1 it may also be shown that the twist Af?

in the wire per unit length, as the spring deflects from a pitch

57

A6 =

(62)

round wire) will yield the twisting moment mt. This latter is,

Prcos a = GIp(A6)

or using Equation 62

r cos av

.(63)

, /COs'a COS-a\

^EL M 1 .)

r- r \ sin a I

.(64)

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EI

1 G/.

-COS'a

COS'al

EI

"g7

(65)

+tan'a

DEFLECTED

POSITION

-Zwn r

Fig. 36. From the geometry of this figure as the angle changes

58 MECHANICAL SPRINGS

S = l(sin asin a)

cos <*

130

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59

64Pr3n ,.

-lM.=*i7,^ (67)

The factor >pJ depends on the initial pitch angle x. , the ratio E/G

between bending and shear moduli, and on the ratio 8/nr be-

tween nominal deflection per turn and initial coil radius. Values

2.8

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below 10 degrees and deflections per turn less than half the coil

60

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

radius, 8/nr < .5, the error in the usual spring deflection formula

is not over about 3te per cent, i.e., does not differ from unity

by more than about 3% per cent. For pitch angles around 20 de-

grees and deflections per turn equal to the coil radius, however,

the given load P using the ordinary spring formula, Equation 58,

24

20

a.

'12

<n

Ui

UJ

id

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a.

. TO"l

AL T

WIST

fOE

GREt

<*.=

NITI

AL P

TCH

ANG

-E

<

iy

'i

0.

S. .

10

15

ZD

2.5

3.0

ratio 8o/nr may be found. Then knowing this and the initial pitch

angle x, the factor </<, may be read from Fig. 37. The maximum

straight line for various initial pitch angles a and for various

using Equation 67, for tension springs where the ends are fastened

61

rate (in pounds per inch deflection) with load. This would be

expected for tension springs since the coil radius r decreases with

(68)

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/ COS a

V r r I

<k= 1 I (701

(71)

62

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

where ^2 is the twist per turn in degrees and may be read from

Fig. 39 if a and 8/nr are known. It will be noted from this fig-

ure that i/-2 becomes slightly negative for small values of 8/nr,

and for initial pitch angles greater than zero. This means that

for small deflections the spring has a slight tendency to wind up.

This is due to the fact that the distortions of the elements of the

coil under axial load are in such a direction as to cause this wind-

i.e., prevented from rotating about the axis of the spring during

represented by vectors

in

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where the friction between the ends and the supporting plate

for the case where rotation occurs without restraint. In this case,

63

A* =y (74)

EI r r

A9=-Fr7- = (75)

GIP r ro

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r ro /

r V r r /

Mo= 1 I +

V r r /

/ co&a co fa. \

EI COS a

64

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

120

Vl.10

^.00

.95

.60

= 20<

5!

COM

'RES

SIOK

TENSION

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-3-2-1 0 12 3

COS a COS n

or

r=r-

COS a

COS ao

(78)

sin asin a

r. . EI; T(?9)

L GIp J

65

and 67, the factor ip,' may be expressed in terms of initial pitch

angle a and S<,/nr as before, and the results are given on the

the difference between the two cases, i.e., ends fixed or free, is not

some deviations.

springs with fixed ends by using Equation 79 are given in Fig. 42.

2.8

24

20

ORDINARY

FORMULA

/'

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24

66 MECHANICAL SPRINGS

restrained from rotation about the spring axis are given in Fig. 43.

hooks which fit into a hole in a plate, so that, when the spring is

2.8

2.4

2.0

18

i '2

the spring is fitted with spring ends which are in turn fastened in

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stress from Equation 55, for a circular wire cross section becomes

87

16 .

7' rf-^

.(80)

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68

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

proach 15 per cent for initial pitch angles near 20 degrees and de-

flections per turn equal to the coil radius. For usual applications

where the initial pitch angle is under 10 degrees and the deflec-

tion per turn less than half the coil radius, the results indicate

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neglected.

CHAPTER IV

inches and a bar diameter of IV2 inches. This low index was

STRAIN MEASUREMENTS

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two steel arms were welded to the semicoil as shown in Fig. 45.

is shown in Fig. 46. To measure the torsion stress in the coil, the

to the axis, Fig. 45, of the bar2. From these strain measure-

equal compression stress at right angles thereto; both of these stresses being at 45 degrees

to the shear stress. Thus strain measurements taken at 45 degrees to the shear stress

69

70

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

length (one centimeter), the peak stress can be found with suffi-

spring is simulated.

tained from the strain measurements on the outside and the in-

side of a semicoil are shown by the full lines in Fig. 47. Similar

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Page 52.

stress at the inside of the coil and from Equation 17 for the

stress at the outside are also shown. It will be noted that the

within a few per cent with the experimental results. The dashed

inside of coil

less pronounced.

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The open circles represent stress on one side, the full circles

72

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

seen that the stress on one side is about 10 per cent higher than

that on the opposite side at the higher loads. The reason for this

coils, the load will be slightly eccentric to the spring axis (further

STRESS COMPUTED BY

ORDINARY HELICAL

SPRING FORMULA

Equation 17.

In Fig. 50 the average test curve (which gives the stress duo

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These tests thus indicate that for small indexes the simple

73

DEFLECTION TESTS

years ago under the author's direction1. These tests also serve

which takes into account effects due to spring index and pitch

angle.

springs with indexes of 9.5, 4.7 and 2.7 from a single bar of car-

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punch marks a-a' and b-b' in the body of the spring to eliminate

74

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

test curve for a spring of large index is shown in Fig. 52, the

sent test points on one side of the spring, the crosses represent

Bar Nn.

3.

Table II

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Modulus of Rigidity, G

(Ib./sq. in.)

11.45 X 10"

11.46 X 10"

11.50 X 10"

rigidity for the three bars tested are shown in Table II.

% per cent between the different bars and, hence, that the mate-

. 10000

in

to

a.

a.

8000]

<

<

r-

r-

STRESS

DUE TO-

AD P

AXIAL LO

ONLY

4r

75

of Fig. 32, the actual deflection was in most cases slightly less

less than unity. A typical test curve for a spring of small index

is shown by the full line of Fig. 53, this curve representing the

is shown dashed.

indexes of 2.7 or 4.7 is given in Table III, which shows the per-

centage deviation between the test curves and the curves cal-

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springs made from three bars 1, 2, and 3) was 1.7 per cent

for springs of index 2.7 and 1.0 per cent for springs of index

for the known pitch angle and spring index were 2.4 per cent

and 0.7 per cent. It is thus seen that the average test values

70

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table III

"All deviations negative, i.e., deections were slightly less than calculated from

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for any given material may vary from an average figure by sev-

after the material has stood for some time. Adams5 found that

77

cover its initial value after the spring has stood for a consider-

PUNCH MARK

PUNCH MARK

EYEBOLT TO APPLY

LOAD TO SPRING.

PUNCH MARK

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PUNCH MARK

EYEBOLT

terial will act like low-carbon steel and will yield at a relatively

""The Effect of Overstrain on Closely Coiled Helical Springs and the Variation of

the Number of Active Coils with Load" by Pletta, Smith and Harrison, Eng. Exp.

78

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

low load. At higher loads the spring will, therefore, act to some

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less for hot-rolled carbon spring steel than for hard-drawn ma-

79

to account for this lower modulus value. Such a layer may easily

200

600

2200 2600

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that within this range for most materials the modulus of rigidity

G=Go(l-mt) (81)

'Bureau of Stds. Jl. of Res.. Vol. 10. 1933, Page 305. See also Brombacher k

80

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table IV

(20C to 50C)

Coefficient rn

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t Hard drawn.

degrees Fahr. may be obtained from the curves of Fig. 54. These

81

64Prsn

(82)

1200QOOO1-

5.000,000]

-200

TEMPERATURE-F

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800

82

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Usually this means that the spring must be cut up after the test

terial as coiled into a spring and heat treated and straight bars

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diameter.

clamping jaws near the ends of the specimen and this may intro-

"This equation is easily derived from the known formula for angular twist of a

'L\K, <e5>

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the source of the data together with the method used is indi-

84

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

pounds per square inch by this treatment gives an idea of the re-

duction which may result from stressing helical springs far beyond

Table V

Wire

or Bar

Modulus

Diam-

of

Heat

eter

Rigidity

No.

Material

(in.)

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Treatment

(Ib./sq.in.XlO<)

Investigator

11.6

Edgerton1

1% C steel

Q & T"

i .,

11.82

Adams2

1% C steel

v"

11.14

Adams3

1% C steel

Q & T->

9, 16

11.2

Wahl,

1% C steel

0 & T*

11.47

Wahl5

.67% C steel

Oil tempered

.028-.08 11.12

Sayre"

Music wire

.035

11.4

Brombachcr

& Melton'

Hard-drawn wire

11.4

Sayre"

85

values of G found for the other cases are probably due largely

Table VI

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Wilson2

'Carnegie Scholarship Memoirs, Iron & Steel Institute, 1937, Pages 1-55. Direct method

'Proceedings A.S.T.M., 1930, Part II, Page 357. Direct method used.

'Proceedings Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1938, Page 460. Direct method used.

"N.A.C.A. Technical Report No. 358, 1930, Page 568. Direct method used.

square inch for chrome vanadium steels, 10.6 X 10" for stainless

steel (18% Cr, 8% Ni), 9 X 10" for Monel metal, 6.4 X 10" for

FATIGUE TESTS

86

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

springs shown in Fig. 55. The results of such tests are of direct

tion engines.

reason for this lies mainly in the fact that the endurance limit

reason for variation in the results obtained lies in the fact that

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and the line of minimum stress'-. The circles with the arrows

cause failure within ten million cycles, while the plain circles

represent ranges which did. On the basis of these tests the es-

87

pounds per square inch. This means that the spring could be ex-

coils, and spring index are given together with values of the

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4-

t *.

99

8cc

111

o90

ec

coo

1 ii

oc

III

--T

oo

-co

e fi 1

co e

.e

I-coo

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MECHANICAL SPRINGS

--

'

-s

1:

!=

RS

oo 9 lo

e0

-1

CO

NO

cn m

m r- co

'n

1-

r-

t-

S3-

333

53

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"a

4-

+-

.N

CO

11

ei

90

MECHANICAL SPRIXGS

and those made under the direction of the special research com-

I40000i

inch. This table covers the smaller wire sizes. Thus the limiting

stress range of 60.000 for cold-wound carbon steel wire means that

the spring will withstand a range of 60,000 pounds per square inch

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Page 12.

91

same or similar materials. The reason for this is that the quality

Table VIII

Limiting

Approx.

Index

Stress

(D/d)

Rangej

Investigate!

(inches)

(Ib./sq. in.)

M3-.16

10-11

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41000 1

31000 ]

Cold-drawn wire )

.16

60000

Zimmerli

Tatnall

.135

11

46000

.25

56000

Hengstenberg

.063

76000

''

.148

6-7

70000

Zimmerli

8-7

.148

1150001

.162

6.5

75000

1150001

.65% C

.135

14

68000

Tatnall

.148

7.4

60000

Zimmerli

.148

7. t

52000

.135

14

53000

Tatnall

(Cold wound)

92

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

per square inch for springs without the shot blasting treatment.

(Table VIII).

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Table IX

Limiting Stress

Range

Material

Bar Diameter

Index

Investigator

(in.)

(D/d)

(lb./sq.in.)

56

4.8

68000

Jobnson

.75

5.0

72700

Edgerton

Cr.-vanadium steel

56

4.8

77000

Johnson

Beryllium bronze

56

4.8

33000

Johnson

factory: For 'i-inch wire diameter springs, shot size .040 and

1940. Page 62. "New Trails in Surface Finishing", Steel, July 5, 1943, Page 102.

Feb., May, Sept. 1943. "Improving; Fatigue Strength of Machine Parts", Mechanical

'"Chapter XXIII gives more data on endurance limits of spring materials (as dis-

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in Table IX.

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

somewhat lower values may be expected and vice versa for the

.148-inch diameter valve spring wire (SAE 6150, index 7.4) a life

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The fatigue test data given in this chapter apply only for

that the full values of stress ranges found in fatigue tests should

11 Private communication.

CHAPTER V

between stress and strain do not apply rigidly after the elastic

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95

9R

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

few times dining the life of the spring. A spring loaded less

than about 1000 times during its life would usually be con-

cited, such as the springs in lightning arresters Fig. 58. Here the

change.

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are subject to static loads; in such cases the designer must guard

i.e., the ratio between coil diameter and wire diameter. Where

STRESS CALCULATIONS

From Fig. 59a it is seen that, for a spring of small index, the

stress ab on the inside of the coil is much larger than the stress

a'c on the outside of the coil, i.e., most of the high stress is con-

area near a.

REGION OF PEAK

of helical spring, small index at a and large index at b (for the spring of

small index most of the stress is concentrated near the inside of the coil at a)

side of the coil is only a little larger than the stress a'c on the

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98

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

a relatively small region near the inside of the coil as is the case

where the index is small (Fig. 60b). In other words, in the case

200 X

ii

spring steel

01 02 03 .04

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for this is that, after the elastic limit is passed and yielding be-

99

case of the small index spring, where only a small part of the

greater slope after the yield point has been passed) it appears

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effects due to the end turns and pitch angle, the torsion moment

at any point along the bar will be equal to Pr while the direct

in Fig. 62a while the peak torsion stress t, due to this moment

alone will be that given by the usual formula (Equation 4). Thus

16iV (86)

id?

similar diagrams.

100

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

the direct shear load P, which for our purposes may be consid-

4P

n - (87)

Tfl'

tm=r, + tJ + (88)

ia' 7rCt-

rm l^-K. (89)

where

K.= l+ (90)

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stress but since this will have a similar effect to that of stress concentration due

() (b) (O

the spring, the working load being then taken as a certain per-

Fig. 61, it may be expected that after exceeding the yield point

something like that shown in Fig. 64a for a spring of small index

and in Fig. 64b for one of large index. Actually it may be ex-

<r

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102

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

curve after passing the yield point will take place due to the

hand, if the index is large, these two areas will be about the

same, Fig. 64/;. Due to this effect, the point O' where the stress

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the resultant shear stress at all points of the cross section under

where O' represents the point of zero stress (the line BB' rep-

O' from the center O. From this the spring index may be found.

tween O'B and O'B', the radius p' of this circle will be

O'D

p=

1-

(91)

Using this formula for any point D along O'B, a series of circles

dA-pdpdB (92)

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(a) (b)

section for low index helical spring under yielding. Point of zero stress O'

104

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

moments over the whole cross section. Thus the moment My for

ing the circles as shown in Fig. 65a, the value of sin ip can be

m Fig. 65a and plotting the value of tp2sin ,p along each radius

the angular spacing of the radii and adding the total. In this

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Equation 92 in this

The total vertical shear force P acting over the section for

P= - / / r, sinii-BipdpdO (96)

plotting the function tp sin (i/< 0) along each radius, and find-

ing the area under each curve. By adding these with proper

coil radius r may be found for a given e and d. From this the

moment M,' (or load P') for complete yielding of a large index

mate of the effect of the direct shear load is possible. The ratio

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(97)

Table X

Wire

Dism. inches

1/8

5 32

3 16

14

5 16

38

7 16

12

5/8

34

7/8

1-1 8

.014

1'

.720

.0378

.590

.0570

.411

106

.352

.172

.293

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1-1 4

. 2 VI

.0228

.016

1.372

.0180

1.09

.0319

.900

0178

.664

.0910

520

.1465

. 118

376

.302

.218

.018

1.98

.0162

1 .55

.0273

1.275

0111

.952

.0794

753

.1285

.625

. 191

.538

.266

.470

.352

Table X (continued)

Wirt

Dim. inch

1-3 8

1-1 H

1-5/8

1-3/4

1-7 8

2-14

2-1 It

2-3/4

3-1 2

4-1 It

(MS

.99!

