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# International Journal of Mechanical and Production

## Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD)

ISSN(P): 2249-6890; ISSN(E): 2249-8001
Vol. 5, Issue 2, Apr 2015, 1-10
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## INERTIA EFFECT UNDER COUPLE STRESS FLUID IN LAMINAR

FLOW CONDITION IN JOURNAL BEARING
SUGATO GHOSH
Calcutta Institute of Technology, Under West Bengal University of Technology, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT
I derive the more fundamental equation where I focus on how to neglect inertia terms of the Navier stokes
equation, since this is well understood where the consideration of the additional viscous terms in the Navier stokes
equation is a topic of current research. We considered two examples for inertia term of Navier Stokes equation where I
neglecting viscous term in driving the Reynolds equation for couple stress fluid which I can also proved to be important in
some situation. First case any surface feature under couple stress fluid resulting in film geometry where

= 0(1) or

= 0(1). The singularity comes from the additive conjunction of blinding of additive moles at the curvature which is

less serve than the one arising from the film gradient, but in both cases using the Reynolds equation will not allow a proper
matching between the fluid regions. The second example implicated where the Reynolds equation will not describe what
occur a solid particle is within the conjunction. The significant error is to be determining with inertia effect and without
inertia effect between them in these research paper.

## , Inertia Creation, Error Creation

INTRODUCTION
In typical hydrodynamic lubricated thrust and journal bearing the inertia effects are small relative to the viscous
effect for couple stress fluid used as lubricant. The modified Reynolds equation of couple stress fluid et all  effects can
sometime be important. Any change in pressure in the inlet region of a foil bearing can greatly affects the behaviour of the
enter bearing. Such a change in pressure can be caused by inertia effects if the fluid velocity and inertia are high enough to
create a pressure component. The inertia effect can be significant if a separation bubble exist when flow enters the film
around a sharp edge corner as is the case in hydrostatic when flow goes from the recessed region to the bearing region.
Besides the important of inertia terms of the Navier stokes equation, the neglecting inertia terms in deriving the Reynolds
equation et all  Hamrock & Myllerup. I taken two examples, first one example is any surface feature with additive
blending resulting in film geometry where

=0(1) or

## =0(1) and secondly where the Reynolds equation will not

describe what occur in the lubricant conjunction is when a solid particle is within the conjunction of additive blending.
In Couple stress fluid R (Reynolds number) was defined as the ratio of inertia effects to viscous effects.
Two example are i taken that any surface feature in augural where in presence of additive in couple stress fluid feature
resulting a film pressure geometry where

= 0(1) or

## =0(1). The singularity arising from being at the spin of

rotation of additive mole is less serve than the one arising from the film gradient, but in both cases using the Reynolds
equation will not allows a proper matching between the fluid regimes. Reynolds equation will not describe what occurs in
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Sugato Ghosh

the lubricant conjunction with blending with additive moles is when a solid particle is within its molecular conjunction.

ANALYSIS
The governing modified Reynolds equation in two dimensional for an incompressible fluid is

=6U

+ 12

(1)

## Using the following substitutions as dimensionless variable parameter

= ,z= , =

, ,=
!

=1+cos(
"

+2

(2)

Now we used coupled stress fluid and considering Stroke-micro quantum equation barriers with all parameters.
The modified Reynolds equation can be finally derived as
\$%(, ')

(+ \$%(, ')

( =6)U

(3)

## Using the dimensionless variable terms

=

."

/0

' = ,
-

,= 12345(

, =

,89 =

),2 = ,= ,7= ,

6
1

:/;

<

=( #,-)

(4)

To illustrate the results of considering inertia effect of Couple Stress fluid under laminar flow condition a simple
case is considered where

## Steady state condition prevails.

Side leakage under laminar flow of couple stress fluid are neglected.

