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Project Report

ON

EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND


DEVELOPMENT MAWANA SUGAR
Submitted for the partial fulfilment for the award
Of
Bachelor of Business Administration from
Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut
2012-15
Submitted To:
SHANTI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEERUT

Under The supervision of: Submitted By:SUMIT YADAV


BBA VI SEM
Roll No.

Mr. RAHUL SHARMA


(H.O.D, of BBA, Dept )
3396544

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT
SHANTI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEERUT
BATCH-2012-15
1

DECLARATION

I, SUMIT YADAV Student of BBA VI Sem , SIT, Meerut hereby declare that the work
Training and Development is the out come of my own.hardship during summer training period
from 5th June 2014 to 5th Aug 2014 the work is original Submitted to Project Guide Mr. Rahul
Sharma H.O.D., BBA Department , SIT Meerut not mere a copy of any other manuscript. In
past, it was not come out or published by any individual or organization any where for any
purpose. The report submitted by me is authentic in all aspect.

SUMIT YADAV
BBA VI SEM
Roll No. 3396544

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It was indeed an opportunity for me to be the part of MAWANA SUGAR COMPLEX
for my summer training, as a partial fulfillment of two-year degree course of
BBA- VI Sem .It was an insightful experience where I was given an exposure in
the field of Sales Coordination. It was during this training that I was able to apply
my theoretical
heartful

thanks

knowledge
to

into

practical one.It is a great

pleasure

to

extend

my

Project Guide Mr. Rahul Sharma H.O.D., BBA Department , SIT

Meerut for giving me an opportunity


the H.R. DEPARTMENT .

to learn the

who had played

key

applicability of H.R theories in


role

of

my

coach,

guide

&

counselor throughout my project work & helped me whenever I was in trouble in


my given task. I also
corporation
gratitude

pay my thanks to all

irrespective of

their

busy schedule

to various employees of

of them for their whole hearted


would

like

to express

my special

all department, my friends & my seniors who

are always a source of inspiration for me & played an important role in making
my summer training a memorable one.

SUMIT YADAV
BBA VI SEM
Roll No. 3396544

PREFACE
Practical and Theory are the two aspects of Management
education. The practical training in the domain of management
courses has received vital importance. It exposes to the potential
manager towards the actual work situation and gives a student
rich insight into what practically is going on inside the industries,
infect it is the implementation of theory into practices which is the
life force of management.

Two months practical training is an obligatory requirement for the


M.B.A. It was of great advantage to receive practical training in
Mawana Sugar at MEERUT (U.P.). The management of the
company offered an excellent learning situation.

There have been considerable changes in the technology,


operation and structure of the industry due to globalization,
mergers, environmental issues and available fiber sources, and
new

challenges

being

posed

by

the

changing

customer

satisfaction levels and multiple market requirements are forcing


industry to adapt to new solutions.
I was assigned special Project: EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT MAWANA SUGAR

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Present world is the world of competition. There is huge competition in each and
every sector. Every one wants to be ahead of their competitors. The competitive
landscape, rapidly changing technologies, increased complexity of products and
services and more aware and demanding customers are all pushing the
Organization to adopt the customer centric focus. This project was allotted to me
by the marketing department of
In the present dynamic business environment customer play a vital role and is of
centric value to the Organization. Hence satisfying a customer by providing
excellent services is of prime importance to the company.
First of all a proper outline of the entire survey work was decided like research
objectives, research approach. The main objective of the research was to find out
the satisfaction level of the customers from products offered by the company in
the market.
The next step was decide upon other areas of research design. To meet the main
objectives of the research programme a proper sample size was decide upon,
which represents the entire population and help in getting results. Structured
questionnaire was used as research instrument and personal interview method
was used for data collection in the whole survey. Analysis and interpretation were
drawn from the entire data so as to focus on the major problems. Analysis and
interpretation were further used to reach the results and findings of the survey
and were also helpful in making the suggestions.

TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

COMPANY PROFILE

23

PROBLEM DEFINITION

49

OBJECTIVE

54

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

72

DATA ANALYSIS

75

FINDINGS

80

CONCLUSIONS

88

RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESATION


LIMITATIONS

90

93

ANNEXURE

96

BIBIOGRAPHY

103

INTRODUCTION

AN INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING AND


DEVELOPMENT

WHAT IS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT?


Successful candidates placed on the job need training to perform their duties effectively
Workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap and avoid accidents
It is not only workers but executives and supervisors who need training as well in
order to enable them to acquire maturity of thought and action Training and
development constitute an ongoing process in any organization.

The truth behind these words is after becoming number one level downfall starts in
every thing if one is not competing with time.When we are concentrating our mind in the field of
industries or a organization it need to have well trained and experienced people to perform the
activities that have to be done, if the current or potential job occupant can meet this requirement
training is not important, but every new employee regardless of his previous training, education
and experienced needs to be introduced to work environment of his new employment and to be
taught how to perform specific task In another case it is necessary to raise the skill levels and
increase the versality and adaptability of thee employees for their effective performance to all
new and old employees. If no planned programme of training is provided in the organization,
employee manages himself by trial and error or by observing. This training cost much and should
have to be eliminated. In absence of systematic training programme, the training cost would have

been rather higher. The interest of labour and management would be closer if not identical if a
sound training programme is established in the organization.
In organization all types of jobs requires some types of training for their efficient performance to
all new and old employees.Training is the organized procedures by which people learn
knowledge and skill for different purposes.So it is ess3ential part of HRD in a rapidly changing
society employees training and development is not only a activity that desirable but also an
activity that an organization must commut resources to if it is to maintain a viable knowledge by
workforce.

STAFFING
Staffing is the function

by which

managers builds an organization through

recruitment, selection and development of an individual to a capable employee. Staffing is an


executing function which evolves the recruitment, selection, compensating, training, promotion
and retirement of subordinates.Staffing is the whole personnel function of bringing inn and
training the staff maintains favorable conditions of works.

TRAINING
Training is the learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules
or attitudes that in crease the performance of the employees. According to E.B.Flippo Training
is the aim of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.

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According to D.S.Brach Training is organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and
skills for a definite purpose.

DEVELOPMENT
Dale Yoder strongly remarks that training &development of an executive loses their
punch drive and they die on the vine. Training and development are the only the way of
overcoming the executive dropouts.It covers not those activities, which improve job performance
but also those, which bring about growth of personality.In organizational term it is intended to
equip person to gain promotion and hold greater responsibility.

TRAINING:
Training thus means to turn members into productive insiders It is the second step after
recruitment, screening and selection The principles of learning make training
work, thus how a person learns should be the guiding principle in explaining how
a person should be trained Thus training requires

Practice

Feedback

Motivation to learn

Thus training is systematic and intentional basically involving the felicitation of the learning
process further training enhances three broad classes of skills

Motor skills: manipulation of physical environment based on certain patterns of bodily


movements

Cognitive skills: acquisition of mental and attitudinal functions

Interpersonal skills: enhancing interactions with other people

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No organization has unlimited resources, so training has to be done on the basis of identified
resources in three phases

PRE TRAINING: Clear understanding of the situation that calls for more effective behavior

TRAINING: Implementing the effectiveness in behavior

POST TRAINING: The management has to handle a person who is more confident, post training a lot of
adjustment is needed on both sides

IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEES TRAINING

Reduction in cost of production


Maximum utilization of materials and machines
Minimum possibility of accident
Stability in organization
High morale improvement in the quality and quantity of production
Difference between efficient and inefficient employees
Minimum need of supervision
Helpful to managers
Increase in understanding

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DEVELOPMENT
The development of the executives or managers has becomes one of the most important and
complex tasks of personnel management. Tremendous
emphasis has been given to it since the end of the Second World War and it has been named
as the management revolution because a sudden dramatic change took place in the area of
the management development. There is recognition that qualified executives needs
throughout the industry do not just emerge from labor-force without consciously planned
action on the part of the organizations.
Executive or management development consists of all activities by which executives learn
to improve their behavior and performance. According to Chhabra, development whether
management or organization development is the process by which managers acquire not
only skills and competencies in their present jobs but also capabilities for future
managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.
In short, development may be defined as; through learning or perception and experience change
in attitude & improve the skills and knowledge.
According to flippo, development is a long-term educational activity of increasing the
managerial and technical skills, knowledge, of an employee for doing particular job.

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NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT

The broad features of management development are as follows:


Educational process: Development is more akin of education than it is too
specific training in skills. Thus, only taking a course, attending lectures and
conferences, job rotation assignments and the like, cannot develop manager. The
process of learning on an executives part has to be accepted as a discipline of
self-education. Management development implies development of people of
different aptitudes, talents, aspirations, needs and motivation.