.051

3.89

.937

3.55

1.12

.055

4.85

4.45

4.11

Mi1

1.03

1.22

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3.25

-yj

6.01

5.50

.955

5.08

1.13

values

r turn)

. De-

.782

.063

7.33

.737

6.71

6.20

1.05

5.75

1.23

.887

7.45

6.90

1.15

108

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

high and since strain hardening effects come into the picture.

tions 89 and 7 for various standard outside coil diameters and wire

sizes. The music wire gage is used for sizes up to .090 and the

this stress is used in the table for convenience only and is not

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pounds per square inch, the loads and deflections given in the

wire, from Table X the load and deflection per turn are 103

pounds per square inch in this size and a yield point in tension

pounds per square inch. This means that the permissible loads

per cent of those given in the table. In the case cited, the

Based on a stress of 100,000 lb./sq. in. To find load at any other stress r, loads given

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I 10

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

coil diameters. Thus for a wire size of .106-inch and a coil out-

results from the charts of Figs. 66 and 67 and for best accuracy

used provided that the stress on which the table or chart is based

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to the direct shear of the axial load. This follows since K KCK.

inch. This latter would then be compared with the yield point.

For any other stress t, values should bo multiplied by T/100,000. Also, if the modulus

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112

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

coil and wire diameters, free and solid heights, are determined.

index 15, the factor K, = 1.06 from Fig. 68. Again assuming

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and left for a period of time varying from three days for the

carbon and low-alloy steel springs to ten days for the stainless

steel springs. After this heating, the springs were removed from

I-

in

ii

o 10 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 * 1 1

* 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15

SPRING INDEX C=

the test fixture and the loss in free height determined. From this

steel springs where the tests were run ten days. The stresses were

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cent lower. The actual tests were made with springs which had

the lower bluing temperatures not all the coiling stresses are

removed; when these latter are combined with the load stresses

rection, about ten per cent load loss may be expected within three

days for music wire or the .6 per cent carbon steel wire, when

IN

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

less steels of the 18-8 type showed a load loss of only about

four per cent at 350 degrees Fahr. which increased to 11.5 per

cent at 550 degrees Fahr. at the same stress (100,000 pounds per

square inch). These latter tests were run for ten days. For very

spring steels are reliable when stressed to not more than 80,000

pounds per square inch (or to about 72,000 pounds per square

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Table XI

Loss in

Loss in

Load at

Load at

80,000

100,000

lb./sq.in.

Tem-

Bluing

Ib./sq.in.

Rock-

Oiameter perature

Temp.t

Stress"

Stress*

well

Material

(in.)

i Fl

(F)

(%)

(%)

Hardness

Music wire . . .

.148

250

T00

2.5

4.7

48

.91% C .31% Mn

!062

350

700

10

IS

Music wire

250

7(10

2.5

3.5

51

.91% C .31% Mn

.'l48

350

115

per unit length along the wire, the twisting moment will be

7 = />9 (98)

y = y'+y"=pe (99)

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Equation 101,

(100)

1 dr

G ~dt

+g(t> = pd

(102)

s"The Creep of Metals Under Various Stress Conditions'*-A. Nadai, Th. ton

1 16

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

M 27t pa

P= / rp'dp (103)

r r Jo

This has been found to agree with tests over limited ranges of

grating

(3+*)r (15)

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r- (106)

assumed constant:

= 0 or I

at "' at

fftWdp -.(107)

1/

u- at O.l

2Prp

TO4

INITIAL STRESS

DISTRBUTION

STEADY

DISTRBUTION

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not change with time, the angle of twist per unit length 6

(109)

118

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

(110)

8t

+GCt" = 0

(111)

r="Rra-i )CGtyi~^(113'

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1 (n-l)CGt

tn-, ,..o-]

(112)

(114)

CHAPTER VI

SPRINGS

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load; in other words that the stresses computed this way are too

119

120

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

occur (even for fatigue loading) lies in the fact that some ma-

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layer which occurs during heat treatment and the effects of shot-

METHODS OF CALCULATION

mental Stress Analysis, Vol. 1, No. 1, Page 118, discuss this. Also article by Peterson

and Wahl, Journal of Applied Mechanics, March, 1938, Page A-15 and discussion De-

lected

These factors will be discussed more fully later. For the present,

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'r

STATIC STRESS T,

For this case (0 to maximum stress) both the static and vari-

122

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

stress range from tt(), to tmax where these stresses are figured by

tmnz teiin

.(115)

becomes

(116)

t(BBi4"tm in

since this factor has already been used in figuring rmax and t,,;

1.6

<o

1.4

to

u'

cc

to

ij

\Z

i N

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in

/to

Tw N

/f

rmin/tmax.

ty/r'e = 2 and q 1

cIf the yield point is not sharply defined, as an approximation it may be taken

as that point where the plastic strain is .2 per cent. See "Concerning the Yield Point

some cases this would give results in closer agreement with tests, but the results

obtained by using the yield point will, in general, be on the safe side.

. (117)

+-

t t,

~2

'-( 5 )

2.5 and q = 1

.(118)

2 .4 6

T7mn./T7Bax.

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tnat=C^T,' (119;

"It is assumed that the variable component of stress is not Hrea*T than the static

component, i.e., that only stress conditions corresponding to the line PA in Fig. 71 an?

124

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

2 ty

Cm

M-0('~)

(120)

becomes

Fig 71, parallel to the line PA and intersecting the axis of ab-

given values of tv/t,-' are given in Figs. 72, 73 and 74. These

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in Chapter V.

been determined for the given material and wire size by actual

(121)

K/=l and from Equation 122, q=0. For materials fully sensi-

tive, K/=KC and hence q=l. Thus the more sensitive mate-

tion 122,

It is, however, assumed that t,ux and tmi have already been cal-

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K,-l+q(K.-l)

(123)

(124)

(t,.,-t,-) [l+q(Ke-l)]

2 Kc

(125)

2r

(126)

l+gdC-l)

126

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

C = 2tu/t/ -(127)

sensitivity index q = Vi and for t/t,' equal to 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 are

2-l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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60,000 pounds per square inch, while torsion tests show a yield

rmin./Tmax.

K).

From this chart for an index c=3, C, = 1.53 when tmin/tmax -^>-

61,000 pounds per square inch (the stress being figured by using

the factor K). If the spring index were 10 instead of 3, the fac-

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128

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

this limitation.

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the value of t/ by tests on the actual wire size used, since the

larger sizes.

springs of small and large index assuming a given wire size. Al-

129

after coiling, since the effect of the heat treatment may be dif-

2.4r

posite sign so that when the spring is under the working load,

stresses. For this reason the tendency will be for the fatigue

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130

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

of large index.

due to the end coils have been neglected. These effects may in-

the shape and form of the end turns, and on the total number of

of tests yet made to check the effect .of spring index on endur-

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mum points (rmin and tmaJ-) of the limiting stress ranges as found

by Zimmerli for the various indexes are given in the second and

for a spring of large index, the test results for c=11.9 are used

square inch. Since the yield point in torsion for the material will

with sufficient accuracy allowing the use of Fig. 72. Using the

stress tmas were computed using the chart of Fig. 72 and Equa-

tion 119. The computed values of tmax thus obtained are given

cates that the test and calculated values of limiting stress range

differ by only a few per cent. This offers some indication that

Table XII

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two groups of springs coiled from %-inch diameter bar stock, one

were practically the same for the two groups of springs, while

the bar curvature nor the direct shear stress have any effect on

132

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

minimum loads Pmax and P,,, then the range in load will be

from the range in load using the full curvature correction factor

be used in design.)

Peak stress tmax is then calculated from the load Pmax using

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will limit the peak stress to this value. Then the actual limiting

stress range is taken as the test value with the peak stress equal

below the torsional yield point, then the actual endurance range

exceed the yield point in torsion, there will not be much varia-

tion in the value of the endurance range for various peak stresses.

range equal to the range with the peak stress equal to the yield

Design Stresses for a Standard Code" Transactions A.S.M.E., July 1942, Page 476.

133

practical use.

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Equation 89, is 61,000 pounds per square inch. Since the ex-

110,000 pounds per square inch, Table VII Page 88, the factor

CHAPTER VII

COMPRESSION SPRINGS

available. In such cases the use of the spring tables given here

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where these methods are used, however, the choice of the proper

this chapter.

will be advisable.

134

Table XIII

For springs of good-quality spring steel. All stresses based on the use of a curva-

ture correction factor. The table does not hold where corrosion effects or high tem-

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perature are present For phosphor bronze springs 50 per cent and for rust-resisting

spring requirements.

From Table XIII it may be seen that lower stresses are used

for the larger wire sizes and for severe service in accordance

service.

13d

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

000 for %-inch diameter to 80,000 for 1-inch diameter bar. These

Table XIV

(lb./sq.in.) (lb./sq.in.)

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Such high stress values should not be used where long life or

Table XV

Wire diameter

Music Wire

Tempered Steel

Hard-Drawn Steel

(in.)

(lb./sq in.)

(lb./sq.in.)

(lb./sq.in.)

.020 to .030

100,000

100,000

90,000

.031 to .092 .

90.000

100,000

80,000

.093 to .176

90,000

90.000

80,000

.177 to .282 . .

90,000

70,000

.283 to .436 . .

85,000

.437 to .624

80,000

.437 to .624

90,000

.625 to .874 . .

90,000 I

Brass 40,000

SPRING TABLES

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cent of those for carbon steel. The shear modulus used in com-

Table

Severe

- Outside Diameter

Wire

Diam.

'A

H_

014

493

0123

0209

334

0319

.252

0606

203

0990

169

146

.016

.726

0100

. 588

0174

494

0266

.375

.0514

. 302

0838

253

126

.217

.174

018

1 03

00840

836

0147

700

0227

534

0445

.428

.0730

360

.310

153

271

203

no

. 020

1 39

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398

XVI

Service*

of Spring (in.)

H1

1H

IK

1H

1H

IK

1H

Wire

[Ham.

.014

.016

.018

.020

.022

.024

.026

028

030

869

348

032

1 04

906

442.

.034

.036

.038

.325

1 24

1 08

305

.406

1 46

287

1.27

.382

1.14

.490

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140

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XVI

Severr

Outside Diameter

Dlam.

"4

VH

IK

1H

\H

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086

3".. 7

.00532

31 6

00981

-iv, \

21 1

0229

20 '6

0413

17 4

0652

15.0

0945

13.2

.130

118

10.7

216

9 72

.267

8.95

325

8 26

387

.0157

.170

.090

/-

38 9

mi 17 1

34 6

00879

30.8

0143

27 6

0210

22 u

0384

19.2

.0610

16 6

0889

14 6

1 22

13.1

160

118

(G)iilinucd)

Service *

of Spring (in.)

1H'

IK

2H

2'<

3H

5H

Win-

Dii. 1t>.

7 70

156

528

6 76

.608

mi

.086

.782

8 52

432

7 96

501

7.47

.575

6 66

742

h (III

090

.930

9 26

123

8 66

491

8.13

565

7.25

.728

,. 53

.911

091.-,

12 8

11.9

432

U.J

498

10 0

9 02

11 21)

i'

in;

372

.642

.808

.987

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7 19

1-42

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table

Severe

Outside Diameter

Wire

Dtam.

yt

"4

.014

.369

.0100

.299

.0170

251

.0260

.189

0494

.152

.0805

.127

.119

.015

.452

.00901

.370

.0155

.311

0238

.233

.0456

.187

.0742

.156

.110

.134

.152

.0162

.565

00801

.459

0139

.388

0213

.292

.0412

. 237

.0674

.196

.100

.169

.140

.0173

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XVII

Service*

of Spring (in.)

IK

1H

1H

i';

1H

Wire

Diam.

.014

.0162

.0173

.0181

.0204

.0230

.0258

.0286

652

283

.032

851

.748

341

.035

256

1 10

234

.952

.311

.853

.399

.038

1 28

221

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.015

141

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Tabic XVII

Svere

- Outside Diameter

ir.

Dlam.

'A

1H

IK

1H

IH

II91

/'

31 6

00371

28 1

00697

25.0

0112

22.4

0167

in i

15.6

.0484

13 6

0708

119

0969

10 6

.128

9 68

. 163

8.78

.202

8 10

.245

7 47

293

0304

.106

II 1

37 5

00822

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1H

31O

28 1

0237

23 9

.0384

20 II

0570

IK I

16 4

105

118

13 (.

.168

12 5

[Continued)

Service*

if Spring (in.)

i<. VH

2H

2H

3H

'5

5H

Wire

Diuni.

6 94

.344

6.50

460

5 44

.593

4 90

.742

0915

too

10 7

287

10 0

9 45

386

8.40

498

7 58

628

6 90

.769

6 35

.928

.106

.335

IS 9

.244

14 9

286

14 0

12 4

427

11 2

10.3

662

9 45

.800

.121

329

539

.212

ii

20 7

249

19 1

17 2

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6 10

146

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table

t Sever*

Outside Diameter

Wire

Dlam.

HA

* 1 * 1 f*

.0142

.0159

0179

. 255

.0114

.0196

.174

.0297

132

0568

.106

.0921

0887

. 137

.357

.00968

.290

.0167

.243

.0257

.184

0492

.148

0810

.124

.120

107

.167

.504

.00805

.410

.0141

.346

.0220

.262

0426

211

. 0702

. 177

.105

152

.146

133

. 194

.0201

.0226

702

.00662

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.208

XVIII

Service*

f Spring (in.)

1 V.

1H

l'y.

IX

!2

^ ire

DUm.

.0142

.0159

.0179

.0201

p-

.0226

.0254

.0285

.032

134

Ml

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S18~

293

.541

386

036

~I4I~

257

.741

.342

.660

.440

.040

1.21

224

1 05

298

.938

.384

,84'i

.48!

.773

148

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Tabic XVIII

S<'> rr

Outside l>iItmrtn

Wire I

Dinm.

1*8

1H

\H

1H

.091

20 7

00439

II! 1

00819

16 4

14 8

1)196

12 2

0361

10 2

0568

8 90

0833

7 86

7 112

.151

6 32

192

5.76

.237

5 28

.287

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1H

4 <H

>

0133

.115

. 344

.102

24.7

00620

22 6

0104

II. 8

113

0480

12.4

0706

11 0

9 80

129

II IIi

165

8 10

7.45

(Continued)

Service*

of Spring (in.)

IN

IK

2K

2'i

3M

4X

5H

\\ ir.-

I>ium.

I 4 56

4 26

468

3 99

539

3 56

697

3 20

870

.091

6 40

5 95

.405

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404

.-> 60

5 00

.610

4 51

768

4.10

938

3 78

1.13

/'

.102

353

.474

8 90

8 31

7 82

413

7 00

6 28

.672

5.74

.828

5.26

.998

III

307

.358

.538

12 9

264

12.0

307

11 .3

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152

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

pitting Table XVII for stainless steel was 10.5 X 10" while that

severe service, from Table XVI for .263-inch wire diameter and

2 inch outside diameter the allowable load is 161 pounds and the

tion would require .8/. 124 = 6.45, say &k, active turns or about

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.8 = 3.26 inches free length, allowing 10 per cent extra length for

inches, and the solid length about 10 per cent less or about 2.2

inches. The stress at the solid length would be about 10 per cent

DESIGN CHARTS

These charts were published by Wallace Barnes Co. in The Mainspring for June

and August, 1940, and are reproduced through the courtesy of this company.

