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A lecture regarding modern digital modulation techniques

A lecture regarding modern digital modulation techniques

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Introduction

In a digital communication system, the source to be

transmitted is discrete both in time and amplitude

Digital information carrying signals must be first converted

to an analog waveform prior to transmission

At the receiving end, analog signals are converted back to a

digital format before presentation to the end user

The conversion process at the transmitting end is known as

modulation

The receiving end is known as demodulation or detection

EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission

Communication System

Binary

Sequence

Analog

Waveform

Source

encoder

Channel

encoder

Modulator

A/D

Converter

Physical

Waveform

Channel

Analog

Waveform

D/A

Converter

Binary

Sequence

Source

Decoder

Channel

Decoder

Demodulator

Digital Modulation

Overview:

In digital wireless communication systems, the modulating

pulses, where each symbol has m finite states. Each symbol

represents n bits of information where n = log2m bits/symbol.

Greater noise immunity (due to its finite process)

Robustness to channel impairments

Easier multiplexing of various forms of information like voice,

data, video

Digital Modulation

Security by using coding techniques to avoid jamming

Accommodation of digital error control codes which detect

Equalization to improve the performance of over all

communication link

Supports complex signal conditioning and processing methods

Digital Modulation

Factors that influence Digital Modulation:

Low BER at low received SIR

performs well in multi-path and fading

High spectral efficiency

The performance of a modulation scheme is often measured

The power efficiency is the ability of a modulation technique

to preserve the fidelity (acceptable BER) of the digital

message at low power levels

(Good BER performance at a low SIR under conditions of cochannel interference, fading, and time dispersion)

Digital Modulation

The source information is normally represented as a

baseband (low-pass) signal

Because of signal attenuation, it is necessary to move the

baseband signal spectrum to reside at a much higher

frequency band centered at fc, called the carrier

frequency, in the radio spectrum

At the receiver end, the demodulation process removes the

carrier frequency to recover the baseband information

signal

Choose different carrier frequencies for different signals

Modulation/demodulation process facilitates channel

transmissions.

EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission

Ac is a constant denoting the amplitude carrier

Modulated signal

x(t) 5 Rhy (t) Ac exp( j 2p fct)j

Modulating signal

v(t) 5 a(t) exp[ jz (t)]

Modulator

uV( f ))u

Carrier

Ac exp( j 2p fct)

2fm

fm

Modulation Catagories

The modulated signal, x(t), is given by

Linear modulation: A modulation process is linear when both

message information signal.

Nonlinear modulation: when the modulating signal, (t),

affects the frequency of the modulated signal. The definition

of nonlinear is that superposition does not apply.

Modulation Examples

Examples of linear modulation include

amplitude modulation, where the modulating signal affects

a constant t (for any t)), and

phase modulation (with a rectangular phase shaping function)

where the modulating signal affects only the phase of the

modulated signal (i.e., when (t) is a constant over each

signaling (symbol) interval and a(t) is a constant t).

Binary amplitude shift keying (ASK): (t)=0.

amplitude component a(t):

a(t)=1 for symbol 1 and a(t)=0 for symbol 0.

The modulated signal is

the phase component (t):

(t)=0 for symbol 1 and

(t)= for symbol 0

The modulated signal is

Binary frequency shift keying (FSK): a(t)=1

(t)=-2(/2)t + 2 for symbol 0

and 0 respectively, 1 and 2 are any constants in [-,+].

Ac

2Ac

(a) amplitude-shift keying

Ac

2Ac

(b) phase-shift keying

Ac

2Ac

(c) frequency-shift keying

Constellation Representation

Typical signal waveforms for BPSK transmission and

constellation

Decision Regions

Waveforms in noise

Noise adds uncertainty to the

location of the signal state

Boundary of

two decision regions

Time domain Signal space domain representation

Vector-Space Representation of M-ary Signals

The digital source generates digital symbols for

transmission at a rate of Rs symbols per second.

The symbols are taken from an alphabet of size M=2l

Each symbol can be represented by l binary digits.

The transmission rate: Rb=lRs bits per second (bps), where

Rb is the bit rate.

Higher size

constellation

M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK):

During the signaling interval, Ts, one of the waveforms is

selected

where Eb is the bit energy.

DPSK is noncoherent form of phase shift keying which avoids the need for

a coherent reference signal at the receiver.

Input binary sequence is first differentially encoded and then modulation

using a BPSK modulator.

Differentially encoded sequence {dk} is generated from the input binary

sequence {mk} by complementing the modulo-sum of mk and dk-1

Effect is to leave the symbol dk unchanged from the previous symbol if mk is

1, and toggle dk if mk is 0.

Decoding

Demodulation

DPSK

Illustration of the differential encoding process

10

Why pulse shaping?

ISI can be minimized by increasing the channel bandwidth

Mobile communication systems operate with minimal BW

Hence pulse shaping techniques are used to reduce ISI and spectral

BW

instant, the response due to all symbols except the current symbol is

made equal to zero

Raised Cosine Roll-off filter:

It satisfies the Nyquist criterion

The spectral efficiency offered by raised cosine filter only occurs if exact

11

After pulse-shaping

before pulse-shaping

Bandwidth Definitions

Measures of Bandwidth (BW):

99% BW freq. range where 99% of power is

Absolute BW : Range of frequencies over a non-zero spectrum

Null-to-Null BW : Width of the main spectral lobe

Half-power bandwidth: 3dB bandwidth

Half-power bandwidth

dB

12

Eye Diagram

Below figures show an eye diagram:

The wider the eye opens, the better the signal quality is.

Empirical measure of the quality of the received signal.

Intersymbol Interference

Intersymbol interference channel

13

Coherent Reception in an AWGN Channel

BPSK: The transmitted signal

where n(t) represents the white Gaussian noise process with zero

mean and two-sided psd N0/2.

AWGN channel

x(t)

Coherent detector

n(t)

w 1(t)

e0T ()dt

b

Decision

device

1 or 0

The conditional probability at the output of correlator:

symbol (bit) error,

14

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