Behavioral change: Development is a planned process of learning and growth


designed to bring behavioral change in knowledge and behavior of the
individuals undergoing development program.
Self-development: managers develop themselves by participating in training courses
organized by the organization. They also make use of actual job experience in
learning new behaviors. The organization can merely provide facilities for
development
Continuos Process: Development is an ongoing or never ending exercise rather than
a one shot affair. It continues throughout an executives career because there is no
end to
learning. It is a long-term process, as managerial skills cannot be developed
overnight.

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IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

PURPOSE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personal include
1. Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave
or move up in the organization.
2. Enhancing the companys ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a
sufficiently knowledgeable.
3. Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the
companys competitive position and improves employees morale.
4. Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
Research has shown specific benefits that a business receives from training and developing its
workers, including:
Increased productivity.
Reduced employee turnover.
Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains.
4) Decreased need for supervision.

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TRAINING NEEDS
The task of the training director is to determine training needs. It is the starting points of all
the training. There is more critical task in the training process.
(A)- The Trainees- Is the training relevant to their job?
(B)- The quality of the training programme-Can we measure the effectiveness of the training
course.
(C)- The effectiveness of the training function-Does makes a difference?
Has any impact on organization. ?
To determining needs is not just a training process issue .it is also a training management issue,
reflecting the mission, philosophy and strategy of the training function.
Training is not a panacea to all manpower and so it is necessary to establish where it
would be useful and where it would meet a problematic situation. When a new high school
graduate is hired, there is a need to give him some sort of job training so that he may be effective
and productive. When a new machine is brought into an organization, the people who are going
to work on this machine may need some training, there are many industrial and business
problems or situation when training and development programme will be of great use. In modern
business there are various changes-job changes in personnel etc that are constantly taking place
and that necessitate modification of understanding attitudes and skills on the part of the
personnel.

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The following formula is suggested to indicate the specific training needs:

Training needs = Job requirement = employees present jobs skills.


This indicates that there is need for careful job analysis and job specification and a
careful analysis of an organization may be conducted periodically with the active support of the
management. Training is a practical necessity which result in the reduction of absenteeism,
labour turnover, learning times supervisory burden, overtime costs, machine (maintenance) costs,
Grievances, etc. some methods of determining training needs are through job analysis, test,
morale and attitude survey, personnel audit analysis etc.
Thus need for training &development programme may be summarized under the following
points.
(I)

To increase productivity

(II)

To increase quality

(III)

To help company fulfill its future personnel needs.

(IV)

To improve organization climate.

(V)

To improve health and safety.

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Why should training be imparted to employee?

Modern organizations arrange for the training of their human resources to achieve the following
benefits:

i)

Quick learning- Training helps to reduce the learning time to reach the acceptable
level of performance. The employees need not learn by observing other and waste
time if the formal training program exists in the organization.

ii)

Higher productivity- Training increases the skills of the new employee in the
performance of a particular job. It helps them to increase their level of performance
on their present job assignments and prepares them for future assignments.

iii)

Standardization of procedures- With the help of the training the best available
methods of performing the work can be standardized and taught to all employees.

iv)

Less supervision- If the employees are given adequate training, the need of
supervision will be lessened. Training does not eliminate the need for supervision, but
it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision. A well-trained employee is
self-reliant in his work because he knows that what to do & how to do and where to
do, or why to do.

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v)

Economical operation- Trained personnel will be able to make better and


economical use of materials and equipment. Wastage will also be low. In

vi)

addition, the trained employees will keep the rate of accidents and damage to
machinery and equipment to the minimum.

vii)

Higher morale- The morale of employees is increased if they are given proper
training. A good training program will mould employees attitudes towards
organizational activities and generate better cooperation and greater loyalty.

viii)

Preparations of the future manager- when totally new skills are required by an
organization, it has to face great difficulties in the selection process. It is better to
select and train from within the organization rather than seek skilled employees from
the outside sources

ix)

Better management- a manager can make use of training to manage in a better way.
To him, training the employees can assist improve his planning, organizing, directing,
controlling and commanded or forecasting. For instance, maintaining higher
standards of quality, building a satisfactory organization structure, delegating
authority and stimulating employees are all assisted by effective training.

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NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


In simple terms training and development refer to imparting of specific skill abilities and
knowledge to an employee a formal definition of training and development is
It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by
increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the
employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge The need for training and
development is determined by employees performance deficiency which is computed as
under:

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEED: Standard performance


Actual performance
According to Edward B. FlippoTraining is the act of increasing the knowledge an skills of
an employee for doing a particular job
Thus training is an organized activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of people for a
definite purpose It involves a systematic procedure for transferring technical know how to the
employees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for doing specific jobs with proficiency In
other words, the trainees acquire technical knowledge, skills and problem solving ability by

undergoing the training programs. Training objectives should always be expressed in behavioral
terms to remove ambiguity and vagueness e.g. to have more productive workers (vague)
To increase output by 10%over current levels (behavioral terms)

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EDUCATION TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: DIFFERENCE

The processes of training and development are often confused Training means learning of
basic skills and knowledge necessary for a particular job or a group of jobs But
development on the other hand means growth of the individual in all respects However
education is afar broader term in comparison to the above two Its purpose is to develop the

individuals It is concerned with increasing the general knowledge and understanding of the
environment as a whole Education is more formalized then development and is in general
imparted in schools and colleges The distinction between the three can be made as under:

TRAINING VERSUS DEVELOPMENT

According to Dale Yoder the use of terms training and development in todays
employment setting is far more appropriate than training alone since human resources can
exhibit their full potential only when the learning process goes far beyond the simple
routine

21

TRAINING

DEVELOPMENT

Training means learning skills and Development means the growth of an


knowledge for doing a particular job It employee in all respects It shapes
increases the job skills

attitudes

The term training is generally used to The term development is associated with
indicate imparting specific skills among the overall growth of the executives
operative workers and employees
Training is concerned with maintaining Executive development seeks to develop
and

improving

the

current

job competence

and

skills

for

future

performance Thus it has a short term performance Thus it has a long term
perspective

perspective

Training is job centered in nature

Development is career centered in nature

The role of trainer or supervisor is very All development is self development


important in training

The executives have to be internally


motivated for self development

TRAINING VERSUS EDUCATION

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According to Carnegie Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills Education
on the other hand is confined to theoretical learning in class rooms

TRAINING
Application oriented

EDUCATION
Theoretical orientation

Job experience

Classroom learning

Specific task

General concepts

Narrow perspective

Broad perspective

To conclude, in order to bring about a distinction, amongst training development and


education in sharp focus it can be said that training is offered to operatives, whereas
development programs are meant for employees in higher position Education however is
common to all employees their grade not withstanding

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COMPANY
PROFILE

24

Titawi

Coordinates: (find coordinates)


Country
IndiaState

Uttar Pradesh

District(s)

MAWANA

Nearest city

MAWANA

Parliamentary constituency

MAWANA

Assembly constituency

Baghra

Time zone

IST (UTC+5:30)

Codes[show]
Pincode

251301

25

Titawi is a village in MAWANA within the MAWANA district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
As of 2006, it had a population of approximately 8,000 within 1,000 households. It is some 15
km from the district headquarters.
The history of Titawi traces back some 300 years when a farmer named Latha established his hut
on the bank of the river Hindon. Many of the families that now live in Titawi bear the surname of

Latiyan. Majority of the peoples belongs to Jat community. Most of the families are based on
agriculture and living a happy and satisfactory life with peace and harmony. all the major
facilities like schools, medical and a small market from where peoples can by items for daily
needs. so many religious and cultural programs are being organised by various groups. People
like to work in groups. They do not want to loose their moral values, despite the bloom of
modern culture.
Titawi is developing as an industrial village. Most notable is the Titawi sugar mill.[1] Titawi
provides a bus terminal for nearby villages. Former rajya sabha MP Mr.Ranvir Singh also
belongs to this village.
SIEL Ltd, a diversified company with interests predominantly in chemicals and sugar, has
announced the sale of its 5,000 tcd Titawi sugar complex to Sir Shadi Lal Enterprises Ltd.
The transaction, subject to the approval of shareholders and institutions, will be completed in
May, at the end of the current sugar season.
The consideration for the transaction is Rs 56.50 crore plus the market value of working capital.
Siel Ltd would continue to operate its sugar business at Mawana, according to the company

26

(Fig-1.1)
Mr Siddharth Shriram, President & CEO of Siel, said: ``The decision to sell one of our operating
unit has indeed been a tough one. It has been driven by the urgent need to bring our debt down.''
``We are actively working with the banks and financial institutions to restructure our balance
sheet and to prevent our company from becoming yet another non-performing asset in their
books,'' he said. Lazard India brokered this deal on behalf of Siel.