100 pounds, that of Fig. 79, between 100 and 10,000 pounds.

pounds per square inch torsion stress, the abscissas, inches de-

flection per pound of load per active coil. Thus the abscissa,

rocal of the spring constant in pounds per inch. The set of lines

any line of one set with that of the other set fixes the load at

100,000 pounds per square inch stress and the deflection per

pound of load per active turn. Thus, for example, if the wire

size is .04-inch and the outside coil diameter '/i-inch, the load

at 100,000 pounds per square inch stress will be 9.3 pounds and

there are 10 active turns the spring constant will be 1/.025 =40

pounds per inch. The load at any other stress t different from

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= 5.58 pounds.

If the load and working stress are known the required spring

size may easily be read from the charts of Figs. 78 and 79. Thus,

seen that a wide variety of sizes will yield this value of load.

eter of %-inch will come close to it. In this size the spring will

spring with G = 11.5 X 10" pounds per square inch. If, say,

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158

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

100,000 pounds per square inch stress to the net solid height of

the active coils in the spring. It is clear that springs with a large

solid height and vice versa. Thus a spring of .100-inch wire and

100,000 pounds per square inch, Fig. 79. This means that the

equal to the solid height. At 60,000 pounds per square inch the

however, exceed 3 per cent and will usually be within 2 per cent.

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Chapter VIII considers these variables. This means that the charts

CHAPTER VIII

COMPRESSION SPRINGS

springs are shown in Fig. 80. The most common typeends set

stress for a given load) than would be the case where the ends

are simply squared and closed, while in Fig. 80c, the ends are

left plain without any grinding. This type of spring would give

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Fig. 80d is the same as that at c except that the ends have been

sion springs requires that the effect of the end turns be esti-

alytical work by Vogt1 indicates that for the usual design of end

coil with ends squared and ground, Fig. 80a, the number of active

Page 468.

157

158

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

pression spring has 10 free coils and 12 total coils (tip to tip of

bar) then on this basis the number of active coils would be 10J/2,

with the load, and this increases the number of inactive turns.

load the number of active turns was equal to n' -f- % where n'

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figure for average active turns varying from n' to n' + Vt. Be-

cause the total number of turns is n' + 2 for the usual type of

end turn. Fig. 80a, this means that the inactive turns found in

solid height divided by bar or wire diameter. Since for the usual

shape of end coil, Fig. 80a, the "solid turns" are equal to the

"total turns" measured from tip to tip of bar, minus V-i turn,

2"The Effect of Overstrain on Closely Coiled Helical Springs and the Variation

of the Number of Active Coils with Load", Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Engineering

pears that for the usual design of end coil the number of in-

tion from total turns. Probably a mean value of P/i inactive coils

while a lower figure may be used for lower loads. The seating

associates2.

usual type of end turn. Test results concerning the other types

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of inactive coils are as follows: For plain ends, Fig. 80c, active

Fig. 80d, active turns are n 1. // 2% turns at each end are set

roughly as n 5.

ECCENTRICITY OF LOADING

160

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

the other.

here. However, the final results of the analysis are given in the

eccentricity e and coil radius r and the abscissas being the num-

ber of turns n' between tip contact points. The total number of

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e =1.123(2-1) (128)

\Vz turns greater than the number of coils n' between tip contact

that where the spring index is fairly large the stress will be in-

This is borne out also by experiments made by Pletta and Maher"Helix Warping

0.40

Q30

0.20

QI0

30

as

Fig. 81Ratio e/r between eccentricity and coil radius as a funtion of n'

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end of the spring were not parallel. The loads were then ad-

be calculated.

and load being given. Springs tested had ground end coils of

the usual form. In the last column the values of the ratio e/r

tions 128 and 129 are given. For comparison the test values of

162

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XIX

Load Eccentricity _ e

Turns

Coil Radius

Spring

Outside

Wire

Between Tip

Total

Calcu-

No.

Diameter

Diameter

Contact Points

Load

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Test

lated

(in.)

(in.)

H'

(lb.)

2%

.177

34

.12

.12

2%

.177

34

.04

.12

2%

.177

4U

31

.09

.11

r-.

.177

1',

29

.14

.11

2-i

.177

38

.19o

.23

2*i

.177

38

.13

.19 av.

.23

may be excessive.

Table XX

A.S.T.M.

Specification

Material (No.)

Wire

Permissible

Diameter

Variation

(in.)

(in.)

.028 to .072

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.001

.073 to .375

.002

.003

.0003

.027 to .063

.0005

.001

.093 to .148

+ .001

.149 to .177

.0015

.178 to .250

.002

eter of the spring after winding will be slightly greater than the

mean diameter D.

is

64 PrVi

5=-

Gd<

^Manual of Spring Engineering published American Steel and Wire Co., Page 97.

lfi-4

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

where e and A are small quantities, relative to unity, the true de-

64Pr>(l+c)'n

64Pr3n

8. (1+3.-4X) (130)

(ja,

radius is one per cent greater than the nominal, i.e., e=.01,

while at the same time the true wire diameter is one per cent

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, 64Pr>n

values the actual deflection will be 1.07 times the nominal de-

cent, i.e., A=.02. Assuming the true mean coil diameter of this

been made about 2 per cent less than the nominal, which meant

that e was .02 Using this value in Equation 130 the true de-

actual coil diameter had been made slightly smaller than the

variation in the stress; a one per cent change in the coil diameter,

a one per cent change in stress. Usually, the stress does not have

Table XXI

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3 to 4 .0550 .0730

4 to 5 .0725 .095

5 to 8 .125

6 to 7 .165

7 to 8 .210

requires not only that the effective turns be known, but also

average figure for modulus of rigidity for carbon and alloy steel*

166

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

pounds per square inch. On the basis of the test data given in

Table XXII

Modulus of Rigidity

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the coil pitch such that when the spring is compressed solid, no

with a coil pitch sufficiently great so that the elastic limit of the

shown in Fig. 82b for a spring of large index7. At low loads be-

also been decreased. If the initial free length of the spring is made

the final free length may be held to the specified value. At the

yond a certain initial free length, the final length after the set-

ting operation will be the same. The reason for this is that the

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168

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XXIII

Helical Springso

Stress

at Solid Compres-

sion up to which

it is not necessary

to remove set

(lb./sq. in.)

Maximum Stress

at Solid Compression

Diameter

Material

(in.)

(lb./sq. in.)

Music Wire

up to .032

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.032 to .062

.062 to .125

130,000

110,000

100,000

90,000

180,000

170,000

160.000

150,000

up to .032

.032 to .062

.062 to .125

120,000

100,000

90.000

80.000

170,000

160.000

150,000

140,000

Oil-tempered wire

80,000

140,000

up to .125

over.125

85,000

75,000

140,000

120,000

Phosphor bronze

General sizes

40,000

70,000

for some time, however, if the settage stress is too high, the free

length will increase slightly. This again will change the load-

CHAPTER IX

lar to the buckling of a long slender column when the load ex-

BUCKLING

the case of the usual steel column, on the other hand, this de-

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crease is small and may be neglected. The reason for this lies in

usually less than .1 per cent. This is not true, however, for a

also given here. For addit-'onal references on the buckling of springs see articles

by E. Hurlbrink, Zei(. Vrr. d. Inj.. V. 54, Paee 138, 1910; by R. Grammel. Zeit Aneru;.

Math. Mech., V. 4, Page 384, 1924; and by Biezeno and Koch, Zett Angew Math. Mcch.

169

170

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

the spring in its unstressed condition- and a, fi, " are the same

P.

1+-"P<

(131)

AG

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ber of coils per unit length (Equations 135, 141, and 144). Hence

III

p.- !. ()

^By compressive rigidity is me(int the ratio of load to deflection per unit of length

for the case of a bar under direct compression. For a bar of cross-sectional area A

and modulus of elasticity E the compressive rigidity is equal to AE. Likewise the

flexural rigidity is the ratio of bending moment to curvature for a beam in pure

bending and is equal to modulus of elasticity times moment of inertia of the cross-

section. The shearing rigidity is equal to the ratio of shearing force to shearing

deflection per unit of length and for a beam is equal to modulus of rigidity times cross-

scctional area GA, multiplied by a constant depending on the shape of the section.

Gd<h

(135)

ltzL= 64P^n

h Gd'L

L-l P

'-(-T>

(137)

Equating values of Prr given by Equations 134 and 137, the fol-

(/0-/) V2?. 1

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dB EI + 0T (139)

172

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

In this case EI and GIP are the flexural and torsional rigidities of

the wire cross section, respectively. The twist due to the bending

along the axis yy of the moment; that due to M< must be multi-

rM rM

El GIp

'--/'-(

rM rM

EI

)d<t>

irMr

EI

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Integrating this,

/ EI \

(1+g7t)

(140)

one inch axial length will be n6/l. This will be also equal to the

I.

nir Mr f E \

17 ~eT\ +"2g)

From this the flexural rigidity /?, which is the ratio of bend-

173

00 =

2LEIG

nirr(2G+E)

.(141)

Qr

EI

.(142)

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de=_-sin <t>ds

17-4

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

EI

turn of spring,

Since there will be n/l turns per inch axial length, the total

ny irn Qr3

~TT=~l7 EI

LEI

7o ,- (144)

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son's ratio,

z3-z2+(3+2r)mz-m = 0 (145)

where

m = (146)

It will be found that this equation has one real positive rool

Equation 137,

P_*^-_a#(1_,) (147)

P-CbLCk (148)

I0|IIIIII 1I 1IIIII I

5 0 10

15

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that the buckling load factor Ca is now to be taken from the upper

'See article by Biezeno and Koch, loc. cit. for a further discussion of this problem.

Tests carried out by these investigators show good agreement with the analysis

nrovided that the number of coils is not too small and that the coils do not touch

before buckling occurs. Also comments in Machine Design, July 1943, Page 144.

176

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Gd,

P=CL - - (149)

64r3n

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the spring constant CK = 142 pounds per inch. From Fig. 86 the

tion; hence curve b of Fig. 86 for fixed ends may be used. Then

stress of 60,000 pounds per square inch the actual load on the

190 pounds, taking 60 per cent of the value for 100,000 pounds

able margin between the working load and the buckling load.

stand not only axial loads, but also transverse loads as indicated

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178

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

latter are called upon to absorb lateral forces due to the un-

such conditions the combined effect of the axial load P and the

axial load relative to the buckling load the larger the effect of

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from Equation 148 for the case of built-in ends using curve b

of Fig. 86. If P is the axial load acting on the spring, the ratio

approximately by"

=C, (151)

load were acting the results of beam theory may be used. The

'A more exact method of determining this factor is given in the reference of

Footnote 5. This shows that the approximate expression is sufficiently accurate for

practical use.

179

S'-j2El

QP

* (152)

12(5

Ql

S. (153)

Ql3 Ql

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2Qnr

.=-(.204/'+1.06r=) (155)

lateral deflection 8.

torsion moment due to the axial load P will be Pr. The effective

180

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

M-Krt 2 )1 T (156)

16M, 4c-1

irrf3 4c-4

_ 16Pr/ .615 \

Equation 16). The direct shear stress at the inside of the coil due

stress is

t-t. + t. (158)

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ratio:

approximately (159)

2r 2Pr

The ratio J/r= 9.5/2.13 =-4.48 and from Fig. 86 the buckling

2(200)(8)X2W r 1

(for Cl=2) is

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Thus it is seen that in this case the actual deflection with axial

s Ol

pounds per square inch may be expected due to the lateral load.

182

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

TEST DATA

This steel plate carried the axial load while the transverse load

155. The range in deviation in the test points was from about

60 per cent to 125 per cent of the theoretical values, most of the

values.

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tween test and theory lies in (1) imperfect clamping of the end

Equation 151.

CHAPTER X

SINGLE SPRINGS

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August 15, 1941, Page 134). However, the method used by the author differs from

that used by Jennings in that a distinction is made between static and variable

loading. Also the usual deflection formula is used instead of the Wood formula used

183

184

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

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LT=-i-P (160)

comes

"-Tr ,,

Page 84. In this discussion a number of curves based on free-height volume and a

MAXIMUM SPACE-EFFICIENCY

185

t" = K ^ (162)

ira3

* rndtrj

8 GK'

44

4V

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or

nd3= (164)

ir (c+1)3

4Cr

C--S--(cT1)2- (166)

cupied and a given peak stress, the energy stored depends only

180

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

in the lower curve of Fig. 89. This curve shows that for variable

.40

> 36

a.

.28

.24

.2or

.10

C"v

/(3-SPI

*ING NES

ci /

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(2-SPR

NG NEST^

c,

(single

spring)

6 8 10 12

SPRING INDEX C ~ J

14

peated only a few times during the service life of the spring as

MAXIMUM SPACE-EFFICIENCY

187

16Pr

K,

3/

SPRING r>

iest)

s/

j\

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(2-SPRI

NG NEST'

4 (single

spring)\

V-

ir

6 8 10

SPRING INDEX C = *r

12

14

188

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

t,2V

where

C.- - (168)

K> (c+l)" v;

around three).

SPRING NESTS

helical springs

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MAXIMUM SPACE-EFFICIENCY

189

n^' - (169)

tion, it will be assumed that the free lengths of the springs com-

prising the nest are also the same. This means that the total

deflection of each spring is the same at any given load, i.e., that

Ji-a, (170)

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GdiKi Gd2K2

be written

GKi GK;

that the spring indexes c, and c-. (and hence also the curvature

the spring indexes are made the same, the energy coefficients

C,- (which depend only on the indexes) will be the same for

both springs. Using Equation 165 this means that the total

where V, and V-. are the volumes enclosed by the outer and

AG

(-( (1 ~) d73)

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V,-i,d,(c+l)'

44

tained:

v:-c;:)' >

MAXIMUM SPACE-EFFICIENCY

191

U= C

.(175)

where

(176)

spring index in Fig. 89. From this it is seen that for a two-spring

they are also higher than would be the case if the free-height

volume had been taken as a basis. Thus for example the analysis

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is used as a basis.

(177)

4G

where

(178)

192

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

becomes

AG

where

U=>C."' (181)

where

Fig. 90. From these it appears that for static loads the maximum

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the two kinds of loading will be small. In any case, the results

index should be used, say around 3 for a single spring and about

this chapter, the minimum amount of space required for the spring

CHAPTER XI

TENSION SPRINGS

considered.

curvature of the wire or bar at the point where the hook joins

the body of the spring, at A, Fig. 93b, may occur. This curvature

tension springs occur at such points and this is one reason why

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that an initial load must be applied before the coils will begin to

193

194

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

estimate for the case shown in Fig. 93 (which has a sharp bend

at A' (where the sharp bend begins) due to the load P is Pr ap-

(b)

radius r2 being the radius at the start of the bend in the plane

obtained from the curve of Fig. 180, Chapter XVII, for torsion

ing stress must also be added the direct tension stress 4P/Vd-'.

32Pr 4P

(183)

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-K, +

At the point A, Fig. 93b near the point where the bend joins

tion 14, Chapter II, for the case of pure torsion acting on a

TENSION SPRINGS

195

will then be

the axial load. This direct shear, however, does not act at the

as large as possible.

(184)

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196

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

bend as well as on the radii r, and r2. Since the peaks of these

tion effect smaller, than is the case with the spring shown in

mined first. To this is added the deflection due to the end coils.

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tween points where the loops start, the total active turns would

where in this case r is the mean radius of the loop (taken equal

given by Equation 7.

For the full coil turned up, Fig. 94, the experimental work

Pr'

TENSION SPRINGS

197

2r/d, the higher the index the lower the initial tension values.

p.=-:f- use)

16r

Table XXIV

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T 25,000

* 22,500

Jj 20,000

18,000

'16,200

"14,500

"13,000

.. 11,600

10,600

,., 9.700

8,800

, _ 7.900

3 7,000

mum initial tension the stress, from Table XXIV, due to initial

198

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

loop designs, some of which are shown in Fig. 95, may be used.

