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Annex A: Road Map for USAR National Capacit

Community Based
munity Risks /
Rescue Needs

specific skills

Conduct own training
Collective Risk Assessment and identify needs
Organise resources and response requirements
Determine type of team
Develop specific skills and competencies
Develop training requirements using INSARAG First
Responder Training Package
Technical Rescue Team

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)

Coordination Saves Lives |

Determine type of technical skills require (single or

Plan and organised resources and sustainability
Develop specific skills and competencies
Develop laws, regulations and safety framework

Determine national needs based on risk assessment

Determine the capability and capacity needed.
Reference INSARAG Guidelines.
Organise and allocate resources to develop these
according to the risk assessment.
Gain political support and commitment.
Create and develop laws, regulations and tools to
implement and manage the requirements.
Create national processes, mechanism and systems
to administer and manage it so that it is sustainable.
Develop accreditation system.
Align the national emergency management system
with INSARAG Guidelines framework.
Mechanism to validate capability and capacity

Determine ability to assist in humanitarian

Align and join INSARAG USAR network.
Consider classifying national team and apply for it,
Commence preparation for classification

Contribute and play active role in INSARAG activities and

capacity developments



United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)

Coordination Saves Lives |

.Annex B: Specific Technical Rescue Training Examples

The manual defines training levels as:

Awareness Level: This level represents the minimum capacity of organisations that provide response to technical
search and rescue incidents. The support zone (or cold zone) is the area of a site that is free from incident hazards
and may be safely used as a planning and staging area. All members of a technical rescue/USAR team must be
trained to this level to operate safely in a cold zone.

Operations Level: This level represents the capacity of organisations to respond to technical search and rescue
incidents and to identify hazards, use rescue equipment, and apply limited techniques specified in this standard to
support and participate in technical search and rescue incidents. The transition zone (or warm zone) is the area
between the exclusion and support zones. This area is where responders enter and exit the exclusion zone. All
members of a technical rescue/USAR team must be trained to this level to operate in a cold and/or warm zone.
Appropriate protective clothing is required in this zone.
Organised First Responders

Technician Level: This level represents the capacity of organizations to respond to

technical search and rescue, and/or USAR incidents and to identify hazards use rescue
equipment, and apply advanced techniques specified in this standard necessary to
coordinate, perform and supervise technical search and rescue incidents. The exclusion zone (or hot zone) is the area
where tactical search and rescue operations are conducted. This zone poses the greatest hazard and risk of
injury/death. All members of a technical rescue/USAR team must be trained to this level to operate in a warm and/or
hot zone. Appropriate protective clothing and equipment is required in this zone.

Rope Rescue
Rope techniques are a basic underlying skill for most other types of rescue. Most rescuers will be familiar with basic rope
techniques and knot tying as part of their induction curriculum.
An awareness of rope skills can be taught to rescuers in only a day. It could include topics such as rope characteristics,
strengths, basic knots, hardware, hazards to be aware of when using rope, and dangerous techniques to avoid. An operations
level could cover rope rescue techniques. Rescuers could be taught basic techniques of rappelling, rigging, belaying, safety,
anchoring, and simple mechanical advantage systems. Additional operational techniques could include patient packaging, low
angle evacuations, and simple pick-off manoeuvres. This could be taught in two days.
A detailed technician level programme could be conducted in approximately one week, covering basic and advanced rigging
techniques, anchor systems, belays, simple and complex mechanical advantage systems, and advanced patient extrication
techniques and stokes basket operations. Low and high angle rescue techniques, including telpher and tyrolean systems, could
also be included.
The specialist level course could include advanced techniques for helicopter operations, ladder operations and bridging
techniques, and other topics. It should require practical and teaching experience. Urban rope techniques could be incorporated
for areas where high angle rescues may be adapted to an urban environment.
Sample course topics:

Course objective
History of rope rescue
Rope rescue applications
Rescue philosophy
Types of rope
Types of equipment
Types of hardware and technical gear
Knots, hitches, and anchors
Lashing and picketing techniques
Simple and complex mechanical advantage systems
Belay techniques
Litter rigging and evacuation techniques

Low angle rescue

High angle rescue

Urban rescue operations

Traverse techniques

Incident command

Self-rescue techniques
EMS and patient care considerations

Helicopter operations

Personal equipment:


Sturdy boots

Leather gloves (preferably not firefighting gloves)

Clothing (appropriate for terrain and weather conditions)

Confined Space Rescue

Confined spaces are defined as any area not designed for human occupancy with limited entrance and egress. Many countries
maintain national regulations which require confined space rescue personnel who enter permit spaces to be trained prior to
attending this type event.
An awareness of confined space rescue can be taught in a few hours. The awareness level for confined space could include
background on applicable regulations, recognition of permit-required spaces, confined space hazard recognition, how to secure
the scene, available resources for confined space rescue, and what conditions preclude their entry into a space.
Operations level personnel could be taught safe entry and rescue techniques, atmospheric monitoring techniques, and how to
size up the hazards and risks. An operations level could be achieved with several days of training.
Technician level personnel could be trained for a wide range of skills and hazard assessment.
Skills may include patient evacuation, special retrieval systems, use of communications and command at confined space
incidents, familiarity with various types of confined space, atmospheric monitoring, hazard assessment, and ventilation
At least 40 hours would be necessary to train personnel to the technician level. The specialist should be fully versed in confined
space operations and have hands on, practical experience. A specialist should have the expertise of the technician, along with
experience in training, hazardous materials, and other associated rescue areas that would be applicable to confined spaces.
Sample course topics:

Types of confined spaces

National regulations rules

Hazard recognition

Securing the scene


Atmospheric monitoring

Incident command

Rescuer entry techniques

Retrieval systems
Rope and hardware and technical equipment

Lock out/tag out procedures

Breathing apparatus equipment

EMS and patient care considerations

Safety and survival

Personal equipment necessary: