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THE IXTOC OIL SPILL

by

Anthony F. Amos

T~E

IXTOC OIL SPILL


95W

97\Jv

r.

FIELD

UNITED
STATES

OBSERVATIONS
JULY- NOVEMBER
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1979

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THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS MARINE SCIENCE INSTITUTE


PORT ARANSAo MARINE LABORATORY
PORT ARANSAS, TEXA> 78373

LONGHORN REPORTS:

THE IXTOC OIL SPILL

PART I--FIELD OBSERVATIONS:

JULY - NOVEMBER 1979

An.thony F. Amos
Research Associate
The University of Texas Marine Science Institute
Port Aransas Marine Laboratory
Port Aransas, Tx. 78373

Final Report to National Oceanic &Atmospheric Administration


En vi tonmenta 1 Research Laboratories and Department of Transportation
United States Coast Guard under NOAA Contract No. NA79RAC00141

31 January 1980

CONTENTS
face

TITLE
LIST OF FIGURES

(v)

LIST OF TABLES

(xi)
(xi i)

ABSTRACT
l

INTRODUCTION

2 METHODS

2 l

Watch and Logging System

2.2

Navigation

2.3 Weather Observations

2.4 Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity

2.5 Oil Observations

2.6 Other Observations

13

2.7

Data Presentation

14

2.7. l

Cruise Maps

14

2.7.2

Cruise Logs

15

2.7.3 Sample Logs and Station Summaries


3 CRUISE FSU-I (26 JULY - 31 JULY 1979
3. l

Cruise Objectives

17
18
18

3.2 Cruise Narrative

19

3.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors

21

3.3.1

Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam

21

3.3.2

Winds and Water Masses

22

3.3.3 Subsurface Oil

23

3.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise FSU-I

23

3.4 Pelagic Fauna

23
(i )

3.4. l

23

Birds

3.4.2 Other Sightings

23

3.5 Cruise Maps

24

3.6 Cruise Log

51

3.7 Sample Log

62

4 CRUISE MOUSSE-I (4 AUGUST - 8 AUGUST 1979)


4. l

Cruise Objectives

63
63

4.2 Cruise Narrative

63

4.2. l

Leg 1: Port Aransas- Port Isabel

65

4.2.2

Leg 2: Port Isabel - Port Isabel

66

4.2.3

Leg 3: Port Isabel - Port Aransas

68

4.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors

74

4.3. l

Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam

74

4.3.2 Wind and Water Masses

75

4.3.3 Subsurface Oil

75

4.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise MOUSSE-I

78
79

4.4 Pelagic Fauna


4. 4. l

Birds

79

4.4.2

Other Sightings

79

4.5 Cruise Maps

81

4.6 Cruise Log

105

4.7 Sample Log

122

5 CRUISE MOUSSE-II (15 AUGUST - 22 AUGUST 1979)


5. l

Cruise Objectives

123
123

5.2 Cruise Narrative


5.2.1

123

(BLM) Line IV

125
127

5.2.2 Line V
(i i)

5.2.3 Line VI

132

5. 2. 4 (BLM) Line II

133

5.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors

134

5.3. 1 Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam

134

5.3.2 Wind, Currents and Water Masses

137

5.3.3 Subsurface Oil

140

5.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise MOUSSE-II

143

5.4 Pelagic Fauna


5.4.1

144

Birds

144

5.4.2 Other Sightings

144

5. 5 Cruise Maps

146

5.6 Cruise Log

177

5.7 Sample Log

200

6 CRUISE FSU- I I (31 OCTOBER - 6 NOVEHBER 1979)

208

6.1

Cruise Objectives

208

6.2

Cruise Narrative

208

6.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors

211

6.3. 1 Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam

211

6.3.2 Wind and Water Masses

213

6.3.3 Subsurface Oil

214

6.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise FSU-II

214

6.4 Pelagic Fauna


6.4.1

215

Birds

215

6.4.2 Other Sightings

215

6.5 Cruise Maps

218

6.6 Cruise Log

247

Sample Log

266

6. 7

(iii)

7 SUMMARY

267

7.1

Forms of Ixtoc Oil Encountered and Conditions Observed

267

7.2

Distribution of Ixtoc Oil at the Surface

268

7.3

Distribution of Ixtoc Oil Subsurface

269

7.4

7.5

7.3.1

Viewed from Surface Vessel

269

7.3.2

Diver Observations

270

Flotsam Associated with Ixtoc Oil

270

7.4. 1 Sargassum

271

7.4.2

271

Water Hyacinth

7.4.3 Trichodesmium

272

7.4.4 Other Flotsam

273

Pelagic Fauna

273
273

7.6 Wind and Water Regime


8 CONCLUSIONS

275

9 REFERENCES

279

10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

282

APPENDIX--HEWLETT-PACKARD 9825-A COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

285

(i vl

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure l

R/V LONGHORN at work in the Gulf of Me xi co


in August 1979 during cruise MOUSSE-II

LONGHORN cruises FSU-I and II, MOUSSE-I and II,


cruise tracks.

Figure 3

Samples of log sheets used to map oil distribution


at the ocean surface

Figure 4

Example of sheen as observed during cruise


MOUSSE-II

Figure 2

Detail of a large patch of mousse found dur 'ng


cruise MOUSSE-II

10

Figure 6

Mark A. Northam collecting a sample of mousse

ll

Figure 7

Trichodesmium bloom showing scum lines

12

Figure 8

Close-up of windrow of tarballs

13

Figure 9

LONGHORN cruise FSU-I cruise track

20

Figure 5

Figures 10-19 cover the area bounded by


23"-25"N and 96"-98"W (FSU-I):
Figure 10

Cruise track

25

Figure 11

Observation location overlay

26

Figure 12

Surface winds

27

Figure 13

Surface temperature

28

Figure 14

Surface salinity

29

Figure 15

Distribution of tarballs

30

Figure 16

Distribution of sheen

31

Figure 17

Distribution of windrows

32

Figure 18

Distribution of water hyacinth

33

Figure 19

Sargassum and locations where no oil was seen

34

(v)

Figures 20-26 cover the area bounded by


24"-26"N and 95"-97"W (FSU-I):
Figure 20

Cruise track

35

Figure 21

Observation location overlay

36

Figure 22

Surface winds

37

Figure 23

Surface temperature

38

Figure 24

Surface salinity

39

Figure 25

Distribution of Saroassum,
and sheen

Figure 26

~later

hyacinth

Distribution of tarballs and locations where


no oil was seen

40
41

Figur~ 27-33 cover the area bounded by


26"-28"N and 95"-97"W (FSU-I):

Figure 27

Cruise track

43

Figure 28

Observation location overlay

44

Figure 29

Surface winds

45

Figure 30

Surface temperature

46

Figure 31

Surface salinity

47

Figure 32

Distribution of Sargassum

48

Figure 33

Location where no oil was seen

49

Figure 34

Cruise FSU-I bird sightings

50

Figure 35

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-I cruise track

64

Figure 36

Diver actuating 19-liter carboy sampler

67

Figures 37-48 cover the area bounded by


26"-28"N and 96"-98"W (MOUSSE-I):
Figure 37

Cruise track

82

Figure 38

Observation location overlay

83

Figure 39

Station locations

84

Figure 40

Surface winds

85
(vi)

Figure 41

Surface temperature

86

Figure 42

Surface salinity

87

Figure 43

Distribution of tarball s

88

Figure 44

Distribution of sheen

89

Figure 45

Distribution of windrows

90

Figure 46

Distribution of Sargassum

91

Figure 47

Distribution of Trichodesmium and water hyacinth

92

Figure 48

Locations where no oil was seen

93

Figures 49-56 cover the area bounded by


24-26N and 96-98W (MOUSSE-I):
Figure 49

Cruise track

95

Figure 50

Station locations

96

Figure 51

Surface winds

97

Figure 52

Surface temperature

98

Figure 53

Surface salinity

99

Figure 54

Distribution of tarball s

100

Figure 55

Distribution of sheen

101

Figure 56

Distribution of Sargassum

102

Figure 57

Distribution of water hyacinth

103

Figure 58

Cruise MOUSSE-II bird sightings

104

Figure 59

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II cruise track

124

Figure 60

Mousse patch showing of damping of surface waves

129

Figure 61

Close-up of mousse patch showing debris

130

Figure 62

Pump station (for fluorescence) taken


Lhrough mousse patch

131

Tarballs as photographed from beneath the


surface during dive station V-5

143

Figure 63

(vii)

Figures 64-76 cover the area bounded by


26-28N and 96-98W (MOUSSE-II):
Figure 64

Cruise track

147

Figure 65

Observation location overlay

148

Figure 66

Statton locations

149

Figure 67

Surface winds

150

Figure 68

Surface currents

151

Figure 69

Surface temperature

152

Figure 70

Surface salinity

153

Figure 71

Distribution of tarballs

154

Figure 72

Distribution of sheen

155

Figure 73

Distribution of windrows

156

Figure 74

Distribution of water hyacinth and


Trichodesmium

157

Figure 75

Distribution of Saroassum

158

Figure 76

Locations where no oil was seen

159

Figures 77-90 cover the area bounded by


24-26N and 96-98W (MOUSSE-II):
Figure 77

Cruise track

161

Figure 78

Observation location overlay

162

Figure 79

Station locations

163

Figure 80

Surface winds

164

Figure 81

Surface currents

165

Figure 82

Surface temperature

166

Figure 83

Surface salinity

167

Figure 84

Distribution of tarballs

168

Figure 85

Distribution of sheen

169

Figure 86

Distribution of mousse

170

(viii )

Figure 87

Distribution of windrows

171

Figure 88

Distribution of water hyacinth and


Trichodesmium

172

Figure 89

Distribution of Sargassum

173

Figure 90

Location where no oil was seen

174

Figure 91

Cruise MOUSSE-II bird sightings

175

Figure 92

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II cruise track

209

Figure 93

Bird seen during cruise FSU-II tentatively


identified as a species of Skua

216

Figures 94-102 cover the area bounded by


26-28N and 96-98W (FSU-II):
Figure 94

Cruise track

219

Figure 95

Observation location overlay

220

Figure 96

Surface winds

221

Figure 97

Surface temperature

222

Figure 98

Surface salinity

223

Figure 99

Distribution of tarballs and locations


where no oil was seen

224

Figure l 00

Distribution of Sargassum

225

Figure 101

Distribution of windrows

226

Figure 102

Distribution of Trichodesmium and water hyacinth

227

Figures 103-110 cover the area bounded by


24-26N and 96-98W (FSU-II):
Figure 103

Cruise track

229

Figure l 04

Observation location overlay

230

Figure l 05

Surface winds

231

Figure l 06

Surface temperature

232

Figure 107

Surface salinity

233

Figure l 08

Distribution of tarballs and locations


where no oil was seen

234

( i X)

Figure 109

Distribution of Sargassum

235

Figure 110

Distribution of windrows

236

Figures 111-119 cover the area bounded by


24-26N and 95-97W (FSU-II):
Figure 111

Cruise track

237

Figure 112

Observation location overlay

238

Figure 113

Surface winds

239

Figure 114

Surface temperature

240

Figure 115

Surface salinity

241

Figure 116

Distribution of tarballs and 1ocati ons


where no oi 1 was seen

242

Figure 117

Distribution of Sargassum

243

Figure 118

Distribution of windrows

244

Figure 119

Distribution of Trichodesmium and water hyacinth

245

Figure 120

Cruise FSU-II bird sightings

246

(x)

LIST OF TABLES
Table l

Location of bottom-moored arrays deployed


on cruise FSU-I

18

Table 2

Summary of station activity on cruise


MOUSSE-I

65

Table 3

Summary of station activity on cruise


MOUSSE- II, (BLM) Line IV

127

Table 4

Summary of station activity on cruise


MOUSSE-II, Line V

128

Table 5

Summary of station activity on cruise


MOUSSE-II, Line VI

133

Table 6

Summary of station activity on cruise


MOUSSE-II, (BLM) Line II

134

Table 7

Surface currents at MOUSSE-II anchor


stations

138

Table 8

Summary of cruise MOUSSE-II dive station


findings

141

(xi)

ABSTRACT
Four cruises were made aboard R/V LONGHORN during the period
23 July to 6 November 1979 on which observations and collections were
made specifically to study the distribution and morphology of Ixtoc I
oil at and beneath the surface of the v1estern Gulf of

~1exico.

These cruises cover the time from when the oil was well south
of the Mexican border but spreading north, through the period of maximum
activity and publicity when the oil beached on South Texas beaches, to
a period when the seasonal current change had apparently eversed the
flow of oil back into Mexican waters.
On all cruises oil was observed at the surface in one or more
of several forms and in several frequently observed conditions and
"associations".
The common forms were: (1) tarballs; (2) sheen; (3) mousse.

The

conditions specifically noted were: (1) no oil seen; (2) the existence
of windrows.

The associations were: (1) Sargassum; (2) water hyacinth;

(3) Trichodesmium; (4) other flotsam, including anthropogenic.

noted were:

Also

faunal associations, including fish, invertebrates, pelagic

mamma 1s and birds and migratory l andbiTds and insects.


Wind and weather, surface temperature and salinity and surface
currents were routinely measured.
Presented here for each cruise are:

maps of the distribution

of oil in its various forms, the prevailing winds, currents and water
masses, cruise tracks and station locations, a cruise log, cruise
narrative and results of the field observations.

The cruises covered

the region from near the Mexican coastline at 23 50'N to Port Aransas
(27 44'N) and out to sea as far as 95W or 150 nm offshore at 24N.
(xi i)

The nearest LONGHORN came to the source of Ixtoc I oil was 320 nm.
By the time the oil reached the areas investigated the well-known "mousse"
form had generally degraded into tarballs.
mousse was found.

Only one region of heavy

The mousse patch completely dampened all but the ocean

swell (under light wind conditions), imparted a strong odor to the


surrounding atmosphere, contained considerable amounts of debris, mostly
unrecognizable, provided a cover for some schooling fish and, while we
were examining it, was sprayed with a dispersant from a passing aircraft.
Tarballs or tar pancakes (as they might more ppropriately be
named) were by far the most common form of oil seen.

Their median

diameter was probably less than 3 em and only seldom were they up to 20 em
wide; frequently, they were less than 1 em in diameter.

The tarballs

were normally in patches, streaks and, most often, in windrows.


When the wind was calm or light the tarballs spread out over the
surface and invariably a sheen patch formed.

Tarballs were then seen to

be "bleeding" irridescent wakes into the sheen, particularly in sunlight.


We never encountered oil-produced sheen without tarballs.

Conversely,

however, tarballs were often found without a surrounding sheen.

As the

wind increased from calm the patches of sheen broke up into smaller
patches, then into wide streaks and finally into windrows.

The stronger

the wind, the less shiny was the surface of the slick.and in winds in
excess of 20 kt or so it was hard to tell whether or not sheen was present.
When the tarballs

1~ere

concentrated in windrows they could

frequently be seen sinking, sometimes out of sight and other times


returning back to the surface.

When the winds were calm and tarballs

were usually in patches of sheen they were never observed to sink.


(xiii)

Tarca 11 s were seen by divers beneath the surface whenever there


was oil on the surface.

Tarballs were found mainly in the upper 10 ft

but were observed as deep as 65 ft.

Underwater photographs were

unsuccessful in documenting the concentration of tarballs subsurface.


The concentration of oil subsurface was much less than that on the surface.
Particles were usually only a few millimeters in dimension and were almost
always described as thin and flaky.

Divers reported no obvious change in

particle density coincident with the thermocline, just a general thinning


out of particles with depth.
Particles were found down to the nepheloid (turbi

water layer

found adjacent to the bottom) layer but not within the nepheloid layer,
nor were they seen on the bottom by the divers at any station or found
in any of the sediment samples.
The most common flotsam other than oil seen during all four
cruises was Sargassum weed.

Sargassum was found at the surface or often

several centimeters beneath the surface; it was most commonly aligned


in windrows, often with tarballs.

The tarballs, being generally much

smaller than the Sargassum clumps, were frequently entangled in the


branches of the weed, but no oiled Sargassum was seen.
Water hyacinth washed into the Gulf of Mexico as debris from river
runoff was found in great abundance 1 , sometimes exceeding that of
Sargassum.

The plant was sometimes seen intact: roots, stems, leaves,

b1adders and even fl ewers in a fe1v instances, but was more often in
fragments of one or more of the above parts.

It was always seen floating

at the surface, was often found in windrows with both tarballs and
Sargassum, and was almost always oiled.
1

Except on cruise FSU-II in November


(xiv)

Blooms of Trichodesmium, a blue-green alga, were found on all


but the first cruise (July).

The patches were generally extensive and

were located most frequently north of 26N.

They were most often

detected on days when the winds were calm or light; they imparted a
slick-look to the ocean surface and often dampened capillary waves.
Quite often tarballs were found within a slick area that contained masses
of Trichodesmium.

In these instances the surface slick was enhanced

by active bleeding of the tarballs.


Pieces of wood and man-made litter were also frequently seen and
often smaller pieces would be associated with tarballs along with other
flotsam in windrows.

The most ubiquitous form of anthropogenic material

was styrofoam cups; these and other styrofoam objects were generally
coated with oil.
Although not made systematically, the observations of pelagic
fauna show that no obvious massive kills of organisms (large enough to
be seen with the unaided eye) occurred due to the presence of oil at
the surface.

One unoiled bird and a few unoiled fish were found dead.

Only one oiled bird was seen on cruise MOUSSE-II and two on MOUSSE-I.
Winds shifted from the prevailing southeasterlies during July and
August to northerly winds during the November cruise.

There were very

few periods of calm during the cruises.


Hater temperatures reached their peak of about 30C during the
early part of August but dropped to below 22C in the northern part in
November in response to the outbreaks of cold air accompanying frontal
passages.
Evidence of coastal upwelling
in August.
(xv)

~1as

found on the two MOUSSE cruises

Low salinities were found well offshore to the north of the


Mexican border on a11 four cruises.

These were anomalously low for

this late summer-early fall season and were probably caused by the
abnormally high precipitation that occurred in the Texas-Louisiana
coastal region.
Direct surface current measurements, made only on MOUSSE-II
anchor stations, showed a predominantly northerly

flo~1

on the offshore

ends of each section, but a more coastally-directed flow on the nearshore ends.

Northeasterly currents of 2 kt were measured at 25 lO'N;

96 50'W.

A conceptual model is presented, based on our field observations


of Ixtoc oil after it has weathered into tarballs.

In windrows, tarballs

are subjected to turbulent forces and some sink beneath the surface in
local downwelling zones.

When buoyant forces overcome local turbulence

the tarballs rise again to the surface.

In shallow water, should they

sink to the turbulent boundary layer, they may become entrapped there
by adherence to sedimentary particles and sink to the bottom.

This

would most easily occur in a well-mixed, neutrally stable water column


(a condition seldom found during LONGHORN cruises).

As the winds and sea

change to calm, subsurface tarba1ls ri.s.e back to the surface and spread
out over a large area.

The action of direct solar radiation and heating

in the surface microlayer causes the more volatile fractions of the oil
to ''bleed" and a sheen or slick region is produced.

These processes

are repeated over and over again with the normal cycle of surface wind
fluctuations.
A factor peculiar to the Ixtoc oil spill during late summer 1979
was the contact of the oil with masses of water hyacinth.
Cxvi l

While some

Saroassum sinks to the bottom and becomes an important food source to


the benthos, the hyacinth is remarkably buoyant and with a coating of
oil would be unlikely to sink in saline water.

~fater

hyacinth covered

with oil began washing up on Texas beaches along with tarballs and the
hyacinth may be an efficient scavenger of oil from the sea water.

The

source of the hyacinth is probably the rivers of southern. Tamaulipas,


Vera Cruz, Tabasco and Campeche.
Ixtoc oil washed up for only a few days on South Texas beaches
before the current reversal pushed it back south.

Duri

this time, in

many places, it washed in as mousse rather than tarballs.

Yet, north

of the border, we observed only tarballs at sea, even close to shore.


It is probable that the tarballs coalesce into a form of mousse in the
surf zone under the action of solar heating and wave action.
The large-scale transport of Ixtoc oil as revealed by the LONGHORN
cruises' field observations was not greatly different from that deduced
from the aerial observations.

Not readily detectable from the air,

however, were the windrows of small tarballs on the leading edge of the
advancing oil slick, the persistence of fresh surface water well offshore throughout the late summer and fall, and upwelled cold water
along the coastline, particularly from Brownsville south.

Some Tricho-

desmium blooms were misidentified as oil slicks from the aerial surveys.
The existence of large amounts of tarballs

som~

30 miles north

of the border in early November, long after the seasonal current


reversal, was a surprise finding.

The retreat of htoc oil may have

bec'l an oscillatory phenomenon as strong southeasterly winds alternated


with northeasterlies prior to the passage of each front.
( xvi i )

INTRODUCTION
Between late July and early October 1979, four cruises were made

aboard The University of Texas Marine Science Institute's R/V LONGHORN


(Fig. l) in the western Gulf of Mexico.

On each of these cruises


-

systematic observations were made of oil at the sea surface and


sampling programs were carried out.
Two of these cruises, named MOUSSE-I and MOUSSE-II (for Mexican Oil
Underwater Search and Survey Expedition), were funded b} U.S. Coast
Guard and NOAA to study the Ixtoc-I oil spill and form the bulk of this
report.