FULL LOOP

(a)

SMALL EYE

FLAM SQUARE

CUT ENDS

(d)

HOOK

V HOOK

(9)

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EXTENDED EYE

<h)

SWIVEL BOLT

til

tion 18. Thus, if the loop is at the side, the moment arm of the

the usual type of end loop is used, the line of action of the load

Often tension springs are made with plain ends, Fig. 95d.

dicated in Fig. 96a. When using these, the spring is close wound

and the ends of the spring are spread apart by screwing the

TENSION SPRINGS

199

raw ID

the spreading apart of the turns near the ends is set up. This

the end coils are spread. A second type of spring end is shown

in Fig. 96b. This is screwed into the ends of the spring coil.

the end loop is bent up, the moment arm of the load at the point

a design, while more expensive than the usual form of end loop,

use a U-shape piece having hooks at each end to fit over the

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200

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

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Fig. 98Method of

supporting end

loops to avoid

to whipping action

TENSION-COMPRESSION SPRINGS

TENSION SPRINGS

201

In this case nine springs having the shape shown in Fig. 99 are

Fig. 100. One of these plates is moved back and forth by a crank

taken so that the end coils have a gradual transition between the

body of the spring and the straight portion of the end. In this

manner the curvature of the end turns may be reduced and the

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Fig. 100Assembly of

tension - compression

202

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

ance limit is 70,000 pounds per square inch for springs tested in a

centration effects near the end turns would tend to reduce the

endurance range below this value. On the other hand, the en-

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CHAPTER XII

SPRINGS

tion is that more material may be packed into a given space for

great. Where static loads are involved and springs are cold-set,

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the axial load and r the mean coil radius. To calculate the tor-

'For a further discussion of this point together with theoretical results see

paper by Sayre and de Forest"New Spring Formulas and New Materials in Precision

Spring Scale Design" presented at the Annual A.S.M.E. Meeting, December, 1934.

aIn this case, the index may be considered as the ratio 2r/a between mean di-

203

204

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

ing machine. Rates vary from 1/10 to 1xk pounds per inch deflection

+.

fly'

(186)

the coordinates x and tj, q is the pressure per unit of area of the

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Enwx

bn cos . Y

.(187)

sults become

Sir> tln? \

n-l 3 & \

cosh

cosh

nirb

2a

\cOs -

. (188)

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206

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

er

(189)

rm = k(2Gda) (190)

Table XXV

b/

k,

k.

1.

.875

.1406

.208

1.2

.739

.219

1.S

.848

.196

.231

2.

.930

.229

.246

2.5

.968

.249

. .258

a.

.985

.263

.287

4.

.997

.281

.282

5.

.999

.291

.291

10.

1.000

.312

.312

1.000

.333

.333

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.166

brane. the ratio q/S being again replaced by 2GH. Since twice

V=2 / / zdxdy

t/0/2 /-6/2

by using Equation 188 for z and taking q/S = 2Gh the expres-

1 / 192a 1 nwb \

3 I *-b ni 2a

M,=kiGea?b

Solving for 6,

where fc, depends on the ratio b/a and may be obtained from

Table XXV.

coil radius, Fig. 102. The maximum shearing stress then becomes

i.e., the stress increase due to curvature and direct shear is neg-

M,

k-sOrb

(192)

>>>

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duces to

208

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

,,-^ (194)

2*Pr>n

i=^6G (195)

duces to

44.6 Pr3n

(196)

Ga'

theory5 shows that for an index greater than four the error will

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than 4.

194. For large spring indexes this value of stress will be approxi-

mately correct, but for small or moderate indexes the error will

Page 269.

Chapter II. In this case the analysis" shows that for small pitch

angles and indexes greater than three an expression for the factor

c c2 c3

.(197)

A.&Pr

(198)

curve for round wire (Fig. 30 Chapter II) shows that the values

of K' are somewhat under the K values for round wire, the differ-

ence being about 7 per cent for an index of 3, and 4 per cent for

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an index of 4.

210

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

equal to

and taking the spring index equal to 2r/a, for finding K'. The

torsion will give results correct to within 4 per cent for spring

per cent less than that figured from the usual formula in Equa-

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cent less.

i.e., one having the same outside coil diameter, number of turns

cross section. The loads thus found are multiplied by the factor

1.06 and the deflections by .738 to find those for the square wire

tions 198 and 200 should be used instead of the charts mentioned.

6,+&.+2a,

(199)

(200)

211

angle a.

4.8Pr cos a

t = X

.62( )tan:a

/ a \ / a V 1 / a \3 V 2p /

2p J

(201)

. (202)

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7These equations were derived by Goehner, loc. cit.. Page 271, using methods

212

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

a3 1 c c2 J

was done for round wire springs, Equation 51. The analysis

= ^' (204)

COS a G

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.31 cos* a E

1 + ^T~

means that the deflection will be about 3 per cent lower than that

RECTANGULAR-WIRE SPRINGS

lion is parallel to the spring axis and where the ratio b/a is

r^K'Pr^Sa) (206)

equation will give results accurate to within a few per cent for in-

3 P(2r+a)

2- ^.63*," (207)

rectangle. This will also be true where the bar is coiled in the

the maximum stress tends to occur at the inside of the coil be-

effects here tend to come into play. Where the spring is coiled

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flatwise, Fig. 106, the peak stress may occur either on the short

ratio b/a.

abVab

be taken from Fig. 107 depending on the ratio a/'b or b/a and

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the side of the section parallel to the axis of the spring; hence,

=6, load P = 300 pounds, from Fig. 107 for a/b=2 and c=6,

-0 Pr -

abVab

5.88(300)1.5_

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a=-

19.&Pr>n

Ga' (b -.56a)

(209)

216

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

2*Pr*n

where

C=aJ(6/3-.21a) (212)

spring axis as in Fig. 102, Equation 210 will yield results ac-

210 will also give results accurate to within a few per cent, for

for the smaller indexes, and for larger indexes where higher

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2*Pr'n

5 . (213)

GC"

a factor C2 where

C21

'"Goehner, loc. cit., Page 271. It is assumed that the pitch angle is under 12

degrees.

the results given by Equation 210 for such cases may be around

for small pitch angles may be simply carried out by the use of

is given by

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218

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

where the constant 7 depends on the ratio a/b or b/a, Fig. 109.

in testing machine

inch (steel). From Fig. 109 the constant 7=6.7 for a/b = 2,

8Pr>n 6.7X8X300X3.37X5 . ,

S = y = = 1.51 inch.

a-b'G MX^X11.5X10

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these formulas used in practice with the more exact theory for

that the formulas given here will yield more satisfactory results

for the calculation of such springs than will the empirical form-

by using the chart of Fig. 107 and neglecting the pitch angle.

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count'":

l3See author's article in Machine Design, July, 1930 for further details of this com-

parison.

220

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

(216)

the wire cross section about an axis parallel to the spring axis.

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against load are represented by the full lines in Figs. Ill and

112 which show the results of two tests on two coils, one of in-

dex 3.07 and the other of index 4.14. For comparison, dashed

formula, Equation 198, are also shown. It may be seen that the

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this chapter for square and rectangular bar springs are based

this is, however, beyond the scope of this book. In the absence

is concerned.

CHAPTER XIII

JBy a slow rate is meant one in which the time of application of the load is

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222

223

against time is shown in Fig. 114b. This latter curve also rep-

(a)

spring which will be reflected from the end, the time for the

wave to travel from one end of the spring to the other being

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224

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

extension wave will be seen to travel back and forth along the

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

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crank radius and connecting rod length is not too large, the ex-

225

per minute).

crankshaft.

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follows:

Fig. 11.5Helical

spring subject to

reciprocating mo-

tion

226

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

due to resonance effects and this may increase the stress range

springs several methods are open. In the first place the natural

resonance will occur only for the higher order harmonics (which

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these end coils will close up thus changing the natural frequency

227

pressing against the center coils of the spring have also been

tance x from the left end of the spring. The active length of

small element A from its mean position (or position when the

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3Dte Federn, by Gross and Lehr, Page 115. published by V.D.I., Berlin, 1938.

'.The Surging of Engine Valve Springs, by Swan and Savage, Sp. Rep. No. 10,

228

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

ird-yds ff-y

K= - ,i (219)

This follows from the equation force equals mass times accelera-

tion since the acceleration of this element is d2y dt2. The par-

Gd'Ay Gd' dy

P -= :i2r (220)

64r3 64r' ds

and this will be the net force F(, acting to accelerate the ele-

comes

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ds 32 r2 as"

2. Air damping

force per unit length of the wire per unit of velocity, the damp-

ing force Fa is

Fd=c-y-ds (222)

dt

229

ing by ds

= c (223,)

Ag dt2 32 r- ds2 ds

dy I dy d-y I- a2y

: = and =

dt2 dt dx'

where

Gd,

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64r"n

='\ (227)

b= w (228)

= o"-^- (229)

dt' dx2

'See for example article by C. H. Kent, Machine Design, October, 1935, for a

230

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

NATURAL FREQUENCY

where </> (x) and i/<(f) are functions of x and t respectively. Then

dt2 dx'

or

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1 rfV _ a2 d2*

~+V(i)-0 (231)

Cp<t> u>J*Cx)

+=-^ = 0 (232)

dx2 a-

o>X tax

aa

Nostrand.

231

(wX <ttX \

A&in .+ B,cos J

aa/

value of f,

second requires that sin wl/a=0. This means that the following

relations hold:

or

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for the natural frequency of the spring (in cycles per second)

becomes

w = m kM

'2t 2 II W

frequency, m= 1, becomes

232

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

2*r2/i y 32y

d J Gg

(236)

and the number of active coils. For the usual steel springs where

One Spring End FreeFor a spring with one end free and

spring.

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hanging on its end as shown in Fig. 117, the lowest natural fre-

3510d

(237)

3510X.3

TT):x6

(238)

233

and k the spring constant in pounds per inch deflection, the fre-

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Fig. 117Weight

on helical spring

y0=csin wj

(240)

234

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

in Fig. 118. Here the dot-dash line represents the stress due to

sumed given by

y = F(x)sin aj (241)

frequency.

The boundary conditions are: For x=0 Fig. 116, y=0 re-

in space. For x=l, y = csin wt since the other end of the spring

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natural frequency.

y-=^sin(2*U+4>) (242)

OA

<f> is a given phase angle. From this solution, for small damp-

r = r.,^ (243)

235

i.e., t, may be around 100 to 300 times t8c It has also been

TO VALVE LIFT.

TIME t

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ing due to clashing and lifting of the end turns from the sup-

ports.

cycles per second and that the camshaft speed is 1200 revolu-

tions per minute, this means that resonance between this natural

236

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

frequency of the spring and the tenth harmonic of the valve lift

2*X200r

t, = = Zalr,,

equal to the valve lift, and if the alternating stress due to the

tenth harmonic of the lift curve is, for example, .002t (as found

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rr-r.+2r, (244)

the valve in the closed position, the range in stress will be from

237

DESIGN EXPEDIENTS

helpful:

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of practical importance.

CHAPTER XIV

* /

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238

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239

240

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

y}

STACKED N PARALLEL

STACKED IN SERIES

of this type.

cone height and thickness greater than about 1.3 should not

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THEORY

,See for example, Theory of Plates and ShellsS. Timoshenko, McGraw Hill,

241

shown by the dotted outline in Fig. 124c. If the ratio r/r, be-

tween outer radius and inner radius is not too large, tests show

central holes have also been made on the basis of this assump-

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and these have yielded good results when compared with those

242

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

the ratio r/ri between outer and inner radii is not over 3 (which

using this method is not over about 5 per cent, while the error in

The solution for the initially coned disk spring which fol-

out by two radial planes subtending a small angle d6, Fig. 124a,

under the action of the external load, a radial cross section ro-

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ter being the total rotation of the cross section about point O

distance from the axis of the spring between the upper and

and the angle <t> produce moments about point O which resist

becomes

3A. M. Wahl and G. Lobo, Jr."Stresses and Deflections in Flat Circular Plates

with Central Holes", Transactions A.S.M.E., 1930. A.P.M. 52-3. Also S. Tiinoshenko

"The Uniform Section Disk Spring", Transactions A.S.M.E.. 1936, Page 305. A

similar solution for radially tapered springs is given by W. A. Brecht and the writer

"The Radially Tapered Disc Spring", Transactions A.S.M.E., 1930, A.P.M. 52-4.

243

It=[cx cos(#-4>)\d9

l,-h=de[x cos(p-<t>)-cos 0|

or

It will be further assumed that the angles fi and <f> are small

<t>"

The last expression for 1cos <f> is obtained by using the cosine

h-k=d8x<t>(p - (246)

(-t)

. - V- (2>

Z, cx

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ratio. Thus the stress due only to the radial motion dr becomes

(E 1' (248)

244

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

tion 248:

EtdHtf-*) (p - ) x'dx

(1-V)(c-*)

r. -I

Etdeaf}-*)^ - -f-)r . ,

1 ir I i

set up by the rotation <f> of the element dx, Fig. 12Ab, it is neces-

Et'

D - (250)

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12(1-ms)

Et3

12(1/*-)

vature is then

2= =

cx cx

"Timoshenko, loc. eit., Part II, Page 120, gives a further discussion of plate rigidity.

Et^dx

ofA/2= (252

6rff-" (253)

fdx 2(1-m')(c-*)

Ed>y

(1-m')(c-x)

2M," = 2rfM2 = -

2 12(1-M')(c-x)

M," due only to the angular motion of the elements of the sec-

tion becomes

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M,=Aft'+M1'

or

246

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

found from the condition that the sum of all forces over the

force acting in the plane of the disk. Since the bending stresses

a" have no force resultant, only the stress a/ due to the radial

Xc-r,

o,'tdx = 0

r-r' xdx

c = (257)

fog,

. 2 r , r X

(I- ri r i -I

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Ml 2r

Solving for P,

P=^L_ (259)

(r-r,)d9

Taking

247

where

"^7[-('-T> + ']

. (263)

in Fig. 125. From Equation 263 it may be seen that the load P

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248

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

on Page 249.

from O will be the sum of the stresses a,' and a". Hence, using

will occur when xcr, and t/=t/2. Taking these values to-

"-o^K-tM (265)

where

ft'-Jfcp" (267)

The stress a., at the lower inner edge of the spring is ob-

- o^K'-t)-*'] (268)

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PRACTICAL DESIGN

249

P=C,Cr

where

c'-7i-^[(T-T)(7-i)+1]

. (2691

. (270)

The factor Cl thus depends on the ratios h/t and S/t while

- "DISC THICKNESS

and 126. The curve of Fig. 126 may be used to obtain greater

It should be noted that the curves of Figs. 122 and 126 also

ous ratios h/t between initial cone height and thickness. This is

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250

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

-20'

and for a considerable range the spring rate is very low. For

When h/t reaches a value of about 2.8 the load drops below zero

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(271)

251

*-^K-f-i)H >

If the positive sign is used before the constant C..' the stress in

the upper inner edge of the spring is obtained, while using the

thus seen that the stress is a function of r/r(, h/t and h/t.

Figs. 127 and 128. For ratios a = r/r( equal to 1.5, the curves

that within the range shown by the curves, for values of h/t

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252

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

upper inner edge where 8<2/j. For deflection 8 equal to 2h, the

upper and for 8>2/i, the tension in the lower edge becomes the

stresses at the two edges become equal, and for 8/<>2 the upper

curve yields higher values. For most practical cases where h/t

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deflection curve desired is that for h/t 1.5, Fig. 121. The

h/t1.5, this being the maximum value. Solving this for t and

From Fig. 126 for h/t=1.5, C, = 1.68 on the flat part of the

curve and from Fig. 125 for a = 2, C2=1.45. From Equation 269

P=C,CV

= 1300 lb.

