x 1+ x 2 ++ x n= xi
i=1
For instance a data set consisting of six measurements 21, 13, 54, 46, 32 and 37 is represented by
x1 , x 2 , x3 , x 4 , x5
x6
and
x1
where
x
i 1
= 21,
= 13,
= 54,
21+13+59+46+32+37=208.
x1 x 2 ... x n
xi
x5
x4
x3
x2
i 1
Similarly
=
Some Properties of the Summation Notation
~1~
= 46,
x6
= 32 and
= 37.
n.c
i 1
1.
=
n
b.x
i 1
where
is a constant number.
b xi
i 1
2.
n
(a bx ) n.a b x
i
i 1
i 1
3.
where
n
(x
i 1
i 1
i 1
b
and
y i ) x i y i
4.
3.3 Types of Measures of Central Tendency
Several types of averages or measures of central tendency can be defined, the most commons are
 the arithmetic mean or the mean
 the geometric mean
 the harmonic mean
 the mode
 the median
The choice of average (measure of central tendency) depends upon which best represents the property
under discussion.
3.3.1. The Arithmetic Mean (The Mean)
The arithmetic mean is defined as the sum of the measurements of the items divided by the total number of
items.
Arithmetic Mean for Ungrouped Frequency Distribution
When the data are arranged or given on the form of ungrouped frequency distribution, then the formula
for the mean is
k
f x +f x + + f k x k
X = 1 1 2 2
= i=1k
f 1+ f 2 ++ f k
f i xi
Note that
fi
i=1
Example 1: You measure the body lengths (in inches) of 10 fullterm infants at birth and record the
following:
17.5
19.5 17.5 19
20
21
18
19.5 18
10.75
Compute the sample mean length of the infants for these data.
Example 2: Monthly incomes of fourth year regular students are given in the following frequency
distribution.
Monthly income (birr)
54.5
64.5
74.5
~2~
84.5
94.5
104.5
114.5
Number of students
6
Compute the mean for these data.
15
25
13
X =
f i xi
f 1 x 1 +f 2 x 2+ + f k x k i=1
= k
f 1+ f 2 ++ f k
fi
i=1
xi
Where
fi
th
class; i = 1, 2, , k
th
i 1
Note that
= the total number of observations.
Example: The following table gives the daily wages of laborers. Calculate the average daily wages paid to
a laborer.
Wages in birr
Number of laborers
1113
3
1315
4
1517
5
1719
6
1921
6
2123
4
2325
3
x1 , x 2 , ..., x n
sum of the deviations of a set of numbers
n
(x
x
from their mean
is zero.
x) 0
That is
The sum of the squares of the deviations of a set of observations from any number, say A, is the least
i 1
only when A= X
. That is,
( xi x )2 (xi A )
x1
When a set of observations is divided into k groups and
x2
is the mean of
xk
n2
is the mean of
n1
observations of group2, ,
observations of group 1,
nk
is the mean of
xc
the combined mean ,denoted by
n1 x 1+ n2 x 2 ++n k x k
X c =
= i=1k
n1 +n2 ++ nk
ni x i
ni
i=1
~3~
If a wrong figure has been used in calculating the mean, we can correct if we know the correct figure
that should have been used. Let
X wr
Xc
X wr
X correct
, is given
by
wr + X c X wr
nX
n
X correct
x1 , x 2 , ..., x n x
If the mean of
is
, then
x1 k , x 2 k , ..., x n k
a) the mean of
will be
xk
kx
b) The mean of
will be .
Example 1: Last year there were three sections taking Stat 273 course in a certain University. At the end
of the semester, the three sections got average marks of 80, 83 and 76. There were 28, 32 and 35 students
in each section respectively. Find the mean mark for the entire students.
Solution:
xc
n1 n2 n3
28 32 35
95
79.54
Example 2: An average weight of 10 students was calculated to be 65 kg, but latter, it was discovered that
one measurement was misread as 40 kg instead of 80 kg. Calculate the corrected average weight.
