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# A Short Note on Expanding Functions as Outer Infinite Compositions

John Gill

April 2015

Suppose a complex function can be expanded as an infinite composition in the following way:
(1) F ( z ) = lim ( f1  f2  fn ( z )) .
n

(See [1])

## And suppose the inverses of the f k ( z ) exist: gk ( z ) = f k1 ( z ) .

Then, under suitable restrictions
(2) G( z ) = F 1 ( z ) = lim ( gn  gn1  g1 ( z )) , outer or left compositions.
n

Conditions for convergence of (1) include the following variation on theorems in [2]
Theorem 1 (Gill 2015) Suppose functions {f n (z)} are analytic in S0 = ( z < R 0 ) and

## f n (z) z Cn , 0 < = C k < R 0 < in S0 . Then there exists R such that

k =1

z < R < R + = R < R 0 and lim ( f1  f 2  f n (z) ) = F(z) for z < R . Convergence is uniform
*

on compact subsets.
Sketch of Proof: Set Fn ,n+m ( z ) = fn  fn+1  fn+m ( z ) . Then it is easily determined that
Fn ,n+m ( z ) < R + = R * . Now write fn ( z ) = z + n ( z ) , n ( z ) < C n . Set r = R0 R * and use the
C
Cauchy Integral Formula to estimate the magnitude of n( z ) : n( z ) n . Therefore
r
C
C

fn ( z ) fn ( ) z + n ( z ) n ( ) < z + n z = z 1 + n by the
r
r

n
C

## Fundamental Theorem. Then F1,n ( z ) F1,n ( ) < z 1 + k and

r
k =1
n
C

F1,n ( z ) F1,n+m ( z ) = F1,n ( z ) F1,n ( fn+1  fn+m ( z )) < z fn+1  fn+m ( z ) 1 + k
r
k =1
m 1

k =1

k =1

Where fn+1  fn+m ( z ) z fn+ k (Fn+ k +1,n+m ( z )) Fn+ k +1,n+ m ( z ) + fn+ m ( z ) z < C n+ k

Thus

r
k =1
k =1

||

## f n (z) z Cn f n (z) = z + n (z) , n (z) Cn , and

z = g n (f n (z)) = g n (z + n (z)) = g n () = n (z) g n () < Cn
And the following

< and

k=1

1

## The following are simple topographical images.

Example 1 :

F(z)

fn ( z ) =

z
1 + n z

, gn ( z ) = fn1 ( z ) =

z
1
, n = 2
1 n z
n

G(z)

-10<x,y<10 n=40

Example 2 : fn ( z ) = z + n z 2 , gn ( z ) =

2z
1 + 1 + 4 n z

F(z)

, n =

1
n2

, n =

1
4n

-10<x,y<10 n=40

G(z)

Example 3 : fn ( z ) = z + n z 2 , gn ( z ) =

F(z)

2z
1 + 1 + 4 n z

G(z)

-10<x,y<10 n=40

## Example 4: Sin( z ): fn ( z ) = z 1 4n z 2 , ArcSin( z ): gn ( z ) =

Sin(z)

Example 5 : Tan( z ): fn ( z ) =

F(z) -15<x,y<15

2z 2
1 + 1 41n z 2

-10<x,y<10 n=40

ArcSin(z)

z
2z
, ArcTan( z ): gn ( z ) =
n 2
14 z
1 + 1 + 4 n z 2

G(z) -2<x,y<2

n=40

Example 6: fn ( z ) = z + n

z2
2z
1
, gn ( z ) =
, n = 2 n=40
2
1+ z
n
z + 2(1 + 2n )z + 1 + 1 z

F(z) -2<x,y<2
Example 7 :

F(z) -4<x,y<4

F(z) enlarged
fn ( z ) = z +

n
z

, gn ( z ) =

G(z) -3<x<10

z + z 2 4 n
1
, n = n
2
2

G(z)

n=40

## Re(z)<0 iterates to zero.

z2
Example 8 : e 1 : fn ( z ) = z + n+1
2
z

F(z)

, Ln(1 + z ): gn ( z ) =

-8<x,y<8

2z
1+ 1+4

( )z

n=40

n+1

G(z)

[1] J. Gill, A Note on Expanding Functions into Infinite Compositions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XX (2014)
[2] J. Gill, Convergence of infinite compositions of complex functions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XIX (2012)