253

STRESS ON

mate distribution of

constant-load type of

disk spring

STRESS ON

LOWER SURFACE

(TENSION)

.25/.134 or about 2. From Fig. 128 for 8/f=2 the factor Kt will

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pounds the thickness of the disk may be reduced about 2 per cent.

the spring may deflect %-inch before coming against the stop.

K, =12.5 for 8/<=3, h/t = 2.5. From Equation 271 on Page 250,

254

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Fig. 125 for a=2, C2 = 1.45 and from Fig. 122 the maximum

Ef

To

This load is too high since 520 pounds were desired. To get a

lower peak load, since the latter from Equation 269 increases

inch. For the same shape of curve h/t must be kept the same

from Fig. 128 for h/f=2.5 and 8/f=3.2, the factor K, is practic-

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ally the same as for 8/f=3. From Fig. 122 for 8/f=3.2, h/t=

2.5, C=1.3. Since C,=4.6 at the peak load, the load when the

pounds.

of Fig. 121 and the curve for 7i/f=1.5 of Fig. 126 such that the

the outside diameter of the spring, then the constant load P and

P=CZ)' (273)

25S

(274)

stress and on the ratio D/d or (r/r() between outer and inner

in constant - load

Belleville springs.

ness t is chosen

in accordance with

is 30x10 pounds

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curves of Figs. 130 and 131. It should be noted that the thick-

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XXVI

Spring

Thickness

Maximum

Deflection

Constant

Load

Maximum Stress

200,000

(D/d)

f 1.25

\ 1.5

D/80

D/67.4

D/63.8

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(0

(5 = 2.25<)

D/35.5

D/29.9

D/28.3

(P)

14.5 D2

18.5 D3

17.4 D2

I 2.0 to 2.5

f 1.25

1.5

D/92.5

D/77.8

D/73.7

D/41

8.15 D!

10.4 D3

9.8 D2

150,000

D/34.6

12.0 to 2.5

D/32.7

100,000

f 1.25

1.5

D/113

D/95.4

D/90.2

D/50.2

D/42.3

D/40

3.62 D3

4.62 DJ

4.35 D3

2.0 to 2.5

the springs are steel for which the modulus of elasticity E may

taking r = D/2:

D \aC

'2~\ K,E ~ K

- (275)

where

257

P= i=CD2

K>

where

.(277)

4CIC,E

X4

I2Q

III!

D=OUTSIDE DIAMETER

60L

00000

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part of the curve for h/t=1.5, Fig. 126. Using these values the

258

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

ever, the final equations are not exact and, in practice, devia-

disks have a ratio h/t of about 1.45 and show clearly the constant-

J-

11

a*

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DEFLECTION IN INCHES

of springs.

259

Laszlo' with the results of some tests carried out by Lehr and

Table XXVII

Distance from

Measured

Calculated Stress

Inner Edge

Stress

(Eq. 271)

(mm)

(lb./$q. in.>

(Ib.Isq. in.)

70,500

63,900

66,700

56,000

62,200

45,900

54,500

10

41,400

49,000

20

29,200

35,300

30

22,100

25,200

40

16,450

17,450

50

11,750

11,350

60

8,450

6,400

TO

5,630

2,520

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69,200

tion was not large. Such good agreement as Table XXVII indi-

WORKING STRESSES

Equation 271 may be used even though the yield point of the

steel from which the spring is made is only 120,000 pounds per

260

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

which may occur will redistribute the stress and allow the re-

tion which also makes for a more favorable condition. Also due

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values. Hence

. Af = (r-r.) (278)

hole in the spring, the expression for maximum stress >r becomes

GM 3 P (279)

2(r-/\)t2 a- t2

2(rr,)t76.

per square inch figured from Equation 271 and has an outside

261

t(.0297)2 'H

80,000 pounds per square inch figure is well below the tension

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residual stresses present in the usual case the range in the upper

the presetting operation, with the result that tension stresses will

262

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

of the material.

Since most initially coned disk springs are heat treated after

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CHAPTER XV

rection of load application while at the same time high loads are

linear for small deflections and concave upward for large ones.

In the latter case the spring becomes stiffer as the load increases.

section as shown in Fig. 1341. As- will be shown later the use of

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RADIALLY-TAPERED SPRINGS

ing the commutator bars together, while at the same time allow-

the v-rings or commutator bars. For this purpose, the disk spring

is well suited.

t See paper by W. A. Brecht and the author, "The Radially Tapered Disk Spring",

263

261

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

.P

and inner radii is not over 3. For stress, the agreement between

>

r,

\t

rt

A^

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(t2Kr)

method is used.

complete spring being shown in Fig. 134. Under the load P the

(c-x)de

approximately. Thus

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initial length Zl or

_ ly-U _ 2.

l, CX

angle <f> is small, i.e., if the spring deflection is small, the term

E<t,(kr)

--E<t>k

(281)

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spring.

267

dM

aydxdydd (282)

The total moment acting on the slice cut out of the disk will

M'=de J j t

(283)

M'=de

P(r-r<)

(284)

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2*

= <t>(r<,-ri) (286)

Equation 285,

p-^r[T-+Tw+v<+r<1)] (287)

-^T (288)

=C'P (289)

Eh'

where

a'+a+l

5.73 / a-1 \

and a=r/n.

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Eh'S r 1.5i2 -i ,.

P= H (292)

C'rJ L h-(a2+a + l) J

or

289

m1+d"1''m'+--f =0 (294)

dr Ar

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m2=D(^+M-^-) (296)

In these equations:

per inch

n = Poisson's ratio

t = 2*r.

Materials, 2nd Edition, Vol. 2, Page 135, Van Nostrand; also by A. NadaiKtastische

expression:

dr* r dr r3 2T*,r

6irk,(n-\)r2

where

*Vt-*

radial moments act along the edge; hence from Equation 295,

\ dr r /r-r

(+"f)-

ofa'

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6x*,(l-) (- |- + s + M)

c- ^

6xA,(l-,i) (- - -s + )

where

a,-oT*

271

The maximum stress in the plate will occur at the inner edge

6(m,)r_ri

*= (301)

Using Equations 296, 298, 299, and 300, and the derivative

stress becomes

where

Km 12-MA-B) 1-2,

and

B-(l--|--^)(a--a-W.) + (M-8-_)

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0= - dW- (304)

dr

or, integrating

w=-f<t>dr+C3

272

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

C,r(-"2+'> C,r(-"3-') P

w - ^TT-TT + Cl(305)

1 1 Gwkl(n\)r

that the deflection w is zero at the outer edge of the plate where

CV(-"!+ Cr (-'"-> P

C + : + T-. - -..(306)

.1 1 6rk,(fil)r

+ss

22

Pr2

i = C (307)

Etbs

where

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(---+,)(--)

means that for small deflections (say, less than about half the

273

most cases for diameter ratios a less than 3. However, the agree-

and K' will be over 10 per cent for values of a greater than about

1.4, the values given by the exact theory being somewhat higher

Table XXVIII

a K K' C V

1 985 .954 .0 .0

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for deflection, derived from the more exact plate theory by the

5=0" - *~ I (309)

[- 1 -

+ f2 ('++1) -

or

unity. For large deflections, the equation corrects for the effect

Equation 293.

that for a given load, outside diameter and stress the deflection

274

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

tions for heat treating and forging than disks of larger ratios.

figure the spring as though the load were applied exactly at the

spring with respect to the outer will also be reduced in the ratio

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275

0.28

Fig. 139Deflection

KP

S=C

Pr.'

Etb''

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.157- inch

sign the point of load application is Vfe-inch inside the edge as in-

dicated in Fig. 140. Thus the distance d=23A inches and rr4 =

101,000 pounds per square inch and the deflection at the points

276

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Since these deflections are much smaller than half the thick-

greatly reduced.

FT

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Fig. 141Arrangement

A = steel cylinder, B

F = cylinder, E = exten-

ance was allowed between the edges of the disk spring, the cylin-

the same time it was possible to read the extensometers while the

277

or not the load was central. For measuring deflections a dial gage

was used.

disk springs having outer diameters varying from 3.8 to 4Y* inches,

using Equations 302 and 309 (correction being made for the

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In all cases, good agreement was found between test and cal-

culated values for stress. At the lower loads for deflection in all

test and theory, due probably to the fact that the point of appli-

278

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

bOOO

4000

?3O00

2000

S 1000

(Fig. 140) became less, thus making the spring slightly stiffer

test and theory was sufficiently good for most practical purposes.

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axis and at a distance y from the middle surface of the disk will

be

(311)

an angle d6, Fig. 137a. The total moment M" will be the integral

Nostrand, 1941.

J.

JES7

Thus

f" f

cx

deE+tHog,a ,'

12

- 6P{r~ri) (312a)

TiEtHog,a

1V

6Pr,

<-t)

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PrJ

a=c'; (3i4)

where

C (315)

v log,a

mum when i/=/2 and r=r,. Using these values and the value of

(316)

280

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

where

3 a-1

K'~ (317)

7T lOgrat

cular plate symmetrically loaded, then from plate theory the fol-

dr1 r dr r- D

where

M = Poisson's ratio

For the case shown in Fig. 133 where the load P is distrib-

2xr

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<?=-

Pr / , \ C,r C2

281

\ dr r Jr.,.

unit length is

ing expressions for </> and d<t>/dr, substituting in Equation 321 the

(322)

where

a2 1

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where

cW^+^y (325)

\ a- / or21

282

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XXIX

1.2S

1.5

:j

.955

1.10

1.26

1.48

1.88

2.17

2.34

.955

1.07

1.38

1.74

2.07

2.37

.341

.519

.672

.734

.784

.704

.343

.524

.689

.773

.775

.760

Generated for David Joseph Beerer (University of California, Irvine) on 2013-11-08 18:01 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b76475

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1.18

20 25 10 35

r. _ OUTER RADIUS

* rc INNER RADIUS

* Paper on "Stresses nnd Deflections in Flat Circular Plates with Central Holes"

by G. Lobo, Jr. and the writer, Transactions ASME, 1930, A.P.M. 52-3 gives a fur-

ther discussion of flat circular plates with various loading and edge conditions.

283

LARGE DEFLECTIONS

tions are small, say, not over half the spring thickness, for rea-

269 and 270. This gives the following expression for the load P:

Et>

P=C,C, (326)

where

C,- (327)

(l-M^t \2f- J

Generated for David Joseph Beerer (University of California, Irvine) on 2013-11-08 18:01 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b76475

Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

284

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

shows how the deflection curve deviates from a straight line after

Ef-

tr-ifi- (328)

r-

where

*'-7i^(Cl'a+c0 (329)

tions 266 and 267. Values of K, are also given by the curves for

SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION

Generated for David Joseph Beerer (University of California, Irvine) on 2013-11-08 18:01 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b76475

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S/ DEFLECTION

4 "SPRING THICKNESS

285

The deflection at any other load less than the maximum load

Table XXX

Maximum

Diameter

Spring

Maximum

Load

Stress. (jm

Ratio

Thickness

Deflection

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(lb./sq. in.) (

tt = D/d)

()

(5 = 1.75()

(8 = 1.75f)

f 1.25

D/80

D/45.7

42D3

200,000 J

1.5

D/67.4

D/38.5

53.8D'

2 lo 2.5

D/63.8

D/36.4

50.5D'

1.25

D/92.5

D/52.8

23.7D'

150,000

1.5

D/77.8

D/44.4

30.1D'

2 to 2.5

D/73.7

D/42.2

28.4D'

1.25

D/113

D/64.5

10.5D:

100,000

1.5

D/95.4

D/54.5

13.4D2

2 to 2.5

U/90.2

D/51.5

12.6D2

CHAPTER XVI

riety of forms. Because of the shapes which are possible for this

the flat cantilever spring (Figs. 147 and 148) and their applica-

spring is that the end of the spring may be guided along a defi-

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road shocks, but also to carry lateral loads and, in some cases to

CANTILEVER SPRINGS

the spring built in at one end and loaded at the other, the maxi-

P/3

s=TeT(330)

286

287

T~

b,

_I

PI3

3EI

d-M2) (331)

.3, the deflection given by this equation is about 10 per cent less

than that given by Equation 350. The reason for this difference

lies in the fact that for a spring of relatively great width compared

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4A

bo ,

1;

j.

.2 .4

RAtIO ^

288

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

by2

6PI

(332)

bohT-

given later.

of the usual shape as shown in Fig. 149 may, for practical pur-

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Fig. 147. For a given load P the maximum stress is again given

depending on the ratio b/b between width at the free and built-

PP s

where

3 r1 6 / * \7 3 , *M

pends on b/bo and may be taken from the curve of Fig, 148. It

, The nominal stress is obtained by dividing the bending moment by the section

289

equal this gives the maximum deflection for a given value of load.

2P

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amount S1 the ordinary theory will hold. However, when the de-

distance from the built-in end O of the beam (Fig. 150) and 8

290

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

dx'

M-f)T

P(x.-x)

Eh

.(334)

'-'[' -f(-r)]

expression results:

dx-

P(x-x)

(335)

tions which require that at x0, y=0, and dy/dx = 0, the reduc-

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SMALL DEFLECTION

at end of spring and width at built-in edge. In Fig. 151 are given

J See Die Fcdern, by Gross and Lehr, published by V.D.I., Berlin, 1938, Page 133,

291

UI4

a.

to.?

TRIANGULAR

RECTANGULAR

! PROFILE.

EI.

and 1. This means that, for example, if c=l and the stress is

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cent less than this. For springs of rectangular profile the varia-

for the triangular profile (b/b = 0). It is clear that the correc-

considered.

292

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

PP

200X(30)JX12

= .77

EIa 30X10"X6X(M)3

6PI

boh2

However, from Fig. 151, for c=.77, b/b = .2, there is a 6V2

20

18

16

1-

-J

12

7-

+-

a.

UJ

cr

UJ

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14

TRIANGULAR

PROFILE

^ fay

R E C TANGUL AR

PROFILE

per square inch. From Fig. 148 for b/b = .2, K,=1.31 and the

PI'

"3EIa

= 10.1 inches

on the curve of Fig. 152 for c=.77 and fo/fo=.2 which indicates

293

since in this case the width b is large compared with the thickness

tion 333.

of n leaves, then from Fig. 149, b = nib1 and b=nbi- The ratio

b/b will be njn and the curves of Figs. 148, 151, and 152 may

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tice is the cantilever spring with one end rigidly built in and the

'For more complicated cases of elliptic leaf springs and those supported by links

or shackles, the reader is referred to the book by Gross and Lehr, loc. cit.

2<)l

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

12EI

36Eh

(336)

(337)

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the clamped edge. Actual test data relative to the values of such

Where the axial load P, Fig. 154 is not small compared to the

In such cases a more accurate analysis shows that the stress and

C, = -

(338)

1-

A>1-.178 (339)

* CT

3sEh

o = K! - - (340)

OP

a=c'W/" (341)

*^F\Tv -m 111 i Y-

tion )

EI r< / dy y EW

(342)

8 A more exact method is applied to the case of a simply supported beam in Theory

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296

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

higher order. The lateral force Q does the work @A8 and it may

. Q/J / i \ _ c_W_

Ql Ps

<r= A

2Z 2Z

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297

I 00

b96

z 94

5 .92

_l

9: .90

V)

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u' 86

tr

l-

w no

0 I 2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8

RATIO *

P,r EI Ij*

The curve of Fig. 156 shows that where the axial load is half

the critical buckling load, the factor C, = 2, i.e., twice as much de-

beam theory were used. On the other hand for ratios P/Pr, equal

to .5 or less, the curve of Fig. 157 indicates that the stress formula

PLATE SPRING

298

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

GENERATOR TRAMS:

/^///////////A

ZEE

ZEE

ZCH

'//)//- ^

dashed line of Fig. 159. From the beam theory, the deflection

Pl,H,

(343)

-A

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2EI

T^T^r A - -

the load at each end. For very wide springs in relation to the

6PI,

(344)

299

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av. If omax and amln are the maximum and minimum nominal

300

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

of actual test data the value of Kf may be taken equal to the theo-

but in other cases the two factors may be nearly equal. Fatigue

sections probably will be satisfactory for use until more test data

are available.

hole in a flat spring for holding the spring in place or for manu-

3.0i

<

Ld

1.8

Ld

DC

Ld

1.4

SM

all d/h-

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STRIP THICKNESS

HOLE DIAMETER

LAR

GE d/h (PF

r.i

10BA

RVE)

3LE SHAP

E OF

RATIO $

.4 .6

HOLE DIAMETER

STRIP WIDTH

1.0

center. A bolt through this hole holds the leaves together and

301

()i .