Solution:
X correct
wr + X c X wr 10 ( 65 ) +8040
nX
=
=69
n
10
Exercise: The average score on the midterm examination of 25 students was 75.8 out of 100. After the
midterm exam, however, a student whose score was 41 out of 100 dropped the course. What is the
average/mean score among the 24 students?
Weighted Arithmetic Mean
In finding arithmetic mean, all items were assumed to be of equal importance. When due importance is to
be given to each item, that is, when proper importance is required to be given to different data, then we
find weighted average. Weights are assigned to each item in proportion to its relative importance.
x1 , x 2 , ..., x k
If
w1 , w2 , ... , wk
represent values of the items and
( xw )
weighted mean,
is given by
~4~
X w =
w i xi
w1 x 1 +w 2 x 2+ +w k x k i=1
= k
w1+ w2 ++ w k
wi
i=1
Example: A students final mark in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology are respectively 82, 80,
90 and 70.If the respective credits received for these courses are 3, 5, 3 and 1, determine the approximate
average mark the student has got for one course.
Solution: We use a weighted arithmetic mean, weight associated with each course being taken as the
number of credits received for the corresponding course.
xi 82 80 90 70
wi
xw
w x
w
i
Therefore
Average mark of the student for one course is approximately 82.
Merits of Arithmetic Mean
 Arithmetic mean is rigidly defined a mathematical formula so that its value is always definite.
 It is calculated based on all observations.
 Arithmetic mean is simple to calculate and easy to understand. It doesnt need arraying (arranging in
increasing or decreasing order) of the data.
 Arithmetic mean is also capable of further algebraic treatment.
 It affords a good standard of comparison.
Drawbacks of Arithmetic Mean
 It is highly affected by extreme (abnormal) observations in the series. For instance, the monthly
incomes of three boys are 37 birr, 53 birr and 48 birr and that of their father is 1026 birr. The average
income become for one of these four people becomes 219 birr which is not at all a representative
figure.
 It can be a number which does not exist in the series.
 It sometime gives such results which appear almost absurd. For example it is likely that we can get an
average of 3.6 children per family.
 It gives greater importance to bigger items of a series and lesser importance to smaller items. That
means it is an upward bias measure.
 It cant be calculated for openended classes.
3.3.2 Geometric Mean (G.M)
The geometric mean is the nth root of the product of n positive values. If X1 , X2,,Xn are n positive
values, then their geometric mean is
G.M =(X1X2Xn)1/n .
The geometric mean is usually used in:
Average rates of change
~5~
Ratio
Percentage distribution
Logarithmical distribution.
In case of number of observation is more than two it may be tedious taking out from square
root ,in that case calculation can be simplified by taking natural logarithm with base ten
n
x1 . . . .
x1 , x2 . . . . xn
G.M =
xn n
G . M=
1
log x1 , . . . . xn
n
log ( G . M) =
1
log x1 log x2 . . . log xn
n
=
1
n
i 1
log xi
i 1
log xi
G. M = Antilog
This shows that the logarithms of G. M is the mean of the logarithms of individuals observations
Example1, The ratio of prices in 1999 to those in 2000 for 4 commodities were 0.9, 1.25,1.75 and 0.85.
Find the average price ratio by means of geometric mean.
Solution:
log X
G.M = antilog
= antilog
= antilog0.5829 = 1.14///
~6~
Note that
1.when the observed values x1,x2,.xn have the corresponding frequencies f1.f2fn
respectively then geometric mean is obtained by
n
x1 1 , x f 2 2 . . . . x f n n
G.M =
1
n
f i log xi
i 1
i 1
fi
=
where n=
2.
When ever the frequency distributions are grouped (continuous), class marks of the class
interval are considered as Xi and the above formula can be used that is
n
m1 1 , m2
f2
. . . . mn
fn
G. M =
1
n
i 1
f i log mi
i 1
where
fi
and mi is class mark if ith class.
n=
1
1
1
...