The other two were NSF-sponsored cruises headed by Wilton

Sturges of Florida State University and their prime mission was to


deploy (cruise FSU-I, 23- 31 July 1979) and recover (cruise FSU-II,
31 October - 6 November 1979) deep-moored current meter arrays for a
study of the Western Boundary Current.
)

Opportunity was taken on these

two cruises to observe and sample oil at the sea surface whenever

.1

possible, but this was a secondary mission of FSU-I and FSU-II.


Cruise MOUSSE-I (4- 8 August 1979) was, in nature, an emergency
cruise whose mission was to determine how much oil was subsurface and
to collect samples of oil for geochemical analysis.
place as the first oil moved into U.S. waters.

This cruise took

Cruise MOUSSE-II

05 - 22 August 1979) was designed to sample oil in the seawater, both


particulate and oissolved fractions, to determine geochemically how
the Ixtoc oil was being weathered as it was transported away from the
well-site.
This report is divided into three parts:

Part I describes the

methods used to observe and sample on all four cruises, contains

..~I

~-

Figure l.

The R/V LONGHORN at work in the Gulf of Mexico


in August 1979 duriny cruise MOUSSE-II.

cruise narratives and presents the results of the observational program


showing the spatial and temporal distribution of oil observed at the
sea surface and beneath the surface.

Part II presents the physical

oceanographic data, methods, analysis and results of all four cruises.


Part III describes the geochemical results of cruises MOUSSE-I and
MOUSSE-II.
Figure 2 is a composite map showing the tracks of all four cruises.
All maps used here were produced by computer; base maps with digitized
coastal outlines were photocopied and used for computer plotting of
the information given.

Due to the distortion that occu,

during photo-

copying and registration uncertainties, slight errors in cruise tracks,


station and sample locations do occur; the true positions are listed
in the cruise logs of each cruise (sections 3.6, 4.6, 5.6, 6.6).
Throughout these cruises extensive use was made of a Hewlett-Packard
9825-A desktop calculator and peripheral equipment, both on shipboard
and in the laboratory for the collection, analysis and presentation
of the data in this report.

LONGHORN Cruises FSU-I & II; MOUSSE-I & I I


98W

96W

97W

95\\1

28N
\\"--

~-I

I \ ~"i:-I \
~~
\ .J

27N
I

//'\_
UNITED
STATES

26N

r
I
\

MEXI 0

25N

JIOJS9<.-II
I

I
\

CRUISE TRACKS, 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 2

2 METHODS
2.1

Watch and Loqging System


After the first observation of Ixtoc oil at the surface during

cruise FSU-I, it became obvious that a systematic methodology for


observing and logging the sightings should be devised.

This was an

evolving process but each cruise was treated in essentially the same
way.
A 24-hr watch was maintained with each observer beina on duty for
four hours a day.

Formal deck log and oil observation log sheets were

devised and maintained throughout each cruise (Fig. 3).

Every hour,

or at any major course and/or speed change, an entry was made in the
deck log of the course speed and position.

On the hour, relative

wind speed and direction, sea state, and ocean depth were noted in the
deck log and the general condi.tion of the sea surface noted in the
oil log.

This was based on the observer studying the sea surface for

about 15 minutes prior to the hourly entry.

\<!henever an unusual

sighting occurred or a sample was collected, additional log entries


were made.

Ultimately, at the end of each day, these data were

entered in the Hewlett-Packard 9825-A, stored on cartridge tapes and


tabulated for each cruise as a cruise log (fully explained below).
2.2 Navigation
Position data were generally obtained from the ship's LORAN-e
system, but several times LORAN-A had to be used when the LORAN-e
rna lfuncti oned.

Often, both readings were taken simultaneously.

Occasionally, particularly south of Brownsville and close to shore,


both LORAN systems gave trouble.

In these instances additional navi-

The University of Texas Marine Science Institute


PORT ARANSAS MARINE LABORATORY

DECK LOG

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PORT ARANSAS MARINE lABORATORY

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Samples of log sheets used to map oil distribution at the


ocean surface.

'

gational data were obtained from radar and from the depth recorder.
Another problem encountered was interference from electrical storms.
Despite these problems, the LONGHORN's navigation was precise enough
to relocate the six deep-moored current meter arrays on cruise FSU-II
(each array has an acoustic release/transponder) on the first attempt
and without having to reposition the ship.
In instances where no position was noted for an event the positions
shown in the cruise logs were calculated by dead-reckoning.
2.3 Weather Observations
The major weather data recorded on these cruise5 .Jere wind speed
and direction and barometric pressure.
wet and dry-bulb thermometry.

The ship is not equipped with

Until half-way through cruise MOUSSE-I

wind direction was estimated relative to the ship's head, using the
flag.

During that cruise, new direct readout wind speed and direction

and barometer instrumentation was installed.


A very general description of the weather and light conditions was
made (e.g., overcast, bright sun, dark, rain, etc.) and the sea state
was estimated.

This was necessary to qualify the appearance of oil

and tar seen at the sea surface.

Visual observations were greatly

affected by sea surface conditions, water clarity and ambient light.


Night-time observations were made with a spotlight but are far less
reliable than those made in good light.
2.4 Sea-Surface Temperature and.Salinity
Every hour underway and ac certain times while on station the
sea-surface tHnperature (SST) was measured using a bucket thermometer
and a samp 1e co 11 ected for sa 1i nity CSSS) determination.

Sa 1initi es

were determined on shipboard using a Beckman RS7-C induction salinometer.

In addition, two experimental SST and SSS systems were operated:


(1)

A through-the-hull thermistor, similar to those used in expen-

dable bathythermograph (XBT) probes, was connected to the H-P 9825-A


via a digital voltmeter and the H-P interface bus (HP-IB) to provide
SST was displayed on

a continuous record of sea-surface temperature.

the computer's LEO display, in graphic form on the strip printer and
recorded once per minute on a cartridge tape.

The major disadvantage

of this system is that it utilized 100% of the computer's time while


in operation.
(2)

A Beckman RS5-3 induction salinometer was used to monitor the

conductivity of seawater circulated through a large plastic pump


system.

The readout of temperature, conductivity and salinity was

monitored every hour or whenever an XBT was taken.


2.5 Oil Observations 1
It was soon realized that several different types of Ixtoc oil
could be found representing different stages of weathering and that
some "associations" were common between the oil seen at the sea surface,
sea conditions, and natural and man-made flotsam.

Four major categories

of oil "types" were recognized:


(1)

No Oil Seen

(2)

Sheen:

Various forms of oil film on the sea surface,

variously called sheen or slick, that give the ocean surface a shiny,
smooth appearance, suppressing capillary waves, often showing irridescence (Fig. 4}.

It should be noted that many surface slicks and

patches of sheen are caused by naturally occurring organic material


1

All of these observations refer to the ocean as observed from a


surface vessel and not from an aircraft or orbitting satellite.

-- -

..

~-

~-?--

Figure 4.

Example of sheen as observed during cruise


MOUSSE-I I.

sometimes organized into streaks as a result of the wind-field or


internal gravity waves (La Fond, 1962; see also under "Windrows"
below).

Also, at times it became very difficult to decide whether a

widespread sheen was present or not when the winds were light, unless
a boundary could be found.

t~any

times the thickness of ;'ilm on the

sea surface varied and patches of slicker water upon slick water were
common.

The slicks plotted on the maps and noted in cruise logs are

both natural and due to the Ixtoc (or other). oil.


given in the cruise logs.

An explanation is

The problem is exacerbated by several types

occurring together (see "Tri chorlesmi um" below).


(3)

Tarbdlls:

This was the most commonly found form of

Ixtoc oil at sea, generally flattened, pancake-shaped (rather than


spherical), tarlike pieces of oil with colors ranging from light brown
to black.

After collection they easily fused together, were sticky

10

to touch and readily liquified in sunlight to a dark viscous liquid.


(4)

Mousse:

A semi-liquid emulsion of Ixtoc oil and sea

water, presumably named for its color (milk-chocolate) rather than its
texture.

In the nomenclature of this report "mousse" refers only to

the large patches of thick oil, still somewhat liquid, before it


breaks up into tarballs (Figs. 5 and 6).

Other workers have referred

to the tarballs as mousse (indeed tarballs may coalesce and in sunlight


become mousse again).

Figure 5.

Detail of a large patch of mousse found during


cruise MOUSSE II.

These last three "types" were not mutually exclusive and were often
found together.
Other condi H

"%

frequently encountered are not

as the following

observations:
(l)

Hindrm1s:

Hhen the wind speed blowing across the sea

surface exceeds 7 m/sec-l (Ewing, 1950), patches of organic material,

ll

Figure 6.

Mark A. Northam collecting a sample of mousse.

or slicks, start to organize themselves along convergence zones caused


by Langmuir-type circulation generated by the wind action.

It was

found that these windrows, oriented in the direction of the wind, were
major concentrators of tarballs and associated oil slicks.

Windrows.

were one of the conditions specifically noted during the oil-watch.


(2)

Sargassum:

A major component of the flotsam in the

western Gulf throughout the four cruises was algae of the genus Sargassum
(see Parr et

~.,

1939), frequently found aligned in windrows, floating

just beneath the surface or occasionally several centimeters below the


surface.

Tarba 11 s and Sargassum were often found together, especially

in the windrows.
(3)

Trichodesmium:

Heavy concentrations of the blue-green

algae of the genus Trichodesmium were encountered (see Fogg, 1975).


These blooms were responsible for several of the slick patches found
during the cruises but in some regions tarballs were found 1vithin

12

the Trichodesmium patches (Fig. 7).

Figure 7.

(4)

Trichodesmium bloom showing


scum lines; large light blobs
are tarba 11 s.

Water Hyacinth:

Considerable quantities of the aquatic

plant, water hyacinth, were found afloat at the sea surface (Penfound
and Poole, 1948), except during FSU-II when only small amounts were
seen.

These

pl~nts

of riverine origin were frequently found asso-

ciated with the tarballs and Sargassum in windrows and were usually
completely coated with oil (Fig. 8).
(5)

Man-Made Debris,

Litte~:

Litter was quite commonly seen

during all four cruises; the most CO!llmon form being styrofoam cups

13

Figure 8.

Close-up of windrow of tarballs


(approximately 5 em diamter) and
oil-covered leaves and roots of
water hyacinth.

which became coated with oil and were often seen in association with
other flotsam in the windrows.

While this form of flotsam is not

listed separately in the cruise logs, reference is made to it in the


Remarks column.
2.6

Other Observations
Observations of pelagic fauna (porpoises, fish and birds)

wer-e made and are included in the Remarks column of the cruise logs.
Ho attempts was made to do this in a systematic way but unusual
concentrations of animals and associations with the oil were noted.

14

During cruise MOUSSE-II, at all stations on which the ship was


anchored, surface current measurements were made using an ENDECO
Model 110 deck-recording current meter.

The data are presented in

the form of vector roses in the map section (5.6).


2.7 Data Presentation
2.7. 1 Cruise Maps
The cruise maps cover 2 latitude x 2 longitude
sections.

Coastlines are shown whenever necessary.

As mentioned pre-

viously, the grids and coastal outlines were photocopied from originals
and some positional distortion has occurred on all of the maps
presented here.

The precise positions of all observations are listed

in the cruise logs.


In this report each

zo

x 2 section on each cruise is presented

with the following data plotted (where there is sufficient data).

The

number in brackets is the figure number of an example.


Cruise track (10):

Known positions are connected with a

straight line and the first position of each day is annotated


with time and date (CDT or CST for cruise FSU-II; add 6 hr
for GMT).
Observation overlay (11):

The location of all observations

made is shown; annotated as above.


Surface winds (12):

Vector of the true wind; the base of

each arrow is plotted at the location of the observation.


Surface temperature (13):

Contoured to nearest lC when

sufficient data are present.


Surface salinity (14):

Contoured to nearest 1/oo when

sufficient data are present.

15

The following codes were used (followed by

Oil observations:

figure number example):


B
G

H
M
N

T
w

Tarballs
Sargassum
Hater Hyacinth
Mousse
No Oil Seen
Sheen
Trichodesmium
Windrows

( 15)
(1 9)
(18)
(86)
(1 9)
( 16)
(47)
(17)

One or more of these conditions were often observed together;


when these were mutually exclusive (e.g., no oil seen and
tarballs) they have frequently been plotted on

he same chart.

Station locations: (39) These are ship's station numbers; in the


case of certain types of stations (e.g., STD station, numbered
consecutively), they are plotted on separate maps in Part II
of this report).

In the case of MOUSSE-II the station numbers

are those previously used on Bureau of Land r1anagement (BLM)


cruises (Flint and Rabalais, 1980).
Surface currents: ( 68) On cruise !10USSE-I I only: vectors of surface
currents as measured on anchor stations using an ENDECO Model
110 current meter (see Table 7).
2.7.2 Cruise Logs
Each cruise has a listing tabulating events and observations.

On the left-hand side of each page are listed the navigational

data and surface conditions.


observations.
Time:

On the right-hand side are listed the oil

Each heading is explained below.


Central Daylight Time (CST on

FSU~II).

A "D" following

the time indicates that the position to follow is a deadreckoning position.


Lat(N):
a minute.

Latitude in degrees, minutes and decimal parts of

16

Long(W):

Longitude in degrees, minutes and decimal parts of

a minute.
CSE/SPD:

The course in degrees and speed in knots; the speed

has been calculated from time and position.


Dist:

Accumulated distance travelled in nautical miles.

Dpth:

Depth in meters from depth recorder readings (in fathoms).

Generally, the LONGHORN's Morrow recorder was used in waters


shallower than 450 fathoms and the Furuno at greater depths.
They have not been corrected for speed of sound in seawater and
there are errors of many fathoms with the new F runo (see cruise
narrative, FSU-II).
SST:

Sea-surface temperature (C).

SSS:

Sea-surface sa 1inity ( 0 joo ).

Sea:

Sea state (HMO code).

Wind:

True wind direction in degrees and speed in knots.

Remarks:
C/C
C/S
U/\{
MVCS

Navigational codes used:

Change course
Change speed
Underway
Maneuvering, various courses/speeds

Other remarks are self-explanatory; "see oil com" means see


under oil observation remarks for data too long to put in the
remarks co 1umn.
Oil comments:

The first seven columns will contain asterisks

if the condition was observed:


NONE
SHEE
TARB
MOUS
SARG
TRIC
HYAC

No oil observed
Sheen
Tarballs
Mousse
Saroassum
Tri chodesmi. urn
Hater hyacinth

The rest of the 1ine contains expanded comments on the oil

17
observations or other observations made.
2.7.3 Sample Logs and Station Summaries
Abbreviations used in these tables are explained
below.
CM

Current measurements
1 m below surface

Current meter with deck


readout

CARB

Dissolved hydrocarbons 19-liter glass carboy in


stainless case

DC

Diver collected sample Subsurface tarball samples

DIVE

Dive station

Diver visual observations

FLUOR Oil fluorescence


profile

Submersi b1e pump, .Jose and


continuous-flow fluorometer
(equipped to detect oil on
MOUSSE- I I)

GRAB

Smith-Mcintyre grab sampler

Sediment surface

LVFPOC Microtarballs (Large


Vo 1ume Fi HerParticulate Organic
Carbon)

Submersible pump and stainless steel filter, approx.


100 liters filtered

LVP

Submersible pump, hose and


filtering table, approx.
700 liters filtered

Macrotarballs (Large
Volume Pumping)

PLANK Zooplankton-hydrocarbon

1 m, 250 micrometer mesh


net, oblique tow

SFC

Surface tarballs,
Dip net or divers
mousse or other flotsam

STD

Salinity, temperature,
depth profile

STD profiling system connected


to shipboard computer and a
Rosette sampler with twelve
2.5-liter Niskin bottles

SHEEN Surface sheen

Surface sheen sampler

TRANS Transmissometry
profile

Transmissometer with deck


readout

18

3 CRUISE FSU-I (26 JULY - 31 JULY 1979)


3.1

Cruise Objectives
Cruise FSU-I was undertaken to install six deep-ocean current

meter arrays along the 24 parallel.

The project and cruise was under

the direction of Wilton Sturges, FSU, NSF Grant No. OCE78-20722


("Response of a \olestern Boundary Current in the Gulf of Mexico").

The

bottom-moored arrays were located as shown in Table 1.


TABLE 1.

Location of bottom-moored arrays deployed on c. ui se FSU-I


LATITUDE (N)

LONGITUDE (W)

BOTTOM DEPTH (M)

23 57'

97 10'

320

23 56'

97 04'

594

23 53'

96 51'

900

23 51'

96 29'

1811

23 49'

96 10'

2360

230 44'

96 38'

3200

C/M ARRAY

In addition, supporting physical oceanographic data were to be collected by PAML researchers using equipment and techniques not hitherto
used aboard R/V LONGHORN.

These included continuously recording

salinity/temperature/depth (STD) sensors, expendable bathythermograph


(XBT) profiles, continuous

under~1ay

of a shipboard computer system.

sea-surface temperature and the use

Details are given in Part II.

During the cruise we encountered considerable amounts of Ixtoc oil


at the surface and an effort was made to log these sightings.

The

procedures started during this cruise formed the basis of the methods
used on all four cruises.

19
3.2 Cruise Narrative
It was not until the first Ixtoc oil was encountered 26 July
1979 at 1205 local time (COT) that a narrative and log was started.
Figure 9 shows the cruise track starting at that time.

Initial des-

cription of the first oil found, c 1ose to the Me xi can shore 1ine:

"A

field of pancake-shaped, mousse-colored oil pieces up to 20 em in


diameter, estimated to be at a density of 50 pieces (of all sizes)
per square meter.

A sheen was observed on the sea surface and in the

bucket used to collect samples."


Several features of the oil distribution soon
(a)

becam~

obvious:

The most common form of oil was tarballs (or more closely,

pancakes) ranging from pea-sized and smaller to about 20 em in diameter.


(b)

Tarballs were frequently aligned and concentrated in windrows.

(c)

Some tarballs could be observed sinking or remaining several

centimeters below the ocean surface, especially in the windrows.


(d)

Hater hyacinth leaves, stems, bladders, flowers and roots

(often the entire plant) were found floating in the tarballs and were
usually completely coated with oil.
(e)

Saroassum was also frequently seen in among the tarballs but

was never coated with oil.


(f)

It was very difficult to estimate the quantity of oi 1 per

unit surface area, especially when the oil was aligned inwindrows.
(g)

Breakdown of the tarballs could be observed actively occurring

as a "wake" of sheen was frequently seen behind each particle.


Starting at 1000 hrs 28 July 1979, a regular "oil watch" was
started and a log sheet was maintained where the following were
logged on an hourly basis:

time, course, speed (engine rpm), geogra-

phical position, brief weather description, wind speed and direction,

20

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26 to 31 July 1979


98W

96W

97W

95\v'

28N
Ccr-p'-' Chr-hot.i
\

27N

UNITED
STATES

26N
I

MEXI 0

130121121 31 Jul

25N

I
I

CRUISE TRACK. 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 9

21
and comments on the presence or absence of oil.

Additionally, sea-

surface temperature and salinity were measured on the hour.


The major course took us just south of 24N out to 150 nm offshore
to survey the bottom and then to install the current meter arrays.
A series of STD stations was to be taken along this transect but after
four stations the project was abandoned due to faulty hydraulic hoses
on the STD winch (no spares were available).
XBT drops were made to 450 m (type T-4 XBT's}.

All along the trackline


These data, as well as

the STD profiles, are presented in Part II.


For night observations the ship's spotlight was used ;o illuminate
the sea surface.

The major difficulties were not being able to get

the spotlight close enough to the ship's bow and interpreting what was
seen in the limited area illuminated and in the low light level.

It

was frequently difficult to distinguish foam from small tarballs but


whenever large concentrations were i 11 umi nated it was obvious that they
were tarballs.

After installation of the current meters the ship

steamed north on the 95 30' meridian until 25 30'N, when a direct


course was set to Port Aransas.

XBT drops were taken all along the

trackline as were oil observations and surface measurements.


3.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationshio to Other Factors
3.3. l Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam
The cruise maps (Figs. 10 through 34) show the distribution of oil as observed at the surface during cruise FSU-I.
Tarballs were found along the 24 parallel but not eastward of 96\V
nor northward of 24 05'N (Figs. 15 and 26) from 26 to 30 July 1979.
It is not known whether there were any tarballs northward of 24N
along our inshore track on 26 July as we approached the current meter

22
transect at night and no observations were made.

No attempt has been

made here to correlate our surface observations with aircraft overflight


data.

A separate study on the ground-truth of overflight data is

being pursued (Amos, in preparation).


Tarball concentrations inshore were much heavier than offshore
although a second (but not as concentrated) patch was found between 97W
and 96 30'H.

Areas of sheen estimated to be three-quarters of a mile

across (based on ship's speed) were found about 97W (Fig. 16).
3.3.2 Hinds and Water Masses
Winds (Figs. 12, 22 and 29) were generally from the south
to southwest, ranging from 3 to 20 kt, average about 12 kt.
moderate and skies were often overcast.

Seas were

Information on surface currents

was scant, but ship's drift data indicated a northerly setting current
offshore of about 97W.

The wind regime was typical of the region at

this time of year.