27

Mawana Sugars Limited


BAGASSE BASED CO-GENERATION
PROJECT AT TITAWI SUGAR
COMPLEX

Mawana Sugars Limited

SGS India Pvt. Ltd., an affiliate of SGS United Kingdom Ltd. has made a validation of the CDM
project activityBagasse based Co-generation Project at Titawi Sugar Complex by Mawana
Sugars Limited in Titawi, Uttar Pradesh state in India, on the basis of UNFCCC criteria for the
CDM, as well as criteria given to provide for consistent project operations, monitoring and
reporting. UNFCCC criteria refer to Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the CDM rules and
modalities and the subsequent decisions by the CDM Executive Board, as well as the host
country criteria.
The scope of validation is the independent and objective review of the project design document,
baseline study and monitoring plan and other relevant document of the project. The information
in this document is reviewed against the criteria defined in the Marrakech Accords (Decision

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17) and the Kyoto Protocol (Article 12) and subsequent guidance from the CDM Executive
Board.The validation is not meant to provide any consulting towards the Client. However, stated
requests for clarifications plan and/or corrective actions may provide input for improvement of
the project design document(PDD).

The overall validation process, from Contract Review to Validation Report & Opinion, was
conducted using internal procedures (UK.PP.12 issue 2 dated 01/07/2005).
The first output of the validation process is a list of Corrective Actions Requests and New
Information Requests (CAR and NIR), presented in Annex 2 of this document. Taking into
account this output, the project proponent revised its project design document.In summary, it is
SGSs opinion that the proposed CDM project activity correctly applies the baseline and
monitoring methodology as mentioned in approved methodology adopted for the proposed
project activity and meets the relevant UNFCCC requirements for the CDM and the relevant
host country criteria.

Subject.:

CDM validation Indexing terms


Work carried out by
Mr. Shivananda Shetty - Team Leader
Mr. Sanjeev Kumar - Assessor
Mr. Pankaj Mohan - Local Assessor

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Technical review
Ms. Irma Lubrecht No distribution without permission from the Client or responsible
organisational unit Authorized signatory M. van der Linden Limited distribution
Date of final decision: Number of pages:12th December 2006 15 Unrestricted distribution

CDM.Val0652 Registered in England No. 1193985 Rossmore Business Park, Ellesmere Port,
Cheshire Member of SGS Group (Socit Gnrale de Surveillance)

Objective

Mawana Sugars Limited has commissioned SGS to perform the validation of the project:
Bagasse based Co-generation Project at Titawi Sugar Complex with regard to the relevant
requirements for CDM project activities. The purpose of a validation is to have an independent
third party assess the project design. In particular, the project's baseline, the monitoring plan
(MP) and the projects compliance with relevant UNFCCC and host country criteria are
validated in order to confirm that the project design as documented is sound and reasonable and
meets the stated requirements and identified criteria. Validation is seen as necessary to provide
assurance to stakeholders of the quality of the project and its intended generation of Certified
Emission Reduction (CER). UNFCCC criteria refer to the Kyoto Protocol criteria and the CDM
rules and modalities and related decisions by the COP/MOP and the CDM Executive Board.

Scope

The scope of the validation is defined as an independent and objective review of the project
30

design document, the projects baseline study and monitoring plan and other relevant documents.
The information in these documents is reviewed against Kyoto Protocol requirements, UNFCCC
rules and associated interpretations. SGS has employed a risk-based approach in the validation,

focusing on the identification of significant risks for project implementation and the generation
of CERs. The validation is not meant to provide any consulting towards the Client.

GHG Project Description

The proposed CDM project activity is bagasse based power generation project for captive use in
sugar manufacturing unit; located at Titawi, Uttar Pradesh state in India. The starting date of
project activity was 06-02-2006 and the project is still in commissioning stage. Baseline
Scenario: The electricity generated by project activity would have otherwise been generated by
Northern Regional grid which is predominantly fossil fuel based. With Project Scenario: The
project activity is generating electricity using bagasse as fuel. There is no associated
anthropogenic emission of green house gases as the project activity will not use any amount of
fossil fuel i.e. coal in power plant. The project displaces the power that would have otherwise
been generated by Northern Regional grid which consists of power plants operating on a mix of
hydro,nuclear and fossil fuels but are primarily fossil fuel based. Leakage: This was the new
installation and the energy generating equipment was not transferred from another
activity or the existing equipment was not transferred to another activity. So, no leakage is
considered.

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Environmental & Social Impacts:

According to Local assessor, there is no negative environmental and social impact reported or
seen from project activity during the site visit or during the local stakeholder consultation carried
out as a CDM.

The names and roles of the validation team members


Name Supplier Role
Shivananda Shetty SGS India Team Leader / Lead Auditor
Sanjeev Kumar SGS India Assessor
Pankaj Mohan SGS India Local Assessor
Irma Lubrecht SGS the Netherlands Technical reviewer CDM.

Methodology
Review of CDM-PDD and additional documentation
The validation is performed primarily as a document review of the publicly available project
documents.The assessment is performed by trained assessors using a validation protocol.A site
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visit is usually required to verify assumptions in the baseline. Additional information can be
required to complete the validation, which may be obtained from public sources or through

telephone and face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders (including the project developers
and Government and NGO representatives in the host country). These may be undertaken by the

local SGS affiliate. The results of this local assessment are summarized in Annex 1 to this
report.Observations may be raised which are for the benefit of future projects and future
verification or validation actors. These have no impact upon the completion of the validation or
verification activity. Corrective Action Requests and New Information Requests are raised in the
draft validation protocol and detailed in a separate form (Annex 3). In this form, the Project
Developer is given the opportunity to close outstanding CARs and respond to NIRs and
Observations.

Internal quality control

Following the completion of the assessment process and a recommendation by the Assessment
team,all documentation will be forwarded to a Technical Reviewer. The task of the Technical
Reviewer is to check that all procedures have been followed and all conclusions are justified.
The Technical Reviewer will either accept or reject the recommendation made by the assessment
team.

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Determination Findings

Participation requirements

The host Party for this project is India. India has ratified the Kyoto protocol on 26 August 2002.
Initially,no Letter of Approval was provided and a CAR1 was raised. A Letter of Approval
dated 24th November 2006 with reference F.No.4/17/2006-CCC issued by the Indian DNA was
provided subsequently.The approval of the project was also verified from the original letter and
same was scanned andprovided to the validator. This was accepted and hence CAR1 was closed

out.No Annex 1 Party has been identified in the PDD and therefore no further Letter of
Approval from a Annex I party was obtained. As registration of a CDM project activity can take
place without an Annex 1 Party being involved at the stage of registration, this is not a
mandatory requirement at this stage.

Application of Baseline methodology and calculation of emission factors

The project has applied the Approved consolidated methodology for grid connected Electricity
Generation from biomass residues ACM0006 version 3 dated 19th May 2006. The baseline of

34

project activity is that the project proponent would have continued to generate in its existing
cogeneration plant of 2 x 2.5MW and 2 x 3 MW with no power export to the grid. The heat
generation would have been by burning bagasse into existing boilers.A CAR3 was raised to

clarify about the baseline emissions mentioned in the PDD. The project proponent rephrased the
PDD and mentioned about the baseline emissions clearly. The proofs for the same were also
submitted and they were desk reviewed by the assessor and found to be OK. Hence,CAR3 was
closed out.The project is replacing equivalent amount of electricity from northern regional grid.
The baseline was calculated based on regional grid and the baseline emissions were not
calculated as per the approved methodology so CAR4 was raised. The project proponent replied
by modifying the excel sheet and it was verified by the assessor. This was cross checked with the
database of the values used and also values arrived by using the formulas. This was found to be
OK hence CAR4 was closed out.The emission factor for the northern grid was mentioned as
0.934 in the PDD which was thought to be on higher side by the validator so CAR5 was raised.
The project proponent replied by saying that the emission factor was calculated based on datas
for years 2002-03, 2003-04, 2004-05 and since the data for 2005-06 is now available so this has
been modified and proofs are also provided for the same.This was accepted and the proofs were
verified by the hard copy of the data and found to be OK and the emission factor reduced to
0.896. This has resulted in reduction of emissions from 22,888 tCO2 eq per annum to 21,704
tCO2 eq per annum. This was accepted and hence CAR5 was closed out.CAR6 was raised to
know about the non-consideration of project emissions in the project activity. The project
proponent replied by providing the letter from supplier which states that the boiler is not suitable
for firing any fossil fuel. The letter was verified with the original copy of the letter. The same
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was also verified during site visit by the local assessor. The local assessor also obtained the
letter that the technology will not be changed during the entire crediting period of the project.
This was accepted and hence CAR6 was closed out. A CAR7 was raised for non-consideration
of leakage. The project proponent replied by telling that the project activity will use the bagasse

available from its own manufacturing facility. There will not be any transportation of bagasse
from outside and above all it will also save 6.0% of bagasse from its own generation even after
using it in the project activity. The supporting document was also provided which was reviewed
by local assessor and found to be in order and this was accepted. Hence CAR7 was closed out.
The emission reductions have been determined in accordance with the methodology described
and there is no project emission related to usage of fossil fuel in power plant. The emission
reductions are calculated as per methodology.