X1 X 2
Xn
H.M =
1
i
Example
Find the harmonic mean of the values 2, 3 &6.
H.M =
3
1/ 2 1/ 3 1/ 6
3
3 2 1
6
=
3 6
6
=
~7~
= 3 ///
The harmonic mean is used to average rates rather than simple values. It is usually appropriate in
averaging kilometers per hour.
Example: A driver covers the 300km distance at an average speed of 60 km/hr makes the return trip at an
average speed of 50km/hr. What is his average speed for total distance?
Solution
Trip
Distance
Average speed
Time taken
1st
300km
60km/hr
5hrs
50km/hr
6hrs

11hrs
2nd
300km
600km
Total
=600km/11hrs=54.55km/hr.
H.M=
2
1 / 60 1 / 50
=600/110=54.55km/hr.
60 50
2
Note that A.M=
=55km/hr
60 50
G.M=
=54.7km/hr
fi
xi
n
H. M = Reciprocal
n
f
xi
i
=
Properties of harmonic mean
~8~
i.
ii.
Used when a situations where small weight is give for larger observation and larger
weight for smaller observation
iii.
iv. Appropriate measure of central tendency in situations where data is in ratio, speed or
rate.
3.3.4 The Median
The median of a set of items (numbers) arranged in order of magnitude (i.e. in an array form) is the middle
~
x
x
,
x
,
.
.
.,
x
n by
value or the arithmetic mean of the two middle values. We shall denote the median of 1 2
. For
ungrouped data the median is obtained by
2
~
x 1
( x n x n 2 ) if the number of items, n, is even
2 2
2
Example 1. Find the median of the following data.
a)
3,8,4,7,7,5,6,8,7,4,6,8,9,7,6
Arrange the given data in either increasing or decreasing order
3,4,4,5,6,6,7,7,7,7,8,8,8,9
Median = 7
b)
3,4,4,5,6,6,6,7,7,7,7,8,8,8
Median=
67
6.5
2
n
F
2
~
X=Lmed +W
f med
( )
Lmed
Where
~9~
Fp
Sum of frequencies of all class lower than the median class (in other words it is the cumulative
frequency preceding the median class)
f med
is class width
n
The median class is the class with the smallest cumulative frequency greater than or equal to
2
. It can be
located by counting
Wages(in Rs)
20003000
No.of workers
30004000
5
40005000
50006000
20
10
60007000
5
Solution
Wages(in Rs)
No.of workers
cf
20003000
30004000
40005000
20
28
50006000
10
38
60003000
43
1000
21.5 8 4, 675
20
Merits of median
 Median is a positional average and hence it is not influenced by extreme values.
~ 10 ~
x
The mode or the modal value is the most frequently occurring score/observation in a series and denoted by .
Note that the mode may not exist in the series or, even if it does exist, it may not be unique.
Example 1.a) Find the mode for the following exam result (10%) of 15 students
3,8,6,5,8,7,8,6,7,4,7,5,7,9,
The mode 7
b) 4, 5,7,8,9
there is no mode.
1
W
x Lmod
1 2
Lmod
Where
2
W
Example 2.
Find the mode for the frequency distribution given by below.
Class interval
Frequency
36
69
~ 11 ~
912
10
1215
1
cw
1 2
2
2
9
3 9 3
2 7
9
29
mod e L1
.
Merits of mode
 Mode is not affected by extreme values.
 Mode can be calculated even in the case of openend intervals. And it is not necessary to know all
observations.
Demerits of mode
 Mode may not exist in the series and if it exists it may not be a unique value.
 It does not fulfill most of the requirements of a good measure of central tendency
 It may be unrepresentative in many cases.
3.4 Measures of Location
Quantiles
Quantiles are values which divides the data set arranged in order of magnitude in to certain equal parts. They
are averages of position (noncentral tendency). Some of these values of quantiles are quartiles, deciles and
percentiles.
Q1 ,Q2
Q3
I. Quartiles: are values which divide the data set in to four equal parts, denoted by
and
. The first
quartile is also called the lower quartile and the third quartile is the upper quartile. The second quartile is the
median.
For Ungrouped data:
Qj
Let
j th
be the
j
n 1
4
Qj
th
item;
j 1, 2, 3.
In dividing i(n+1) by 4, there may be a remainder r ,let q be the quotient and r be the
remainder of the division then
Qi qth value
r
th
q 1 value qthvalue
4
~ 12 ~
Find the first, the second and third quartile for the following data. (exam result 10%) of 15
students 4,8,9,7,6,6,6,7,7,8,8,8,9,9,
1
15 1 th
4 value
n 1
4
4
Q1 6
3
3
n 1 15 1
4
4
th
12 value
Q1
Q3
2
1
n 1 15 1 8th value
4
2
Q2 6
Q2
j n 4 FQ j
Q j LQ j
fQj
Qj
Where
W;
j 1, 2, 3.
j th
the
LQ j
FQ j
j th
Lower class boundary of the
quartile class
j th
Sum of frequencies of all classes lower than the
fQj
j
Frequency of the
th
quartile class
Class width
j n4
th
The
quartile class is the class with the smallest cumulative frequency greater than or equal to
j n4
be located by counting
. It can
D1 , D2 , ..., D9
II. Deciles: are values dividing the data in to ten equal parts, denoted by
median.
For Ungrouped data
Let
Dj
j th
be the
j
n 1
10
Dj
th
item;
j 1, 2, ... , 9
In dividing i(n+1) by 10, there may be a remainder r ,let q be the qoetient and r be the remainder
of the division then
~ 13 ~
Di q th value
r
th
q 1 value q th value
10
j n10 FD j
D j LD j
W ; j 1, 2, ... , 9
f Dj
j n 10
j th
The
decile class is the class with the smallest cumulative frequency greater than or equal to
. It can
10
be located by counting
P1 , P2 , ... P99
III. Percentiles: are values which divide the data in to one hundred equal parts, denoted by
fiftieth percentile is the median.
For ungrouped data
Pj
Let
. The
j 1, 2, 3, ... , 99
be the percentile value for
j
n 1
100
. Then
th
Pj
j 1, 2, 3, ... , 99
item;
i n 1
In dividing
be the remainder
of the division
Then p i q th value
r
th
q 1 value q th value
100
j n100 FPj
Pj LPj
f Pj
W;
j 1, 2, 3, ... , 99
j n 100
j th
The
percentile class is the class with the smallest cumulative frequency greater than or equal to
j n 100
~ 14 ~
. It
Interpretations
Qj
( j 25) percent
1.
j 1, 2, 3 ). For instance,
Q3
means the value below which 75 percent of observations in the given series
are found.
2.
Dj
( j 10) percent
D4
is the value below which 40 percent of the values are found in the series.
Pj
3.
j 1, 2, 3, ... , 99
j percent
is the value below which
P73
example, 73 percent of the observations in a given series are below
Example 2 Calculate
i) 7th decile
ii) 90 th percentile
Monthly per
No of families
C.f
17
17
150160
29
46
160170
42
88
170180
72
160
180190
84
244
190200
107
351
200210
49
400
210220
34
434
220230
31
465
230240
16
481
240250
12
493
~ 15 ~
). For
Solution
i ) for D7,
7( N 1) 7 x 494
345.8
10
10
The number 345.8 is contained in the minimum cumulative frequency 351, hence the class 190200 is the 7th decile class
345.8 244
10
107
D7 190
Then
for p90
And

199.5
90( N 1) 90 x 494
444.60
100
100
The number 444.60 is contained in the minimum cu.fr.465 hence, the 90 th percentile class is
220230
443.70 434
10
31
p90 220
~ 16 ~