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An Elementary Note: Operations on Contours in the Complex Plane

John Gill

March 2015

l. Algebra of Contours (See [1])


Zeno (or equivalent parametric) contours are defined algorithmically as a distribution of points
n

lim {zk ,n }k =0 by the iterative procedure: zk ,n = z k 1,n + k ,n ( z k 1,n , kn ) which arises from the
n

following composition structure:

G( z ) = lim Gn ,n( z ) , Gk ,n( z ) = gk ,n (Gk 1,n( z )) , gk ,n( z ) = z + k ,n ( z , kn ) , G1,n ( z ) = g1,n( z ) .


n

1
, providing a partition of the unit time interval. ( z ) is the continuous arc
n
from z to G( z ) that results as n (Eulers Method is a special case of a Zeno contour).

Usually k ,n =

When ( z , t ) is well-behaved an equivalent closed form of the contours , z(t ) , has the
dz
= ( z , t ) , with vector field f ( z , t ) = ( z , t ) + z . Siamese contours are streamlines
dt
or pathlines joined at their origin and arising from different vector fields. It will be assumed in
most of what follows that all contours in a particular discussion have identical initial points.

property

Contours will be abbreviated, using the iterative algorithm, as


: z k ,n = zk 1,n + k ,n( zk 1,n , kn ) = zk 1,n + k ,n ( f ( z k 1,n , kn ) zk 1,n )

Or

dz
= ( z , t )
dt

A parametric form of ( z ) : z = z(t ) , exists when the equation

dz
= ( z , t ) admits a closed
dt

solution. For example : z(t ) = z0et +2it ( z , t ) = z(1 + 4it ) .

A Contour Sum = 1 2 is defined as follows: :


For

1 :

dz
= 1( z , t )
dt

and

2 :

dz
= ( z , t ) = 1 ( z , t ) + 2( z , t )
dt

dz
= 2 ( z , t )
dt

And a Scalar Product:


= 1 :

dz
= 1 ( z , t ) ,
dt

Combined to show a distributive feature:

=  ( 1 2 ) = (  1 ) (  2 ) :

dz
= (1 ( z , t ) + 2( z , t )) = 1 ( z , t ) + 2 ( z , t )
dt

A Contour Product is defined: = 1 2 :

dz
= 1( z , t ) 2( z , t ) , from which one derives
dt

= (  1 ) 2 = (  2 ) 1

Define Contour Composition: = 1  2 : zk +1,n = zk ,n + k ,n 1(2( z , t ), t ) or

dz
= 1  2
dt

A norm of a contour in a z0 - based space can be formulated as = Sup ( z0 , t ) ,


t[0,1]

giving rise to a metric:

d ( 1 , 2 ) = 1 2


= 1 ( 1) 2 .

ll. Operations on Contours


Set I :

dz
= 1 , the identity contour z(t ) = z0 + t .
dt

Define a linear operator

T ( ) = :

dz
= ( z , t )
dt

so that



T ( 1 2 ) = T ( 1 )T ( 2 )

If we assume ( z ) is analytic the following are linear operators as well:

and

dz
= ( z )
dt

D :

dz
= Dz( z )
dt

(in the sense of antiderivative)

Example 1 : :

dz
= Cos( z )
dt

Contour exponentiation:
Example 2 :

dz
= Sin( z ) . z = .5 + 3i , green, red.
dt

dz
dz
= ( z ) :
= ( z )
dt
dt

dz
dz
= z 2 1+i :
= z 2(1+ i ) , z0 = 1.5 1.5i
dt
dt

Orthogonality of contours: :

dz
dz
= i( z ) *
= ( z ) , * :
dt
dt

Example 3 :

dz
= = xCos( x + y ) + iySin( x y )
dt

Consider a contour : zk ,n = zk 1,n + k ,n1 ( zk 1,n ) , and a second function 2 ( z ) .


Define an Integration Operator
n

k =1

k =1

2 : k ,n = k 1,n + k ,n2( zk 1,n )1( zk 1,n ) . Then

n ,n 0,n = ( k ,n k 1,n ) = 2 ( zk 1,n )( zk ,n zk 1,n )

( z )dz = ( z(t )) ( z(t ))dt


2

(z)

The result: The integral of the second function along the contour described by the first.
This is analogous to

dz
= 1 ( z ) and
dt

d
= 2( z ) 1 ( z )
dt


A more complete description can be found in [2]. The vector n ,n 0,n provides a graphical depiction of this
integral.

Define a Composition Operator

2  : k ,n = k 1,n + k ,n2  1 ( zk 1,n ) .

An argument similar to the previous leads to


n

k =1

n ,n 0,n = 2( zk ,n / k ,n ) k ,n 2(dz / dt ) dt = 2(1 ( z(t )))dt .

Analogous to

dz
= 1 ( z ) and
dt

d
= 2(1 ( z ))
dt

Define a Contour Mixing Operation

M ( 1 , 2 ) : zk ,n = zk 1,n + n1 ( k 1,n ) and k ,n = k 1,n + n2( zk 1,n ) ,


analogous to the system
dz
d
= 1 ( ) and
= 2 ( z ) , z = x + iy , = + i
dt
dt

Example 4 :

dz
= ( Sin( + ) + Cos( )) + i ( Cos( + ) Sin( )) and
dt
1

d
= xCos( y ) + iySin( x ) , M ( ) = z( , t ) ( , t )dt , = z(0) = (0)
dt
0
Topographical image of the -plane:

Further mixing of contours:

1 : zk ,n = zk 1,n + n1 ( zk 1,n ) and 2 : k ,n = k 1,n + n2( zk 1,n ) k 1,n


Expanding 2 two different ways:
1 n
1 n
(1) n ,n = 0 + 2 ( zk 1,n ) k 1,n = 0 + 2 ( z( k n1 )) ( k n1 )
n k =1
n k =1

k =1
n

(2)

1
n

n ,n = 0 1 + 2 ( z( k n1 ))

Using the notation of virtual integral, (1) becomes


1

n ,n 0 + 2( z , t ) (t )dt
0

And simple manipulations produce the following form of (2)


1

n ,n  0e

2 ( z ,t )dt
0

Combined, these two expressions give


2 ( ,t )dt

0
( ) = 2( , t ) (t )dt  e
1

Observe that the contour along which integrals are evaluated is 1 .


This is analogous to
t

2 ( z ( t ))dt

d (t )
dz
= 2 ( z(t )) (t ) ,
= 1 ( z ) (t ) = 0e 0
dt
dt

Recall, under ideal conditions: ( , t ) = ( z(t )) , = z(0) .

A general scenario:

d
dz
= 2 ( z , ) ,
= 1 ( z )
dt
dt

Example 5a :

1 =

1 2
z , 2 = xCos( x + y ) + iySin( x y ) , - plane
10
1

( ) = exp 2 ( , t )dt ,

dz
= 1 ( z ) , z0 =
dt

d
dz
Example 5b :
= 2( z(t )) ,
= 1 ( z ) ( ) = 2 ( , t )dt , 2( , t ) = 2( z(t ))
dt
dt
0

[1] J. Gill, A Space of Siamese Contours in Time-dependent Complex Vector Fields, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XX (2014)
[2] J. Gill, A Note on Integrals & Hybrid Contours in the Complex Plane, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XX (2014)