MOMENT

ratio d/w and d/h, factor is 3 compared to 1.85 for small d/w

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of ratio d/w between hole diameter and plate width. Thus where

On the other hand, for thin springs (for example, those made

Goodier7 shows that for a small hole in a wide strip under pure

a thicker plate where d/h is small. Since when the hole diam-

"Transactions ASME, Aug., 1934, Page 617, and Mechanical Engineering, Aug.,

1936, Page 485 discuss descriptions of such tests, together with theoretical stress con-

centration factors.

2 Philosophical Magazine, V. 22, 1936, Page 69. This work has also been checked

See N.A.C.A. Technical Note No. 740. Values of K( = 1.59 were found for rf/t=.145

302

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

the probable shape of this curve is that shown dashed in Fig. 161

the full lines of Fig. 163. Thus the stress range for complete re-

small hole is put into the strip, assuming that d/'w is small and

d/h large (Fig. 162) the factor K, 1.85. Since this material

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mean stress line <r and either the upper or lower full line are also

for this type of stress application has been reduced by the pres-

ence of the hole from 180,000 to 112,000 pounds per square inch

is concerned.

somewhat higher endurance limit for the strip with a hole than

the figures determined in this way, due to "size effect" for such

303

should be on the safe side for design. Also the assumption that

and polished. For the thicker sections, such as are used in leaf

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and plate springs, with the surface in the condition left by rolling

MEAN STRESS

and not ground after heat treatment on the basis of available test

Fig. 164. The upper and lower curves A and A' represent the

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305

>

)w

1]

wJ

1 r\

11

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>

306

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

thick so that the ratio d/h between notch diameter and spring

NOTCH DIAMETER

Wll

that the factor Kt would be practically the same as that for a strip

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with a hole of the same diameter d and the same width w. It is,

therefore, suggested that the lower curve of Fig. 161 may also

307

of Kt thus found for various values of the ratio r/h between mean

obvious.

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is tested in the form shown by the dashed line b in Fig. 169 which

308

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

pletely reversed bending stress for a .48 per cent carbon steel

I.61 1 1 1 - 1

:.0r

TT SPRING THICKNESS

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materials (where the surface has been ground after heat treat-

309

__y b

rn

^UNIFORM WIDTH

may be expected13.

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These are of the order of .001-inch total; to obtain say one per

t4 Machine Design, Nov., 1939, presents a more complete description of these ex-

tensometers.

"If a square element is imagined as cut out of a flat specimen under load and

if this element is imagined to be rotated until no shearing stresses act on its sides, the

The two rounded points P and P' are pressed lightly against the

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311

causing lateral slippage of the points P and P' (Fig. 171) resting

on the specimen.

the test specimen will cause a relative motion of points P and P'

tubes attached to two knife edges B and B'. These knife edges arc

held together by the spring steel strips S (Fig. 172a) which are

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at 1943 Annual A.S.M.E. meeting gives design formulas for elastic hinges. These may

312

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

tion of the specimen occurs point B' moves to say B". This causes

result is that the whole assembly pivots about the point O, and

tion takes place (about 35 in this case). Thus any relative mo-

make them stiff enough so that buckling due to the clamping load

will not occur, while at the same time sufficient flexibility must

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the U-shaped magnet shown. The flat springs D and D' allow

Fig. 173Sketch of

tensometer

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CHAPTER XVII

about the coil axis. Because of the mode of stressing such springs

typical shapes of ends for torsion springs are shown in Figs. 175

and 176. The design of spring end is made primarily from the

around a rod, one end of it being fastened to the rod while the

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314

315

as to wind the spring, then the moment tending to twist the spring

the spring and guide, the actual moment may decrease along

load them in such a way that the spring tends to wind up as the

load is applied. The reason for this is that the residual stresses

tion as to subtract from the peak stress due to the loading, pro-

vided that the load is in the same direction as that in which the

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316

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

spring, the reaction will be against the arbor and the peak bend-

spring are clamped, or if special ends are used, some stress con-

arbor or rod, about which the spring is wound, and the inner

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diameter of the spring. If this is not done, the spring may bind

or wrap around the arbor and high stresses may be set up. The

if the spring end deflects 90 degrees or V4-turn and the spring has

eter of the spring and the inside diameter of the tube. This

317

the case for circular wire. Consequently, for the same peak stress,

axis of the coil. For the usual small pitch angles, the spring may

ture (or the spring axis) and including a small angle dj>, the

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radius of the center line of the bar, V>, the mean coil diameter, is

THEORY

CENTER LINE

318

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

sumed that plane cross sections normal to the center line remain

(r.-y)d*

and the stress o> acting will be this elongation times the modulus

This equation shows that die stress distribution across the sec-

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1. The sum of the normal forces acting over a radial cross section

must be zero since no net external force (but only an external mo-

ment) acts

2. The sum of the moments of the elementary forces about the neutral

y(Ad<t>)

(346)

319

d<t>

Since

J r-

-y

ray

2A = 0

EAd* r

drJydA=

M (347).

JydA = Ae

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E(Ad<t>) M

d<t> Ae

becomes

My (348)

Ae(r-y)

where i/ = /i, and ry=ru the inside radius of the bar, Fig. 178.

maximum stress am.r at the inside of the coil, Fig. 179, becomes

Aer,

-Mh,

Aen

320

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

f'^-O (349)

Letting

/"--mA (3511

J r-y,

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J ) y, r J L ry, J r

e(l+m)A

mA = 0

or

-i--i(i+^+^-+4+..+(^y",+..)

ryi r \ r r- r3 \ r / /

for in,

1 r y&l ,M + + y, + _ ,

n y_/s r>i n \ r r1 r3 /

m = 1 1 h H h (354

A,-- rm (355)

21+m

V 2 1 + m/

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lar section,

"~bhr\ c-1 7

(356)

This gives

322

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

1/1

3c5 - 1.8

becomes

Om0z Kl

6M

where

. (357)

3c--c-.8

3c(c-l)~

distribution of stress in

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K2 drops with increase in index, since the spring bar then ap-

which means that the peak stress is about 30 per cent greater in

this case than that figured by the usual formula in which the

323

_ Mds _ \2Mds

* EI Ebh'

r \2Mds _ 12MI

where l=2wnr is the active length of the spring wire and n the

1.6

LS

I.I

'0,

(CIRCULAR

WIRE)

J. . i

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(RECTANGULAR -

WIRE)

4 6 8 10

"Comparison of the usual beam equation with more exact results calculated from

curved-bar theory shows that the difference is negligible for practical purposes. This is

analogous to helical compression springs, where the usual equation for deflection is

accurate enough for most practical purposes, although derived in an elementary way.

324

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

24irMrn

0= radians (358)

Eon3

The angular twist of the spring in degrees will be 57.3 times this

value.

24wPR-rn ,nrn

-SST-(359)

wire are more frequently used for reasons of economy. The stress

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(t-)

*m; (360)

Ae

(-!)

erm/) l-\-m),

V2l+m/

ffm0

Taking the spring index c==2r, d and A - *(/- 4 for circular wire,

(361)

325

(362)

T 4 V 2c

11

ing for m,

111

m=111

4c' 8c 16c*

For practical springs where the index c>3, this series con-

verges rapidly and two terms are sufficient for practical use. Thus

11-1(1\

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(363)

4c-

326

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

4c"c-1

g- , , (365)

4c(c 1)

ured from the usual formula for a straight circular bar, i.e., stress

Fig. 180 that the values of K, do not differ much from those of K.,

circular wire the same expression may be used as that used for

Mds G4MI

EI ird,E

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12SMrn ,. ,.,,

0 = radians (366)

Ed,

64Mrn , ,

rEd'

the end of a lever arm of radius R, Fig. 177, then M = PR and the

l28PR"rn (368)

Ed1

327

GRAVITY

/AXIS

"S NEUTRAL

1 AXIS

end of the lever arm is lV* pounds. From Fig. 180 the factor K,

for c=9.4 is 1.08. Using Equation 364 the maximum stress is,

taking M = PR,

tZ3 xX(.04)3

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xX30X10X(.04)

Table XXXI

<lb./sq. In.)

328

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

XXXI.

Plain

carbon

steels

Table XXXII

".004-.009

.010-.020

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.021-.040

.041-.060

.061-.080

.081-.100

.101-.ISO

.151-.225

.226-.400

.401-.625

Monel metal

Brass

Hard Drawn

160,000

160,000

160,000

140,000

130,000

110,000

-Kind of Wire-

Tempered

180,000

180,000

180,000

185,000

145,000

135,000

125,000

140,000

60,000

30,000

Music

280,000

270.000

240,000

220,000

210,000

200.000

185.000

165,000

wire, as indicated. Values are also given for stainless steel, monel

using Equations 357 or 364 which take into account the stress

CHAPTER XVIII

SPIRAL SPRINGS

come in contact, the analysis for the spring may be carried out

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329

330

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

indicated in Fig. 184. It also will be assumed that the spring has

M.-Pr+M, (369)

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librium,

M=P(r+y)+Mi-Rx (370)

SPIRAL SPRINGS

331

tion 370,

In this the integral is taken over the total length of the spiral.

(371)

(372

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332

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

dU dU = 0: =0

dR dM,

/'M dM ,

/"* (374)

J dM,

0 (375)

(0 376)

dM y dM

dM, r' dR X

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tion 376,

SPIRAL SPRINGS

333

the angular deflection due to this moment. Thus the angular de-

tion 372)

d>= = / ds (379)

v dM, Jo EI 6Mo'

dM y

= 1 + (380)

aAf. r

Using Equations 371 and 380 in 379 angular deflection <f> becomes

tical purposes:

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D t/o t/0

This means that the first three integrals of Equation 382 are

zero. Hence

RxHs=0

s:

184, the radial load R will be zero. For a small number of turns,

334

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

P=0 which means that the tangential force at the end A, Fig.

184, also vanishes for the condition assumed. Since R is also zero,

-tt (385)

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6M

(383)

(384)

SPIRAL SPRINGS

335

turing reasons the outer end of a spiral spring may be held with

will act at the pinned end A and the loading conditions will be

will be

M,-Pr (387)

Assuming that the coils do not touch each other, the mo-

becomes

M=P(r+y)-Rx (388)

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(389)

or

336

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Rx'ds=0 (390)

Since / x-ds is different from zero this means that the radial

force R is also equal to zero for the pin-ended case. Fig. 185.

-ir/K1+7)-**](1+7)*

M. p'/. . 2y

* EI

r ^

J r; 4

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*=1.25~ (392)

will have about 25 per cent more angular deflection than the cor-

SPIRAL SPRINGS

337

- *g Z' (~>

outer end. This means that the stress at this end will also be the

point, it may still happen that in some cases this is the limiting

will tend to reduce the stress given by Equation 393. For a more

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and the total length 15 inches. Required the stress and the de-

inch,

, bh' .5(.06)' ,

'=12- 12-=9X10'

'nrrMJ 1.25X25X15 , J.

v EI 30X10X9X10-

grees.

12M 12X25 , .

bh' .5(.06)'

338

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

occurs will be about half this or 84,000 pounds per square inch

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to move along a circular arc about O, the work done by the force

Using this and Equation 394 in Equation 375, the following ex-

pression is obtained:

dM

dR

(395)

SPIRAL SPRINGS

339

<f>, the moment M, will also move through the same angle. From

dU 1 /' 8M

%J 0

(386)

to be directed along the arc of motion of the end A, Fig. 186, this

dU

dP EI

dM

Mds

. (398)

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dp

and from this the actual value of Fig iseSpiral spring with

340

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

spring with clamped ends and a large number of turns) the ratio

IB,

14

12

sty

III 1 1 1 . . .

360 440 520 600 680 760 840 920 1000 1080

for various values of the function A=(r2 r1)/ri have been ob-

angle swept out by the radius vector in traveling from one end

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smaller when the total coil angle 6 is near 360, 720 or 1080 de-

grees, i.e. for 1, 2, or 3 full turns. This is shown by the dips in the

ber of turns if possible. From Fig. 187 it is also seen that as the

.6, the ratio M,/M is still equal to almost 1.2 which means that

maximum stress will still be almost 20 per cent higher than that

SPIRAL SPRINGS

341

(400)

J. MJ

on the total angle 6 of the spiral and on the ratio A. Values of this

51 1

^V

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y-

! k. f

3,

440

Fig. 188Stiffness factor p for spiral spring with small number of turns

and .6 and for more than two turns of the spiral this factor differs

from unity by less than 4 per cent and may usually be neg-

342

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

w 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720 800 880 960 1040

have been worked out4 as functions of the angle along the spiral

for various numbers of turns and for various values of the ratio A;

the results are plotted in Fig. 189. The ordinates represent radial

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the spring due to the external moment while \p is the angle meas-

SPIRAL SPRINGS

343

ured along the spiral from the outer end. By using these curves

The curves of Figs. 187 and 188 apply only to spiral springs

with clamped outer ends. Where the outer end is pin connected

and few turns are involved, an analysis may be carried out using

WORKING STRESSES

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clock spring during its life may be subject to less than 5000 cycles

and hence may be stressed much higher than would be the case

are present (as for example in the spiral spring for the balance

Chapter XXIII.

344

MECHANICAL SPRINCS

190. Here the spring is shown wound up on the arbor. When the

strip and h is the thickness, the total sectional area of the wound

spring will be Ih. But from Fig. 190 this is also equal to

(tt/4' (d,2d,2) assuming that the coils are wound tightly so that

cU-^^-lh+dS

(401)

turns n becomes

(402)

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2h

-Ih+df -d,

1403)

2h

will be separated by the thickness of the oil film and this will in-

SPIRAL SPRIXGS

345

(404)

equal to hi

(405)

From this

Dl = ^D,2-hl

d,' - hi

(406)

2h

-(407)

SPRING

CASE

SPRING

CASE

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ARBOR

Fig. 191Unwound

N=n-n'

4h -(D,+d,)

2h

(408)

<

with the arbor or case are neglected in this derivation the results

tion factor k less than unity. Values of this correction factor are

m (409)

In

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wide, .015-inch thick and 100 inches long. The arbor diameter

Table XXXIII

m 5 4 3 2 1.5

is %-inch and the inner diameter of the case 2V4 inches. The

I[(2.25)'-(.375)"]

m = -=2.58

.015X100

SPIRAL SPRINGS

347

the number of turns is small and the outer end is clamped the

curves given.

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CHAPTER XIX

RING SPRINGS

m Fi<is. 192 and 193. When an axial load is applied, sliding oc-

curs along the conical surfaces with the result that the inner

rings are compressed and the outer rings extended. In this man-

139 and "Characteristics of the Ring Spring", American Machinist. Feb. 14, 1924.