## The couple stress fluid is assumed to be incompressible.

The Navier stoke equation applicable under these condition can be written in the case first we derived

>

=?@ =G@ -

+A
C

+A

>
F

>

>
F

+
+

D ED

D ED
C

(5)
(6)

## Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Inertia Effect Under Couple Stress Fluid in Laminar Flow Condition in Journal Bearing
H

=I@ -

+A

D ED

(7)

+L

>
H

+L

MD

MD

MD

>

MD

>

(8)
(9)

## The corresponding continuity equation under these condition is

>

=0

(9a)

The velocity components are defined in terms of steam functions, therefore, the Navier stokes and continuity
equation are made under dimensionless by letting.
Now again non-dimensional terms followed
= , = ,U=NR x=ROP ( , 7),7=

OP ( , 7),OA =

#
Q

, = O( , 7) ,=

The relative importance of inertia to viscous force in any flow problem can be written as, the Reynolds number
R=

RS6T R@

FR91P>9

However, in fluid film lubrication because of the dominance of the viscous terms in couple stress fluid

>

, the

=

RS6T R@

FR91P>9

U =

MVW
#"

VXV

-Y

,U =

Or U =U

MDW
# " V ZV
-/

,U =

Z
V

/V

MV #" V
D D

=R

## Non-dimensional convention from Navier Stoke

x=l X, z=P ,u=JPQ#\ (], 7), w=

O=

#
Q

,O =

#
Q

,O =

#
Q

!>V V
-

O (], 7) ,

According to Dipriam and Stuart (1972) recommended, the following method of solution to non-linear problem
describe in these equation
O=OAA ( , 7)+

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OA ( , 7)+U O A ( , 7) +

OA ( , 7)+

U O ( , 7)+U

O A ( , 7)+.....

(10)

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Sugato Ghosh

P= AA
( , 7) +

( , 7) + U

( , I) +

A ( , 7)+U A ( , 7) +

= AA+

A ( , 7)+

( , 7)+

( , 7) +U

A ( , 7)+......

(11)

U ( , 7)+U A ( , 7) +

(12)

U \$

(+

`
#Z

(13)

#gD

"D

U {\$

_DD

## =89 /%(, ' ) h

Dg

#D"

i+

(+

#DD

jOU h

[Though O=

DD

#Dg

gD

+U

#gg

+U

+U

Dg
#gD

"D

+U

#"D

ih

DD
#D"

DD

"D

gg

Dg

#gg

+U

+U

"D

+U

gD

gg
#"D

kl

+........} +U h

"D

DD

gg

#Dg

(14)

It is a integral approach Ist Navier Stokes equation and from 3rd Navier-Stokes equation considering continuity
equation, to write modified Reynolds Equation of Couple Stress
Fluid (Non-Newtonian). We get terms of 0(1);
]; 0(Um ), respectively for that first collecting terms 0(1); 0\$ ( , and 0(U ). To be distinguished either the

0[

Although,
89 /%(, ')=

:/;

#
=( #,-)

## Collecting terms 0(1), 0

0=

DD

0=

Dg Q

0=

+(
+

#gD

#DD

DD

DD

DD

(15)

#DD

, 0(U ) respectively.

DD

(16)

DD

(17)

Now for finding value considered the boundary condition as they are in the Equation (15)-(17)

## Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Inertia Effect Under Couple Stress Fluid in Laminar Flow Condition in Journal Bearing

When =

=0and

(18)

Journal surface
>

u(x,h,z)=U,

(x,h,z)=0

(19)

## For all values of .

Recalling equation (11) for journal surface off boundary condition (19)
When 7=0, these implies
DD

P=

Dg

+U

_gD

gD

D"

gg

D"

+U

+.....=1

(20)

So,

DD

Dg

=1,

(21)

gD

(22)

=0

## When z=0, these implies

P=

DD

Dg

+U

_gD

gD

D"

D"

( , 7) = A ( , 7) = 0

gg

+U

D"

+.....=0

## When 7=1 at the exits end.

(, 7) = A ( , 7) = 0

## When 7=0 at the inlet end.

P=0 for bearing surface of condition (19), when 7=1

DD

Dg

gD

=0

(23)

# oo AND poo )
ORDER 1 SOLUTION (n

## The developing Reynolds equation is based on the velocity component;

#=qA
q

(], 7)(

+[r4,5 +, ]|(1) t AA
( , 7) +

( , 7) + U

A ( , 7) +

( , 7)uXt

AA (], 7)

+
(24)

#A at journal y =h ; u(x,y,z)=U
When u=q
#=q
#A
q

+Const[ AA
( , 7) (], 7)]

(25)

## From above equation (25)

When, z=0 at exist end, =1
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Sugato Ghosh