Surface temperature (Figs. 13, 23 and 30) was uniformly high, at
29.0 to 29.4C, near the yearly maximum.
24N some values were below 29C.

Near the coast of Mexico on

Surface salinity (Figs. 14, 24 and

31) was typically above 36/oo, normal western Gulf of Mexico surface
water.

North of 26N low-salinity lenses of water were encountered with

a value of 32.9/oo being the lowest (Fig. 31).

Our sampling frequency

was not high enough to accurately delineate these lenses.

In late

spring and early summer remnants of Mississippi water are found offshore
of Port Aransas (Smith, N.P. in Flint and Rabalais, 1980).

By late

July, when these measurements were made, the fresh water has usually
been replaced by water greater than 36/oo salinity.

The presence of

fresh surface water offshore may indicate a southerly flow, more about
which will be mentioned later.

23
3.3.3 Subsurface Oil
On 28 July 1979, at 1115 COT, tar pieces were observed
to be sinking from the surface.

Sinking particles were small, but once

they left the surface they appeared to sink quite steadily and rapidly.
3.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise

Fsu~r_

During the cruise oil was reported to be washing in on


Mexican beaches north of Tampico in considerable quantities, but no
reports of beaching further north had been received.
3.4 Pelagic Fauna
3. 4. l

Birds
At 1045 COT, 31 July 1979, about 90 miles offshore

(26 27'N; 96 34'H) considerable activity was observed.

A large

school of porpoise, jacks and flying fish feeding at the surface were
followed by a large flock of feeding birds.

The flock consisted of

125 Black Terns and a few Sooty Terns and two immature Pomarine
Jaegers.

Later, more Sooty Terns were seen also following schooling

fish.
Some early migrant landbirds were also encountered:

a Yellow-

Breasted Chat and several Barn Swallows in different locations


(Fig. 34).
3.4.2 Other Siqhtings
The most abundant fish seen were flying fish and, in
windrows of Sargassum, typical fauna of the Sargassum community.

It

was noted that Sargassum fish, tripletails and other fish used tarballs
for cover as well as they did the floating weed.
Several schools of porpoise rode the ship's bow wave both in and
out of tarball fields and windrows.

24

3.5 Cruise Maps

25

LONGHORN Cruise
98\V

t- SU-I.

26 to 31 J u 1y 1979

97W

96W
25N

24N
Hl0'

0000 27 Jul

23N
CRUISE TRACK - 23N to 25N: 96W to 98W
Figure 10

26

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26 to 31 July 1979


98\V
97'1/
961t/

>t

25N

~
)

Mt:/..ICf

\J

...
+
+
1- 121!15-1126 J u l
+
+

...

...

...

+0-~!T~Jt~

24N
~

-1:,.

..._

1;.

...

..,. lri!IZ

+ 01il00 27

Jul

23N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 23N to 25N: 96W to 98W


LOCATION OVERLAY
Figure ll

27

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I, 26 to 31 July 1979


98\Y

97W

96W

25N

24N

23N

1121. IZIK t.s

5m/sec

2121.121Kt.s

liZim/eec

3121.121Kt.s

15m/sac

SURFACE WINOSP 23N to 25N: 96W to 98W


Figure 12

28

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I, 26 to 31 July 1979


98\V

97W

96W

25N

~
MEXI
X

r"[,~

bo'?

bot>.'?~
X

?.,~

.....~

xV'

1.,~

rQ.

;KV

n~

xV

'?
x'?,cp

''<?>

-"' '\

"

\j

- ');

24N

'\

"'?_,.~

l('l,Q,;,

1('1,-~

23N

SURFACE TEMPERATURE - 23N to 25N; 96W to 98W


Figure 13

29

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I, 26 to 31 J u 1y 1979


98W

96\'1

97W

>

25N

~
MEXI

_,'0'Z- _,'0'Z- _,-o""


,..q,.

.,.

"'

,-o
X

"'

_,-o

24N

"'

_,-o

<t>

_,-o

"'

_,-o
X

23N
SURFACt SALINITY - 23N to 25N; 96W to 98W
Figure 14

30

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 J u1y 1979


98\V

96W

97W

~~

25N

1J
Mm~

><'9o
>tV

\J

"

"'?>

,..
" "'?>

,<?> ,.<?>

,.<?>

:cy

,"'fRs~~
"

,'?>

.~

24N

"~'?>
,.'?>

23N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 23N to 25N; 96W to 98W
B=TARBALLS
Figure 15

31

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I, 26 to 31 July 1979


97W

96W

25N

'!
x'<>

"""

"0

x2

xc;;

\j

24N

-I

23N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 23N to 25N: 96W to 98W
S==SHEEN
Figure 16

32

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 July 1979


98W

96't/

97W

>t

25N

~
)

MEXICf
"""

\J

X~

X~

i"~ "~~

X~

,.~--

24N

23N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 23N to 25N: 96W to 98W
W=WINDROWS
Figure 17

33

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I, 26 to 31 July 1979


98\V

97W

96W

>

25N

~I

ME:XICi
x-<><"x'0

\j

x-<-

--

~-.(-

'5t~

24N

23N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 23N to 25N; 96W to 98W
H=WATER HYACINTH
Figure 18

34

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26


98\V

to

31 July 1979

97\V

96\V

>

25N

~
MEXIC
x">'
x">'

\J

xi-~

-:,

-'--
xv

)(~...

.~

X~

"'

24N
)*

X~~
,..

"'

23N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 23N to 25N; 96W
N=NO OIL SEEN; G=SARGASSUM
Figure 19

to

98W

35

.
FSU- I. 26
LONGHORN "L..rUlS8

97W
~-

. - - - . -- - - - - - - -- -T- - .-

31 July 1979

to

96W

'

- ----

95 111

........

I26N

'

0000 31 Jul

-----
'

'

~---------

----------------+

25N

I
I

I.

I
I
!
:

I
I

24N

CRUISE TRACK, 24N

to

26N: 95W

Figure 20

to

97W

36

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26 to 31 July 1979


97W

96W

95W

26N

+
+
+
+
+

+
-

+
+

fil000 31 Jul

25N

...
+
+

++~a 30 Jul

....

24N .

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N: 95W to 97W


LOCATION OVERLAY Figure 21

37

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 J u 1y 1979

,-

97W

95W

96't/
-

- --

--- --r- - -- - --- -- - --------

- - -------- --

- - -- ------,

i 26N

'
I
I

'

l'

.----------------------------+-----------------------------------;

25N

I __________
f/
L

------1---_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_jI
"2 "+i'l
J>r

ArE
rc ,,_,
Su "l="

IvVl
IT

10.0Kt.s

5m/eec

20.0Kt.e

10m/sec

30.0Kt.e

15m/sec

NOS 24N to 26N: 95W to 97W


Figure 22

38

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I, 26 to 31 July 1979


97W
~--------

I,
I

96W
----------------- --r---- ----;p--------- --- -----

95W
26N

!I
I

II
I

I
I

I'
i

I
i

'---------------[--

-----------i

!
I

1
I

25N

I
'

I
I

I
l

Ii
I

"'

~ '?J~
~~
J(

(,_

- -l:o --'-------------~---

"'

'?J~
JC

?,.

1,.~

JC

_jI

-------

24N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 95W to 97W


TEMPERA.TURE (C) Figure 23

39

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 J u 1y 1979

97W
~-

--~-~-~

-- ..

-~

~--~-----~----~

--

----~-

~-~~

96W
T-

~-

95'1/
~-- ~;;

---~~

-~.

-~---

. -- - --

--~26N
I
I

''

'?>
'

----r----

'?><;,

-~-----------------------+

I 2SN

'?>q,.'~-

!!
I
I
f

'

'?q,.'~- -:>''1-

'?>'(y'I.-

-------------~-----

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N;


SAL I i'J I TY Cppt)
Figure 24

24N
9':JW to 97W

40

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26

---- - -------------1

97'N

to 31

96W
_T _________________________ _

July 1979
95'1/
------l26N

I
I

iI

.
I

+G
+G
;1
!

+G

+G

-;-------------------+---- ---~---- -----------------------t

I25N

+B

+G

---~---

24N

SURFACt OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 95W to 97W


G=SARGASSUM: H=WATER HYACINTH; S=SHEEN
Figure 25

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26

to

31 J u l v 1979
'

97W
96W
,- ------- -- . ---------------- -------------r- ---------.;::;---- -_-----1
~I

95'1/

-... --l26N
I

I
I

I
I
''
I
\

+N

;
'
,-----------------------[------------------------------tI

+N

25N

+N

l
i

'I
-<-N

I'
+N

i
i

I
I

+B

+N

+8

+N

+8

+B

+B

I!

Ii

+f~

+N +N

+N

+N

-+-N______

_j

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N
B=TARBALLS; N=NO OIL SEEN
Figure 26

to

26N; 95W

to

97W

42

43

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 July 1979

v--------------- ------------- -r- - -

95W

96W

:l
:
'
1'

II
:
'

-------------------~28\'J

I
.

.'

i
I

II

I'

'
_ _ _ _ _ _ _J_

I
I
!

I
i

L
CRUISE TRACK, 26N to 28N; 95W to 97W
Figure 27

II
I

~-------

27N

44

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26 to 31 July 1979

v--- - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ l ___ ---------------------

97W

96W

I
I

'

95W

i
I

I
I;

+
+

_____________ -L.,.
' _ _ _ _ _ __

'
j

II

27N

I'
I

'
;

'I

''

___ j

26N

+
+

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 26N to 28N: 95W to 97W


LOCATION OVERLAY Figure 28
+

45

Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 July 1979

LONGHOR~J

97W

96W

v-------------------- --- ---r----------------------

95W
28N

I
I
I

iI

I
I
i

~------ \\-----~

I
I

_ __J

i 27N

I
l

I
I

i
I

L____
26N
r

1121.121Kts

5m/sec

2121.121Kts

112lm/sec

3121.121Kts

15m/sec

~---_:.;_;;~

SUR~ACE

WINDS, 26N to 28N; 95W to 97W


Figure 29

46

LONGHORN Cruise FSU- I. 26 to 31 J u 1y 1979

v----- -------------- ------r --------------------

97W

96W

95W
28N

I
i

'i
''
I
I

----------:;<;1'~------__j_
.~

J27N _

!'
i
I

'

,.
i
'l
tz,Cb '

I
I

I
I'

L_
26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 95W to 97W
TEMPERATURE (C)
Figure 30

47

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I, 26 to 31 July 1979


95W
97'11

v --- ----- --- - T-- - - .-----------l


'

I;

!'

'

:'

Ii

I
I

I
~

::

;4-~">~ ,s

!--------~~:=---;----.
1

%:~

71Y~ ~

~/"!

'

27N

ii
i

''

;r''
I
l
i

L ____________.__ _____ _
26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 95W to 97W
SALINITY Cppt)
Figure 31

48

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26

v----. - - - - - - - -------r--- ---.

9Tt/

31 July 1979

to

95\V

96V/

------------------~

2ml

I
!

I
I
'

+G

+G
!
,__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _j__

i 27N

I
II

I
I

'

'

:
i

I
i
I
I
I

!.
I

"-----------

-----'---------

26N

SURFACE OBStRVATIONS. 26N


G=SARG,~SSUM

Figure 32

to

28N; 95W

to

97W

49

LONGHORN

("

L..rU1S8

t-SU-1, 26

to

31 July 1979
95'1/

v- - - - - - - - - - - - - -r----------------------96W

97~/

28N

II
'

I
II

+N

+rJ

i
1.

+N

'

'
---------------L-

'

i 27N
I
I

+N

i
I

+N

I'
'

+01

''
'

+i'i

I
I

l
+N

--------'---------

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N


N=NO OIL SEEN
Figure 33

to

28N; 95W

to

97W

50

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-I. 26 to 31 July 1979


98W

96W

97W

95W
28N

+8 C

, T_..,

+C

27N

'T

Black. 18 Sooi>y

UNITED

2 ......

J"-s-

STATES

26N

MEXI 0

25N

+Yollov-Br.

24N

BIRD OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 34

51

3.6 Cruise Log

52

LONGHORN

cru1s~

FSU-I

THIE

Li1T<Ho

LONG(W~

1205

23 58.0

9~

PAGE#

CSE/SPD

DIST DPTH

40.0

SST

SSS

SEA

~.JI

SEA

tHHD

REIIARKS

SEA

fl!ND

RE11ARK.S

IHI

2:::. 7 '36. 082

1345

1400

23 50.0

97 21.0

1920

23 51.0

96 51.0

28.7 3b.

4?

1945

~323

29.(1 36.1?4

47

LONGHORN cruise FSU-1


TH1E

LATOLJ

LONG(W~

0000

23 40.3

96 23.1

LONGHORN cruise FSU-!

CSE/SPD

DIST DPTH
74

2S

.JtJ 1 ;.

C:3E/SPD

SST

SSS

29.5 3b.254

1 '?79

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

T It1E

LAT UD

L0t4G0~)

1000

23 45.8

96 07.4

1100

23 46. 1

9t: 06. s

1115

23 46.0

96 06.6

1200

23 47.9

9 08.5

317

3.5

'~3

1300

23 50.1

96 10.7

335

3.0

96

1400

23 51.0

96 11.2

267

1.0

1500

23 49.6

96 18.7

104

1600

23 48.1

96 26.5

111

t1oorin~

114

Ci rcl

90

1020
1:3;-'

1. 0

'? 1

:308 18

91

1800

23 50.4

~6

2'?.0

114

1900

23 48.8

96 27.4

117

2000

23 51.1

96

~~-!

120

irr::~

53

LONGHORN

cru1se

FSU-I

PAGE#

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TPIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


lit 011 iihted,tarball! O.PPfOX

200M~l~~o

Me in windrows,soMe in Patches

*.,.:.**

****

****
****

Li.::;ht. dist t"ibut1on cf to.rbo.lls(<H1tHt:,,r:r

lAo.rilY in windrows

****
****
LONGHORt~

Lar~er

tarba!ls(uP to 50MMJ

c r-t.J i -:.e F'3U-l

NONE SHEE TARS MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

LONGHORN cruise FSU-I

0 I L OBSEF''./AT! ON REMRRKS

28 JulY 197'3

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

****

ManY tarballs,Peo. to tenn1s ball

****

s~=e

****

***

****
****
****
****

****
****

****
****

FlYin9 fish
t1any

Sfta 11

a. rba 11 .=.,

oc.c~..:. i

cno.l 1a,-.~.:-,. !