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348

RING SPRINGS

349

stresses.

since the ring behaves like a thick cylinder under internal or ex-

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350

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

STRESS CALCULATIONS

is shown in Fig. 194. From this it may be seen that on the com-

per inch deflection) is obtained than for the return stroke. This

is due to the friction forces on the conical faces of the rings which,

in

in

<

<

y/

//

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12 3 4 5

DEFLECTION, INCHES

RING SPRINGS

351

of friction). This latter force acts in the direction shown when the

be neglected'.

acts in the direction shown, the total radial force acting will be

tial center line of the ring will be the total radial force divided

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by InrTi, where r( is the mean radius of the ring. Hence this load

may be expressed as

2 (N cos a F sin a)

Nlcosa-psina)

p = (410)

Page 164.

352

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

N(cos a-iisma)

ac= -.

P COSa-VLSilta

Oc = ; :; (413).

irAi sina+fiCOSa

Ptana

a'=-VA~K (414)

where

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tanafa+tana)

K= (415)

1 it tan a

tion 415.

Ptana I AIRS

TrAK

RING SPRINGS

353

by Fig. 196. It should be noted that Equations 414 and 416 give

load P only.

lent stress in the outer rings, the compressive stresses due to the

P=

N- (417)

formula:

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N- "A". (418)

COS a fi Sin a

load P and stress at, Fig. 192 (which length may be obtained from

tions), then the average compression stress <' in the contact re-

gion is

N cos a

(419)

2irrb

This holds since the total area over which the force N acts is

354

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

'Jill (420)

2rmb(ltitan a)

DEFLECTION

flections of the rings must first be found. For the inner ring the

due to each inner ring will be two times the radial value acrm/E

divided by tan a. (The factor two is used since there are two

ner rings in the spring (a ring of half the full section being con-

a,-^ (421)

E tan a

i = ^^ (422)

Etana

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E tan a

Prmn / . A

wEA

sidering that in this case the direction of the friction forces F, Fig.

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where

g_to(tona-M) (426)

The ratio between the load P, (return stroke) and the load

JO. (427)

PK

Hence to find the ratio of the spring constants for the return and

ratio Kx/K for the given values of /i and a. This is true since the

given deflection.

DESIGN CALCULATION

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100000X4.58X18X2

= = 3.26 in.

tX29X10X.584X.095

RING SPRINGS

357

.095

P 100000

i 3.26

= 30,700 lb/in.

100000X.25 ,AnnM.. ,

= 143,000 lb/sq n.

tjX.584X.095

smaller than A., since it has been found from experience that

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sion. For example, draft gear springs have been designed for

000 pounds per square inch in inner rings when spring is solid".

143000X.584 .

"2X4.58X.79X.97

358

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XXXIV

Inches

1.1).

Pound*

O.D.

B.

tin

P>

3.750

3.093

1.521

2.124

.980

3.020

2.240

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.750

250

.778

1135

1420

3000

3250

3500

382

150

1630

1465

1430

.540

152

.480

.1750

-0265

.0286

i.h:,(,

.230

041

.0378

.724

.1785

.0164

.0179

1.813

1.906

4.305

1.917

2.242

1.498

1.530

3.982

1.530

1.785

.204

.0366

.0522

.0602

.1436

.0625

.0961

5000

5000

5760

60011

6800

1880

CHAPTER XX

VOLUTE SPRINGS

and relatively thin bar or blade, which has been wound to form

the blade has the shape shown in Fig. 199. After winding but

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359

-360

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

certain load. This means that beyond a certain load some of the

of the bar is frequently tapered near the inner end of the coil'.

volute springs, each element of the coil may, for practical pur-

cult to compute. Some of these stresses arise from the fact that

the resultant load P, Fig. 197 in general will not be axial as as-

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of tapering the inner end thickness sec article by B. Sterne, "Characteristics of the

Volute Spring," Journal S.A.E., June 1942, Page 221. See also paper by H. O. Fuchs,

"Notes on Secondary Stresses in Volute Springs," Transactions ASME, July 1943, Page

543; and "A Design Method for Volute Springs", Journal S.A.E., Sept. 1943, Page 317.

Results of fatigue tests arc given in article by B. Sterne, Transactions A.S.M.E., July

Vol. 1, Page 94, gives results of strain measurements and eccentricity determinations

on volute springs.

VOLUTE SPRINGS

361

spring at zero load is indicated by the line AB, a being the free

the height of the blade center line, and the abscissa the distance

from outer end A. At moderate loads before the outer end starts

ACD.

toming load) at which the outer coil just starts to bottom, the

in Fig. 201. Above this load, as the coils bottom, the spring be-

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curves upward.

tl

UJ

<

362

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

that the coil radius r at any angle 6 from the built-in outer end A

where

H= r~r<- (429)

active coils.

tangular cross section, where the long side of the section is paral-

lel to the spring axis and where the width b (Fig. 197a) is greater

6*Pr -. (430)

Gbh?

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dB 3Pr>d8

dJ = s - (431)

2t G6*(l-.63A)

to start for constant, free helix angle when the slope dS/ds at the

dS .

= tan a

()

VOLUTE SPRINGS

363

becomes

(432).

432, the initial bottoming load P, for constant free helix angle

becomes

Gbh'a^l - .63y

by 57.3).

two conditions, namely, where the loads are less than initial bot-

DEFLECTION

are less than the initial bottoming load P Equation 428 and

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3'^,^^('-^)'^'-

Gbh?

(434)

364

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

n is the number of active coils, the total deflection (for loads un-

3 s3

design of the end coils (Fig. 197). Where these latter are tapered

-2

0 2 A .6 .8 W

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read from the curve of Fig. 202. It should be noted that Equation

VOLUTE STW.VCS

365

435 will also apply for the case of a variable free helix angle pro-

sidered as composed of two parts, e.g., a part 8' (Fig. 200) due to

a part 8" due to the deflection of the free portion CD. Assum-

ing that the coils have bottomed to a radius r* and angle 6' as in-

tained:

VaGbh^l

'- f)

(437)

2irn / c' \

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r- (l--) (438)

by

\ 4irn /

^ 7Tar,

"0 (441)

mi

MECHANICAL SPR1NGS

J,' GbhHX-.&Zh/b)

-r(&+-5r-') >

using this curve and that of Fig. 202, the deflection at any load

c r. J P

. (445)

P=P2. Using Equation 445 and taking /?= (r r, )/> the final

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'-(Af-(~)''

446)

Equation 428. This also gives the difference between free and

solid height:

^jy'('--^)4,mU^('--r) (447)

VOLUTE SPRINGS

367

. (448)

Since the free and solid heights of the spring are known,

the helix angle a (in radians) may be calculated from this equa-

, = 2irnra/fi (449)

I.0

.80

.70

.60

.50

.40

.30

.25

.20

.15

.10

.07

.06

.05

.04

I-

.03

.025

if

Oi

.019

.01

.008

.007

.006

.005

.004

.0035

.003

iff

>

jy

<

1.2

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.08

1.6

1.7

1.8

368

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

to calculate P P2, 8, and 8, from Equations 433, 446, 447 and 449.

When P<P,: Where the load P is less than the initial bot-

toming load P the peak stress will occur at the maximum radius

spring with b>3h and with the long side of the rectangle paral-

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i.e., where the blade is wide compared to the thickness, the term

JP(c^l)-

2hb

When P>P1: Where the load is greater than the initial bot-

3P(c+l)

when P?P,

(450)

(452)

VOLUTE SPRINGS

30!)

this in Equation 452, the stress at any load P (for P>P,) becomes

3p(c.y^+i)

( - -4)

(453)

2hb

When final bottoming occurs, the load P = P,. Using the value

3P.(c, + l)

(' - <)

. (454)

2hb

DEFLECTION, INCHES

-200O

8000

6000

'/

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oooo

AUUU

2000

000 40000 GO

and the value of Pt given by Equation 433, the stress r2 for final

2Ga(a+l)

.(455)

370

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

.5.

free and solid heights; thus 8., = 2%-inch. From Equation 448

St 2.5

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= .0531 radians

, . ,. , 2irX4X2.5X.75

2irnr,

2X11.5X(10)X.0531X11 1L , .

(10)=

11.5X(10yX5X(.25)3X.0531X.969

1= 3(2.5)2

3X2460X21 ,L ,

2X.25X5X.969

2460

P2 - = 9840 lb

(.5)2

371

io

.6

.2

0 .2 4 .6 .8 1.0

r.

Equation 449, using the value of K, = .47 given by Fig. 202 for

The value 82 for the final bottoming load P., will be the difference

between the free and solid height, i.e., 8., = 7.5 5 = 2.5-inch.

stress curve may be plotted, since the stress will vary linearly with

load up to initial bottoming load P,. The stress at any load be-

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as given in Fig. 204 are obtained for this case. From these dia-

>>*

from the inner to the outer radius has been carried out by

aa ai r r,-

tively (Fig. 197). The relative variation of the helix angle may

(457)

6 S.A.E. Journal, Sept. 1943, Puge 317. This also discusses design of presetting

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VOLUTE SPRINGS

373

against r,'r in Fig. 205, for the various values of z. This gives an

idea of the relative variation in free helix angle with radius, for

different values of z.

deflection diagrams will be obtained for all springs with given val-

been computed by Fuchs" and are given in Figs. 206, 207, 208, 209,

and 210. On each figure curves are drawn for r jr equal to .3, .4,

i-

a,

<'

Ml

II,

I1

'/I

,"

77;

JL

(//

'ffl

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<

//'A

OEFLECTION RATIOf

^DEFLECTION RAtIOj

374

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Sh = nraaiK3 (458)

K _ 2i r \

zd-q3) , (1-z)(1-9')-

(459)

may be taken from the curve of Fig. 211 for various values of z.

where

(460)

Values of K> are plotted in Fig. 212 against <7 = r,/r. For

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VOLUTE SPRINGS

375

Fig. 211Constant K,

plotted as a function of

3_ P,(c+1)

2 hb

(462)

becomes:

2r'

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(463)

376

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

formula

Equation 433 taking a=a( and using r, instead of r,.. This gives

GbVa, / h \

p'=-3^ V ~ -63t)

(465)

Ghat ^ c.+l \

(466)

expression:

r^-ai (467)

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(7 = .515, z = .434 from Equation 457. From Fig. 211, for q .515,

11X10"X7.5X(.4)3X.060X.053X5.5

Pm _ = 6550 lb

S, = 4X3.75X.060X5.5 = 4.95

z=y* and z = ^, (Figs. 207 and 208) for q = .5 does not amount

to the peak deflection. Hence either curve may be used for con-

VOLUTE SPRINGS

377

11X10"X.4X.076

3/75"

11X10'X.4X.06

1.93

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inch.

CHAPTER XXI

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378

RUBBER SPRINGS

379

the predicted and actual behavior of such springs are the fol-

lowing:

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COMPRESSION SPRINGS

Fig. 214Compression

380

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

pected for short slabs than would be the case if dry surfaces

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Applied Mechanics, March, 1938, Page A13; and "Rubber SpringsShear Loading"

by the same author, journal of Applied Mcch., Dec., 1939, Page A159. Other articles

ASME, 1933, Page 45: "Rubber Cushioning Devices"Hirschfield and Piron, Trans-

actions ASME, Aug. 1937, Page 471; "The Mechanical Characteristics of Rubber"

F. L. Haushalter, Transactions ASME. Feb., 1939, Page 149. "Use of Rubber in Vi-

bration Isolation"E. H. Hull, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Sept. 1937, Page 109.

RUBBER SPRINGS

381

n.Eg (hfi)'

(468)

4 3 6 7 89 10 IS 20 30 40 30 60 60 100

from J. F. D. Smith

the ratio f} will be 8/4=2. From Fig. 215 the modulus of elas-

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382

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

becomes:

57X310 (1X2)"

430

V32

= 11.6%

may be constructed.

the form shown in Fig. 217 consisting of two rubber pads bonded

to steel plates are widely used for vibration isolation and machine

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-J

RUBBER

.STEEL

2AG

radians (469)

RUBBER SPRINGS

383

since in this case there are two pads si/bjected to the load P.

(To obtain the angle in degrees the value given by Equation 469

B4

I01 i i i i i i i i i i i i i

from J. F. D. Smith

h-htany (470)

Equation 469.

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384

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

as indicated by the full lines of Fig. 219, the position of the rub-

between the rubber and the steel. If the final deflection leaves

the case, and if S/h is not too great, it may be shown that Equa-

tion 471 can be used with enough accuracy for practical purposes2.

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radius r will be

dy/dr will be equal to the negative value of the shear angle. The

tive is equal to the tangent of the shear angle, using Equation 472,

8 becomes

. , r ^/l 1\ 6s / 1 1 \

1890

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386

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

. (476)

P , r

Fig. 221 the sheaf stress t will be constant and better utilization

proportional to r

for stress:

2*rh

2>r(

2ttKo 2irrf/h9

= Const (477)

t is constant in this case, the shear angle v = t/G will also be con-

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= (r-r,)tan-

-(r-,)tan(--) (478)

RUBBER SPRINGS

387

, P(r.-r,)

o ;

(479)

(480)

In this case the maximum shear stress will occur when r=r( and

is

2xi\'A

(481)

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dr tan y

(482)

where 1 is the shear angle t/G. Dividing this by r yields the ele-

tion 480,

, dr / M \

de= tan ( )

r \ 2wr'hG /

flection becomes

rr / c 1 c3 2 c* \ ,

M/11\

9= ( 1 (485

4*hG \ rr r.' J

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that the thickness h, Fig. 223 varies inversely as the square of the

h=h~ (486)

M Const (487)

the elemental ring shown shaded in Fig. 223b will be, as before,

dr tan y

d8= -

or

de= tan ( J

9-[to..Gd!b)H^ (488)

(a) (b)

Mlog,

(489)

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390

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

M 10000 , .

rm = = = 80 lb/sq in.

ity is 125 pounds per square inch. Using the first term of the

10003

4,r(5)(125)

If the spring were of the constant stress type (Fig. 223) with

hi=5 inches, 7i=2.22 inches from Equation 487 the stress is the

moment is

10000X.405

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2tX4X5X125

Equation 489 .

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

RUBBER SPRINGS

891

These values agree roughly with those of Keys4 who states that

of a flat shear spring, Fig. 217, at 50 pounds per square inch shear

shear angle in 100 days. Other tests on 1-inch thick rubber sand-

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392

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

1. Steady-state vibration.

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ing support, (as shown on Fig. 117 of Chapter XIII). This is the

cal VibrationsJ. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, Second Edition 1940, and Vibration

a more comprehensive discussion of rubber mountings for aircraft and military equip-

ment.

RUBBER SPRINGS

393

tion for the relative motion y between the mass and the support

T^s^-rio'"" . .

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where a>2=k/m

y+a sin iat or using Equation 492 for y and taking <,>/<=///n

(490)

(492)

a, sin at

(493)

394

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

does not apply since in such cases the effect of damping (which

seen that the amplitude of motion of the mass has been reduced

the mass is subjected will also be reduced in the same ratio. Thus

The chart of Fig. 224, based on Equations 490 and 493, and

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RUBBER SPRINGS

395

disturbing frequency is, say, 800 cycles per minute and the static

pected.

the chart of Fig. 224 are based on the assumption that damping

ever, for best accuracy, damping must be taken into account. The

tions in the usual way6. Actual tests, however, show that the in-

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396

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

P,=

P.

(494)

This equation shows that the reduction in vibration for the no-

to .08 have been observed but this may vary considerably for dif-

stant damping ratio c/cc. This curve also indicates that, for con-

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this statement does not hold true in all cases particularly where

/// equal to 1.6 and higher have been used in tank and aircraft

(495)

RUBBER SPRINGS

397

//

V1

V|

|/

//

III

1 CUIrt

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//

'INDlCA

TO V

"\

OK \

ftllT

fi

IWK1

DAMPING

AHIMIU

MS

vs

J, 1

l\

\N

1.0

VT

so

tudes and to design the mountings so that the motion across the

398

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

methods.

the effective stiffness also increases and with it the natural fre-

quency. This will tend to throw the system out of resonance and

load.