DD

Dg

Dg

## =constant=vA where 7=0

=constant =v A where7=0

\$

DD

( +\$

DD

[Taking \$

DD

( +\$

( ( ( , 7)

(26)

(27)

( +\$

(=\$

:Q( , )
=( ,-)

(=w ]

=( ,-)

=( ,-)

DD

{

DD

( +\$

DD

(}+[w ]

( ( , 7))

O( , 7)= w

(28)

DD

(7 = 0)=-

(7 = 1)

#DD

(h=0)

(29)

## Integrate the equation (29)

" ( , 7) (7 =0 at lower,7 = 1 at upper)

## =3{- ( , 7) (7 = 1)z( , 7){ (01)- (,z)[ ( , 7)] (7 = 1)}+}AA

(30)

Where;
" =~

DD

# (, z) =~ (, z) ; (, z) =~
;
#

## Again intrigues the equation (30) twice

}
(,z)=-6{[}AA (O( , 7))]- }AA [(O( , 7))] +[AA (O( , 7))] + rAA

(31)

## Making use of the boundary condition Equation (30) implies

=0 and AA [O( , 7)]=1
rAA

Thus,

(32)

## Making use of boundary condition in equation (30) &substitute in equation (32)

0=-6{[}AA (O( , 7))]- }AA [(O( , 7))] +1}

## [}AA (O( , 7))] = \$(%c, ' d

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.3403

DD

6(

(33)
(34)

## Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Inertia Effect Under Couple Stress Fluid in Laminar Flow Condition in Journal Bearing

p(,z)=\$(%c, ' d)

DD

(2+6c%(, ' d

DD

+O[ , 7]

(35)

AA

## with respect to , which is

exactly modified Reynolds Equation used in equation (3) while neglecting side-leakage and inertia terms. Similar to
mathematical induction method.

ORDER

# o )
# o AND p
SOLUTION (n

DD

=-

DD

#DD

DD

(36)

Dg

= cAA d

DD

#DD

+} ( , 7)

(37)

## Again integrating equation (37) w.r.t.

= zAA AA
+ AA
AA { +}A ( , 7)+A (,z)

:
Dg

(38)

## Again integrating equation (32) w.r.t.

=}A ( , 7) ( , 7) +[}A

( , 7)] +A ( , 7)(,z)+rA ( , 7)

(39)

Though
O=OAA (], 7)+OOA (x, z)
Higher order neglecting,

(40)

## Substituting all the value

=( ; 7)[}A ( , 7) 1]+}A -( , 7) \$1

Dg

Dg ( , )
(
#

=\$

+}A 6 12'

2 +,

( , )!

(
#
W
"

961

(41)
-

" !

#" !

#
W
-" @S " "!
# "
W
"

-" @S

(42)

## }AA =z%c, ' d AA

6{
Substitution equation (23)
AA + 6}A \$ ' 5,2

vA =(%c, ' dv

isech(
z% c, ' d{
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?53

( tc 1d + 1 + 4' \$5,2

3452

(u /

(43)

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Sugato Ghosh

## AA {}A = zvA %(, ' )v

:

#
# 961
= cW,d =( #,-)

c 1d + 1 + 4' \$5,

345

( i

(44)

Having an expression for }A as well as Equation (36) is finding OA (,z) given equation (36).

# o )
INERTIA CORRECTION (no andp

#
\$%(, ')

DD

#gD

\$6%(, % )

DD

#gD

[O( , 7)]

#gD

[O( , 7)]

(45)

c%(, ' d AA

=-

#DD

=( #,-)

)+fc, ' d

DD

## cAA d +6fc, ' d AA

#gD

+O( , 7)

+}AA ( , 7)+zAA ( , 7)
( ( AA
) - (O)fc, ' d AA

(46)

Z=0 and

#
=( #,-)

=0 (1)

Z=0 and

=( #,- )

=0 (2)

Z=1 and AA
=1 (3)

DD

Z=1 and

=1 (4)

## Making use the boundary condition 1&3 in equation (47)

A +O( , 7) A +
}AA ( , 7)=6f (,' )

=( #,-

(i -

%c, ' d

(47)

## Using the boundary condition (2) & (4) in equation (46)

AA (, z)=0

(48)