L]=~

10cM) thick to.rballs

****
**.;.;*
L i ~ht. dis t. r i
bo.ll.:
Ver~

.oe rv :;.,"Jo 11

scattered lar9e sfc

~~~);saMPle

****
****
*** ...

bt.H. 1 on

:;.tJb:= f :. t. .:.1. ,.

tarb~lls(50-2B0

taken

****

~:.c.;J.tt.-ered

*~**

SaMe as last record

l;~.r.:;:;o:

t:oiec.E::E-'~'~':.:;.t

~tuc.k

to t.o:-r

**** restial Plant Pieces(Nater Hvacinth)

****
~***

***.;..

SoMe as last record

54

LONGHORN

cru1se

FSU-I

PAGE#

T IIIE

LAT '11.

LONG 1 W)

CSE.~SPD

2100

23 51.7

96

~:5.2

.-..... .-.
.;:.:.::.

5.4

125

2200 '23 51.7

?6 42.7

282

6.~

132

134 17

2300

96 51.7

277

8.3

140

12(1 14

23 52.1

LONGHORN cruise FSU-1

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

iHIID
IJ/1.<1

2'? July 1979

TI 11E

LAT (I.J:o

LONG<W)

CSE/SPD

0000

23 52.3

?6 59.6

284

7.3

147

!34 14

0100

23 52.9

ST 07.9

284

",.

154

148 16

0200

23 54.6

97 16.7

163

0330

23 57.1

97 28.0

173

IZt410

23 58.2

'.?7 :,;:(1. 4

176

0500

23 59.6

97 33.2

! ..,:.
'

0532

24 00.5

97 34.7

180

0600

23 59.5

97 33.4

0655

.....-.
.::..;,

1000

24 00.6

97 17.0

1136

23 58.3

97 10.0

!:'...,.
1:'
.Jf ._1

tO:

DIST DPTH

,1;1

SST

SSS

51

107

3.4

0?4

4.5

27

5
186

144

<:

1200

204
205
1~32

23

57.~

~7

00.1

1700

23 56.?

97

04.~

214

2 .=ho.rL.=.

11.:..: r

in=;~

55

LONGHORN cru1se FSU-I

PAGE#

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSEPVATION REMARKS


Ll'3ht

di~.t

ribr.lt i:n o:f rtedl!Jii ::.iz;;. ':.50rrf. ,'

tarballs:dar~

Precludes seein9 SMaller

***~

****
t1uch 1.::::.::

****

hJ.n lo.::.t

record

****

LONGHORN cru1se FSU-!

29 .Jul..- 1979

NONE SHEE TARB MDUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


Occa::. i crPJ.l

1i

-=;~ht

wind ro:11.J:: of sv,o.ll t

.::o.

r-bo

11 E

****
****

****
****
****
****
****
****

****

Lar-=;~e

****

1 ~1ece h~acinth coated w- tar;no other


oil seenlshowers

tarballs

Plant

~aterial(HYacinth

****

****
****
****
****

Seat t e red E.l""la 11

****

****
****
****

oxbo. ll::

Scattered Patches of

5t~all

tarbails

****
****
SaMe as last record

****
****

...........
.,.,..,.,..,.,.,.,

~<:t;c<;-:o:

Pea to ~uater size tarballs 1n windrow!~


sar~ not coatedd w/ oil,tar inc offshore

56

LOt~GHORN

cru15e

FSU-I

T I PIE

LA To:: IU

LOtlG(W 1

CSE'SPD

1800

23 56.2

?7 04.9

097

1900

23 55.3

96 55.0

082

22S

2000

23 55.0

96 51.0

092 14.1

231

2100

23 53.0

96 51.0

0~2

2.0

233

0.1

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

lHIID
077 17

219

065

------------------------------------------~-------------------------------------

2200

23 53.0

96 51.0

092

0.0

233

182 17

2300

23 53.0

96 53.0

277

1.8

235

312 11

LOtlGHOP~l

TI IIE

c n.l 1 ::.e F:::u-!

LONGCW)

LAT OL

30 ..Ju 1 Y 1979

CSE/SPD

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

WH!D

STII #4
0200

23 54.

(1

9b 57. 0

~2137

1. 3

239

132 14

.0335'

U/1,.1

0400

23 57.9

~6

55.0

243

0500

24 05.2

9~

52.6

251

0600

24 05.0

96 46.4

257

29.4 36.222

0700

24 05.0

96 40.0

262

2'?.336.163

0800

24 05.0

96 33.5

268

29.2

0900

24 05.0

96 26.3

275

29.4

1000

24 04.9

96 20.0

281

29.3

!100

24 04.9

96 !0.8

1?00

?~

)0

05.8

24 05.5

~5

57.0

95 51.4

29.3 :36.335
08~

6.3

302

129 16

::::6.424
:3. 482

57

LOHGHORN c.riJlE-E FSU-I

.:.~:.

PAGE#

-'-

NONE SHEE TRRB MOUS WIND SRRG TRIC HYRC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


VerY scattered tarballs
l/4'' Pieces in windrow~ UP to
!ar9est tarballs to 2''

20f~

!on,;

.. .,.""!:".,..,.
....... .
-:-..,.,..,.

****

LONGHORN cruisE FSU-1


HONE SHEE TRRB MDUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

WidelY

****
****

scatter~d

tarballs

Patches of quater to Pancake si:e tarbal


ls alMost continuou~

*"***
.:.:-***

****

Fl,in=? fi.:.h

58

LONGHORN

cru1~e

PAGE#

FSU-I

------------------------------------------------------------------------------SEA 1-l!IHI
LONG(WI CSE'SPD DIST DPTH SST SSS
------------------------------------------------------------------------------1600 24 04.~ 95 37.6 097 5.8 320
------------------------------------------------------------------------------1)'?7' 1 '?
2 36.
1700

24 03.1

95 30.5

097

6.6

::.:~.

326

13~:

---------------------------------.........-. ----------------------------------------140 15
24 10.0 95 30.0 357 6.9
-------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------145 17
29.2 36.092
.:;..,;,,;

18(1(1

1900

24 tS.4

95 30.0

357

9.4

343

-------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------2100

24 35.3

95 30.8

-.

2300

24 52.6

95 30.1

3!39

29.1 36.090

3"'6

29.2 36.242

-(

7. 6

LONGHORN cru1so FSU-l


TI11E

LAHfD

LONGCW)

0000

25 03.0

95 38.2

10. 4

3:56

0!80

25 !!.0

95 30.6

8.0

3'l4

0200

25 19.3

95 30.4

0300

25 28.1

95 30.5

0310

25 30.1

95 30.5

4l8

0400

25 36.4

95 33.6

42(1

0500

25 43.7

95 37.6

0600

25 51.6

95 40.8

342

8.4

4~7

0700

25 59.0

95 45.1

342

8.3

445

2'?.1 35.183

0900

26 15.4

95 52.7

342

8.9

4li3

2'?.2 33.552

1:-'1

1100

2~

28.5

96 05.3

342

8.6

4!30

29.2

166 it:

1300

26 42.2

1~.6

342

8.5

4'37

29.2 35.895

167 15

96

CSE/SPD

DI:3T DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

REI1ARf<S

fHND

1.28 18

174

29. 1

29. 1
1 '?4 10

16

59

LONGHORN c1ui~e FSU-I

30 Jul;

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG

197~

TR!C.H~AC

PAGE#

OIL OBSERVATION

REMAR~S

****

~***

****

****
****

****
****
****
****

LONGHORN

cru1so

FSU-1

31 JulY 1979

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

****
****

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

****
****

****
****

****

****
****

****
****

****
****

****
6 barn swallows

****
****
***~
~***
*~**

60

LONGHORN cruise FSU-1

PAGEl

31 Julv 19?9

TIME

LAT(Nl

LONG(Wl

CSE/SPD

1400

26 49.8

9 21.3

342

8.~

DIST DPTH
51~6

SST

SSS

28.9 36.135

SEA

WIND

REMARKS

167 17

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1500 26 57.4
26.2 "342 8.8 514
29.4 34.117
167 17
~6

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------167 17
1600 27 04.7 96 30.2 342 8.1 522
29.3 33.643
1700

27 12.8

96 35.2

342

9.2

532

29.4 32.929

167 18

1800

27 21.1

96 39.4

342

9.1

541

29.6

167 18

61

LONGHORN cruise FSU-1

31 JlJl :

1:.""'~
' .

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIHD SARG TRIC HYAC

**"'~

****
****
****

PAGE#
OIL OBSEPVATIOH REMARKS

62

3.7

Sample Log

LONGHORN CRUISE FSU-!i SAMPLE LOG

DO<

STA#/DATE TIME

ACTIVITY CODE

LATCNl

26 .JulY

LONCWl

DEPTH

F:EMARKS

Surf
Surf

Tarballs in seawater

1205
1205

SFC-1
SFC-2

23 58.0 97 40.0

Sto. 1
23 JulY

1700

SFC-3

23 50.2 96 28.8

Surf

Includes HYacinth

29 JulY

0826

STD-1

23 57.5 97 28.8

0-48

St~.

1345

STD-2

24 05.8 95 51.4

0-233

11 RDI

Stc. 5

1536

STD-3

24 04.6 95 37.6

0-576

7 Rosette

Sto. 6

2000

SFC-4

23 55.0 96 51.0

Surf

30 JulY

0002

STD-4

25 03.0 95 30.2

0-1263 10 Rosette SaMPles

Tarballs onlY

Rosette

SaM~les

so~D
SaMPl~s

63

4 CRUISE MOUSSE-I (4 AUGUST - 8 AUGUST 1979)


4.1

Cruise Objectives
Cruise MOUSSE-I was a search and survey cruise on the conti-

nental shelf in the region between Port Aransas and the Mexican border.
A major goal was to know whether the Ixtoc oil was sinking.

In addition

to this, samples of oil and sheen were collected for chemical analysis
in order to begin developing a profile of the oil.

Visual observa-

tions were made and physical oceanographic parameters were measured.


This cruise was an emergency cruise, made at a time Whln no Ixtoc
oil had been reported in U.S. waters but when the oil was rapidly
approaching from the south.

The prime questions were:

How much oil

was subsurface? How deep had it sunk? This information was needed by
the response strike team to determine whether the booms, to be placed
across the barrier island passes, would be effective in preventing oil
from reaching the lagunas and back-bays.

For this reason some of the

samples and information were transferred from LONGHORN to the mainland


via helicopter in mid-cruise.

Divers were used to do a visual and

photographic survey of any subsurface oil and to collect samples.


The cruise was sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration under Department of Transportation-U.S. Coast Guard
Contract No. DOT-CG 088174.
4.2 Cruise Narrative
The cruise was split into three legs:

Leg 1-Port Aransas to

Port Isabel (4-5 August 1979); Leg 2.,.-Port Isabel to Port Isabel (5
August 1979); Leg 3-Port Isabel to Port Aransas (6-8 August 1979).
Figure 35 is the complete cruise track and Table 2 is a summary of
station activities.

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

97W

96W

95W

28N
Ccr-pue Chr-it.i

27N

UNITED

7 Aug

STATES

MEX

25N

24N

CRUISE TRACK, 24N to 28N: 95W to 98W


Figure 35

65

TABLE 2.
TYPE

Summary of station activities on cruise MOUSSE-I.

STATION

PLANK
STD
LVFPOC
FLUOR
CM
TRANS
LVP
SFC
GRAB
SHEEN
DIVE
GARB

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

10

X
X

X
X
X

4.2. 1 Leg 1 (Port Aransas- Port Isabel)


LONGHORN left Port Aransas after noon on 4 August 1979
steaming towards Port Isabel where the NOAA
vision crew were taken aboard.

repres~ntative

and tele-

At 1700 hrs (sample log, section 4.7)

a dead Laughing Gull, seen floating at the surface, was collected.


The carcass showed no sign of oil.

At 2100 hrs tarballs were sighted

in the spotlight and a sample collected.

To our knowledge, this was

the first Ixtoc oil sighted in U.S. waters and was at 26 35'N; 97 07'W,
south of the

~1ansfield

Cut, some 30 miles north of the border.

The

ship's course was altered to go inshore as shallow as safety permitted


(1 to 1.5 nm) and the oil increased in concentration closer to shore.
It was in the form of small (<10 em diameter) tarballs, in patches and
in windrows.
Padre Island.

There was none opposite the populated areas of South


The LONGHORN docked at the Old Banana Boat Dock? Port

Isabel at 0100 hrs, 5 August 1979.

From a telephone booth near the

dock and with the help of a local policeman, the USCG strike force
command post at Port Isabel, and our NOAA contacts in Corpus Christi,

66

were contacted to inform them of the oil already in U.S. waters.


4.2.2 Lea 2 (Port Isabel - Port Isabel)
The following are annotated extracts from the chief
scientist's cruise notebook:
-He cleared the Banana Boat Dock at 0820.
deck log was maintained as was an oil observation log.

An hourly

LORAN-C did

not work properly throughout the cruise so position will have to be


taken from the LORAN-A fixes listed in the log sheets (lines 3H2, 3H3).
-Small patches of mousse 1 were observed two miles
clear of the jetty (radar fix).

Scattered patches and 1indrows were

observed over much of the cruise track, but not as concentrated as on


Leg 1.
-Our initial intent was to go five miles south as close
to shore as was reasonable and then 10 miles east to an area where oil
was spotted yesterday.

No significant concentrations were found en

route and it was decided to change course and head for a point 25 49'N;
96 5l'W, where a heavy concentration of mousse had been sighted.
-rleather started out with nearby thundershowers and
cumulonimbus clouds, gradually cleared during the day and no rain was
experienced, but when a slick was sighted it was decided to take a
station there while favorable diving conditions prevailed.

En route to

this slick several small Saraassum patches were seen, some subsurface.
None of the Saraassum was coated with oil.

Several pieces of water

hyacinth were seen and these were invariably coated with tar.
-Stopped at 1148 hrs in a surface slick for ship's
station #1.
1

Slick was several hundred meters wide by a few kilometers

As used here and in other extracts from logs and notes, the term
"mousse" refers to tarba 11 s.

67

long.

As we lay to, several pieces of tar were concentrated along the

port side; some water hyacinth leaves were floatin(l at the surface.
Saraassum weed, tar pieces from less than pea-sized to dollar-sized;
water hyacinth (not coated).
subsurface.

From surface, some tar pieces can be seen

Little Blue Herons heading towards 200 true (6 adults,

l calico, 2 juveniles (white); Sandwich Tern, 2; Laughing Gull, l.


-Hater depth, 30 fm to 28 fm at end.
of approximately l kt.

Near-surface currents

Hater color blue (Secchi depth, 22 m).

Great

Barracuda and pilot fish sighted.


-Two 19-liter carboys of seawater were collected 'or dissolved
hydrocarbon analysis using divers to position the bottles properly
(Fis. 36).

No oil particles were seen captured in these samples.

Figure 36.

Diver actuating 19-li.ter carboy sampler.

Divers reported some tarballs to a depth of 40ft (see section 4.3.3).


To see whether the subsurface particles observed by the divers could
be sampled, a submersible pump was lowered to different levels and the

68

water filtered using makeshift filters.

Filtered surface water in

slick area for 5 minutes through cotton gas mask (flow rate-- 30 sec for
3 liters
results:

=6

liters/minute; total amount filtered - 30 liters}; the

surface--3 blobs oil (l-2 mm), 3 copepods, 15 particles


debris (?)
10 m--several fibrous, vegetable-like fronds (approx.
45 pieces}, coated with tarlike substance
15 m--2 copepods only; no oil
5 m--much more material than at 10-m depth

As it appeared that considerable quantities of oil were subsurface,


a second area was sought in which to take ship's station #2.

The major

problem was to locate a sufficiently concentrated patch of tar or a


slick where subsurface oil might be expected.
this in daylight for the divers.

It was necessary to do

This was not accomplished in good

diving light but further pumping revealed more fibrous vegetable-like


particles that were brown and sticky.

Leg 2 ended when personnel were

landed at Port Isabel so that the NOAA representative could report our
findings to the response team.
4.2.3

Leg 3 (Port Isabel - Port Aransas}


After refueling and receiving supplies flown by heli-

copter from Port Aransas Marine Laboratory (e.g., improved filtering


apparatus, sample bottles, etc.), LONGHORN left Port Isabel at 1335 COT,
6 August 1979.

By this time oil had come ashore south of Port Mansfield

near where we had seen it on 4 August.

Although we know now that oil

particles were to be found subsurface, we did not have any knowledge


about how many per unit surface area were sinking or how many per unit
volume were present at depth.

We were thus under some pressure to come

up with some numbers that could be used to determine if a national

69

emergency should be declared.

Therefore, we headed directly for the

nearest known large area of Ixtoc oil at the surface to do some further
stations.

The following are annotated extracts from the chief scientist's

notes:
--Left Port Isabel 1335; cleared jetty 1410; some small patches,
tarballs at jetty entrance.

Steered 335 along coast towards region

where slick and mousse had been reported by Craig Hooper from helicopter
overflight earlier today, 17 miles north of the jetty.

Generally

surface concentrations slight and patchy but in most places some oil
was seen.
--At 1625, when we were more than 17 miles north of the jetty
we changed course to head inshore.

Now windrows seemed to increase in

frequency and at a point where large (dollar-sized) tarballs in


patches and windrows of slick were seen, we dropped anchor for ship's
station #3.
--At 1650 COT, 6 August, stopped in a large area of slick
water with many tarballs at the surface.
windrows.

Slick and tarballs in

Water depth, 15 m; rough size distribution of tarballs is

2, 3, and 5 em diameter, in ratio of 9:4:3.

Some tarballs obviously

sinking in vicinity of ship, including one 5-cm diameter pancake seen


to slowly sink to a depth of about 3 m then rise back to the surface.
--Divers reported flaky oil particles to 20 ft deep and
collected samples.

The flakes were remarkably similar to particles

found on the filters.


At this time it seemed most important to survey the Port Mansfield
Channel using the divers to see if particles were subsurface entering
the cut.

As light was fading we set course to come in by first light

in the morning.

70

--En route saw slick area and stopped 4.2 miles offshore.
Slick characterized by windrows of very fine but numerous surface
particles, many of which can be seen subsurface.

Two divers sent down

when we stopped on ship's station #4 (depth 9.5 fm).


Divers reported no oil below 15 ft but pump station produced many
particles.

Here it was found that contamination in the hose was

producing the vegetable and tarlike particles collected to-date and


this technique was abandoned.

Also, it was seen that at the surface

the pump was not drawing up small tarballs drifting by in windrows.


A plankton tow was tried and this technique certainly
collecting tarballs.

s~

ceeded in

Unfortunately, the net, bridle and other parts

were badly contaminated with tar from the surface.

What is needed is

an opening/closing net and a flow meter.


--Many pieces of tar were collected from very small (<1 mm)
to 5 mm diameter, probably about half in the cod-end, the rest stuck to
the net.

Rinsed cod-end with bucket dipped in non-oily surface water.

Main problem was trying to miss collecting oil that is floating on the
surface.
After the tow, we returned to the slick to take ship's station #5.
Two new techniques were tried:

surface slick sampling and the use of

a 30-liter Niskin bottle to collect large volumes to filter for oil


particles.
--The surface slick sample was collected by making 20 dips of
a teflon-coated plate drained into glass container and capped with
teflon-lined cap after treating with hexane.

This slick has variable

coverage of mousse; several places are obviously very slick but have
few pieces of tar on surface.

I I

--Maneuvered back into slick; depth 9.3 fm; 30-liter Niskin


bottle samples were drained directly into the filter apparatus.
Surface--2139 local; few oily-looking particles visible to the eye;
one paint-chip, one piece of plastic from spigot (removed from sample).
At 5 m--2200 local; repositioned ship in slick.
--"The Corpus Christi Slick".

Heard on the 10 pm news that

USCG had sighted a slick "55 miles off Corpus Christi"; tried to
contact USCG via radio--they had no information on this; even their
oil-slick task force has no information (it was a USCG official who
was interviewed about the "Corpus Christi Slick").

Trie, to contact

Craig Hooper because if this is true we could spend the night steaming
there, observing the surface en route.

OtherNise, everyone is getting

quite tired and the ship's crew are understaffed for this kind of 24-hr
operation.
--The other plan is to examine the Mansfield Cut in detail to
see if oil is slipping under the boom which was installed today.
However, the USCG said the boom is unmanned and we would have to go all
the way back to Port Isabel and north along the Intracoastal Waterway
to get to Port Mansfield.
--At 2300 hrs, 6 August; maneuvered back to slick and took
carboy sample #5-l about 5 ft below surface where many small mousses
were observed.

Visual examination via flashlight shone through sample

showed many organic particles but very few obvious oil bits.
--Note:

lots of animals in (and out of) this slick:

crabs

(two sampled) not obviously oiled, schools of fish, squid, pipe fish,
tripletail, etc.

Steamed out along line towards 96 30'W and encountered

very concentrated windrows of tar, the most yet.

Will change course

72

when we are through it, towards Mansfield, anchor in the next slick
patch and wait until daylight to do next station.
--7 August; 0139 hrs.

Stopped ship at anchor in 9.5 fm; very

little oil visible at surface; full moon, large halo around moon; 0200
hrs at anchor, sleep.
--Dawn at 0625; no wind, no oil visible; got underway towards
Mansfield to look at nearshore slick--it was a normal tidal slick at
the boundary between turbid sediment-laden coastal water and clearer
water; no oil.

Decided to look for first significant oil slick and get

a dive station in before helicopter arrives.


--At 0735 large slick entered--very extensive but oil pieces
well distributed and not in windrows at all; decided to trawl deep
beneath this slick for subsurface oil pieces until light enough for
divers.
--Ship's station #6; plankton tow started 0818 local; outside
of slick region, wire out 35 m but slipped out to 50 m; wire angle

= 65-70; end 0842. Stopped ship to retrieve tow through oil-free


surface; water depth 10.5 m; divers reported no oil below 10 ft.
--At 1115 COT, 7 August, a USCG helicopter with Craig Hooper
aboard dropped supplies (weather system, sample bottles, etc.) and
collected the samples we had taken to-date as well as field notes.
'
In radio communication with Hooper, ship-to-helicopter,
I had to report

that our findings 1vere not conclusive on how much oil was subsurface.
Certainly all stations showed some oil subsurface, but it was
considerably less than the. amount found on the surface.

73
-"Searching for Oil":

it was decided to go to i.nvestigate

the Corpus Christi slick as that seemed more important than examining
the Mansfield Cut if the oil was imminently threatening Aransas Pass.
The latest overflight had spotted the slick at 27 20'N; 96 l5'W and
a course was set for that point.
Very soon after

le~ving

Mansfield, tarballs were no longer seen.

Hhat was encountered were regions of very low surface salinity and the
water had a chalky appearance.

At one location a small slick was

encountered with tarballs that were actively "bleeding" into the water
and the patch seemed to be spreading.

A tanker was seen :earby and

the tarballs had a darker, redder appearance, quite unlike what we had
observed prior to this.

It is believed that the tanker had just flushed

its tanks, but we have no proof of this.


He arrived at the reported location at 2052 COT, 7 August and began
a search pattern (see cruise track, Fig. 37) using the spotlight.

Visi-

bility was hampered at times by showers and spray on certain courses.


Moonlight often caused difficult reflections on the sea surface.

The

length of the trackline was approximately 50 nm and the area covered


was approximately 150 nm 2 . While a considerable amount of Sargassum
was seen, no certain sighting of oil was reported and it

~eems

likely

that the "oil" sighted from the air was Trichodesmium (no Trichodesmium
was reported either but en route from the search area to Port Aransas
several blooms were seen.

Also, several lenses of low-salinity water

were found alterr.ating with high-salinity water).

A later flight on

8 August 1979 could not find the oil slick reported earlier.

74
4.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors
4.3.1

Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam


Figures 37 to 57 are maps showing the distribution of

oil in its various forms as found at the surface during cruise MOUSSE-I.
Also included are cruise tracks, station locations and various physical parameters

~ertinent

to the oil distribution.

Tarballs were again the most common form encountered during this