Project design

The Project Design Document (PDD) was designed as per version 2 of guidelines laid for
preparing PDD of large scale CDM project activity hence the format of the present PDD was
checked against it.The project was listed for comments on the UNFCCC website from
19/08/2006 till 17/09/2006. No comment was received during the subsequent period of web
hosting.CAR2 was raised to get the clarification on the project boundary which was not clearly
described in the PDD. The project proponent replied by clearly describing the project boundary
and the same was also checked during the site visit. The project is under construction stage so
this can also be verified during verification stage. This was accepted and hence CAR2 was
closed out.The PDD was not mentioning the project starting date, and CAR36 was raised for the
same. The project proponent provided the document for starting date of the project activity and
36

the PDD has been rephrased so CAR36 was closed out.The starting date of the crediting period
will be considered as the date of registration, but the date mentioned in the PDD was not realistic

so NIR37 was raised. The project proponent replied by changing the start date of crediting
period. The PDD was rephrased. This was accepted and hence NIR37 was closed out.. NIR34
was raised to know that the technology will not be changed during the entire crediting period.The
project proponent replied by providing the documentary evidence for the same and was verified
with original copy of letter. Which was accepted and Hence NIR34 was closed out.NIR35 was
raised to know that if initial training was provided or not. The project proponent clarified that
training regarding operation of DCS has been provided to the employees but they did not require
training for operating boilers and turbines as they are experienced and qualified personals. This
was accepted and hence NIR35 was closed out.

Environmental Impacts

The project proponent has obtained the consent to establish from the Uttar-Pradesh pollution
control board and as the project is still in commissioning stage so consent to operate will be
taken care at verification stage.A CAR27 was raised to get the clarity on the environmental
impacts described in the PDD. The project proponent replied by revising the PDD and describing
the impacts more clearly. This was accepted and hence CAR27 was closed out.EIA is not
required as per law. NIR28 was raised for the documentary proof for the same. The project
proponent replied by providing the documentary proof for the same this was accepted and
verified from the website. Hence NIR28 was closed out.The measures mentioned in the PDD for
Air, and noise pollution was not clearly described in PDD so CAR29 was raised. The project
37

proponent replied by describing the measures more clearly in the revised PDD. The project

proponent mentioned that Ear plugs and ear muffs will be provided to control hazards due to
noise pollution and Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) will be installed to reduce SPM in flue gases.
This was accepted and CAR29 was closed out.

Local stakeholder comments

There was no information available on list of stakeholders consulted and media used to invite
comments. NIR30,and NIR31 were raised seeking clarification on the issue. Responding to this
client informed that the representatives of the village community were contacted on one to one
basis and through invitation letters. This was verified by the local assessor through meetings with
some representatives during site visit. No adverse comment was received. This was also verified
by MOM provided to the validator. NOC from UPPCB was provided by the client. PDD was
rephrased and hence NIR 30 and NIR31 were closed out. A CAR32 was raised to clarify the
summary of comments received during local stake holder consultation meeting. The project
proponent provided the document which was reviewed and found to be OK and PDD was
rephrased so CAR32 was closed out.CAR33 was raised to know how comments were accounted
for. The project proponent replied by providing the document of stake holder consultation which
was reviewed and found to be in order so CAR33 was closed out.Stakeholder consultation
process is not required by regulations/laws in the host country. The client obtained Consent to
establish and operate from State Pollution Control Board which is an indication of regulatory
acceptance. The host country approval has been accorded to project activity by Ministry of
Environment and Forests, the host country approval confirms that the project leads to sustainable
38

development in India (annex4). These documents were desk reviewed and found to be OK.

List of persons interviewed


Date Name Position Short description of subject Discussed

08-09-2006 Mr. Yogesh Malik Astt. General Manager Project proponents view on project
activity and CDM funds. Technical description of project activity and baseline and data
monitoring for project activity
08-09-2006 Mr. Dhoom Singh Farmer Local stakeholder consultation
08-09-2006 Mr. Harpal Singh Farmer Local stakeholder consultation
08-09-2006 Mr. Sukhpal Singh Farmer Local stakeholder consultation

(Scope of Supply)
A. Horizontal Rectangular Solids Liquid Separator :
The Rake type rectangular clarifier has minimum retention time required for
maximum settling rate with laminar flow of liquid. The discharge of underflow and
scum take place at opposite ends with the help of Rake Carrier and skimmer.
B. Vertical Clarifier :
The scum and supernatant liquid obtained from the horizontal separator is further clarified in a
vertical clarifier with no moving / rotating parts. The clear liquid is drawn through telescopic valve
and recycled to wet scrubber. The settled particles are discharged to the rake Carrier of the
horizontal separator.

39

Mawana Sugars Limited

Units / Businesses
Mawana Sugar Works, Mawana (Uttar Pradesh)
Mawana Sugar Works (MSW) is located at Mawana, District Meerut,
Uttar Pradesh on Meerut-Hastinapur Road. It is about 25 kms away from
Meerut. The capacity of this Unit is 10,000 TCD. MSW is an ISO 9001:2000 company.

Titawi Sugar Complex, Titawi (Uttar Pradesh)

Titawi Sugar Complex is located at Titawi, District MAWANA, Uttar Pradesh on


MAWANA Shamli Road. It is about 15 kms from MAWANA. The capacity of
this Unit is 5000 TCD with Double Suphitation (DS) process.

40

Joint Venture Companies in India :

Honda Siel Power Products Ltd.

This is a joint venture with Honda Motor Company, Japan for the
manufacture of Portable Generating Sets, Water Pumps and other
Power Products. The company is a market leader in India and has
significant export business. The manufacturing unit is located at Rudrapur and Greater
Noida (Uttar Pradesh).

Honda Siel Cars India Limited

This is a joint venture with Honda Motor Company, Japan for the
manufacture of cars in India. The company has a significant
market share in premium car segment in India. The manufacturing unit is located at
Greater Noida (Uttar Pradesh).

41

Daikin Shriram Air-conditioning Private Limited

This is a joint venture with Daikin Industries Limited, Japan for


manufacture and distribution of Air-conditioners in India.

CERA Tizit

This is a joint venture with Plansee Tizit GmbH of Austria for the manufacture of their
latest range of Tungsten Carbide cutting tools and inserts in India. The manufacturing
unit is located at Kolkata.

Subsidiary Companies in India

The Jay Engineering Works Ltd.


It has manufacturing facilities at Kolkata & Hyderabad for Electric Fans and Fuel
Injection Equipment (This is to be shortly spun off into a separate company). The
company is the major supplier of Usha International Limited.

This company has acquired about 267 hectares of land in the State
42

of Punjab to set up a modern Industrial Estate.

Special Achievement

Sugar Industry :
We have successfully designed,
developed fabricated and supplied Wet
Scrubber & Ash Handling System, for 75
Tons capacity Boiler, for removal of moist
ash from Wet Scrubber Slurry.
We have also given DCS / PC / PLC based
turnkey solutions for Plant Automation with
Transparent Technology & using only field
instruments, controls valves & actuators.
The loops covered are Mill Feed, Mill
Speed & imbibitions Control, Juice Flow
Stabilization, SO2 / Lime Feed Control with

43

pH, Condenser Control and Juice Heater


/ Evaporator, Control etc.
.

Aerospace Industry :
Apart from sugar industry, we have
diversified in the field of design and
manufacture of Test Rig for Aerospace
System and Alternate Energy projects over
the last several years. During the course of
our association M/s. Hindustan Aeronautics
Ltd., Lucknow Division have entrusted our
company with their important design /
development as well as production projects
in both these field. In the respect design and
execution of four Test Rigs for the FADEC
System ( One Hydraulic and three Fuel),
One fuel test rig for production of reheat
control unit ( Western origin ) and

44

installation of one of the biggest AAR Plant


achievement.

We have successfully completed the following of the


SUGAR PROJECTS

M/s DSM Sugar Barabanki, Unit


Rauzagaon. (A Dhampur Sugar Mills Ltd.
Unit)

3500 TCD Green field Project.

M/s Mawana Sugar Works, Mawana,


Meerut - Unit 2 (A Division of Shriram
Industrial Enterprises Ltd. New Delhi)

3500 TCD Green field Project.

M/s Simbhaoli Sugar Mills Ltd., Simbhaoli


Ghaziabad.

M/s Simbhaoli Sugar Mills Ltd., Chilwaria,


2500 TCD Green field project.
Bahraich.

M/s Ghaghara Sugar Limited, Ajbapur,


Lakhempur-Kheri. (A DCM Shriram
Consolidated Ltd., Unit)

M/s Kamlapur Sugar & Industries Limited, 3125 TCD expandable to 5000 TCD
45

Expansion Project of Boiling House


to 10000 TCD.

3000 TCD Green field project.

Kamlapur, Distt. Sitapur, U.P. (formerly


Magna Agro Industries Ltd.)

M/s Mawana Sugar Works, Mawana,


Distt. Meerut. (A Division of Shriram
Industrial Enterprises Ltd. New Delhi )

Green field project.


