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Rock and Soil Reinforcement

and Support

Engineering to reduce the cost of roof support in a coal mine
experiencing complex ground control problems
Khair, A W; Peng, S S
Min ngng V43, N8, Aug 1991, P1062-1066

Boi~and anchors

At a mine in Ebenburg. Pennsylvania. complex geology, high

in situ horizontal stress, and relatively weak roof have resulted
in the occurrence of cutter roof. Adoption of yield pillars gave
only marginal improvement. Steel beam support was expensive and time consuming to instal. The roof was secured using
bolts to bind the laminated strata and a supplementary truss
to transfer roof weight to the ribs. Refinement of the system is
described. Low support cost plus high advance rates are additional benefits.

See also: 922393, 922401

Experimental and theoretical studies on installation torque of
screw anchors
Ghaly, A; Hanna, A
Can Geotech J V28, N3, June 1991, t'353-364
Laboratory tests were used to examine the installation and
pullout behaviour of model screw anchors with different
geometries in dense, medium, and loose sands. Pullout load,
upward displacement, sand surface deflection, installation torque, and stress state in the soil were measured. Displacement
within the soil mass during anchor installation and pullout
was also studied. Factors influencing installation torque were
analysed and a relation linking desired pullout capacity and
installation torque derived. Theoretical results are in good
agreement with laboratory investigations.
Experimental distribution of stresses along a grouted anchor
in a rock mass under tensile loading (In French)
Benmokrane, B; Ballivy, G
C l M Bull V84, N951, July 1991, P45-52

Installation torque of screw anchors in dry sand
Ghaly, A; Hanna, A; Hanna, M
Soils Found V31, N2o June 1991, P77-92
Single and multi-pitch model screw anchors of various geometries were prepared and installed to different depths in dense,
medium, and loose sands. A theoretical model is developed to
predict required installation torque in terms of soil parameters
and anchor geometry. Required torque can be determined in
terms of ultimate uplift capacity and vice versa. Capacities
predicted on this basis agree well with model test results and
values reported in the literature.

Load transfer and debonding along the shaft of a grouted rock

anchor, instrumented with strain gauges, were studied in classical pullout and creep tests. Shear stress profiles along the
anchor were measured. The load level corresponding to initial
debonding of the grout, the effect of debonding on shear stress
distribution along the anchor, and creep behaviour of the
anchor/grout system are discussed.

Use of acoustic emission technique for identification of failure
of tensioned grouted rock anchors
Bouja, A; Ballivy, G; Benmokrane, B; Piasta, Z; Feknous, N
Rock Meelumics as u MMtidlsciplinary Science: Pro 32nd
US Sympasium, Norman, 10-12 July 1991 PIJ9-168. Publ
Rotterdam: A A Balkema, 1991

Anchors fixed by the lkvedol/Bevedan mixtures (In German)
Romberg, W; Comely, W
Geotechnik VI4, N3, 1991, Pl12-117

Grouted rock anchors under tensile load can fail by debonding

at rock/grout or anchor/grout interfaces, plastic deformation
of rock or grout, or cracking of rock or grout. Laboratory
model tests using bars grouted into NX cores and
300x300xl00mm blocks of limestone were used to determine
the AE signatures of these 6 failure modes. Evaluation and
discrimination of the AE signals is described. Debonding was
the predominant failure mechanism, with almost complete
absence of cracking.

A section of the new Hanover-Wurzburg railway required

lines in a deep cut across a slope in Triassic sandstone. A
temporary cut slope required anchoring because of potential
sliding failure. Cement grouting of 45m long anchors was first
attempted, but up to 35 tons of grout per anchor was required.
Resin grouting was used instead, and bearing capacity rapidly
achieved in the fissured rock. The anchors satisfied DIN 4125
acceptance tests.

Direct rock support methods

Anchor design for slope stabilisation by surface loading
Hryciw, R D
J Geotech Engng Div ASCE 11117, NS, Aug 1991, P12611274

Evaluation of wood packwail supports
Barczak, T M; Tasillo, C; Gallant, W D
CIM Bull V84, N951, July 1991, P53-57

Improvement in stability of a slope by the application of discrete surface loads is in part dependent on the orientation of
the load. This corresponds to the angle of anchor installation
for the case of anchored geosynthetics. The case of a slope of
purely cohesionless soil with no anchorage, end anchorage,
and skin friction anchorage is analysed to determine the optimum angle for the anchor. Design charts are presented to
assist in determining anchor spacing and length requirements.
An example is presented to illustrate importance of optimising
anchor orientation.

Nine different crib configurations currently used in advancing

longwall applications in Canada were evaluated in full scale
tests with the USBM mine roof simulator. Height to width
ratio and amount of solid material were among parameters
examined. Results are discussed together with general behaviour of timber materials. Design to maximise strength and
stability and cost benefit analysis are considered. Underground observations in the Sydney coalfield indicate capacity
less than that measured in the laboratory, attributable to less
than ideal boundary conditions underground.

1992 Pergamon Press Ltd. Reproduction not permitted