cruise (Figs. 43 and 54), but a considerable amount of sheen occurred
offshore at the Mansfi e 1d Cut (Fig. 44).

Some of this sheen vias

associated with the presence of Trichdesmium blooms (Fig. 47) but


tarballs were found together with Trichodesmium in some areas close to
shore.

The tarballs were frequently found in windrows (Fig. 45) but

windrows of Trichodesmium and Sargassum without any oil were also seen
(see cruise log, section 4.6).

Except for one isolated tarball patch 1

and two doubtful sightings, all tarballs and other oil forms were found
south of 26 40'N on 8 August 1979.

The leading edge of the Ixtoc oil

as it advanced northward seemed to be in the form of very small but


numerous tarballs, often, but not exclusively, with sheen.
On the other hand, sheen, when not caused by natural organic slicks,
always contained tarballs albeit sometimes sparsely distributed within
the sheen area.
Sargassum was widespread throughout the area (Figs. 46 and 56), often
seen in large aggregations, in windrows and frequently at a depth of
several centimeters below the surface.
Water hyacinlrl, almost always coated with oil, was only found south

Probably from tanker discharge.

75
of Port Mansfield and only found associated with tarballs (Figs. 47
and 57).

This seemed to indicate that water hyacinth might be used as

a tracer if the. source of the hyacinth could be determined.


4.3.2 Wind and \1ater Masses
Surface winds were generally from the easterly quadrant,
i.e., onshore winds.

Speeds ranged up to 27 kt (Figs. 40 and 51).

Some variability occurred when the winds veered and blew from the
northwest for short periods.

Skies were generally clear with a few

thundershowers.
Offshore, seawater temperatures were at their seasona' maxima with
large a1eas where the surface temperature exceeded 30C.

Nearshore,

especially off Brownsville, there was evidence of coastal upwelling


with temperatures below 27C (Figs. 41 and 52).
were offshore, as was found during

FSU~I

Low surface salinities

in late July, although much

better defined here due to a closer samp 1i ng regime (Figs. 42 and 53).
The low-salinity water could normally be associated with cloudy, turbid
water and lenses of this were found interweaved with
parts per thousand higher salinity.

~later

of several

l1ater of 31.8/oo was found over

70 miles offshore just north of 27N (Fig. 42).

The set of the ship

during the survey for oil off Corpus Christi indicated a southerly
component for this low-salinity water mass.
4.3.3 Subsurface Oil
(l)

As Observed from the Surface:

to be below the sea surface on several occasions.

Tarballs were seen


Most often they would

be seen to have vertical motion and on one occasion a 5-cm diameter


tar pancake sank to about 3 m and returned to the surface.
(2)

Diver Observations:

Four dive stations were made

76
on cruise MOUSSE-I, all of them i.n regions where tarballs. were found on
the surface.

The following are taken from notes made by interviewing

the divers after each station.

Depths are given in feet.

Stations are

numbered the same as ship's stations (see Figs. 37 and 49).


Dive Station #1:

Divers-Northam, Phillips, Irwin, Brunet;

in at 1200 CDT, 5 August 197g.


"Lots of little brown particles all over the place;" "still at
40 ft 1 some paint chips;" ''particles concentrated 0-20 ft variable size
from 2"'2-3 inches to 1 em;" "evenly distributed small particles milkchocloate brown, largest marble-sized (2 em) diameter"--did not see
actual sinking-"particles to 35 ft" (depth gauge)-no tar on hull
noticed; decrease in particles with depth.

Two carboys of seawater were

collected for dissolved hydrocarbon analysis (see Fig. 36).

These were

collected using diver commands to position the bottles properly.


Samples were collected at 10 and 30 ft, probably the deepest level at
which this device can be actuated safely.

Samples were treated with

chloroform to kill organisms that might degrade oil content and were
sealed with screw-tops and teflon liners.
Dive Station #3:

Di vers-Behrens, Northam, Brunet.

"Thermocline at 17 ft, deepest particle 15 ft, very sparse


particles down to 15 ft; from 10 ft to surface more numerous-probably
same density as on surface; nepheloid layer at 30 ft, more gradual than
thermocline; visibility <l ft on bottom" [Behrens].

"Large blobs at

surface, going down thinned out and got smaller (1 em); did not see
anything deef.Jer than 20 ft" [Brunet].

"At the surface were many big

blobs; these tended to stay at surface; deepest were 30-35 ft in


1

This figure of 40 ft became much quoted in the national media as the


depth to which Ixtoc oil was sinking.

77

boundary of nepheloid layer but small particles all the way from surface
down to nepheloid layer'' [Northam].
Three diver-collected samples were obtained using "Zip-Loc" bags.
It was apparently difficult to get the particles in the bags and some
got damaged.

All divers agreed that the subsurface tarballs were

flaky-looking and quite small compared to those found on the surface.


Samples Collected:

The following samples of tarballs were

collected by divers.
DC-3-0

surface

Large (7 em) irregular-shaped blob

DC-3-3

10 ft

Flake; got squashed , 1a i nst bag

DC-3-8

25 ft

Flakes; dimensions, 2 x 5 mm

Dive Station #4:

Divers-Irwin, Phillips; first diver in at

1809 CDT.
"Did not see anything below 15 ft; concentration 7-12ft; all
pancake-shaped, much less than station #1; bottom at 50ft; thermocline co'fnc'fdes with nepheloid layer at 30 ft" [Irwin].

"From nepheloid

layer to surface, scattered "dead plankton" (peculiar white particles


that diver could not identify), 1 em particles, many at 3ft" [Phillips].
One sample was collected at 7 ft (very small flaky particle); also
an 8 mm underwater film was taken (.low sun angle but sun in clear).
Dive Station #6:
up 0940.

First look:

Divers--Northam, Irwin; divers down 0925;

one large piece of oil and several small pieces;

much less than previous tow.


"Mousse down to 5 ft; at 10 ft isolated small pieces; lots
of beasts; thermucline 35-40 ft; nepheloid layer, 50ft; bottom, 60ft;
no tar below 10 ft; pretty clean below" [Northam].

No samples; one

photo of bottom, one of surface layer looking up; remainder of 8 mm

78

film taken here, including surface mousse from underwater.


Underwater Photography:

On dive station #1 one roll of Koda-

chrome-64 11as taken using a Ni konos camera.

Divers report:

"There may be a problem with lighting; particles of tar


suspended in the water need to be back-lighted to bring them out
properly on film; next dive we will have one diver carry the lights
and the other take photographs for backlighting."
Most photographs are underexposed.

He was correct.

Also, they lack definition.

most successful are near-surface shots.

The

At dive station #3 and #6

a 50 ft roll of regular 8 mm Fujichrome movie film was shot using a


Fujica camera.

Details are given below.

the Port Aransas Marine Laboratory.

The film is on archive at

It lacks definition even more

than the 35 mm shots and is unsuccessful in showing tarballs subsurface.


Film sequence:

three pans: (_]) depth less than 10 ft;

(2) 25-30 ft; (3) in nepheloid layer.

One still sequence of particle

(approx. 2 mm in diameter at 10ft); two panoramas of particles at


5 ft, plus diver.

A surface to 10 ft deep drop; two panoramas at

10ft; diver plus writing slate; helicopter (not underwater!)


4.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise MOUSSE-I
On 5 and 6 August 1979, Ixtoc oil started washing up
on South Padre Island, particularly around Mansfield Cut and for
several miles north and south.

During this time, LONGHORN was

working in close proximity to the beach.

Vlindrows of small tarballs

were observed increasing in number and in the concentration of


tarballs within each windrow as the shore was approached.

In the

instances when LONGHORN got closer than two miles offshore or


approached Port Isabel and travelled through the cut, tarballs were
sparsely distributed or absent.

Even though the oil came ashore in

79
a semi-1 iquid mousse-1 ike form, LONGHORN sav1 no. such. patches of oil
close to shore except for the windrows of tarballs menttoned above.
On 9 and 11 August 1979 a survey of

~lustang

Island showed no oil

at all on the beach.


4.4 Pelagic Fauna
4.4. l

Birds
Several pelagic birds, or birds that spend part of the

year as pelagics, were seen during this cruise (Fig. 57).

On 7 August

at 1500 CDT a flock of 30 to 40 Black Terns was seen actively feeding


in a small Trichodesmium slick with ''particles submergec (log sheet
entry; v1ere they tarba 11 s?).

Later a medium-sized, unidentified

greyish petrel was seen and then the first of several Hilson's Storm
Petrels (Oceanitas oceanicusl was observed along with Cory's Shearwaters
(Puffinus diomedea).

Diomedea were seen feeding on schools of uniden-

tified fish that also attracted porpoises and sharks.

Small groups of

Storm Petrels (may also have included some Harcourt's Petrels,


droma castro) fed actively in the LONGHORN's

\~af<.e.

Ocea~

A tota 1 of 9 Cory's

and 15 1/il son's were seen before ni gf1ti'a 11 and on the 8 August 19
Cory's and 11 t1ilson's were. spotted along vlith a Blue-Faced Booby
(Sula dactylatra).

At this point the pelagics were seen with the more

coasta 1 gulls and terns.

A1so observed were several Sooty Terns

(Sterna fuscata).
4.4.2 Other Sightinos
No systematic attempt was made to catalog fish, porpoises,
turtles or

inv~rtebrate

sightings.

tities or associations were noted.

During the oil watch, unusual quanIn summary, flying fish were abun-

dant and porpoises frequently rode the bow wave while. the ship was
underv1c;y,

Other commonly sighted fish were tripletail, Sargassum fish,

so
pipe or needlefish, pufferfish, filefish.

Often these fish were in

slick and tarball regions, as in Sargassum windrows.

Some were

collected when they were in oil slicks (see sample log, section 4.7).
One small turtle was sighted and several crabs and squid were seen both
on and off station.

81

4.5 Cruise Maps

82

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


96\V
97W
98W
28N

27N

l~.-

26N

26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


Figure 37

83

LONGHORN Cruise
98W

MOUSS~-I.

8 Aug 1979
96W

to

97W

28N
Corpus Christi

.,.

...

1400 4

us

.....

+/
+

+ +

...
*+
... ++

+ .,

rltq.0fil 8 Au

.........

...

............

.,..

+
+
>

...
...
.,.

...
+

27N

+
+

+ +
#

+_,

...~!l:r.,.
+
+

..

01ZilZI 7 Au 9

26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N
LOCATION OVERLAY Figure 38

to

28N; 96W

to

98W

84

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4


98W
97W

to

8 Aug 1979
96W
28N

27N

i
I

L_

./

26~1

Sl-ATION LOCATIONS. 26N


Figure 39

to

28N; 96W

to

98W

85

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98Y/
97W
96W
28N

27N

/
I

L_

\
26~J
5m/:seo

SU~FACE

2l21, lZ!Kt-e

llZlm/:seo

30,1ZlKte

15m/.,ew
--

WINDS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


Figure 40

86

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4


98V/
97'1

Corpus Christi

r;

+'0~~

96W

28N

3o

-~

. "--

~;

8 Aug 1979
1

1J\

to

8
29. g

_8 7

+3ft 2

27N

+3t 2
+29. 9

3o

I' - - - - ':luiJ. ACE

OU .iERV i\ TIONS.
TEMF ERATURE CU

26!~

to

28N; 96W

t-o 98\v

87

LONGHORN Cruise MOU

E-Iv 4 to 8 Aug 1979


96W
I

98W

~I

I)J
ll

28N
Corpus Christi

27N

2G.4

.,.. 36 3

4
4

\I

I'

SL1~1:

f\CE U8 tRV 1\ TI N

SALINITY (1)pt)

N to

Figu\~e

02

1_:8!\l~

98\'J

88

LONGHOR~I

Cruise

0 1!

~J

1 79

98\11

I 28~1

Sl' ')F /\CE GBSERV /\ T I 1]


8= r.AFWt\LLS
F1gU'f'0

0
1.3

to

89

LONGHORN

("

L.rLJ 1 s:e

'

98\V

BN
Corpus Chri

7N

\I
l"l
r,

:;:; J

~-

.--

r \Lf:. U

S=SHt-:EN

RV

T
I

90

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I, 4


98W
97W

to

8 Aug 1979
96W
28N

+il

+W

+W

27N
+W

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N


W=WINDROWS
Figure 45

to

28N: 96W

to

98W

91

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4


97'1/
98W

to

8 Aug 1979
96\A/
28N

+G

27N
+G
+G

+G

+G

+~
+G
+G

'~-----

26N
SLH rACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N
G=SARGASSUM
Figure 46

to

28N; 96W

to

98W

92

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4


98W
97W

to

8 Aug 1979
96W
28N

+T

+T

+T

27N

+T
+T

+T T

+H

26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W
T=TRICHODESMIUM: H=WATER HYACINTH
Figure 47

to

98W

93

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4


98W
97W

to

8 Aug 1979
96W
28N

+N

+~l+fii"~+N

*1'4
+N

+~l

+N

27N

+N

+i'l
+N

26N
ACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N
N::NO OIL SEEN
Figure 48

SUI~F

to

28N; 96W

to

98W

94

95

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

97W

96W
26N

MEXICO

25N

24N
CRUISE TRACK. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
Figure 49

96

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4


98\V

to

8 Aug 1979

97W
26N
MEXICO

25N

24N.
STATION LOCATIONS. 24N
Figure 50

to

26N; 96W

to

98W

97

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


97W

98W

96W
26N

\
MEXICO

25N

24N

H'J. 12lKt.s

5m/sec

212l.l2lKt.s
30.12lKt.s

10m/sec
15m/sac

SURFACE WINDS. 24N to 26N: 96W to 98W


Figure 51

98

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

97W

96W
26N

MEXICO

25N

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
TEMPERATURE CD Figure 52

99

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

96W

97W
+

36.2

+ 36.3

26N

36.2
+ 36.2
*+~k

MEXICO

25N

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
SALINITY Cppt)
Figure 53

100

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

97W
B

96W
26N

+B

+J%3

+!i!s
+B

MEXICO

25N

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
B=TARBALLS
Figure 54

101

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I, 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

96W

97W

26N
+S

MEXICO

25N

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to ,98W
S=SHEEN
Figure 55

102

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-I. 4 to 8 Aug 1979


98W

97W

96W
26N

MEXICO

25N .

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N: 96W to 98W
G=SARGASSUM
Figure 56

105

4.6 Cruise Log

106

PAGE F.
CSE/SPD

DlST DPTH

SST

SSS

THIE

LATdL'

LONG~W

1400

27 3:-'.0

97 01.8

1500

~7

2a.0

s~

et.o

1600

27 19.0

s~

Bi.e

1~00

27 10.0

97 02.0

27

37

2S..3

1800

27 02.0

97 02.0

..;. ......

.-.~

37

29.3 35.472

1900

26 53.0

97 02.5

44

34

29.2 35.638

2000

26 45.0

97 07.0

187

8.9

31

29.0 36.116

22G

2100

26 35.0

97 07.0

187 10.0

24

28.1 36.365

315 21

2140

26 29.0

97 10.0

2200

26 27.0

97

'3ER

l.JI tlD

2
2t:

.... .-. {
.:.:>.

69

07.~

207

2220D 26 23.0

97 11.8

223

2225

97 13.0

8.0

73

18

C./C

27.5 36.380

340 19

26. :-. 36.332

~:37

160

2200

26 22.0

79

80

2240
2300

:31

26 17.0

97 06.5

LONGHORN cru1se MOUSSE-I

167 13.2

5 Au9 1979

T HIE

LAT 01:'

LONG<W:

CSE/SPD

0000

26 08.

97 08.0

167 11.5

0025D 2 06.4

97 12.1

125

1.0

101

0745D 26 00.1

~:-'

0;'.3

125

1.~~1

108

0820D

59.6

9~

0~.8

125

1.0

109

0840D 25 59.3

~~

36.7

125

1.0

109

2~

27

DIST DPTH
96

SST

SSS

26.1 36,413

RENRRr:S

341 27

107

LO!~GHORH

cru1se

MOUSSE-I

PAGE#

Au 1979

NONE SHEE TRRB MOUS WIND SARG TP!C HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

****
****
**ii-*

+***

Por~oise

Tarballs

UP

& f1Yin9 fish

to 2in in size,saMPle taken;

sq,uid

Windrows inc. in f'

**"'* ****'
****

re.:tuet1CY

tarballs sMaller

*i-*'*

Patches of

s~all

tarballs

towards shore

al~ost

continu

ous on sfc

Patches

LONGHORN c nli ~

MOUS~cE-I

thinnin~

out a bit

5 Au 1979

NONE SHEE TARS MOUS WIND SRRG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

*'~** ****
*"*** ****

DePart banana docks PI

****

****

****

****

****
****

2 Mi froM PI Jetties,Patches of tarballs

108

~ONGHORtt

cr~1s~

MOUSSE-I

Au~

1~79

7INE

LATdL

LONG(W)

CSE/SPD

0900

25 5?.8

s~

86.4

177

1.0

110

0915

25

97 04.2

097

9.7

112

5~.6

DIST DPTH

SST

838

26.0 36.468
21

18?

(1'?7

114

0935

25 55.2

1000

25 55.5

!080D 25

97 02.2

115

112 10.2

119

30

28. t. 36.248

.-;. .;..tt.

--

44

28.8 36.220

108

52.~

~6

52.~

148 10.5

124

1100

25 4?.9

9~

47.6

095 10.5

130

1136

25 49.5

96 43.5

152

6.2

133

1148

25 47.4

96 42.8

037 12.5

136

1240

25

46.~

96 41.0

3.5

137

53

29.3 36.244

1300

~5

4;,4

96 42.0

0.0

139

54

29.3 36.237

1400

25 46.5

96 41.0

1. 0

140

53

29.0 36.225

1"34

53

29.2 36.223

134

53

2'?, 2 36.22:.::

134

-.....

037

1500
16fH1

0 ,(1

1624

!640D 25

48.~

96

:./C

145

145

In slick
Sto. 1

St. o. 1

;.

45.~

145

151

35

29.0 36.227

101 22

l~Q

26

28.5 36.262

082 17

169

25

045 11

Sta 2

(131 12

IJ /1,!,1

1700

25 5!.5

96 51.5

1800

25 50.0

9~

01.0

322

8.7

.:. ...

109

LONGHOPN cru1se MOUSSE-I


t-IONE :3HEE TAF:E: tlOU:::

~lHHI

F'AGE#
SAF~G

TldC H't'AC

~*~~

OIL OBSERVATION REMARk?

Dense Patches of

Fr~~uent

tarballs

3-s~~M

sMall tarballs

****
SPot

POSSlble

SaMPlin9 in

slick

!1~i

slick~Sta

starboard

1)

**** ****

****

Several tarballs per

**~""

Tarball~

****
****

****

Much More

Mlnute;flYin~

abunda~t

flsh

110

L0tJGHORN crulSE MOUSSE-I


T HIE

LAT< ti:O

LONG ( ll)

1~00

26 01.5

97 03.5

Au~

1?79

oER

D! ST DF'TH

322

172

PAGEl*

21

27.1 36.430

133

~2

u/W

to PI

------------------------------------------------------------------------~-------

2000D 26 01.7

97 03.7

312

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-I

0.3

USCG :3t1 FI

172

6 Au9 19?9

LONG(W)

CSE/SPD

1335D 26 05.8

97 07.8

312

0.3

178

1410D 26 06.0

97 08.0

312

0.3

178

1415

26 06.0

97 08.0

002

0.3

1?8

1440

26 07.5

97 07.5

002

3.7

179

1455

26 08.8

97 04.0

002 13.6

183

1530

26 15.0

97 07.0

161BD 26 21.5

97 07.8

290

9.5

196

1625

26 23.7

97 08.7

277

9.4

198

1635D 26 23.5

97 09.7

1'36

1642

26 23.3

97 10.3

200

1700

26 23.3

97 10.3

200

15

1730

26 23.3

97 18.3

280

15

1747

26 23.2

97 09.8

1758D 26 23.5

97 09.7

068

5.3

201

1755

26 23.9

97 09.5

033

5.6

201

1814

26 24.8

97

~~.8

190~

2E 24.0

9~

0?.8

Tli'tE

LAT<tl)

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

RniRRKS

WlfiD

Clear

28.0 36.337
14

28.0 36.365

022

041 12

105 11

.JettY

875

16

097 12

c.'c 270

1 '3'~

8.0

:::t,a 3 o.nchr
28.4 36.319

St o. :3
2

070 20

1_.;/~)

200
.-;./c

17

28.4 36.334

073

281
833

e.o

201

350

Stop slick
Sto. 4

2:3.4 36.335

078

'?

Stc. 4

lll

OtlGHORtl

cr~ise

MOUSSE-I

F'AGE#

lONE SHEE TAPB MOUS WitlD SAPG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-I


NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

****
***""'
***.,.;.

**** Tarballs scarce


.;;..;.;..:.:..;..
~***

Tarballs scarcE
Redd1sn e9rets 12 Mi +roM beach

****
****

Windrows runn1n9 E-W

~:thinnin9

out towar

o:t: :c. hr.) ro::

Windrows ot sheen

tll,.rn S11(.1.11
1 nl.. in..::-

t rJ.

~:

rbo.l1 ! ~

ManY sMall tarballs

Danca~e

~ r:rlp;;

si=e torball

o.r:r. :t t" t. :r be S

112

LONGHORN

cr~1se

MOUSSE-!
LONG(W~

Au~

GSE'SPD

1979

DIST DPTH

2000

26 24.0

9~

0?.8

033

0.0

201

20~7D

26 23.9

?~

08.?

16?

2.7

202

2050

26 23.6

97 07.3

2057D 26 23.6

97 07.7

344

2100

26 23.7

97 07.8

2118D 26 23.S

'?47 08.5

2132

26 23.?

9~

0?.8

205

2200

26 24.0

97 0?.0

205

2242D 26 23.7

97 08.6

2300

26 23.6

97 08.5

206

2335

26 23.6

97 08.5

206

T Ir1E

LAT <ID

LONGCW'

0000

26 24.0

97 05.3

0013D 26 25.4

97 05.9

2?1

6.8

210

26 25.8

97 06.1

291

6.8

211

0021D 26 26.2

97 06.2

291

6.8

211

0025D 26 26.6

97 06.4

291

6.8

212

0102D 26 30.5

9~

08.1

291

~.8

216

0121

26 32.5

97 09.0

327

6.7

212

0200

26 31.0

9~

10.8

0655D 26 29.0

9~

09.2

001~D

PAGE#

SST

SSS

28.3

3~.33~

SEA

~l

I tm

098

Sto 4

2(14

End Pi ,,_nk

2.7

204

Ret. t.: slik

31~

2.8

204

351

2.0

205

136

0.6

CSE.'SPD

28.3 36.300

Sta 5

anch~

17

28. 1

206
St.!J. 5

DIST DPTH

22(1

0.5

045

Sto. 5

22

126

223

SST

SSS

SEA

HIND

Ra1AF'KS

27.7 :36. 4(11

108 14

4.2~1

beQch

113

.LONGHORtl cruise MOUSSE-I


tlONE

SH~E

PAGEl

TARS MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


Tarbolls scarce

of tarballs Jaries,soMe Places


verY thick,others thin

Fre~u~ncY

Tarball concentration

**** ****
****

~ui,!

thin

Needle fish t crabs

****

Th1ck cone. tarballs 1n windrows Passin


shiP
**~*

****

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-I

Au~

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SRRG !RIC HYAC

OIL OBSEPVATION REMARKS


FairlY clean onlY one Patch of tarballi
seen while runnin

****

Much sarassuM

A few scattEred tarballs

114

LONGHORN

cru1se

MOUSSE-I

Au~

1979

7IME

LiiT,tl

LONG,:W:'

0~30

26 28.8

97 09.0

0735D 26 27.8

97 08.2

0745

2~.0

97 0.5

0750D 26 25.7

97 06.5

262

3.6

0757D 26 25.3

97 06.E

262

:;:, 6

0810

26 24.5

97 06.7

0815D 26 24.2

97 06.2

148

6.1

22'9

0818D 26 24.1

97 85.9

148

6.1

22?

0838

26 23.0

97 04.0

0845D 26 24.2

97 05.0

0852

26 25.5

97 06.0

0925D 26 25.9

97 06.3

1115

26 27.0

97 07.3

236

1205

26 27.0

97 07.6

236

1230

26 27.0

97 07.0

236

1300

26 29.3

97 03.5

240

26

CSE~SPD

129 14.4

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

IHtm

PEIIAF~I:::;.

224
227

18

227

228

( ..... c 270

17

231

305 13.2

232

_,,

? ..., ~

308

0.8

Sto. 6

234

18

28.4 36.275

2
[J/1,.)

30

29.2 36.289

132ttit 26 31.1

'?7

035

1340D 26 32.9

96 57.7

035

9.6

246

LOF:ANR

1400D 26 34.8

9~

035

9.6

250

LORAN-A

~30.

54.7

LORAt~-A

c<~.Jt

ou~

c<~.;t

115

F'AGE#

NONE SHEE TARS MOUS WIND SAPG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMRRI.S

Look._n~

f.:r :il

.=-:01'1E

.=.:.o.tt. .:ro:d :E-!'~>J.ll

rp)

t.o:rio.l

Priodic 1-2'' tarballs,wlndrows of sMall


er par~lclesiheadin~ tor Possible slic~

E:>~t. n:: 1 <}E -E-11 c.ko sf :- cov.:- ted \.J- SI1IO.ll


rb.,.ll::-~ rLH1tnn~ r.oo.rlll-:::1 tc ::-llck

In ::::-llc.k' h>:-H-'ilY oilo2d


:. :_;: .:- t

r.-1~

:.2::- ot

to.

r:lJ..:.t ;_

r-:.-r oo.1~1

Many sMall

tarballs~

occasional 1-2''

~ar

balls

Move 1nshore to locate & anchor in

sl1c~

USCG helicoP1er arrl'-'ES to Pick UP

so.M~l

':?:E-

****

.;.:..;.;.~*

~~**

****

ManY

Ion~

narrow sl1cks

****

l
~.,.;**

Slick covers entii"E

****
Fl ,-

irr~

f'l:E-h

~ro::-a

I
I

I
I
I
I

w
,__,
I

"-

,,

:..:..:.

("!

"'

I
I

:-1

'-'

"'

"'

w
a:

I
I
I

"':z:

:::::

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

,,,

If!

'D

...-.

1.(1

((o

1-

,_,.,

"',..., .,.

rn

(J

,,.

(J.

"'
fJ

'-(

I
I
I
IM

IN
~

I
I

1.:

"I;)

I-

II)

I
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117

~ONGHORN

sru1sE MO~SSE-1

NONE SHEE TAR2 MOUS WitD SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATIOII REMARKS


::f'IQll .:l1d,
f l:E 11

r.-ot.c.t~~=:::.

Qt'

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t~rns

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*.;.;.**

***"'

7 sharks feedln9,Wilson Petrels & Corv _


heo.r wo.tet:::