6500 TCD converting the process
from Carbonation to Sulphitation /
Refined Sugar.
Conversion of process to
Sulphitation with phase wise
increase in Capacity and addition of
process to produce good quality
sugar.

M/s Gwalior Sugar Company Limited,


Dabra, Distt. Gwalior.

M/s Guru Teg Bahadur Sugars Limited,


Village Randhwa, Teh. Dasyua, Distt.
Hoshiarpur (Punjab).

Expansion of from 3000 to 4500


TCD / 6000 TCD.

M/s Nanglamal Sugar Limited, Nanglamal,


10 Meerut. (A Subsidiary of Mawana Sugar
3000 TCD Green field project.
Limited).

11

12

M/s Dwarikesh Sugar Industries Limited,


Dwarikesh Puram, Bahadarpur, Tehsil
Dhampur, Distt. Bijnor.

5500 TCD Process Equipment, Basic


& Detailed Engineering.

M/s Nanglamal Sugar Limited, Nanglamal,


Expansion from 3000 TCD to 6000
Meerut.
(A Subsidiary of Mawana
TCD with Refinery of 600 Ton
Sugar Limited, New Delhi)).
Refined Sugar output.

M/s Mawana Sugar Works, Unit-2,


13 Mawana, Meerut, U.P. (A Subsidiary of
Mawana Sugar Limited, New Delhi)

46

Expansion of from 3500 to 5500


TCD.

M/s Titawi Sugar Complex, Titawi, Meerut,


Addition of a New Milling Tandem
14 U.P.
(A Subsidiary of Mawana Sugar of 3500 TCD to produce Raw &
Limited, New Delhi).
Refined Sugar.
15

16

M/s. Rana Sugars Limited, Belwara Distt.


Moradabad, U.P.

5000 TCD Green field Project


expandable to 10000 TCD.

M/s. P & M Infrastructures Pvt. Ltd.,


Patna, Bihar.

Detailed Project Report (DPR) for


3500 TCD.Sugar Plant expandable

to 5000 TCD with Co-Generation


and Distillery.

MINI SUGAR PROJECTS

M/s. Natraj Khandsari Industries,Chikhli, Valsad.

M/s. Jalaram Khandsari Works, Tankal, Chikhali, Navsari.

M/s. Shree Vrundavan Khandsari Udhyog,Vyara, Surat,

M/s. Shriram Kutir Khandsari Udyaog Pvt. Ltd., Village Deoria Rara, Distt.
Lakhimpur-Kheri, (U.P.).

M/s. Shriram Khandsari Udyaog, Village Seerchuk, Post Khutar, Distt.


Shahjahanpur, (U.P.). (2002)

M/s Kay Bouvet Engineering Pvt. Ltd., N/3 Additional MIDC Area, Satara. (2002)
M/s Sharda Industries, Village Banwaripur, Post Mahewaganj, Distt. LakhimpurKheri, (U.P.). (2002)

7
8

M/s. Bajaj Sugar Limited, 123 / 355 Fazal Ganj, Kanpur (U.P).

M/s. Shriram Gramudyog Sansthan, Barbar (Kheri), Distt. Lakhimpur-Kheri (U.P.).

10. M/s. Exil Limited, Mauritius.

47

Manufacturer
The high cane preparatory index and draught used in Boiler installation lead to a high
proportion of un-burnt solid particles in the gases, which (LEGAL RESTRICTION) needs to be
separated to reduce the solid loads to ambient. The maximum efficiency of separation is achieved by
installing a Wet Scrubber in the line.

(Special Features)

1.

The design is suitable for inflammable and explosive products.

2.

Particulate removal and absorption at the same time.

3.

Gas cooling.

4.

The inlet and outlet of the flue gases are from the top of the scrubber, which avoids any water
passage to ducting or air heater.

5.

Draught loss is less than 60 mm WC.

6.

There is no power driven running part.


48

7.

The flue gas going to chimney is almost colourless and with particulate less than 150 mg /
NM3.

8.

The system consists of instrumentation for temperature control of outlet gases which save the
I.D. Fan. The outlet gas temperature shall be around 95 5 deg. C.

ASH HANDLING SYSTEM


Application
This is unique system design developed to process the slurry obtained from Wet
Scrubber in continuous stream in which the clear water phase is recycled to wet
scrubber and underflow (settled Ash) is discharged continuously to a standing trolley.

Special Features
1.

Clear liquid obtained may be recycled to Wet Scrubber after making it free from
suspended solids. Makeup water is taken from other sources e.g. B-grade
condensate drain, blow down etc.

2.

The settled particles are dewatered to the maximum possible extent and are
discharged at one point in the trolley. This helps easy and continuous handling of
ash after treatment.

3.

The System consumes minimum H.P. ( 3 5 H.P. )

4.

Minimum space and no man power is needed.

5.

Pumping of slurry may be avoided if the layout of the boiler house permits the
installation of the system near wet scrubber.

49

6.

No other civil construction or dry beds are required.

The Ash Handling System may be installed by the side of wet scrubber where
wet scrubber discharge slurry directly to Rectangular Solid separator under gravity.
The total retention liquid in Rectangular Separator and vertical clarifier is 25 - 30
minutes.

PROBLEM
DEFINITION
50

PROBLEM DEFINITION

Fig-1.2
In India, the major index of inflation, or what is considered to be the headline inflation number,

51

is the WPI (Wholesale Price Index). There is also the CPI (Consumer Price Index), but there are
four different types of CPI indices, and that makes it fairly unwieldy. The four are: CPI Industrial
Workers; CPI Urban Non-Manual Employees; CPI Agricultural labourers; and CPI Rural
labour.
India is about the only major country that uses a wholesale index. Almost every other country
uses the CPI as a measure of inflation, as this actually measures the increase in price that a
consumer will ultimately have to pay for. The WPI doesn't really measure the exact price rise an

end-consumer will experience because, as the same suggests, it's at the wholesale level. The
weights of items in the CPI and WPI baskets are calculated based on detailed surveys and other
calculations. The WPI is published on a weekly basis and the CPI, on a monthly basis.

Two questions
However, two questions must necessarily be asked. The first is how good these indices are and
how good is the WPI in India. To answer the first, inflation indices are only as good as how well
they are constructed and the different weights that are assigned to the items in the basket. The
inflation rate can, in theory, be manipulated by adjusting the weights of certain commodities. Of
course, it also sometimes happens in practice. For instance, recently, the Argentinean
Government decided to take some "pesky" commodities out of the CPI index because they were
contributing to too much inflation. Another problem sometimes with an inflation index, and by
definition the inflation rate, is that it can suffer from what is the base effect. Since inflation is
typically calculated on a year-on-year basis, the inflation rate always depends on the base and
that can sometimes either exaggerate or underplay the inflation rate. Of course, one deals with
52

the cards given. Now, how good is the WPI in India? The answer to that is, it is clearly a second
best alternative. The WPI first deals with at the wholesale level. Haven't you sometimes felt that
the price rise of common household items has grown more than what the inflation rate is? If we
used the CPI, that issue would have been eliminated.
The other issue is that the WPI doesn't have any services in it. That clearly makes it a faulty

index because we do spend a good amount of money on services, such as rent, etc. If one
actually looks at the CPI basket in the US, rent has a fairly high weight. Also the fact that nearly
every country uses CPI as a measure of inflation clearly indicates that CPI is a better index.
Reporting lag
But what's the issue in India? For starters, there are four different types of CPI and so that begs
the question, which is the actual CPI one can use? However, the biggest problem why the CPI
cannot be used in India is the fact that there is too much of a lag in reporting CPI numbers. In
fact, as of the February 21, the latest CPI number reported is for December 2006. Because of this
time lag, it makes it a practically useless number as far as monetary policy is concerned.
However, this puts us in a bit of a quandary.
Monetary policy actions in any country are done based on the inflation rate, but in India it can be
argued that monetary policy is being done looking at the wrong inflation rate. In fact, during
December, the CPI was higher than the WPI. This should mean that the interest rate should be
higher than what it is now. But because of the CPI lag, what rate do we look at? An old rate, or
an inaccurate but relatively newer rate? You see the quandary
53

Fig-1.3

54

55

OBJECTIVES

56

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The study of the topic has some basic objectives these are follows:-

To analysis the effectiveness of various process of training program.

To make aware with the different methods of training that are available for the
employee

in organization.

To suggest the best and appropriate method of training.

To suggest various measures that could be taken for further improvement.

Also to keep in mind the other aspects of the methods this can effect the
organization.

