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Test Items for Chapter 1

The Scientific Basis for the Art of Teaching

Multiple Choice Questions

Best practice in teaching consists of those practices that:

A. are firmly grounded in other professions, such as law.
B. are based on nurturing attitudes toward children.
C. are based on the common sense and traditions of experienced teachers.
D. have been shown to produce student learning.
Answer: D


When Nathaniel Gage talks about the art of teaching, he is using the word art to
A. the beauty that can be observed when skillful teachers are teaching well.
B. the teacher who is creative in an artistic sense, as when designing bulletin boards.
C. the way teaching departs from formulas and includes moment-by-moment
D. the way creative teachers include principles from the arts in their approach to
Answer: C


Role expectations for teachers changed between the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries. This statement is:
A. true, because student needs and school goals changed.
B. true, because basic skills are more important now.
C. false, because teachers still must teach large numbers of children.
D. false, because the teaching profession is still dominated by women.
Answer: A


Working effectively with twentyfirst-century student populations will require

teachers to:
A. learn a second language, probably Spanish.
B. master a larger repertoire of strategies than was needed formerly.
C. obtain additional certification in special education.
D. cope with fewer students who find the curriculum difficult or irrelevant.
Answer: B


The National Academy of Education recommended which of the following about

what teachers should know and be able to do?
A. understand how social systems work.

B. be able to understand and use data.

C. foster meaningful learning and creativity in students.
D. all of the above.
Answer: D

Which of the following graphs best depicts minority population projections for
schools in the United States in the twenty-first century?

Answer: C


Which of the following does not represent one of the several current trends in
relation to teaching?
A. Extended schooling for teachers.
B. Easier access into teaching.
C. Required testing for certification.
D. Demonstrated knowledge of pedagogy.
Answer: B


When the word accountability is used in relation to teachers and their teaching, it
A. teachers are responsible for knowing and using best practice.
B. teachers are responsible for every student who does not learn.
C. teachers are responsible for school drop-outs.
D. teachers are responsible for doing the best they can.
Answer: A


Which of the following does not represent one of the important attributes effective
teachers should possess?
A. Effective teachers should have a repertoire of best practices.
B. Effective teachers should be actively engaged in research on teaching.
C. Effective teachers should take a reflective, problem-solving stance toward
D. Effective teachers should consider learning to teach a lifelong process.
Answer: B

10. The scientific knowledge base for teaching:

A. provides guidelines for teaching that can be universally followed.
B. is very weak and cannot be relied on for guidance on how to teach.
C. provides guidelines to support the art of teaching.
D. gives us a complete picture of the uniqueness of each student.
Answer: C
11. A teachers repertoire of practices should ideally consist of:
A. a diverse number of models, procedures, and techniques.
B. a few methods that have been proven by research to be superior.
C. inductive and deductive methods.
D. methods which complement the teachers intuition and teaching style.
Answer: A
12. A reflective, problem-solving teacher is one who has:
A. a command of the knowledge base on teaching.
B. a rich repertoire of reflective teaching strategies.
C. the ability to think about and deal with unique teaching situations.
D. the ability to work with learning disabled students.
Answer: C
13. Teachers must establish procedures for effective motivation and coordinate the
activities of students. These activities are called the:
A. organizational aspects of teaching.
B. interactive aspects of teaching.
C. leadership aspects of teaching.
D. administrative aspects of teaching.
Answer: C
14. The day-by-day instruction of students is labeled the:

A. organizational aspects of teaching.

B. interactive aspects of teaching.
C. leadership aspects of teaching.
D. administrative aspects of teaching.
Answer: B
15. Actions that teachers perform as members of the complex school-work environment
are termed the:
A. organizational aspects of teaching.
B. interactive aspects of teaching.
C. leadership aspects of teaching.
D. administrative aspects of teaching.
Answer: A
16. Sally Chin, a new P.E. teacher, is involved in a first-of-the-year department meeting.
The purpose of the meeting is to set the after-school activity duty roster for the
semester. In which aspect of teaching is Sally engaged?
A. Organizational.
B. Interactive.
C. Leadership.
D. Administrative.
Answer: A
17. After thinking through an especially trying day with his third-graders, Dale Woodley
settles on a plan for improving the situation. He decides to move the desks of the
more troublesome students away from the high-traffic areas of the room. In which
aspect of teaching is Dale engaged?
A. Organizational.
B. Interactive.
C. Leadership.
D. Administrative.
Answer: C
18. Lavon Blaisdell is in the midst of a concept attainment lesson. Concept attainment is
one of the teaching models in the information-processing family. In which aspect of
teaching is Lavon engaged?
A. Organizational.
B. Interactive.
C. Leadership.
D. Administrative.
Answer: B

19. A model of teaching can best be described as a:


teaching technique shown to be effective through research.