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LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-I

F'AGE#

NONE SHEE TAR8 MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-I

Atl~

1919

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SRRG TRIC HYAC

****
****

***+

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


Visibilitt

decreasin~~

difficult to see

::ea sfc. teo det,errun' if oil i::. Pre::.ent

Possible t,o.rball=<Sf'"IJ.ll) ~ hJ.rd to deten.t

ne~ rain
****
----------------------------------------------------------------------------~---

DolPhins on boto.l

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****

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~O,;E.SI..II'"l

S0all area of sheen

5'' 01de) beside sar

120

LONGHOPN

cruli~

MOU;~E-I

8 Aus 1?7?

PAGE#

:::

THtE

LAT(tr>

0705~

27 19.2

8730

27 15.5

96 12.5

0800

27 12.0

96 13.5

0900

27 13.0

96 11.5

0910

27 13,5

96 12.5

337

6.1

395

320

0930

27 17.5

96 14.5

337'

2.?

399

234

1000

27 20.0

96 15.0

337

5.1

402

1 77'

2'3. 2 .34. .05

1100

27 28.5

96 18.2

297' 10.2

411

110

29.0 34,503

1130

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1200

.:.

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9. 27.4

317

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27 34.6

96 30.1

297

1245

27 33.9

96 31.5

1250

27 33.9

96 31.5

262

0.0

424

57

29.5 34.760

262

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27 36.8

96 40.5

307 12.8

433

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29.9 34.467

095

1400

27 38.8

96 46.3

307 11.0

438

36

29.9 35.061

113 10

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27 41.1

96 51.5

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8.8

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27 41.1

96 51.5

307

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337 14

137

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C/C

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660

2'?, 1 35.847

423

424

415

38.2 34.721
31}, 3 33.766

Sta 9

u/w to PA

121

LOtlGHCF'rl c r:_;l ~ .: t10U ::::.E- I


tlOt~E

:;J-IEE TAF::E.

rwu::

PAGE#

l1HlD ::AF'G TRIC H'/A::

OIL OBSEPYAT!ON REMARKS

Rain to the E, 3 W1lson


Po. in 1 n9

""'**""'
****

****
***""'

SaMPlln9 in trich blooM

stor~

Petr~is

122

4.7

Sample Log

LmlGHORH CRUI.SE !lOUS::.E-I; SANPLE LJG

S7fdF,...DRTE

AIJ-~

TH1E
1700

ACT I'/ I TV CODE

LATOn

BIRD-!

27 10.0 97 02.0
26 3-5. 8 97 07.0

2100

SFC-1

1230
1240

SFC-1

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DEPTH

F;EI1AF:K":

Surf

D-=a.d Lo.u;h. ~t.: 11


F i r:::.t tar u.s. 1.10. t.; r

!Hlrt'

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sto.
12:3t
CARS 1-l
25 4?.b 96 43.0
5

Au-~

1617

CARS 1-3
STD 0
DISC 1-1
GRAB 1
LVFPOC 1-10
LVFPOC 1-15
LVFPOC 1-5

2~ 47.6 96 43.0
25 47.6 96 43.0
25 48.4 5'6 44.6
? 49.0 ~6 46.6
25 48.8 96 46.0
25 49.0 96 46.6
25 4'?, 0 96 46.6
25 49.0 Q.o 46.6

1810
1818

LVFPOC 2-0
L'/FPOC 2-5

25 59.5 96 00.8
25 59.5 96 00.8

1402-1420

1430
1500
1550

1ses

Sto.

1827
1833

L'v'FPOC 2-10

LVFPOC 2-15
GARB 2-10
SFC 2-10

--

25 59.5 96 00.8
25 59.5 96 00.8
25 59.5 96 00.8
-~ 59.5 96 00.8

surf

1o?::

0-30

11 R.::s.:-t t e

SO.J 01F:

::.urf
53

Sa.i'IP 1 e- not

re-taine-d

10
15

5
surf
5
10
15
10

14 fM water

.,.
1845
:.u rf
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta. 3
1780
SFC 3
25 23.3 97 10.3 surf
6 Au
1700
DC 3-0
26
sud'
Iliver c.ollec.ted i 1
-' 10.3
,. 23.3
DC 3-10
23.3 ' !0.3 10
Diver collected i l
1840

,~..,

DC 3-3

Stn

1814
1830

SFC 4-0

DC 4-2

0?

-0

26 23.3 97 10.3

26 24.0 97 09.8
26 24.0 97 0'3. 8

5
10
15
0-15
0-15

26 23.7 97 07.8
26 23.'? 97 09.0

surf
surf

2300
2330

SHEEN 6(2)
ti!SK s-e
NISK 5-5
CARS 5-2
CRAB 5-1' 5-2

26 23.9 97 09.0
26 23.6 -~
-' 08. 1
26 24.0 97 09.0

18"0

GRAB 6

26 25.5 97 06.0

18

1930
1942
1355
2017

2050

CARS 4-2
LVFPOC 4-1
LVFPOC 4-2
LVFPOC 4-3
LVFPOC 4-4
PLAHK 4
PLAHK 4

i1

SI.Jrf

7 ft
5 ft
surf

26 24.0 97 e3. 8
26 24.0 97 09.8
26 24.0 97 09.8
26 24.0 97 09.8
26 24.0 97 09.8
26 24.0 97 09.8
26 23.6 ?7 17.3

1857
1919

Diver collEcted

0
0
0

Di ~Je r

CO 11 E'C tEd

oil

St a. rt Tow
End r.:;.w

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
2108
SHEEH 5(1)
26 23.7 97 07.8 surf

Sta.

2108

213'3
2210

5 ft
:a.urf

DiP n.et.

::'-tli'.!P

l es

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------8818-0842 PLAHK 6-1


26 24.5 97 06.7 10
-------------------------------------------------------~------------------------

Sta.

Sta

Sta.

Sta 10

1200
1205
1218
1210

SFC 7

SHEEN 7

26
26
26
26

0827-0904

STD 6

27 13.5 96 12.5

300

27 33.9 96 31.5
27 33.9 96 31.5

surf
surf

Tric.h blooM

27 41.1 96 51.5

15ft

Cl~nn

1248

CARB 7-2

FISH 7

SFC

~< 1)

1248

SFC 9(2)

1435

CARS

16-3

27.0
27.0
27.0
2?.9

97
97
97
97

07.0
07.0
07.0
07.0

5 +'t
~urf

Puffer fish

sur-f
surf

Trich and Tarba.lls

station

123

5 CRUISE MOUSSE-II (15 AUGUST - 22 AUGUST 1979)


5.1

Cruise Objectives
It was proposed to cruise a predetermined track in the area

between Port Aransas and approximately 150 miles 1 south of the


~1exican

border.

The major objectives of the cruise were to research

the mode and rate of transport of the Ixtoc oil, the general physical
oceanographic structure of the water column, the frequency of occurrenee of petroleum in plankton tows, the distribution and composition
of both sheen and dissolved hydrocarbon, and the presence of hydrocarbon in sediment.

The goal was to determine if a concentra-

tion gradient existed between Texas waters and major oil deposits
south of the border.
Sampling and observational strategy for surface oil remained the
same as on FSU-I and MOUSSE-I, except that surface currents were
measured directly on all anchor stations.

On-station techniques were

significantly different from those used previously and are detailed


in Part II of this report (see a 1so under "Cruise flarrative", section
5.2).
5.2 Cruise Narrative
This cruise can be conveniently divided into four sections.
Each section represented a line of stations running approximately
normal to the isobaths from the inner continental shelf to the shelf/
slope break.
1

There were four such sections (cruise track, Fig. 59).

As of 0800 hrs, 14 August 1979, the oil was reported to be moving into
upper Texas waters. The track had to be revised to reflect this
although the basic plan of occupying predetermined stations, regardless
of the oil concentration at the surface, was not changed.

124

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W

96W

97W

95\11

28N
Cor-pue Chr-it.i

l2112ll2IIZI

1 Aug

27N

UNITED
STATES

26N
Aug

MEXI 0

25N

24N

CRUISE TRACK. 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 59

125
The Roman numerals II and IV refer to previously occupied BLM station
lines (Flint and Rabalais, 1980)_, while V and VI were section lines
in Mexican waters, so numbered as to be in keeping with the existing
system.

Along the BLM lines, the BLM stations were reoccupied.

This

has the advantage of there already being two substantial baseline data
sets with which to compare post-Ixtoc oil conditions.
Because of the extra scope of this cruise, I was unable to maintain
a running narrative during the cruise.
however, were maintained throughout.

The deck log and oil log,


A brief chronological cruise

description is given below plus highlights taken from my notebook (see


also section 5.3).

As there were 24 stations on this cruise, no

station-by-station narrative is given here.


5.2.1

(BLM) Une IV
--Left Port Aransas, 1045 local; some slicks in channel;

a few scattered tar pieces at surface near Port Aransas; oil observation log maintained starting at 1045; deck log started at 1045.
The track was designed to parallel the shoreline of Padre Island
en route to the first line.

On cruise MOUSSE-I oil concentrations

nearshore seemed to increase as the shoreline was approached.

Oil had

come ashore even when just a few miles offshore the ocean surface was
clean, indicating very narrow northerly longshore current.

Consequently,

this course was run to circumvent the oil escaping our observation.
--Generally, large patches of slick, many square miles;
slick contains tar pieces up to several inches across and many pieces
of water hyacinth vtith oil adhering to them.

t1uch Sargassum but no

oil adhering to it as far as could be seen.

Later the wind increased

and windrows of oil s 1i ck with tar pieces were encountered spaced by


about 10 m; wind was onshore.

At one point a strong diesel odor was

126
detected along wi.th the sheen lsee cruise log, section 5.6, p. 2).
On this cruise a six-hour, two-man watch was established.

The

watch-standers were responsible for both surface observations and


station activities.
--En route to station, stopped in a heavy Trichodesmium
bloom and sampled; order of stations:

BU1 Line IV, starting on the

inshore end (station #4).


--Hi 11 have to go into Port Isabel in morning to pick up
current meter and deliver briefcase left on board.
--Arrived on station (station IV-4, first on the line) at
2243 hrs; anchored.

At night difficult to see if slick area; some

small whitecaps; lots of tar at surface, some several centimeters


across; in ship's lights, crabs, halfbeaks or needlefish, squid, other
schooling fish.
Station Activity (see Table 3):

Seven stations were occupied

along this line, four of which were dive stations.

A brief stop in

Port Isabel was made on 16 August to pick up some equipment.

Oil was

seen in one or more of its forms along the entire section, although
it varied considerably in concentration both spatially, en route, and
temporally, while on station.

All stations were taken at anchor.

Divers observed subsurface oil on all stations, one as deep as


65ft.

Both methods of filtration seemed to be successful, although

not as many tar particles were trapped in the filters subsurface as


would be expected from the divers' descriptions (see section 5.3.3 for
complete description of dive station results).
Transmissometer data seemed to be quite crude and at best indicated
whether or not the water was turbid, with little refinement.

Fluoro-

127

meter data was also not too successful and no defi.nite correlation was
apparent between subsurface oil concentration and fluctuation on the
fluorometer.
TABLE 3.
TYPE

Station activity on cruise MOUSSE-II, (BLN) Line IV

STATION

PLANK
STD
LVFPOC
FLUOR
CM
TRANS
LVP
SFC
GRAB
SHEEN
DIVE
CARB

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

5.2.2

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

;(

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

Line V
-At offshore terminus of

(BL~1)

Line IV, steamed south

to approximately 25 12'N (2000 COT, 17 August to 0200 18 August).


General tar concentration at surface appeared to increase as we got
farther south.

Patches of many tar pieces alternating with clear spots.


-Weather squally.

Nearing seaward end of Line V, much

more oil in form of pancakes (up to 25 em diameter); lots of water


hyacinth.

Seas getting rougher as storm passes.


-Several porpoises and two landbirds (unidentified in

dark) trying to roost on LONGHORN.


Station Activity (see Table 4):
occupied along this line.

Eight stations were

Due to inclement weather and/or very strong

surface currents, no dive stations were occupied.

Station line took

128
from 0225 COT, 18 August to 0600 CDT 19 August to complete,

Oi.l coverage

was heavy along Line V, with one area of very heavy mousse (station
V-6A, see below).
each station.

Table 4 lists the different types of sampling done on

Both the large volume filtering and pumping (LVFPOC and

LVP) seemed to be collecting some mi.crotarballs at depth, perhaps more


so on this line than on any previous lines.
TABLE 4.
TYPE
PLANK
STD
LVFPOC
FLUOR
CM
TRANS
LVP
SFC

GRAB

Station activity on cruise MOUSSE-II, Line V

STATION

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

SHEEN
DIVE
CARB

6A

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

After station V-5, the Smith-Mcintyre grab sampler malfunctioned and


was deemed unsafe to use for further work.
In between stations some attempt was made to count the number of
water hyacinths and Sargassum pieces per unit ocean surface area.

The

hyacinth, in particular, was abundant along Line V (117 pieces of oiled


hyacinth were counted in a 12-minute period at a speed of 9 kt (see
cruise log, section 5.6 p. 6, 1740 COT).

129

The "Big

t~ousse

Patch":

At 1110 COT, 18 August 1979,

en route to station V-6, we encountered a large area of heavy oil


completely covering the sea surface (Fig. 60).

The oil was reddish to

chocolate-brown in color, was highly viscid in texture and contained


several pieces of debris, of mostly unrecognizable ori'gin because of

_,.

~-.J

: ,~"

Figure 60.

Mousse patch showing damping


of surface waves.

their oil coating (Fig. 61).

It was presumed that this was a classic

case of "mousse" and station V-6A was initiated.


genuine mousse encountered by LONGHORN.

This was the only

A fluorescence profile was

taken, whi.ch badly oiled the pumping equipment (Fig. 62) and a surface

130

Figure 61.

sample collected.

Close up of mousse patch showing


debris; area approximately 20 ft
by 30 ft.

It was felt that the heavy oil concentration would

spoil the collection device for dissolved hydrocarbons so no carboy


samples were taken.

Similarly, there did not seem to be a safe and

easy way of getting the divers into the water to observe under the
mousse.
area.

A strong odor described as "old gas station" permeated the


The mousse made a memorable sound as it "slurped" against the

side of the ship.

When the surface of the oil was parted to reveal

the seawater beneath, several schools of small silvery fish and some
sharks were seen, perhaps utilizing the shade provided by the oil cover.

131

Figure 62.

Pump station (for fluorescence)


taken through mousse patch.

When the patch was first discovered the Captain radiotelephoned


the position to the U.S. Coast Guard as a helicopter drop and, later,
a coordinated overflight was to be made the same day.

Within

minutes of the communication (1210 COT) a DC-6 aircraft with the


legend ''Conair'' written on it and a designation of ''449'' made
severa 1 1ow passes over the s li ck, which had now drifted away from
LONGHORN.

The aircraft proceeded to spray the patch with what was

presumably a dispersant and when we we11

~ertain

that spraying acti-

vities had ceased, LONGHORN steamed back into the mousse.


After spraying, the patch appeared to be smaller in area, as if

132

the oil had been "herde.d" by tile ch.emica 1.

Its texture was now more

liquid (but in a thicker layer), although it was difficult to judge


exactly what the immediate effects of the spraying had been.

Another

surface sample was taken (see Fig. 6 ) but due to the extremely
noxious smell surrounding the patch, making some of our crew feel unwell, we
retreated from the mousse.

Surface currents on the edge of the patch

were 1.5 to 2 kt to the north (Fig. 81).


5.2.3

Line VI
--En route to Line VI from the inshore end of Line V;

extensive areas of heavy slick with varying degrees of 1 r pieces;


concentration ranging from almost none to perhaps 10% coverage.
little Saroassum or water hyacinth seen.

Very

Many shrimpers working and

groups of Laughing Gulls at rest on surface in slicks--no oiled birds


seen; also Sandwich Terns, Black and Royal Terns.

Near the northern

end of this traverse, some tarba 11 s 1ooked b1 i stered and darker co 1ored
than "normal", appearing to be semi-liquid.

It is probable that this

appearance was the result of the chemical dispersion being done in the
vicinity.

Nearline Line VI there was a definite lessening of the

amount of oil visible at the surface.


Station Activity (see Table 5):
were occupied on Line VI, with one dive station.

Only three stations


On station VI-2,

surface samples and sheen samples were collected using the ship's Zodiac
workboat to be away from the influence of shipboard contamination.
These samples were retained by Roger Burke of Texas A&M and John Patton
of ERGO.

At sta:ion VI-3 an unusual flying fish was collected by John

Patton; the fish had extremely long "barbels" and may have been a
juvenal form.
by Patton.

The specimen did not preserve well, but was retained

133

TABLE 5.
TYPE

Station activity on cruise MOUSSE-II, Line VI


STATION

PLANK
STD
LVFPOC
FLUOR
CM
TRANS
LVP
SFC
GRAB
SHEEN
DIVE
CARB

X
X
X

X
X
X

5.2.4

(BLM) Line II
The run to Line II was the longest uninterrupted

traverse of the cruise, approximately 200 miles long from 24 lO'N to


27 15'N (2320 COT, 19 August to 2230 COT, 20 August).

The initial

part of the run was under frequent thunder squalls which occasionally
interfered with LORAN navigation.

South of the U.S.-Mexican border

there were some areas where no oil was seen, but on nearing the border
we encountered tarballs whenever observations were made.

\vindrows

containing tarballs, hyacinth and Sargassum, were very common; at one


time 146 windrows running normal to the ship's track were counted in
15 minutes.

XBT drops were made along this traverse (see Part II).

At 1050 COT, 20 August, a Sandwich Tern with oil on its belly was
seen; this was the only oiled bird observed on this cruise.
Station Activity (see Table 6):

The seven

BU~

were reoccupied; two dive stations were made (.II-2 and II-4).
was observed on the surface or subsurface on dive station II-4.

stations
No tar
Oil

134

TABLE 6.
TYPE

Station activity on cruise MOUSSE-II, lBLM} Line II

STATION

PLANK
STD
LVFPOC
FLUOR
CM
TRANS
LVP
SFC
GRAB
SHEEN
DIVE
CARB

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

was seen in the form of tarballs and oiled water hyacinth along the
entire section but thinned out as we approached Port Aransas on
21 August 1979.
5.3 Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors
Throughout cruise MOUSSE-II oil was present on the sea surface
almost every time an observation was made.

Although we covered only

a narrow band of ocean along our trackline and the distribution maps
(Figs. 64-90) must not be considered synoptic, the oil represented the
dominant form of flotsam seen.

I have spent 17 years going to sea

on research cruises, throughout the world's oceans, and have never


observed such a widespread concentration of oil at sea before.
5.3. l

Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam


Figures 63 to 89 are maps showing the distribution of

oil in its various forms as found at the surface during cruise MOUSSE- I I.
Also included are cruise tracks, station locations, and various physical parameters pertinent to the oil distribution.
Tarballs (Figs. 71 and 84) were seen almost everywhere; in fact, on

135

only eleven observations was it noted that no oil could be seen (Figs.
76 and 90).

The tarballs were distributed patchily over the sea surface,

especially in the form of windrows (Figs. 73 and 87).

Their size was

generally quite samll (perhaps averaging 2-3 em diameter) but the


smaller the tarballs, frequently, the more numerous they were, as if
tarballs were being actively broken up.

As in previous cruises their

color was milk-chocolate brown as seen from the ship looking down into
the ocean in good light.

On one or two occasions their morphology was

quite different, having a blistered, liquid-looking appearance and we


be 1i eve that this was due to the action of chemica 1 di sp sants.
\1hen tarballs were found in extensive sheen patches they appeared to be
randomly distributed within the patches.

In these instances they were

normally seen to be bleeding sheen into the patch.

Again, the conclu-

sion was that whenever there was extensive sheen, tarballs would be
bound in that sheen but not vice-versa.

The large sheen patches,

stretching from horizon-to-horizon as viewed from the flying bridge


of LONGHORN (approxiately 60 square miles is visible at the height of
an average observer) were only found when the wind speed was low.
Extensive regions of this type of sheen were found in Mexican waters.
Sheen was also observed all along the coastline on our nearshore traverse
at the start of the cruise (see Figs. 72 and 85).

The large sheen

patches were also collectors of other flotsam, particularly items like


styrofoam cups, where 1-1ere i nva ri ably covered in oil.

No sheen patches

were observed offshore north of 26 lO'N (Fig. 72).


As the wind increased from calm, the sheen rapidly broke up into
patches, streamers and finally windrows.

A windrow formed after the

breakup of a sheen patch maintained a slick appearance on its surface.

36

Other windrows containing tarballs sometimes did not have the slick look
but tarba 11 s would often be seen to b1eed into the windrow.

The di stri-

bution of windrows, including those containing Sargassum and water


hyacinth, is shown in Figures 73 and 87.

In three separate estimates

of the distance between windrows (accomplished by counting windrows that


were normal to the ship's course at a given speed}, values of 34m,
22 m, and 37 m were obtained at wind speeds between 7 and 12 kt (see
cruise log, section 5.5, p. 6).

At this time the depth of the mixed

layer, often associated with the dimension of Langmuir cells (Assaf et


al., 1971), was about 25m.
The location of the mousse patch described in detail above is shown
in Figure 86.

This was the only region of extensive mousse found

during the LONGHORN cruises.


The floating water hyacinth, almost always covered in oil, had by now
(.late August) spread northwards to North Padre Island (Fig. 74).

It was

highly concentrated along Line V and northwards to about level with South
Padre Island.

Density estimates were made by counting the number of

large pieces (whole plants) visible out to the length of LONGHORN's


outriggers (27ft) in a given time period at a given speed.

At 25" ll'N;

97"W, near the mousse patch, there was an approximate density of one
piece of hyacinth per 250 m2 . At the same time, the number of Sargassum
pieces was one piece every 1300 m2.
Towards the southern part of the cruise track, water hyacinth was
scarce, being found only in two locations along Line VI (Fig. 88).

It

was as if the body of hyacinth found on MOUSSE-I had moved northwards


in the interim.
Trichodesmium was found in only two locations during MOUSSE-II:
27"N nearshore en route to Line IV (Fig. 74) and just south of 25"N

at

137

along the traverse to Line II (Fig. 88).


Sargassum was less frequently encountered and less widespread on
MOUSSE-II than on MOUSSE-I.

South of the border it was found only at

the seaward end of Line V (Fig. 89) although it was more widespread
north of 26N (Fig. 74).

Sargassum was less frequently found in

windrows on this cruise.

No evidence of oiling of Sargassum could be

found.
5.3.2 Wind, Currents and Water Masses

tiinds were predominantly from the southeast during the


cruise (Figs. 67 and 80) with speeds up to 25 kt but ave 3ging 12 kt.
There were a few periods of calm.
1-2 ft in height.

Seas ranged up to 5 ft but averaged

Local thundershowers and squalls were frequent,