FORCE COMPONENT
It being posse, it is a steam function with non-linear non-newtonian pressure discrimination function, related to
the bearing surface.
It posses with normal stress acting in journal cyclic rotation on the surface geometry.
Null tic all the terms iso-thermal im-compresessable. It being posses with Couple-Stress ingredient divergent flow
with null tic end leakage under creation of Inertia vector tensor. By ethological Couches Stress.
[ = -p +[ C +[

+2A

>

(49)

/

YD

=\$

>

>

(50)

## The end exist leakage at

Impact Factor (JCC): 5.3403

## Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Inertia Effect Under Couple Stress Fluid in Laminar Flow Condition in Journal Bearing

Boundary Condition
7=0 inlet

(51)

7=1 exist
#D
Y-0

[ =#

"

(52)

t AA
+

YD

# DD ( , )
Q

+U

(
AA

, 7) + O

( DD
( , )

+U

# DD ( , ) DD
( , d
cQ

+O

-
#"

U (7)/

DD ( , )

A U)A u

(53)

(54)

# =~- ~ ([

A A

@ )v

(55)

=

H
# \ D"
YD >DD

= -~A t AA
+

= ,DD +
,PP -~A

, A =-~A

+2
A

U L

,A

# DD
Q
`

# DD
Q
`

+U

, A

+U

#"
>

U (7)/

A U)A u

(56)

(57)
(58)

(59)

## Form equation (29) we get

#
P(,z)=vAA =\$%(, ')

DD

( +6 %c, ' d

DD 2

) +O( , 7)

DD

+O(,z)

(60)
(61)

VV

(62)

## For a particular groove in an bearing surface

Integrating (61) gives

~A ~A c%(, ' d(

DD

) + O( , 7) i v

(63)

Intergradations by parts
=\$~A

= ,AA

DD

#
%(, ')

DD

## ~A %c, ' d v + ~A O( , 7)v i(

(64)

ERROR CALCULATION
The aseptic non-conformable incompressible fluid film lubricant without inertia posse the quatic V. K. Stock
micro quantum equation.

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10

Sugato Ghosh

= %(, ' )

DD

+6

(65)

the actual posse of couple stress hydrodynamic journal Bearing considering inertia
w =\$

DD

QDD

DD

( % c, ' d

(66)

(67)

## RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

The Reynolds modified equation with inertia is defined as ratio of inertia to viscous effect on a fluid element
being finding in polar modes for hydrodynamic journal bearing. We generally find all equation considered that for
hydrodynamic ally lubricated thrust and journal bearings the inertia effects are small relative to viscous effects. In Couple

Stress fluid Reynoldss number U is calculated with its inertia effect in modulate with solution of pressure, steam function

and force component terms barriers with viscous incompressible fluid phase. Pressure and Stream functions were
expressed with the inertia corrections in V. K. Stroke micro-quantum. First order inertia correction and

terms also

derived. Analytical solutions were obtained for each of the terms while neglecting terms higher order effect. A number of
assumptions were also imposed; including all neglect ting terms such as side- leakage and body force which are assume
fluid flow incompressible, steady-state. It is on accunatic additive spinic in inertia point off its educational approach and it
laid zero cavitations zone. The first order terms for the normal load-carrying capacity and the shear stress were found the
generalised paper is same as. Furthermore, it was found that the inertia correction approaches zero as a parallel film shape
for couple stress fluid lubricant was approached and becomes more significant as the film thickness ratio was deserved.
Comparing equation help to form comparative error in this paper.

REFERENCES
1.

## Hamrock. B. J. Hydrodynamic Bearings Consideration Higher-Order Effect.-Fundamentals of Fluid Film

Lubrication. McGraw Hill International EDITIONS.

2.

Jaw-Ren Lin, Effects of Couple Stress on the Lubrication of finite journal Bearings. Wear 206(1997) 171-178

3.

B. C. Majumdar, R Pai and D J Hargreaves, Analysis of water-lubricated journal bearings with multiple axial
grooves Proc Instn Mech Engrs vol 218 part J J Engineering Tribology

4.

Diprima, R. C., and Stuart, J. T. (1972): Flow Between Eccentric Rotating Cylinder, j. Lubr Technol, vol. 94, no
3, pp 266-274.

5.

Myllerup, C. M. and Hamrock, B. J. (1992): Local Effects in thin film Lubrication, Presented and published in
the 19 th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology.