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Most functions when expanded as infinite compositions employ inner or left compositions. However, once these expansions are accomplished it is sometimes possible to expand the inverse function as an outer or left expansion.

Most functions when expanded as infinite compositions employ inner or left compositions. However, once these expansions are accomplished it is sometimes possible to expand the inverse function as an outer or left expansion.

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John Gill

April 2015

Suppose a complex function can be expanded as an infinite composition in the following way:

(1) F ( z ) = lim ( f1 f2 fn ( z )) .

n

(See [1])

Then, under suitable restrictions

(2) G( z ) = F 1 ( z ) = lim ( gn gn1 g1 ( z )) , outer or left compositions.

n

Conditions for convergence of (1) include the following variation on theorems in [2]

Theorem 1 (Gill 2015) Suppose functions {f n (z)} are analytic in S0 = ( z < R 0 ) and

k =1

z < R < R + = R < R 0 and lim ( f1 f 2 f n (z) ) = F(z) for z < R . Convergence is uniform

*

on compact subsets.

Sketch of Proof: Set Fn ,n+m ( z ) = fn fn+1 fn+m ( z ) . Then it is easily determined that

Fn ,n+m ( z ) < R + = R * . Now write fn ( z ) = z + n ( z ) , n ( z ) < C n . Set r = R0 R * and use the

C

Cauchy Integral Formula to estimate the magnitude of n( z ) : n( z ) n . Therefore

r

C

C

fn ( z ) fn ( ) z + n ( z ) n ( ) < z + n z = z 1 + n by the

r

r

n

C

r

k =1

n

C

F1,n ( z ) F1,n+m ( z ) = F1,n ( z ) F1,n ( fn+1 fn+m ( z )) < z fn+1 fn+m ( z ) 1 + k

r

k =1

m 1

k =1

k =1

Where fn+1 fn+m ( z ) z fn+ k (Fn+ k +1,n+m ( z )) Fn+ k +1,n+ m ( z ) + fn+ m ( z ) z < C n+ k

Thus

r

k =1

k =1

||

z = g n (f n (z)) = g n (z + n (z)) = g n () = n (z) g n () < Cn

And the following

< and

k=1

1

Example 1 :

F(z)

fn ( z ) =

z

1 + n z

, gn ( z ) = fn1 ( z ) =

z

1

, n = 2

1 n z

n

G(z)

-10<x,y<10 n=40

Example 2 : fn ( z ) = z + n z 2 , gn ( z ) =

2z

1 + 1 + 4 n z

F(z)

, n =

1

n2

, n =

1

4n

-10<x,y<10 n=40

G(z)

Example 3 : fn ( z ) = z + n z 2 , gn ( z ) =

F(z)

2z

1 + 1 + 4 n z

G(z)

-10<x,y<10 n=40

Sin(z)

Example 5 : Tan( z ): fn ( z ) =

F(z) -15<x,y<15

2z 2

1 + 1 41n z 2

-10<x,y<10 n=40

ArcSin(z)

z

2z

, ArcTan( z ): gn ( z ) =

n 2

14 z

1 + 1 + 4 n z 2

G(z) -2<x,y<2

n=40

Example 6: fn ( z ) = z + n

z2

2z

1

, gn ( z ) =

, n = 2 n=40

2

1+ z

n

z + 2(1 + 2n )z + 1 + 1 z

F(z) -2<x,y<2

Example 7 :

F(z) -4<x,y<4

F(z) enlarged

fn ( z ) = z +

n

z

, gn ( z ) =

G(z) -3<x<10

z + z 2 4 n

1

, n = n

2

2

G(z)

n=40

z2

Example 8 : e 1 : fn ( z ) = z + n+1

2

z

F(z)

, Ln(1 + z ): gn ( z ) =

-8<x,y<8

2z

1+ 1+4

( )z

n=40

n+1

G(z)

[1] J. Gill, A Note on Expanding Functions into Infinite Compositions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XX (2014)

[2] J. Gill, Convergence of infinite compositions of complex functions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XIX (2012)

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