particularly in the southern part of the cruise track.


Surface currents had a northerly component at the offshore end of
each station 1i ne (Figs. 68 and 81 ) but an easterly component on the
nearshore end.

There was considerable current shear towards the

offshore end of Line V where currents of up to 2 kt were recorded.


This northerly flow and the considerable ship's drift recorded on
cruises FSU-I and FSU-II probably represented the shoreward edge of
the Western Boundary Current (see Sturges and Blaha, 1976).
current measurements are given in Table 7.

Actual

It should be noted that

the longest measurement made (] hrs on station IV-6) did not cover a
tidal cycle.

Some of the variability seen in the current roses is

due to tidal influences (see Table 7 for the current meter data
listing).
Sea-surface temoeratures ranged from 26.9 to 29.8 (Figs. 69 and 82).
The high temperatures were just slightly lower than those measured

138

TABLE 7.

Surface currents at MOUSSE-II anchor stations.

: iR;t/ DATE Tit1E


~ ::1

tE
:~T.l

I '1'-5

: 7ft0
1715
17:30
1;'45
1:300
1845

LriT :1
"~

10. ,)

LOtl <~-J-'
'?6 54.;]

:.PEE II

D .i:~:.

a. 7

270
~ .. -'
300

0.4

0.2

0.2
0.6
>), 6

1'?2tt

-. ""'C'

3~)0
.-. E C'

.,j

,.1

225

0. 3

2~5

2000

0.5

26>3

JB~Je

8.2

266

3
3

160
:325

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------23:30
220

:3t.l !'/-2

:r

AtJ:j

~]0"30

>}.

0301

~1.

u.3

2!5

13.2
0 .3

0950
!245

255
280
305

0. 2..

06il
051

1:325

0.2

070

B. 2.
8.-1

~)4.5

0.5

235

0.4
0 ...
0.3
0.5

105
105
090

0480

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------3 :t
96..!0
'?6 .......
26 10.6
2'?5
0.'3
t.

00

I'/-~

-..~

07'17
>J820
~J?00

17' AtJ:;;

! 230

:3t:t f'-/-3

1-3-1.5
1515

8.3

a. 1

.26

8 ,.

~6

2:2. S

t::m

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------n:-: 1.::3o
25 10. 0
22.5 IJ. 5
0'?0

Stl

'~6

lf00
t730

1800
1:34.5

1"

lii.J=J

'3 t, 1 \'-15

0815
~)92~1

25 13.0

?6 .:17.

~J

0955
1>)30

1.3
!...I.

1.5

l.4

25 12. 0
1 3:30
1400

;r..l '/-4

25 12.1]

96" 51.13

1.~J

1430

0:30
050

s.-). Sl

~)45

1'500
1535

1.0
g. '3

345

18(15

2125

2240
~:11

'.,.'-_2

030

0."3

l)g

J l 30
~1246

30~1

200
210
21 (!

1~40

~T,;l,

025"
0:30
6:31:1
02'5

1 ?00
::.t.J}, './-3

tB5

25

.S".LJ

'?7 12.1:1
?( 15.0

0.4
'). 5

40
40

:J.3
:). 4

-' '

139

TABLE 7 (continued)
LONGHORN CRUISE MOUSSE-I!;

S~RF~CE

CURRENTS

~o9e

3TA#/DATE TH1E

LATOn

LONCWl

SPEED

DIR.

St a ':'-1

25

97 26.0

0.4
0. z
0.5

225
258
275

0327
0352
0517

4.0

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1550
24 12.0
97 19.8 0.4
045

Stu Vl-2

16:30
1700
1730
1755
1945
20

AJJ:;,~

Stl I I-3

1~W30

0. 5

0. 2
0. 6

000
000
335
345
295

0.3

280

a. 4
o. 3
2? 17.7

S6 22.7

0120

8.3

0400
0505

o. 3
0. 5

320
045

0.7
1.3

000
330
:355

32.0

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta I!-6 0325


27 22.5
96 29.0 0.3
315
Sta II-5

0-530
0800
0830

27 27.6

96 36.0

0.5

during MOUSSE-I, indicating that some seasonal cooling was already


taking place in late August.
shore between 24N and 25N.

These are probably the result of coastal

upwelling and the cooler water from this upwelling has spread northwards
along the shelf.

An isolated patch of low-salinity water (lowest

measured was 33.3/oo) was found offshore south of 27N and another
region (33.1/oo) close to shore off Aransas Pass (STD stations 49
and 51, see Part II).

The majority of the surface salinities measured

were slightly fresher than Hestern Gulf Surface Hater (see Armstrong
and Grady, 19b8) around 36.3/oo.

Alon.g Line VI, at the southern end

of the study region, some salinities were <36/oo possibly due to a


remnant of fresh water from the heavy rains of July on the upper Texas
coast.

140

5.3.3 Subsurface Oil


(1)

As Observed from the Surface:

Some careful observa-

tions were made of the behavior of tarba11s sinking from the sea surface.
The major problem was to make sure that turbulence caused by the ship's
motion through the water did not induce sinking.

The divers made their

observations well away from the ship on station.


Underway, one could observe the sea surface in daylight by standing
on the bow and looking out and forward beyond the influence of the bow
wave.

On station, oil could be observed at closer range but the

influence of the vessel could be a factor in the behavit: of particles


so observed.

For example, a lee would be created by currents on one

side of the vessel and particles would collect in the backwash along
that side of the ship.
Nonetheless, there was no doubt that particles of oil were sinking
naturally.

In windrows, small tarba11s could invariably be observed

at subsurface levels of a few centimeters deep.

At other times single

particles of oil could be seen to leave the surface where they were
floating and sink quite rapidly as far as one could observe given the
water transparency or until the ship moved out of visual range.

On

occasion these particles would go several tens of centimeters deep


and then be seen to return to the surface.
restricted to windrows.

This behavior was not

Sinking particles were usually only a few

millimeters in diameter.
(2)

Diver Observations:

In experiments using divers

tarba11s were taken from the surface to depth, released and observed.
Invariably, large tarba11s (several centimeters in diameter) rose again
to the surface. Turbulence. created by the diver's motion made it

141
difficult to determine the exact behavior of particles introduced or
found naturally at subsurface levels.

At all stations except station II-4, oil particles were observed


subsurface (see Table 8).

At all these stations except station II-4

there was oil at the surface as well (see cruise log, section 5.5).
Most of the particles were observed in the upper 10 ft of the water
column and thinned out rapidly below that (diver observations were
made using depth gauges graduated in feet and these units have been
retained in this report).

The great majority of particles seen were

small and had a thin, flaky appearance, quite

differer~

from those

observed at the surface; that they were oil was confirmed several
times by divers squeezing them between thumb and finger.
MOUSSE-II no subsurface oil was collected by divers.

On cruise

The samples

collected on MOUSSE-I were being analyzed in the laboratory during


TA8LE 8.

Summary of cruise MOUSSE-II dive station findings

TiMe

Sta.

Lat(N)

LaniW)

REMARKS

16

Au~

1030

IV-1

26 11.7 97 80.5

29-Minute dive.

16

Au~

1850

IY-5

26 10.0 96 54.0
0 88.0 0 00.0
0 oo.a o oo.a

25-Minute dive. Oil Particles to S5 ft.


Hi9hest concentration between 2B and
30 ft; Particles aPProx. 1 s~.MM.

17

Au~

0930

IV-6

26 10.0 96 29.5
0 00.0 8 00.0

22-~inute

26 08.2 96 22.5
8 88.0 0 80.0

23-Minute dive. Oil Particles fQirlY


SParse. None below 30 ft.

24 12.8 97 20.0

30-Minute dive. Oil Particles seen


down to 60 ft.
SPars~~ MOSt between
surface and 10 ft.

17 Auq

1215

IV-3

19 Au

1640

VI-2

0
0
21 Auq

1140

II-2

1350

II-4

08.0 0

00.0

27 28.5 96 44.7
0

21 Aug

ao.o o oo.o

00.0 0

00.0

27 33.5 96 50.6
09.0 0 ae.e

sParse.

Oil Particles to 30ft

dive. Oil Particles fairlY


None below 30 ft.

36-Minute dive. Oil Particl~s fairlY


conc~ntrated to 20ft.
None below.
26-Minute dive.
below surface.

No oil

~articles

seen

142
this cruise and we were also attempting to collect subsurface oil
quantitatively using the pumping techniques.

Some unsuccessful

attempts to use "s 1urp guns" as co 11 ecti on devices were made.


A typical dive station observation is given below, using notes
made by interviewing each diver after the station (station V-5).
$

Dive Station #1-5:

Divers--Laatz, Anderson, Northam.

"Went in with snorkel (free dive) approximately 15 ft; saw


fingernail-size particles; 30 yards away from SCUBA dive; Tri-X
pictures

= -20 ft level started, continued at 10 ft increments;

main accumulation between 20-30 ft; average size, pea-s zed and quite
thin; had to wait for some to turn before could take photograph;
lots of white animals; some had tar adhering to them (not motile);
went down to 65 ft; tar particles were smaller, about half pea-sized
but still there; did not go deeper; took 30 frames; some shots with
background; no current" [Laatz]. "Saw parti c 1es to 65 ft concentrated
in upper 20 ft; largest 1-2 mm 3 ; half pea-sized; may have been a concentration at 20 ft, dark brown; mostly flaky; saw some larvaceans
(probably same as seen by Laatz); saw "marine snow" [Anderson].
"Pretty thick tarballs down to about 12 - 15 ft; below, they started
to thin out; orders of magnitude less than found about 15 ft; went
down to 65 ft, still tarballs there associated with vegetable matter;
went down and looked at small pump, creating turbulence that stops
large particles from entering; put particles near but did not seem
to suck

th~1

up" [Northam].

Unde,water Photography:

On each dive station underwater photo-

graphs were taken using a Nikonos camera.


station~-5

Unfortunately, after

described above, the camera malfunctioned and all subsequent

films came out completely blank (i.e., not exposed).

Even on

143
station][-5 the photographs were generally unsatisfactory.
is a photograph of subsurface as seen during dive

Figure 63

station~-5.

More

sophisticated underwater camera equipment, lighting and techniques are


needed for future in-situ observations of subsurface oil.

Figure 63.

Tarballs, as photographed from beneath the


surface during dive stationJlr-5.

5.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise MOUSSE-II


On ll August 1979 Mustang Island beach was clear of
any Ixtoc oil.

On 15 August 1979, the morning that MOUSSE-II began,

fresh Sargassum mixed with large amounts of Ixtoc oil began washing up
on Mustang Island beach.

Between Access Road #l an~ #2 (7.2 miles)

the oil increased in size and frequency as one travelled south.

By

23 August, the day after the cruise ended, Mustang Island beach was
badly oiled and fresh oil was wasl1ing in daily.

Clean-up crews were

working the populated areas of the beaches from Brownsville to Aransas


Pass.

The heaviest concentration of oil to wash ashore on Mustang

144
Island landed on 23 and 24 August 1979.

Consequently, MOUSSE-II took

place at about the peak period of oiling of Mustang Island.


5.4 Pelagic Fauna
5.4.1

Birds
Fewer true pelagics were observed during MOUSSE-II

than on MOUSSE-I.

Blue-Faced Boobies were seen twice:

an immature

at station IV-5, 15 miles off South Padre Island, and an adult at


station V-6, 40 miles from the Mexican coast.

Three Wilson's Storm

Petrels and three Cory's Shearwaters were observed some 60 miles


offshore at 26 46'N; 96 2l'W.

Some early migrant lan 'irds were

seen well out at sea; these were Mourning Dove, Barn Swallow, Piping
Plover and Ruddy Turnstone.

Only one bird, a Sandwich Tern, was seen

to ce oiled in any way (Fig. 91).


5.4.2 Other Sightings
Fish frequently seen during cruise MOUSSE -II were:
flying fish, tripletail, shark, needlefish, puffers, cowfish, filefish,
Sargassum fish, and trigger fish.

Also seen were king mackerel (two

caught, but not for science), dolphin (Dorado) and remora.

Porpoises

were abundant,and on station, free-swimming blue crabs and squid were


common.

Quite frequently, fish and invertebrates were observed near

or in patches and windrows (in particular) or tarballs.

Frequently

associated with the tarballs were pieces of Saraassum, normal habitat


for many small animals.

In some instances small fish werP seen using

large tarballs as shade and protection just as they might use the
Sargassum weed or other flotsam.

In the: case of the mousse patch,

schooling fish were seen beneath the floating oil when its surface was
broken.

Also seen during this cruise were a few migrating dragonflies

and one moth (35 miles offshore).

146

5.5 Cruise Maps

145

147

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

11l01ill1l 21 Aug

27N

014

17

26N
CRUISE TRACK; 26 to 28N; 96W to 98W
Figure 64

148

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15


98W
97W

22 Aug 1979
96W

to

28N
Corpus Christi
+

1:!00 15 Aus
+

..,_ 0tilrzJE 21 Auc

.....

..

...

27N

...
:t

..

...
...

0 ~6 Au 9
+ "Stt-

...
.V,

+ ~ 1 ,~ l7. ~.
;u ..:ra+
~nv9
.... ++
+
+

26N

+
++

SURFACE OBSERVATIONSP 26N


LOCATION OVERLAY Figure 65

to 28~..

.....

96W

to

98W

149

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II, 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N
Corpus Christi

27N

26N
STATION LOCATIONS; 26 to 28N= 96W to 98W
Fi.gure 66

150

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

!Ni

I /

27N

\'
10.0Kte

'

26N

5m/eao

20.0Kte

10m/sao

30.1Z!Kte

15m/sao

SURF ACE WI NOS; 26 to 28N; 96W to 98W


Figure 67

151

LONGHORN Cruise

MOUSSE~ I I.

98W

15

22 Auq 19
- 9 w

97W

I BN
Corpus Christi

1------1--H------+------j
I

!
r

~t

ll.\) ~:::f7
- 1/

L____ ---

1,:-~

)\

l \

'. -------~-

;_0:

f- ~-~,'~J1

~--- -')(?1

c::::.vcm/sec

~-

----- ---

- - 40cm/sec

__

----

SU"c '" "F CURRErfl S;

6':1

C)

98~'

152

'
t\ua

t.o

96W

97\V

98\1/

28N
_3,0

Corpus Christi

I
+2 f.j 30. 1

+2

5~9.2

+29.. :3

I~ ~a 1
C..::;o

...

29.2
+

.4

.. 29.3

+29.3

+ 2\l,. 6
+29 .. 0

+29.. 8

27N

+29. 9

+29.. 9

+28.. 2

+29.9

+29.9

+28 8

r.)

,'o

26N
r'>C""!'.,-'~
l-j(''..l
-..JL

,..._)LJ' I I

..;.

r~\ ~

'

UJ

.~
.j..._..,

Fiqure 69

t.o

'; i1
'-

\I

>-< ' ' ?

i.)

to

153

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979

98W

96W

97W

28N
Corpus Christi

4. 4

s'"
. .,

;5. 73"

l
+ 34.6

~>ri>

~1':;,(!1

+ ':)5.8

...

+ 35.8

~66

35

;,~-

+ 36.3

+ 34.2
+

.
/

35

\
:;6\
+ 36.3

+ 36.

l
Su.~r ACE

27N

+ 33.7

I
+ 36.3

~ 34-

I
\

+ 33.3

""' "'-------"'4+ 34. 4

"

'-

~?>5
~3{,

26N

OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


SALINITY (ppt)
Figure 70

154

MOUSSE~ I

LONGHORN Cruise
98W

I. 15 to 22 Aug 197S

97W

96W
28~!

+8

+B
+B

+B

27N

+B

1\

~~

+B

+8
+8

+B

26N
_ JI~F,\CE

OB~ERVA TIONS,

B=TARBALL.S

2oN to 28N;: 96W to 98W

Figure /1

155

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15


98W
97W

to

22 Aug 1979
96W
28N

Corpus Christi
+

+~

+S

+S

+S

--

SURFACE ORSERVATIONS. 26N


Figure 72
S=SHEEN

26N
to

28N; 96W

to

98W

156

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I, 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

+W
+W

+W

27N

+W

+W
+W
+W+W

+W

+W

+W

26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W
W=WINDROWS
Figure 73

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W

97W

96W

28N
Corpus Christi

+H
+I-'

+H

+T
+

27N
+H

+H

t-H

IL ______

+H

+H
+H

?6N
:-T; r:- ~CE JPSERV AT IONS, 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W
I ."'W \TFR ~YACINTH; T::cTRICHODESMIUM
Figure 74

158

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N
Corpus Christi

+G
+G

+G

+G

+G

+G

27N

+G
+G

26N
OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W
G=SARGASSUI1
SUR~ACE

Figure 75

159

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W

97W

96W
28N

+N
1

+N

+N

27N

+N
+N

26N

c: 1: .F ,'\CE
N-=~10

,.JH~ERV AT IONS.

0 I L SF= EN

26N to 28N;: 96W to 98W

Figure 76

160

161

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
26N

MEXICO

25N

24N
CRUISE TRACK: 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
Figure 77

162

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I, 15


98\V
97W

22 Aug 1979
96W

to

..

26N

++

MEXICO

.....
... ...
......

.....

"::!: ...
+

+
+

-r

.....

++ .......

25N

...

...

..
24N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N


LOCATION OVERLAY
Figure 78

to

26N; 96W

to

98W

163

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I, 15


98W
97W

to

22 Aug 1979
96W
26N

MEXICO

25N

24N
STATION LOCATIONS; 24

to

Figure 79

26N; 96W

to

98W

164

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98\V
97W
96'11
26N
MEXICO

25N

24N

+---

SUR~\:E

10. 0Kta
20.0Kta
30.0Kta

WINDS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


Figure 80

5m/aeo
10m/aeo
15m/aeo

165

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
26N

l/
I/

MEXICO

'

\'

'

l;
/II;_/):

;.!;://
/

///

I f v,..
/ '' "

'

j
25N

'i - - ..--1--1.1----- _ _ _ _ _ _ _J...__ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____J

..,__.

SURFAr~

-~

24N

12l.5f\Ls

212lcm/sec

l.IZlKts

412lcm/sec

5Kts
- - - - 1.
--

CURRENTS; 24 to 26N;
Figure 81

612lcm/seo

~-------'--

gaw

to 98W

166

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


97W

98'1/

96W
+

i.,

28

26N

+29.2

MEXICO
+29.2
+ 8. 9

+29.1

+ 28.4
+ 28.5

+29.2

+29. 4

I
1

+27.4
'L'f

l_ I

25N

+29. 3
-t29. 5

+29.5

II

24N
..,__

i i
~ L.
'Vir

,\ 1".

'I' -

,_

'~
I

.J

3ER\ ;\ TI ON3, 24N to

T 'J.. _,_-:_.
.

(C)
Figure 82

26N~

96W to 98W

167

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15


98W
97W

22 Aug 1979
96W

to

26N

.. 36" 3
.. :36.:3

;;G7
(

MEXICO

:36.0

:36. 0

+fastEe 1
1 +:36.1
//+:36.1
3(, + :36.

_ _ ..{6-s. 1 :36. 2
2+ 36.3
.. 36.1

:3
.. :36:1"4:36.1
+ 36. :3

+ 36. 1

+ 36.1

25N

+ :36. 4

.. :36. 5
.. :36.4

:36. 0

/
/

J(,
I

(+

.. :36. 6 .. :35. 9
+

.. :35. 9)

.. :36.:3
:36.:3

as
..

:as. 2

:>"

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N
SALINITY Cppt)
Figure 33

to

26N: 96W

to

98W

168

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98\V
97\V
96'N
+B

26N

+B-8
+fiB

MEXICO
+B
+B

~~
+B
...@

+B
+Gis

+B

+B
+B

25N
+B

+B

+B

+B
+B

+B

+l!lB

+B
+B

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
B=TARBALLS
Figure 84

169

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


96W
98W
97W
26N
MEXICO

+S
+S
+S

25N
+S
+S

+S

+!liS

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
S=SHEEN.
Figure 85

170

LO~JGHORN

Cruise MOUSSE- I I, 15 to 22 Aug 1979


97W
96W

981

26N

MEXICO

25N

24N
I I

. ,I '

1-

- '

r-

... ,_

1 1f

lERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


Figure P5

171

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
+W

26N

MEXICO

+W
+W

25N
+W

+W
...__~~-------~----------1

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
W=W I NOROWS
Figure 87

172

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II, 15 to 22 Aug 1979


96W
98W
97W
+H

26N

+H
+H

MEXICO
+H
+H
+H

+H

+fUi

+H
+l:;lH

+T

25N

...

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W
H=WATER HYACINTH: T=TRICHODESMIUM
Figure 88

173

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE- I I, 15


98W
97W

to

22 Aug 1979
96W
26N

MEXICO

+G
G

+G

25N

+G
+G

+G

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N
G=SARGASSUM
Figure 89

to

26N: 96W

to

98W

174

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W
97W
96W
26N
MEXICO

+N
+N
+N

?5N

L~.

+N

---1--------l

24N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N: 96W to 98W


N=NO OIL SEEN
Figure 90

175

LONGHORN Cruise MOUSSE-II. 15 to 22 Aug 1979


98W

96W

97W

95\V

28N

27N

UNITEO
STATES

26N
Scatclaw i
+<01.1...0

Tern

MEXI 0

25N

S....llcw

24N

BIRD OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 91

176

177

5.6 Cruise Log

178

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 15 Au9 1979

---------------------------------------------------------------------------REMARKS
SEA WIND
LONG(W) CSE/SPD DIST DPTH SST SSS
TIME LAT'hl
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1045
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Clear jEtti
1100
190
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1200 27 41.0 97 03.0 190
29.8
0
34.64~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1300 27
97 04.0 190 9.0
9
29.5 34.382
3~.0

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1307D 27 31.1 97 04.8 218 9.4


10
1350D 27 25.7

97 09.4

218

9.4

17

--------------------------------------------------------------1400 27 24.5 97 10.5 212 9.4


20 29.3 34.598 -~ 133
18
1403D 27 24.1

37 10.7

203

8.1

19

1415D 27 22.6

97 11.3

203

8.1

20

1435D 27 20.1

97 12.5

203

8.1

23

1457D 27 17.3

97 13.8

203

8.1

26

27 17.~

97 14.0

207

8.1

27

1520D 27 13.8

97 15.0

196

9.8

30

1522D 27 13.5

97 15.1

196

~.8

30

1530D 27 12.2

97 15.5

196

9.8

31

1500

1550D

2~

09.1

97 16.5

196

~.8

35

1600

27 07.5

97 17.0

171

9.8

36

1620D 27 04.2

97 16.0

164

9.8

40

1700

97 14.0

171

9.8

46

26 58.0

:2

20

29.3 36.347

162

16

29.0 36.262

089

22

28.7 36.273

323 11

-----w--------------~-----------------------------------------------------------

1800

26 52.5

?7 16.5

175

5.9

52

17

113 15

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

179

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 15

Au~

1979

F'AGE#

NONE 8HEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

GIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


Slick inside Jetties
Scattered sMall Pieces tar at sfc; 9reen
wot>:t; :;~.,_rbo.-...e
Li9ht sheen; soMe sMall Pieces tar; 9ree
n wo.~-er

'""*** .;..;:.;:..;.
**** ****

Li9ht sheen; few brown Particles; sar9a!


s.ur'l

1.! 1 nd

rcn..J;;:.

SMall fish at sfc; 9ulls & black terns

e.:-din9

.:.;.*** ***.,.;.

Scattered sheen; few tarballs

**** ****
Lar9E area sheen-lon striP PerPendicul
ar to wind-frontlike
Sheen alMost 1n checkerboard Pattern; da
rk

**** ****
**** ****
**** ****
**** ****

****
****

r~en

wo.t.o;:-r;:..Mo.ll fi:::-htc9ull:::.

Enterin~

sheen area; ManY tarballs, soMe


stickin-=: to hYacinth

Extensiv sheen; scattered tarballs; sor


~assuM not oiled

****

Leavin9 extensive sheen area

****
****

Sheen area aP~rOXlMatelY


Y 200 M. diaMeter)

circular:rou~hl

AlMost ccntinous sheen-lon9 ~atches; QPP


ears to be a lar9e sheen area inshore

Lar9e area of sheen

****
****

'**** ****
**** ****

Sheen contains trichadesMiuM


Lar9e accuMulation of tarballs
E'SI')

llrl

Windrows of tarballs

trichad

180

LONG~IlPN

~ruise

MOUSSE-II 1e

Au~

1979

PAGE#

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------SEA WIND
REMARVS
CSE/SPD DIST DPTH SST SSS
T Ir1E LAT OD
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1815D 2 50.2 ?? 15.9 167 9.7
55
LONG(W~

1825D 26 48.5

97 15.5

167

?.7

5~

18:35D2b47.0

~715.1

lt.7

:L?

5C:

1842D 26 45.8

97 14.8

167

9.7

59

1900

9~

173

.. '

62

26 43.0

14.0

1950D 26 33.8

97 12.4

171 11.1

71

1955D 26 32.9

97 12.2

171 11.1

72

2000

97 12.0

!73 11.1

73

26 32.0

17

28.2 36.342

15

28.3 36.309

0'?2 12

100 17

---------------------------------------------------------------------~----------

2010D 26 30.7

97 11.8

170

7.6

74

202~D

26 29. 2

9? 11. 5

170

7. 6

76

2100

26 24.5

97 10.5

162

7.6

81

14

28.0 36.329

130 18

2200

26 16.5

'~7

08.5

167

89

15

27.8 36.329

134 17

2243

26 11.5

97 07.0

17 '

''

7.2

2300

26 11.5

97 07.0

177

0.0

27.4 36.347

110

2315

26 11.5

97 07.0

16
94

16

94

16

Sta. IV-4

LONGHtlRN cru1se MOUSSE-II 16 Au 1979

TIME

LAT(I~)

LONGO.D

0000

26 11.5

97 07.0

0315

26 11.5

97 07.0

0440

26 11.5

97 07.0

0500

26 12.0

97 03.0

097 !0.9

0530

26 11.7

97 00.5

097

CSE/SPD

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

REMARKS

WIHD

Sta IV-4

16
~~~