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING

Optimize the workers performance in pursuit of organizational goals

To develop a person s behavioral patterns in areas of knowledge skills or attitude to


achieve a desired performance level

Interaction during training programs lets the management understand what


motivates or satisfies the workers

Leads to improvement in safety standards

Leads to understanding of corporate strategies

Manpower planning

Unifying individual objectives with those of the organization and vice versa

57

OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT:

The objectives of development program of any business concern are:


To increase the overall knowledge and conceptual and decision-making skills of
executives;
To improve the performance of managers in their present positions;
To ensure a adequate reserve of capable well-trained managers for future needs;
To influence the behavior of the workers through the executives;
To introduce change in the organization by developing executives into change agents or
facilitators;
To provide opportunities to the managers for their career advancement; and
To prevent obsolescence of executives by providing them opportunities for updating
their knowledge and skills.

INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Any training and development program must contain inputs which enable the participants
to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant
future In addition to these there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on
attitudinal changes and stress upon decision making and problem solving abilities

SKILLS
There are three kinds of skills that need to be imparted these are

Basic skills/technical skills

Motor skills

58

Interpersonal skills

It also enables to operate machines and use other equipment with least damage and scrap
Without the basic skill an operator will not be able to function properly Motor or
psychomotor skills on the other hand refer to performance of specific physical activities
These skills involve learning to move various parts of ones body in response to internal
and external stimuli Lastly employees particularly supervisors and executives need
interpersonal or the people skill to understand oneself and others better and act
accordingly

EDUCATION
The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning
and judgment that any T&D programs must contain an element of education is well
understood by the HR professionals any such programs has university professors as
resource person to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics
proposed to be discussed

DEVELOPMENT
Another component of training and development programs is development, which is less
skill oriented but stresses on knowledge an organization expects the following from its
mangers when they are deputed to attend training and development programs

How to make managers self-starters How to imbue them with a sense of


commitment and motivation so that they become self-starters?

How to make them subordinate their parochial, functional loyalties to the interests
of the organization as a whole?

How to make them result oriented? How to help them to see and internalize the
differences between activity and results between efficiency and effectiveness?

59

How to make them sensitive to the environment in which they function both at the
workplace and outside

How to make them aware of themselves their potentials and their limitations How
to help them to see themselves as others see them?

How to teach them to communicate without filters to see and feel others view points

How to help them to understand powers and thereby develop leadership styles
which inspire and motivate others?

How to instill a zest for excellence a divine discontent a nagging dissatisfaction with
the status quo

ETHICS
There is a need for imparting greater ethical orientation as they are largely ignored It is
also significant because of the following reasons:

Ethics correspond to the basic human needs All of s want to be ethical in our
personal lives and business dealings too

Values create credibility in public

Values lend management credibility with employees They provide a common


language for aligning a companys leadership and its people

Ethical attitudes help management make better decisions which are in the interest of
the public the employees and in the long run the company itself

Ethical practices are good even from the profitability point of view According to a
survey organizations that showed the highest concern were the ones that showed
highest profits

Finally ethics are important because government and law cannot always protect the
society but ethics can

60

ATTITUDNAL CHANGES
Attitude represent feelings and beliefs of individuals towards others Attitudes affect
motivation, satisfaction and job commitment Negative attitudes need to be converted into
positive ones Negative attitudes are difficult to change because

Employees refuse to change

They have prior commitments; and

Information needed to change attitude may not be sufficient

DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS


Decision making and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making
organizational decisions and solving work related problems Learning related to decision
making and problem solving skills seeks to improve trainees ability to define and structure
problems, collect and analyze information, generate alternative solutions and make an
optimal decision alternatives Training of this type is typically provided to potential
managers, supervisors and professionals.

POINTS TO BE KEPT IN MIND WHILE TRAINING

It is the means to an end not an end to a means

The management must have a responsible attitude

The trainees would be unwilling to participate in training if the trained employees are
being paid less

61

THE ENTIRE PROCESS OF TRAINING


Just like the budget TNA estimates the training needs of the different levels of employees in
the organization Although this is done at the beginning of the year, yet to make my concepts
clearer I was asked to submit an exhaustive list of many topics, on which training could be
carried out at he different levels The levels were classified into:

Top level
Top
level

Middle
level
Lower level

Fig-1.4
DIAGRAM SHOWS THE DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS IN AN ORGANIZATION

62

These were the training areas identified:


FOR THE TOP LEVEL
1. Management development programs
2. Emotional training
3. Succession plan
4. Leadership
5. Quality management
6. Cost cutting and maintenance
7. Motivation
8. Employee retention
9. Risk management
10. Manpower planning
11. Stress management
12. Conflict resolution
13. Labor relations
14. Business ethics and conduct
15. Self appraisal
16. Counseling
17. Planning, organizing and controlling
18. Management by objectives
19. Job enrichment
20. Effective communication
21. OD interventions
22. Civil rights and equal opportunity programs
23. Employee empowerment
24. Customer development (marketing)

63

25. Personal development


26. Customer relationship management (marketing department)
27. Grievance handling (particularly the HR department)
28. Technology trends
29. Training for internal trainers

FOR THE MIDDLE LEVEL


1. Manpower planning
2. Job enrichment
3. Self appraisal
4. Civil rights and equal opportunity programme
5. Work performance and conduct
6. Security and safety
7. Labour relations
8. Prevention of stock shortages and equipment failures
9. Effective communication
10. Interpersonal skills
11. Technology trends
12. Supervision
13. Training for internal trainers
14. Quality management
15. Basic decision making
16. Cost cutting
17. Motivation
18. Team building
19. Disciplinary training

64

FOR THE LOWER LEVEL


The lower level can be divided further into:
1. Skilled
2. Semi skilled; and
3. Unskilled
There training needs are as under:
1. Disciplinary training
2. Career planning (skilled)
3. Skill enhancement; basic process training
4. Technology trends
5. Self appraisal (skilled/semiskilled)
6. Civil rights and equal opportunity programs
7. Work performance and conduct
8. Effective communication
9. Quality management
10. Prevention of stock shortages and equipment failure
11. Hygiene
12. Safety: generic and machine specific
13. Cost cutting
14. Motivation (skilled)
15. Standard operating procedures (semiskilled/unskilled)

65

DESIGNING A TRAINING PROGRAMME


The training program is an integral part of human resources management. It consists of
the following inter-related steps

Identification of Training Needs


Organizational
analysis
Task analysis

Setting Training
objectives

Organization of Training
Program
Training and Instructor
Period of Training

Evaluation 66
of Training Results

Chart-2.1

Once the training needs are identified a training calendar giving the training schedule is
prepared specifying the training needs for different cadres of employees. The calendar may
be altered if required At the BEL,, training is taken at all levels on a regular basis A few
days before the actual training program the, a notice of the same is sent out to the
nominated trainees or the HR department may ask the respective department heads to
nominate their own trainees. The training calendar is consulted at the beginning of each
month and a notice of the program to be conducted is given out

THE TRAINING NOTICE


The training notice contains all the information related to the training program It is
generally in the form of an internal memo It contains the date on which the training
program is to be conducted, the venue the nominees etc

THE TRAINER
Most of the times training is provided by an internal trainer as it is more cost effective At
other times trainers may be called from outside particularly if the topic is technical If the
trainer is external, a notice has to be sent out to him specifying the topic of training, the
date, venue and the fees that would be paid to him.

67

A sample of the training calendar and the notice is given on the adjoining pages

TYPES AND METHODS OF TRAINING


On the basic of purpose, several types of training programmes are offered to the employees.
It should be noted that these programmes are not mutually exclusive. They invariably
overlap and employ many common techniques. The significance types of training programs
are as follows:
1. Induction or orientation training,
2. Job training,
3. Apprenticeship training,
4. Internship training,
5. Refresher training,
6. Training for promotion;
1.

Induction or orientation training: induction is concerned with introducing or orienting

a new employee to the organization and its procedures, rules and regulations. When a new
employee reports for work, he must be fellow employees.
It is better to give him a friendly welcome when he join the organization, get him
introduced to the organization and help him to get a general idea about the rules
regulations, working conditions, etc. of the organization. A training which are arrange for
new employee is called induction training. Or a training which about all working condition
of any organization is called induction training.

68

2.

Job training: job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle. It

gives information about machines, process of production, instructions to be followed, and


methods to be used and so on. It develops skills and confidence among the workers and
enables them to perform the job efficiently.

3.

Apprenticeship training: apprenticeship training programme tends more towards

education than merely on the vocational training. Under this, both knowledge and skills in
doing a job or a series of related jobs are involved. The governments of various countries
have passed laws which make it obligatory on certain classes of employees to provide
apprenticeship training to the young people. The usual apprenticeship programmes
combine on the job training and experience with class-room instructions in particular
subjects. Some employers look upon apprentices as a source of cheap labour.

4.

Internship training: under this method, the educational or vocational institute enters

into arrangement with an industrial enterprise for providing practical knowledge to its
students. Internship training is usually meant for such vocations where advanced
theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical experience on the job. For instance,
engineering students are sent to big industrial enterprise for gaining practical work
experience and medical students are sent to big hospitals to get practical knowledge. Also
known as unpaid training (UPT).

5.

Refresher training or retraining: As the name implies, the refresher training is meant

for the old employees of the enterprise. The basic purpose of refresher training is to
acquaint the existing workforce with the latest methods of performing their jobs and

69

improve their efficiency further. In the words of Dale Yoder, retraining programmes are
designed to avoid personnel obsolescence.

Thus, refresher training is essential because of the following factors:


(a)

The workers require training to bring them up-to-date with the


knowledge and skills.

(b)

Rapid technological changes make even the qualified worker obsolete in


course of time because new technology is associated with new workmethods and job requirements.

(c)

Refresher training becomes necessary because many new jobs which are
created due to changes in the demand for goods and services are to be
handled by the existing employees.

6. Training for promotion: the talented employees may be given adequate training to
make them eligible for promotion to higher jobs in the organisation. Promotion of
an employee means a significant change in his responsibilities and duties. Therefore,
it is essential that he is provided sufficient training to learn new skills to perform his
new duties efficiently. The purpose of training for promotion is to develop the
existing employees to make them fit for undertaking higher job responsibilities. This
serves as a motivating force to the employees.

70

Training Methods

A) On- the-job Methods


1) On- the-job Training :
An employee is placed in a new job and is told how it is to be performed. It aims at
developing skills and habits consistent with the existing practices of an organization
and by orienting him to his immediate problems. A Variety of training aids and
techniques are used such as procedure charts, lecture manuals, sample problems,
demonstrations, oral and written explanations etc.

2) Vestibule Training or TrainingCentre Training: It involves classroom training imparted with the help of equipment
and machines identical to those in use such at the place of work. It is often used to train
clerks, bank tellers, inspectors, machine operators, typists, etc.
3) Simulation:
It is an extension of vestibule training. The trainee in closely duplicated real job
conditions
4) Demonstration and Examples:
Here the trainer describes and . demonstrates how to do a certain work. He performs
the activity himself, going through a step-by-step explanation why, how and what,
of what he is doing.
71

5) Apprenticeship:
A major part of training time is spent on the on- the-job productive work. Each
apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a predetermined schedule

which provides for efficient training in trade skills. This method is appropriate for
training in crafts, trades and technical areas.
B) Off-the-job or Classroom Methods:
Location of this training may be a company classroom, an outside place owned by the
organization, an education institution or association, which is not part of company.
These methods are:
1) Lectures:
These are formally organized talks by an instructor on specific topics. This method is
useful when philosophy, concepts, attitudes, theories and problem solving have to be
discussed
2) The Conference Method:
Under this method, a conference is held in accordance with the organized plan. Mutual
problems are discussed and participants pool their ideas and experience in attempting
to arrive at better methods of dealing with these problems.
3) Seminar or Team Discussion:
The group learns through discussion of a paper on a selected subject. The paper is
written by one or more trainees. The material to be analyzed is distributed in advance
in the form of required reading.
Case Discussion:
Under this method, a real or hypothetical business problem or situation demanding
solution, is presented to the group members are trained to identify the problems present,
72

they must suggest various alternatives for tackling them, analyze each of these, find out
their comparatives suitability and decide for themselves the best solution.
Role-Playing:

This method is also called role-reversal socio-drama or psycho-drama. Here trainees


act out a given role as they would in a stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned roles in
a given situation, which is explained to the group.
Programmed Instruction:
This involves two essential elements:
(a)

a step-by-step series of knowledge, each building upon what has gone before, and

(b)

a mechanism for presenting the series checking on the trainees knowledge.

73

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

74

RESEARCH DESIGN

A RESEARCH DESIGN IS PURELY AND SIMPLY THE FRAMEWORK OR PLAN


FOR A STUDIES THAT GUIDES THE CORRECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA.
1. Data Collection: The data collected for the purpose of research can be classified into
primary and secondary data.

Primary Data : Primary data is the first hand information. Primary data
can be collected through questionnaire, survey method.

Secondary Data: Secondary data are the data collected through journals

2. Research Instruments: The instrument used for collecting primary data was
QUESTIONAIRE.
QUESTIONAIRE consists of set of questions presented to respondents for their
answers. The types of questionnaires are Closed Ended Questions. Closed Ended
Questions allows respondents to answer by choices.
3. Sampling Plan: It involves study of a group of respondent considered to be
representative of entire population is known as SAMPLING.

Sampling unit i.e. who is to be surveyed?

Samplings size i.e. how many people to be surveyed?

Sampling procedure i.e. how should the respondent be survey?


75

4. Contact Method: Once the sampling plan has been determined the research process
includes how sample size should be contacted. At the top level the personal interview were
conducted and for the lower level questionnaire were prepared.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The proposed research work is being planned to be divided into two stages :The concept formation stage, and the practical finding stage:For both

the stages, the data used may be classified as primary data and secondary

data. The primary data will be collected through direct interviews, survey,
questionnaire etc. and secondary data will be collected from already published work,
books, journals, research papers and annual reports.
Research Design: Objective Study
Data Type: Primary Data/ Secondary Data
Research Instrument: Questionnaire
Sample: Factory campus
Sample Size: 50
Sample Procedure: Judgment Sampling
Sampling Method: Personal survey method through preparation of questionnaire

Limitations of the project:

Due to lack of time and interest the respondents, were not very co-operative in

filling the questioner as a result of which the results could be biased to an extent.

Some respondents give vague information.

Disinterest shown by few respondents to give response to the questionnaire.

76

DATA
ANALYSIS

77

Data Analysis and Exploration


MATLAB supports the entire data analysis process, from acquiring data from external devices
and databases to producing presentation-quality output. The MATLAB environment offers:
A flexible analysis platform
Straightforward access to a variety of data types
Functions for preprocessing data including data reduction and manipulation
Fast and accurate analysis functions
Advanced analysis methods via toolboxes
Graphics and reporting methods to help you understand and present your data

Flexible Analysis Platform


Within the MATLAB environment you can interactively acquire, experiment with, view, and
analyze data including signals, images, time histories and linear systems. The MATLAB
language lets you easily manipulate scalars, vectors, matrices, N-D arrays, and user-defined data
structures and objects. Because the syntax for using MATLAB interactively is the same as for
writing programs, you can quickly convert your code and knowledge into reusable, automated
analysis routines.

78

Straightforward Access to Data


Getting your data into and out of MATLAB is easy. MATLAB provides direct access to data
from serial ports and TCP/IP connections as well as standard file formats. Data access methods
include:
External devices - Using the Data Acquisition Toolbox you can stream live, measured data
directly into MATLAB for analysis and visualization. The Instrument Control Toolbox allows
communication with GPIB hardware and devices that rely on the VISA standard. For more
information on data acquisition and instrument control please visit the Test and Measurement
application area.
Databases, feeds, and files - Using the Database Toolbox you can communicate with many
ODBC/JDBC compliant databases, and Spreadsheet Link EX lets you exchange data with
Excel spreadsheets. With the Datafeed Toolbox you can interface directly with Bloomberg and
live, historical, time series market data. Finally, with MATLAB formatted data files (MAT-files)
you can preserve your variable structure in a "MATLAB database" with a single command.
File I/O - MATLAB has built-in support and an Import Wizard for popular file formats,
including scientific data formats, image file formats, and industry standard formats, such as

79

Excel. Additional functions perform ASCII and low-level binary I/O from M-file, C, Fortran,
and Java programs, allowing you to work with any data format.

Functions for Pre-processing Data


MATLAB has a full range of functions for preprocessing data for analysis, including tools for:
Data importing
Scaling and averaging
Interpolating and decimating
Clipping and thresholding
Extracting sections of data
Smoothing and filtering
Gridding

Fast and Accurate Analysis Functions


Commonly used methods for 1-D, 2-D, and generalized multi-dimensional data analysis are built
directly into MATLAB. Easy-to-use, application-specific graphical interfaces, interactive
computing, and structured programming tools let you choose the best approach for your analysis
tasks. MATLAB data analysis operations include:
Correlation
Basic statistics and curve fitting
Fourier analysis and filtering
Matrix analysis

80

1-D peak, valley, and zero finding


Differential equation solvers

Toolboxes for Advanced Analysis Methods


The variety of computing methods in MATLAB toolboxes allow you to compare algorithms and
select the correct analysis method for your project. The toolboxes include thousands of
application specific functions in areas such as:
Curve Fitting

Image processing

Filter design

Symbolic math

Statistics

Control system design

Communications

Partial differential equations

Optimization

Neural networks

Wavelets

Signal processing

Spline

Fuzzy logic

For a complete list of toolboxes please visit our product pages.


Graphics and Reporting Methods
General purpose and application-specific graphics let you instantly visualize signals, parametric

81

surfaces, images, and more. The graphics are integrated with the analysis capabilities for
displaying any raw data set, equation, or function result. MATLAB also makes it easy to share
your analysis with your colleagues. The MATLAB Notebook allows you to log your MATLAB
session in a Microsoft Word document while working in MATLAB. Then you can use the
MATLAB Report Generator to create custom and standard reports containing your MATLAB
analysis results.

FINDINGS
82

FINDINGS
1. The training programme of TITAWI SUGAR has enriched your knowledge/skill in the
particular field in which training was imparted.

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent
83

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

No. of
Responde
nts

36

38

20

110

% of
Responde
nts

6.36

8.18

32.73

34.55

18.18

100

FINDINGS: - It is evident that most of the respondents is agree with the training
programme of TITAWI SUGAR COMPLEX.

2. The training programme of TATIWI SUGAR confidence level.

No. of
Responde
nts
% of
Responde
nts

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

16

31

41

22

110

14.55

28.18

37.27

20

100

84

FINDINGS: - From the above findings we find that, most of the respondents feel that the
training programme of TITAWI SUGAR COMPLEX Confidence level.

3.Through the training programme of TITAWI SUGAR goal has been achieved.

No. of
Responde
nts
% of
Responde
nts

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

10

24

35

26

15

110

9.09

21.82

31.82

23.64

13.64

100

FINDINGS: - From the above findings it is observe that the training programme of
B.E.L partly help in achieving their personal goal.

4. B.E.L is successfully fulfilling the need of Training and Development.

85

No. of
Responde
nts
% of
Responde
nts

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

14

37

34

16

110

8.18

12.73

33.64

30.90

14.55

100

FINDINGS: - It is evident from the table that TITAWI SUGAR partly fulfilling the need
of Training and Development.

5.The programme helped to enhance your appreciation and understanding of your job
as whole.

86

No. of
Responde
nts
% of
Responde
nts

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

17

32

38

14

110

8.18

15.45

29.09

34.55

12.73

100

FINDINGS: - From the above findings it is observe that the programme conducted by
TITAWI SUGARS is helpful to the employees to understand their job as whole.

6.The

prior information of the schedule of training programme is given well in


advance.

87

No. of
Responde
nts
% of
Responde
nts

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

10

20

24

34

22

110

9.09

18.18

21.82

30.90

20

100

FINDINGS: - Most of the respondents agree that the prior schedule of training
programme is given well in advance.

7.The schedule of training programme hurdles your regular work.

88

No. of
Responde
nts
% of
Responde
nts

Strongly Disagree To Some


Disagree
Extent

Agree

Strongly
Agree

TOTAL

12

20

38

23

17

110

10.90

18.18

34.55

20.90

15.46

100

CONCLUSION
89

CONCLUSION

The conclusion of the summer training report on impact assessment of training efforts
at Titawi sugar complex Muzaffarnager. Is very positive. Training programs in
shriram piston Lare effective and efficient. Training programs consist managerial,
technical or special training programs. These programs provided to all level of
employees by the human resource development department. Training programs are
effective for the point of view of development whether employees or management
development. Through training programs employees and management both are
satisfied. In short, these programs enhance the learning ability of employees. That is,
these programs improve the knowledge, skills and attitude. These programs are
helpful to achieve the individual or organizational goals. There should be training for
all employees to explain the policies & practices followed by the HR department, so
that they can understand the functions & limitations of the HR department.
90

91

RECOMMANDATION
AND
SUGGESTION

RECOMMENDATION
92

Training is an important tool of the management capable of making significant


contribution to the goals of the organisation. Training tends to improve the performance of
employees by narrowing the gap between expectations and achievements. Because of its
significant role, it is essential to have an effective training programme in the enterprise.
Training need identification should be in proper way, each and every factor should be
analyzed. Trainees should be motivated who want to do something special through their
performance. That is, they want to do their best. Trainers should be well qualified and
experienced person. They should know how to motivate the others. Training programme
should be supported by the top management. And training programme should be efficient
and effective. Trainees and trainers both should have positive attitude and also have right
perception. There should be critical appraisal of the outcome of the training programme.
Methods of the training should be adopted according to trainees level of learning whether
methods are case study, role play, exercise, lecture or else. The choice of any methods would
depend upon the specific objectives of the training programme.

93

SUGGESTION
1. There should be training for all employees to explain the policies & practices
followed by the HR department, so that they can understand the functions &
limitations of the HR department.
2. To improve feedback system a suggestion box may be opened, so that the employees
can suggest their views.
3. To improve the perception of the employees regarding training provided by B.E.L
suggestions may be intimated through departmental meetings & circulars.
4. Training given by B.E.L should be relevant to the area of job & also revise the
training programme after 10 years.
5. Finally any investment in Training & Development programmes will beneficial for
the employees as well as to the government.

94

LIMITATIONS

95

LIMITATIONS
The study was restricted to a period of eight weeks only and it was not possible to go
through the topic in depth in such a sort of time, a more detail could have been made out
subject to the availability , manpower and resources.
It was difficult to collect secondary data form the organization. The respondents were not
in the position to give correct and accurate data as I needed.
As the results achieved by the study have been broadly confirmed by discussion with
management guide so it may suffer from personal business, which very often makes the
information one sided.
As my whole project was based on secondary data, but company was providing me only
four hours to work within that with so many restrictions, so that I was unable to get
maximum time of the executives.

96

APPENDIX

97

ANNEXURE

98

ANNEXURE

1- What are the methods used for the analysis of your training needs?
2- Are the employees involved in identifying their training needs/areas of training?

Yes
No

3- What are the various areas in which training is imparted?

Company policies and procedures


Functional skills

Human relations

Problem solving

Managerial and supervisory training

Apprentice training

Any other, please specify ___________________


4. In future, what according to you would be the potential areas of training?
5. What are the various training methods employed?

On the job:
Off the job:

6- Do you think the methods used are relevant and effective?

Yes
No

7-If no, which methods do you think should be selected? Give reasons.

99

8. What are your objectives in attending a training program?

Gain knowledge in your area

Get promotion

Get free holiday

To enjoy social get together

Any other, please specify ____________________

9. Do you think your objective of attending the training program is normally achieved?

Yes

No

10. What according to you are the key areas in which training should be imparted?

11. Are you provided with adequate continuing training to keep you abreast of the changes
in the environment?

Yes

No
12. If no, in what areas do you think the company should impart continuing training?
13. What are the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program?
o

Feedback after training

Improvement in performance

Promotion / increment

Written test / exam


100

Any other, please specify_____________________________________

14. Does the management take into consideration your opinion on the training program
planning?

Yes

No
15. Identify the shortcomings in the training programs, if any, regarding the following:

Physical arrangements:

Faculty:

Training methods:

Contents of the program:

Any other, please specify__________________________________

16. Have you communicated these problems to the management?

Yes

No

17. In what way would you like to be involved in improving / planning the training program
in future?

Take our views individually

Hold a communication meeting

Conduct a survey

Suggestion box

Feedback session on performance appraisal

101

Any other, Please specify _____________________________________


18. In your opinion what are the inputs that would make a training program successful?
(Rank the following in order of importance)

Clear objectives (gain knowledge/skills)

Good faculty

Right training method

Physical arrangements

Duration of training program

Content of the training program

Reward/ incentive after the training program.

Questionnaire For T&D staff

1. What are the rules and procedures that govern the standard and scope of training in your
organization?
2. What methods are used for training needs analysis?
3. What are the various areas in which training is imparted?

Company policies and procedures


Functional skills

Human relations

Problem solving

Managerial and supervisory training

Apprentice training

102

4. What are the various training methods employed?


On the job:
Off the job:
5. On what basis do you select the training methods to be used?
6. Training is conducted

In house
Out-sourced

7. If out-sourced, what agencies and consultants are involved?


8. On what basis do you decide to conduct training externally?
9. On what basis do you select the external agencies?
10. What according to you are the advantages of external training?

11. What generally is the frequency of a training program?

Quarterly
Half yearly

Yearly

12. What normally is the duration of a training program?


13. How do you decide on the training budget?
14. What methods to do you use to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program?
q Observation
q Ratings
q Trainee survey
q Trainee interview
q Tests before and after

103

q Comparative study between trained and non-trained groups


q Classroom presentation
Any other, please specify _____________________________
15. What are the changing trends in T&D today? How is it different from what was done five
years ago?
16. What according to you are the roles and responsibilities of trainer and trainee in order to
make a training program successful?
a) Trainer:
c. Trainee:

17. What are the essential elements that go into making a training program successful? (Rank
them in the order of importance)
q Clear objectives
q Good faculty
q Right training method
q Physical arrangement
q Duration of training program

Contents of the training program


Reward/ incentive after the training program

18. What are the main problems you come across while training individuals?
19. What methods are used to detect and overcome learning blockages that may be present?
20. How important is training as a tool for employee retention?
104

21. In future, what according to you would be the potential areas of training?

105

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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organizing notes, and composing bibliographic references - easily and efficiently.
With Citation, all references and notes can be entered on notecard-like forms, from within a
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documents or websites. Our new online searchable styleguide will help you entering
bibliographic information on just about any type of source material - web pages, cases,
manuscripts - as well as book chapters and journal articles.
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107