family of teaching and learning theories that facilitate student learning.
philosophy and value system of teaching.
theoretically based pattern of teaching for helping students learn specific kinds of
knowledge, attitudes, or skills.
Answer: D
20. Which of the following is not a feature of standards-based education:
A. Every child should be expected to meet specified standards
B. Standards should be established that are flexible
C. Teachers should use evidence-based practices
D. Student learning should be assessed to ensure accountability.
Answer: B
21. Which of the following statements cites a major finding coming from Lorties study
of teaching and others like his since that time?
A. Effective teachers are born, not made.
B. Conceptions of teaching are influenced by parents and teachers.
C. Effective teachers decide on a teaching career at a very early age.
D. Conceptions of teaching are formed during the first year of teaching.
Answer: B
22. What is one of the major findings of the The Good Teacher and Good Teaching
A. It confirms that young children have little knowledge about what teachers do.
B. It confirms that beginning teachers are fully knowledgeable about good teaching.
C. It confirms that belief systems about teaching begin at an early age.
D. None of the above findings were confirmed.
Answer: C
23. Barbara is a beginning teacher at a large, urban middle school. She is very anxious
about an upcoming classroom visit by her department chair. Yesterday the students
were very restless and noisy, and she hopes they act more settled during todays
visit. She isnt sure of her standing in her chairs eyes; he said, Good morning to
her earlier that day, but he didnt smile, making her wonder if he feels her
performance is adequate. How would you categorize Barbaras stage of
A. She is at the survival stage.

B. She is at the teaching situation stage.

C. She is at the student concerns and mastery stage.
D. She is at the assessment stage.
Answer: A
24. What might Barbara, in question #23 above, do to move herself to a higher level?
She might:
A. take assertiveness training to help her cope with her department chair.
B. take a course in classroom management to help her gain confidence in classroom
C. take a course in her subject area to help her increase her students achievement.
D. ignore her worries and push forward.
Answer: B
25. Which of the following criticism exist in regard to for-profit education?
A. For-profit schools have shown to be mainly ineffective.
B. For-profit schools have been successful only in middle class neighborhoods
C. Reliance on for-profit schools will lead to different types of educational
D. Reliance on for-profit schools will lead to lack of support of the public school
Answer: D
26. Some of the factors that characterized changes in schools throughout the twentieth
century include:
A. most states passing laws requiring students to be in school until age 18.
B. immigration patterns slowing and allowing for less extensive literacy instruction.
C. much of the responsibility for helping youth to make the transition from family
to work falling to the schools.
D. all of the above.
Answer: C
27. The study of the art and science of teaching is called:
A. the art of teaching.
B. best practice.
C. scientific knowledge.
D. pedagogy.
Answer: D
28. The ultimate purpose of teaching is:

A. to ensure that the majority of students taught are able to function in the real
B. to help students become independent and self-regulated learners.
C. to ensure that the majority of students taught have an understanding of the basic
academic skills that our society deems important.
D. to help students become proficient in the skill areas that are useful in our society.
Answer: B
29. The perspective of teaching that holds that teachers are expert in a particular
discipline, and that this knowledge is passed on to students in the form of facts,
concepts, and principles is called:
A. the objectivist perspective.
B. the constructivist perspective.
C. the academic learning perspective.
D. best practice.
Answer: A
30. Dina Perez is a biology teacher at New City High School. Although she has a
masters degree in her subject area, Dina worked throughout the weekend planning
a fairly simple unit on dissection and got little sleep due to recurring dreams
involving the students running wild in her classroom. Dina is most likely in what
stage of development?
A. Survival stage.
B. Teaching situation stage.
C. Pupil concern and mastery stage.
D. Mastery stage.
Answer: A

True or False Questions

31. Standards for teachers in the nineteenth century emphasized the conduct
of their personal lives over their professional abilities.
A. True
B. False
Answer: True
32. School buildings as physical structures are likely to be eliminated early on in the
twenty- first century due to technological advances that will allow and ease the use
of remote instruction.
A. True
B. False
Answer: False

33. A lesson plan is the collection of methods, strategies, and processes that teachers use
to teach.
A. True
B. False
Answer: False
34. The existing knowledge base on teaching has been badly conceived.
A. True
B. False
Answer: False
35. Teachers cannot be dismissed for performing organizational aspects of teaching
A. True
B. False
Answer: False

Short Answer and Essay Questions


Describe the meaning of the scientific basis for the art of teaching, and discuss
ways both science and art contribute to effective teaching.
05 points: 1 for correct, concise description, and 2 each for discussion of their contributions to
effective teaching


List and define attributes of the effective teacher described in Learning to Teach.
Discuss why these are important for effective teaching.
012 points: 1 each for naming, 1 each for correct definitions, and 1 each for providing appropriate


It has been posited that effective teachers have command over a specialized
knowledge base that informs teaching. Discuss three strengths and three limitations
of this knowledge base.
06 points: 1 for each strength; 1 for each limitation


Teachers work can be conceptualized around three important functions or aspects.

List these three functions or aspects, and give examples of work associated with
06 points: 1 for each function; 1 for each example


Several theorists have described the developmental stages teachers go through in

the process of learning to teach. Describe the idea of developmental stages, and
discuss the implications these ideas have for a person learning to teach.

010 points: 5 for correct, concise explanation of a developmental theorist and 5 for implications


The research by Murphy, Delli, and Edwards shows the importance of experiences
as students have for influencing our conceptions of teaching, and that our beliefs
about teaching develop at a fairly early age. Discuss both the positive and negative
implications of these findings.
04 points: 2 each for positive and negative implications