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that excessive stresses in the rubber are avoided under the anti-

CHAPTER XXII

since in most cases, load and deflection are given, which means

that the spring must store a given amount of energy. This is the

case, for example, in the design of landing gear springs for air-

ous types of springs, such as helical, leaf, cantilever, etc., from the

rial, assuming a given maximum stress. This will give the de-

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load P at its end1. Since the bar is loaded axially, the stress dis-

tribution across the section is uniform and for this reason this

the length and A the cross-section area, the stress a will be P/A.

The energy stored will be equal to the area under the load-deflec-

1 This will be called a "tension-bar" spring to distinguish it from the helical ten-

399

400

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

17=

2E 2E

a similar analysis shows that for variable loads the energy stored

u."5e%> (497)

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CANTILEVER SPRINGS

ness (Fig. 147, Chapter XVI). For small deflections, the deflec-

tion from beam theory is, using the notation of Chapter XVI,

=W;(498)

ENERGY-STORAGE CAPACITY

401

6Pi obh>

~l*rmP- 5 (499)

1 2PVJ

u-irPs--m (500)

Using Equation 499 in this, and taking the volume V of the ma-

r5V

U= IBE(501)

when the stress is just equal to the yield stress o- will be, from

Equation 501,

"-w (502)

is only 1/9 the value of energy which may be stored in the ideal

to the yield point, the cantilever spring will still have a consider-

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able margin before general yielding over the cross section occurs.

one as shown later. Since the tension-bar spring does not have

ing complete yielding over the section at the built-in end of the

over the cross section for complete yielding. This means that,

yield stress o-, while on the compression side, the stress3 is equal

a Actually, for most spring steels the stress will tend to rise after the yield point

402

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

(503)

This is one-fourth the value for the ideal case. (Equation 496).

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be only 1/9 that of the latter1. The reason for "this may be found

this respect, the cantilever spring still finds a field of use particu-

(504)

U.-

(505)

18Kf'E

ENERGY-STORAGE CAPACITY

403

6Pl3

sEb;hT (506)

1 3P"-P

U Pi (507)

2 Eboh'

Using Equation 506 in Equation 507 and taking the volume V==

u-He (508)

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(509)

ideal spring at the yield point, Equation 496. For complete yield-

ing over the section of the spring, the load will be about 50 per

cent above the value given by Equation 509 and for this condi-

U> (510)

a.'V

6M

bh2

(w>

24irMm

*=n^-rad,ans

comes

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the moment and the angle. Using this equation the energy be-

1 l2*M2rn

2 * Ebh?

u= bek7 (513)

ENERGY-STORAGE CAPACITY

405

will then be

be

is higher than the curvature factor K2, Fig. 180, the former should

32M

u = Ar

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irtP

From this

"=32*7 (516)

128Afrn

*~ Ed,

tt 1 64M2rn

Um --M*=--- (517)

406

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

<72V

u-1kJe- (518)

stress reaches the yield point <tv is, neglecting the curvature factor

Kt as before,

yielding,

u-im (520)

ideal spring.

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u-~i0E (521)

Assuming the same value of Kf for both cases. Equation 521 thus

SPIRAL SPRINGS

tangular wire, provided that the ends are clamped and that there

Pr=Mt

16M,

T=

TCP

TCP

M, = r (522)

I under a torque Mt is

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32MJ

<t>=

Td'G

1 16M.H

t'V

408

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

4G

(524)

G=

2(1+m)

Using these values in Equation 524, for static loading the energy

and that for complete yielding over the section. This margin

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the basis of Equations 519 and 526 is probably too favorable for

tion of the round bar (as would occur after complete yielding

Comparing this with Equation 522 this means that, for com-

plete yielding, the moment is equal to 4/3 times the value when

(525)

V3

"**-t(-it-)

(527)

the stress in the outer fiber just reaches the yield point in torsion.

u-TiE (528)

This value is only about 23 per cent lower than the stored

energy in the ideal case and shows that the helical compression

limit in torsion, from Equation 523 the energy stored thus be-

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comes

"-w (529)

pression is obtained:

U"^K? (530)

410

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Equation 7) is

64PHn

Gd,

"-i"-^ <->

Equation 89

16Pr

or

P. "d3"

16rK.

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with the exception of the factor K0. Again taking t, equal to the

equation becomes

4.62K.'E

To get the energy storage for complete yielding over the sec-

j Chapters V and VI give a more complete discussion of helical springs under static

ENERGY-STORAGE CAPACITY

411

t/.=

(534)

2.6 K.'E

From Equations 533 and 535 it is seen that the larger the

spring index, the larger the energy storage per unit volume of

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section, it appears that the ideal spring is not a great deal more

efficient than other types. Thus, for example on this basis (from

torsion all have about 75 per cent of the capacity of the ideal

K, = l.l and from the last column of Table XXXV, the energy-

(535)

4.62K2

412

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

are assumed, the ideal spring is far more efficient than the other

Table XXXV

Torsion

Spring

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Energy stored at first or complete yielding (static loads) for ideal case a 2V/2E-

Energy stored at endurance limit (variable loads) for ideal case ce* V/2JS.

t Values of fatigue strength reduction factors Kf in this row will vary among the

siderably and for this reason the figures given should be consid-

types.

CHAPTER XXIII

SPRING MATERIALS

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1 Static and endurance properties of helical springs were discussed in Chapter IV.

'Article by C. T. Eakin, Iron Age, August 16, 1934, Page 18, "Mechanical

Springs", published by Wallace Barnes Co., 1944, and "Manual on Design and Ap-

plication of Helical and Spiral Springs for Ordnance", published by SA.E. War En-

413

414

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Table XXXVI

ASTM

Material

Music wire

Oil-tempered

over A

(camp. A

wire

dia.

Oil-tempered wire

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under A dia.

(comp. B). . . .

Hard-drawn spring

Hot-wound carbon

steel he 1 i c a 1

springs"

Chrome -vanadium

Speci-

Man-

Phos-

Sul-

fication

Carbon

ganese phorus

phur

Silicon

(max.

(max.

(%)

(%)

%>

%)

(%)

A228-41

.70 to

.20 to

.03

.03

.12 to

.60

.30

A229-41

.55 to

.80 to

.045

.050

.10 to

.75

1.20

.30

A229-41

.55 to

.60 to

.045

.050

.10 to

.75

.90

SPRING MATERIALS

415

the basis of these data, the endurance diagram of Fig. 226 has

been drawn up. This represents what may be expected for good

inch. Again, it may be seen that for ground and polished speci-

than for the others. Higher values may also be expected for high-

lower'1 than those shown in Fig. 226. This is shown by the tests

Table, the limiting range of stress in the master leaf of the spring

was only about 30,000 to 40,000 pounds per square inch. For

Table XXXVII

Ultimate

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Elastic

Modulus

Elongation

Modulus

tensile

limit in

of

of

Material

strength

tension

elasticity

2 inches

Rigidity"

Hard-drawn spring

(Ib./sq. in.)

(Ib./sq. in.)

(lb./sq. in.)

<%)

(Ib./sq. in.)

wire

160.000 to

60%

30 x 10"

11.4 x 10"

Oil-tempered spring

310,000t

of T.S.t

wire

170 000 to

310,000t

70 to 853

of T.S.

30 x 10"

11.4 x 10"

Music wire

255,000 to

440,000t

60 to 75r;

of T.S.

30 x 10"

11.5x10"

Annealed, high-

carbon wire

250,000 to

200.000 to

416

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

160000, , 1 1 1

u 1200001 1 1 1 1

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SPRING MATERIALS

417

the upper and lower curves of Fig. 227. As will be seen from these

Table XXXVIII

Elonga- Endur-

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curves the tensile strength of music wire may vary from 255,000

pounds per square inch for the larger wire sizes to 440,000 pounds

per square inch for the smaller. The carbon content of this ma-

terial usually will vary with the wire size, the smaller sizes hav-

range within .1 per cent in carbon content for a given wire size.

Usually music wire is not used for springs larger than about %-

special order.

stresses. This bluing treatment may call for heating the springs

the larger sizes and for 15 to 30 minutes for the smaller sizes.

6c

Il I

VI

11

In

0" .

da

: 23

II

.07

0- .

del

II

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MECHANICAL SPRINGS

>- gg

O o

3 *-

S3

II

111

: U Eg

Sin SH

3;.

.2 -J

II

Jll

r-'r

ce ,e

. g_

SS

3 ft

SPRING MATERIALS

419

can steels are being used to make this material with satisfactory

440000/

01 02 03 04 OS 06 07 08 09 10 II J2 .13 J4 15 16

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fications are plotted against wire size in Fig. 228. Further limita-

of not more than 30,000 pounds per square inch in a single lot in

sizes below .120-inch, and not more than 25,000 pounds per

tensile strengths of this wire are somewhat below the values for

r>

a:

i/1

>-

F>

"8

Table XL

(Round Specimens)

Endurance

Limit in

Reve nasi

Bending

Investi-

gator

HankitLs1

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Hankins0

Shelton, Swanger"

Weibel-

Johnson4

Elongation

Par Cent

0 000

* 200

* 0600

+ 02600

* 2">00~)

-2000

0 000

0 200

* 8000

2000

=2800

0"

0*

40.5,

2.-}

2.-J

408

0|

Yield

Point

(Tension)

lb./on. In.

06200

42800

020

020

0000

0200

2200

42400

UK.

Strength

1 Tension)

lb.,sq. in.

0000

0702

220

2200

200000

2000

2002

0000

SPRING MATERIALS

421

wire are usually wound cold and then given a thermal treatment

g 320000

#300000

IS 20 25

that the carbon in any one lot of material shall not vary by more

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than .20 per cent and the manganese by not more than .30 per

cent. Usually the higher carbon contents are used for the larger

sizes.

strength in a single lot shall not vary more than 40,000 pounds

per square inch for sizes below .072-inch, nor by more than 30,-

000 pounds per square inch for sizes above .072-inch. Winding is

422

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

such as, for example, in torsion springs with certain shapes of end

Table XLI

bid. Lis*

TNcknta

of

*>

III

Condition

Surtae

CtSti)

./*, In.

ML

Rant* at

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5Shai*

fc./a*.1n.

.6% Commercial

Carbon Spring

Steel

Hardened and

A. Heed.

350-370

0 to

itatson and

Tempered

42000

Bradley

. o% Commercial

Carbon Spring

Steel

Hardened and

.062 inch

machined

from surface

after hen I

treatment

350-370

0 to

128000

a*

Silico-

o.y. 900-c

T. 540C

As Heed.

390-400

0 to

63000

Manganeac

Steel

Silico-

O.Q. 9000C

T. 540*C

.062 inch

machined

from surface

0 to

110000

Mnnganesc

SPRING MATERIALS

-123

cases, the springs may be wound hot from either carbon or alloy-

steel bars and then heat-treated. For carbon steel bars, the com-

Table XLII

Limiting

Found by Batson and Bradlev, Dept. of Sci. & Ind. Research (British) Special

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5 In master leaf.

Stress concentration effects act to reduce strength. These are due to clamps used

Fahr. in a salt bath. This will give a hardness around 375 to 425

on Table XXXVII.

concerned.

424

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

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ing and may vary from 160,000 to 320,000 pounds per square

Springs of 18-8 stainless steel wire are wound cold and may

750 degrees Fahr. for 15 minutes to an hour, the shorter time be-

Carbon, max

Chromium

Nickel

.15%

16.00-20.00$

8.00-12.00%

26%

SPRING MATERIALS

425

about 2 per cent beryllium and the rest copper together with

Table XLIII

Ultimate

Wire Size

Tensile Streng

(to.)

(lb/sq in.)

.0104

320,000

.0135

313,000

.0173

306,000

.0258

.0410

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288,000

269,000

.0625

251,000

.0915

234,000

.1480

207,000

.207

185,000

.263

171,000

.307

162,000

quenched from 1475 degrees Fahr. and then cold drawn to in-

XXXVIII.

copper and 30 per cent zinc which is cold rolled to give it high

Copper 29 per cent; nickel 66 per cent; aluminum 2.75 per cent.

cold drawn. After winding, springs are given a final heat treat-

1942, and "New Alloys for Springs," Product Engineering, June 1938, give additional

426

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

per cent nickel, this material also has good mechanical proper-

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things being equal, this means that the glass spring will usually

the spring so that stresses may be kept to low values, this ma-

"Article by Betty, et a!.. Transactions ASME, July 1942, Page 465 gives data

7 Article by Colin Carmiehael, Machine Design, August 1942, Page 85, gives fur-

ther details on the use of ulas, as well as article bv T. J. Thompson, Product Engineer-

INDEX

Composition 414

Angular deflection

Composition 414

Description 422

Belleville springs

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Theory 240

Theory 169

Simple 286

storage capacity)

Composition 414

Charts

Helical springs

428

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

cal springs)

Constant-load springs

Belleville 254

Disk 254

Fatigue tests 22

cies 224

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Creep

Correction factor

springs 99

Damping

Decarburization

Deflection

loading 295

Deflection (continued)

Ordinary formula 29

act theory 48

Charts 217

INDEX

429

Dimensions

Effect of variations in 23

lus of rigidity 82

ville springs)

Constant-thickness type

stresses 285

Radially-tapered type

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Tests 162

springs 183

Deflection 196

Shape 198

Stress in 193

Types 198

ance limits)

Elliptical law 16

Simplification of 15

Straight-line law 15

Endurance limits

430

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Functions of springs , 2

Glass springs

426

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Composition 414

Manufacture 421

Advantages 25

Buckling 169

Charts

Cold-setting 167

Combined stress

Shear-energy theory 45

Maximum-shear theory 44

Deflection

Elementary theory 29

Exact theory 47

Ordinary formula 29

Small index 48

Heat-treatment 423

Natural frequency

INDEX

431

Stress

Charts 214

Deflection

Charts 217

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Stress

Charts 214

due to 300

Composition 414

Heat-treatment 423

Manufacture 423

Composition 414

Index, spring

Effect on deflection

Round-wire springs 48

Effect on stress

ville springs)

Large deflections

432

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

Modulus of rigidity

Effect of decarburization 77

Overstraining, effect of 76

Phosphor bronze 85

Temperature coefficient of 80

Temperature effects 79

termination 83

Music wire

Composition 414

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Manufacture 416

Physical properties

In bending 420

In torsion 418

Presetting

ment 224

Calculation 230

bon steel 17

Pulsating load 17

Oil-tempered wire

Composition 414

Manufacture 419

Deflection 56, 62

Stress 51, 66

INDEX

433

Rubber springs

Advantages 378

Deflection 381

Damping 395

Shear spring

Simple 382

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gravity 398

Scale springs 2

Helical springs 91

Size of shot 92

intensity 92

Temperature effect 94

Spiral springs

Stress 334

Few turns

Many turns

Spring ends

Spring materials

Composition 414

434

MECHANICAL SPRINGS

352

Stress (continued)

Ring springs

Rubber springs

Shear 382

334, 337

Static component of 12

Volute spring

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Stress concentration

Notched bars 17

300, 306

Stress concentration

Flat springs

Clamped ends

Due to holes

Due to notches

urements )

Stress cycles

Constant amplitude 12

Few 18, 94

Variable amplitude 13

reducing 226

Surface decarburization

Belleville springs

299

307

300

306

120

125

236

237

233

15

262

Tension springs

INDEX

435

Valve springs

226, 237

Valve-spring wire

Definition 12

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ance range) 10

range) 12

Variations in dimensions

Vibration

Volute springs

wire, etc.)

Working stresses

ticity)

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1 64 04 3 ... 10

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U. C. BERKELEY LIBRARIES

C077D73517

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