0.0

94

16

222

Off lnchor

1S

4.5

Sta IV-4

98

20

~:

153

102

27

164

Anchor I 'l-

181

LONGHORN

cruis~

MOUSSE-II 15

Au~

1979

PAGE#

IWNE :o:HEE TAF:E: t10U:;: IHIIII SARG TF:IC H'IAC


.

~~.,.,..,

-
.,.,..,.,..,.,..,.,.

OIL OE::;.ER\'ATION REtIARi;S

SMall
-~ (1. :::. $

""'""**

.;;.'io-.;r:..;i,

ar~~

w.

she~n

lar~e

Jt

****
*""'**

****

*"t-o;,+.

tarballs

sar

Uf'l

SMall area of sheen;

*~**
;;..;,:..:,:..:.;.

sar~assuM

Wtndrows of

ta~balls(soMe

lar9~

in windrows
tarball~;

~~-

hyacinth coated

oi l/to.r

Windrows alMost continuous; sheen hard


o see due to wind

Windrows of sMall tarballs

****
****
**** ****
""*** ***"'

Sheen

~i/

lo.r<:.~e

en bleedin9

tJ.rbo.lls; ;;..t,een can be -::.;-

fro~

tarballs

Lar9e Patch sheen,rainbow colors,diesEl


odor
Heav~

****
**** ****

Very heavY sheen;

*.,;,**

****

sheen; diesel odor

es of

~ousse

lo.r::teC'?0 sa. YdS)

'-'0.1:-ct~

w/i sheen

Conttnous windrows of tarballs; soMe

**** ****
**** ****
****
.,.;***

s~r

9Q.SSUN

On anchcr I \1-4; LORAH-A

;:-:st_. iMated

rob 1 eM:s-r.>os i 1:. ion

Windrows of tarballs; saMPles taken

**'**

****

LONGHORII cruise MOUSSE-II 16 Au 1979


IWNE SHEE TARS MOllo: HIND SARG TRJC HYAC

**.;.;.*

****

****
****

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

**** HYacinth
****

coat~d

w/ tar/oil

AMount of oil Passin varies; at Present


verY sMall aMount

182

LOilGHO~H

T H1E

Cfl.ll.=. .:

tlOU::.:::E-11

16 hu9 1':01'?

SEA

LAT "fD

0600D 26 11.7

9? 00.5

045

0.0

102

0650D 26 11.7

97 00.5

045

0.0

102

1030

26 11.7

97 00.5

102

1150

26 11.7

97 00.5

102

24

1215

26 1:::.5

~7

21

PHGE#

WIND

REMAR~S

Of'f o.nchvr
2

100

To F't l"E-o.bl

062 27

Clear Jettv

062 20

067 16

067

(13.0

247

9.4

106

1225D 26 08.2

97 03.5

229

3.3

107

1300D 26 06.9

97 05.0

229

3.3

109

1320D 26 06.2

97 05.9

229

11 (I

1410D 26 04.4

97 es.2

229

112

1420

26 04.0

97 08.7

062

0.7

113

1500

26 05.7

97 03.5

062

"I,..,,

118

1600

26 09.2

96 55.0

067

8.4

126

1620

26 10.0

96 54.0

067

3.6

128

1830D 26 10,0

96 54.0

045

0.0

128

1850D 26 10.0

96 54.0

045

0.0

128

St.o. I'/-5

1940D 26 10.0

96 54.0

045

0.0

128

:3t o. I '/-5

2010D 26 10.0

96 54.0

045

6.0

128

2020

26 10.0

96 54.0

097

0.0

128

2040D 26 09.5

96 52.5

111

4,3

129

2052D 26 09.2

96 51.6

111

4.3

130

27.4

29.2 36.278
37

37

097 17

Anchor IV-5

u/w to IV-2

183

LOt~GHORN

c.rui.;..;: tlOUS":;E-II 16 Au9

197~

NONE SHEE TAR8 MOU<; HHIII '3ARG TRIC HYAC

****
**~*

F'RGE#
OIL 08SEPVATION REMARKS
Nu~~rous tarballa~hYacinth~
f/Oi 1

HYdralic line on

cran~

coated w/ to.

.ruPtured

Sto. IV-l,PrePare for dive

oPerations~see

dive- lo9

Lo.r9e :sheen o.reo.

**** ****
****
**** ;.;.;:.**
****
****

~J/

f1o:-o.t...y concent ro.r, ion

to.rballs in center;o.PProx 5nMi off PI

**;;.*

Lar~e area sheen~ low concentration of


arballsio.PProx lnMi off PI

Docked USCG PI Sta to Pick uP current. to'J>:

ter
De~art

**** ****
**** ****
**** ****

**** ****

**** ****
**** ****
****
****

****
****

PI, head to IV-5

Windrows sheen W' tarballs

ali~ned

axes, Nuch hYacinth, fe~oJ subsfc J:~art

Windrows of shen

W/

alon9

3-5in tarballs

Tarballs not concntrated

****
****
****

SMall tarballs nbundant at sfc;tarballs


present at 15ft :
Tarbo.lls to 65ft :;::,

SE-E'

divers lo"::

****
****
**** ****

****
****

To.rba.lls obvious in F:'la.nkton t,ow

184

LONGHilRN cruise MOUSSE-II 16

Au~

1?7?
888

SEA

WIND

REI1AP.KS

LATOD

LONG(W)

CSE/SPD

21ee

26 09.0

?6 51.0

097

o.t:

130

4(1

2:3. 1 :36. 306

097 25

2230

26

0~.0

?6 42.0

0?7

8.3

-=-~
1 o.

4~

28.7 36.193

0~7

18

2205D 26 07.4

9 41.6

042

6.9

2215D 26 08.8

96 40.7

042

6.9

141

26 10.0

?6 39.0

147

6.9

143

50

28.8 36.329

068

LONGHIJ~N

SST

TinE

2235

DIST DPTH

PAGE#

Anchor IV-2

cruii.t- t10USSE-: I 17 Au-g 1979

Tl11E

L8T(N)

LONG;fl:

0145

26 10.0

96 39.0

0400

26 10.0

96 39.0

0430

26 10.0

0450

26

CSE/SPD

DIST DPTH

0. 0

143

50

1!5

0.0

143

50

96 39.0

052

0.0

143

50

e7.:

96 3.e

~52

10.6

146

49

'510

26 06.5

96 33.:

~;.7

7.6

149

esas

26 07.4

96 32.0

c~ 7

6.5

0530

26 10.2

9~

30.0

0540

26 :0.0

2~.5

osee

26

:a.e

9~

29.~

:~-

SSS

SEA

REMARICS

I-IlND

2
2

160

052 10

59

114 10

1s1

62

135

154

176

5. 1

154

64

0.0

154

04

154

64

1030

26

te.e

96 2?.5

1200

26 68.2

96 22.5

0~7

4.7

161

9~

22.5

045

0.0

161

?~

22. 5

0.0

161

1215D 26 02.2

SST

28.9

Sto. IV-2

Off anchot

Anchor I'/-6
2

16'?

5
Seo: o i 1 c.ct"'l

Ot' f o.nc.hJ r

154

91

0~7

Anchor IV-3
So:e o i 1 c.cwt

~1

130

Ur.- o.nc.ho r

185

LONGHORN

crulS

MOUSSE-II

1~

Au~

197~

NONE BHEE TARS MOUS WIND SARG TR!C H1AC

PAGE#

Oil OSSER'IAT!ON RE11ARKS

****
'****
F~w

****
****

~***

****
****

tarballs at sfc

Larqe

tarbnll~

Sfc fairlY

clean~scattered

tarballs

****
LONGHORN cru1se MOUSSE-II 17

Au~

1979

NONE BHEE TARS MOUB WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

****

**** ****
**** ****

**** ****
****
*'***
****

*.,_.**

*"-H:~

****

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

NuMerous hyacinths coated w/ tar/oil;sMa


11 shark&flyin9,needle,~Puffer fish

****
****
Tarballs approx 5cM diaMeter

****
VerY few tdrballs at sfc

****
****
****
PrePare for dive, see dive lo9

186

LOtlGHI)F:t-l

T!11E

+:.rl.ll~-0:

t10!_I::;:;E-I I 17 Au:;; 1'?7'?

PAGE#

LAT.II

SEA

1600D 26 0?.5

?S 22.5

1615

26 10.0

96 22.5

1850

26 10.0

96 22.5

1858D 26 99.4

?6 23.1

000

~.2

6.4

tHt~D

162

IJ/t.<l

16:3

Dr1ft 1'/-7'

? 1

218

105

'?

c./c.

164
2

124 15

2000

26 00.0

96 22.8

187

9.2

173

104

28.2 36.313

089 16

2100

25 51.1

'36 25.0

19:2

9.:2

182

106

:29.2

36.3~:1

100 20

2130D 25 47.0

96 25.5

186

8.0

186

2300

9t: 28.0

192

:;,(

1!19

124

28.8 35,'?00

114 11

Au<:~

1'379

25 34.5

LONGHI)Rt~

crui::..; t10US:3E-I I H:

TIME

LATOD

LONGO~)

CSE/SPD

0000

25 26.0

96 29.0

192

8.6

207

143

28.9 36.091

117 12

0100

25 21.0

96 34.0

219

6.7

214

144

29.1 36.119

116 11

0155

25 14.(1

":lt'7 :;:,S.f1

1}9;-'

;3.b

222

14f:

29.2 36.128

05'? 12

0210D 25 13.6

96 3?.0

138

5.3

223

6225

25 12.0

9~

36.0

0510

25 13.0

9~

36.0

0542

25 15.0

96 36.0

0615

25 17.0

96 37.0

267

3.8

230

24.::

2. 1

230

0620Il 25 16. '?

~6

~:7.

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

to IV-7

t::~s

REIlARKS

IHIHI

:.-'C

'3~~1

Dt"ift V-7

247

9.6

226

161

088

143

241 21

228
u/vJ to

v-.;

P 1 o.nk '/-6

187

LONGHORN

cru1s~

F'AGE#

MOUSSE-II 17 Au 1979

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


Continious tarballs between IV-3

IV-7

****

Occasionnl windrows;sMall aMt sar9assuM;

****
****
**** **.;;.*

O.PPt"OX

30

POt"POiseH

b f

i::.h COMMOn

****
****

TJ.rball concentration inc.reasin9; thick

*.;;.**

Tarbo.lls scarce

indrows(l~

Piece~

r..J

tar)

****
LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 18 Au9 1979
NOI~E

SHEE TARB t10US WIHD SARG TRIC H'IAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

Patches of ManY tarballs alternatin9


c.l eo. r areas

****
****
***"*

****
****

****
****

****
****

Lo.r~E

****

Blue face boobY,barn swallows

**** ****
**** ****

****

****

****

M1.~ch

w/

Mor.:- oi 1 in 10-anco.ke forM; hYacinth=

coated w/ tar/oil

Pancake tarballs & coated hYacinth


;2 doves;shorebirds

188

LO~IGHORtl

.TH1E
1180

crui!~

MOUSSE-II 18 Au9 1979

LfiT<H.l

LONG(W)

25 !3.0

96 47.0

CSE/SPD

DIST

1.7

240

1. 4

241

DPT~

SST

SSS

SEA

28.5

fAGE#

,;

loll tiD

REI1ARKS

176

St.J. V-6R

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1239D 25 12.0 9S 49.3 090 -. .... 242


.;.,,:.

1235D 25 12.8

96 49.5

25 12.0

96 51.0

1310

090

2.3

242

LJ/W

t.o V-5

244

1505D 25 12.6

9~

51.0

645

0~0

244

1600

25 12.0

9~

51.0

26:

e.o

244

1625

25 1!.5

96 51.0

267

1700

25 09.0

96

21 13.2

1?40

25 11.0

97 00.0

254

Anchot V-4

1745

25 li.B

97

254

St, o. V-4

1930

25 11.0

97 00.0

103

0.0

254

57

103 14

1S55

25 11.0

97 00.0

27

Q.0

254

57

_,
1 ,. '

133 15

37

098 12

Anchor V-3

37

155 11

u/w to V-2

5~.0

~0.0

252

21J&OD 2.5 10.7

-??

ae. B

24:"

9. 1

25;.

210e

0~.0

97 10.0

2~2

9.1

26~

25 05.0

97 12.0

05.0

?7 12.0

2325

25

~5

LONGHI)RN

cru15~

3.0:

267

MOUSSE-II

T HIE

LAT (II)

LOHGO~-'

00!5

:;s

97

~9

0.0

zs~

8~9

1Q~~

CS!::: '.;PI-

tt<'

2.1

27'1

ol145D 25 e7.3

9:- 15.?

2.31

2.1

27'2

0220

~T

25~

2.1

2T6

25 05.0

19.0

UP o.ncho t"

195 13

U/1.>.1

59

134 13

3..0$6

41

DIST 1JFTH

ts.o

B8.0

222 14

27

3:ST

SSS

SEA

~II

HD

!60 11

'.,1-4

Sto. V-4

REMARKS
Ancho~

V-2

189

LONGHORN

cru1~e

MOUSSE-II 18 Au

NONE SHEE TAR8 MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

****
****

****
****
**"'*

**** ****
**** *~**

PAGE#

1~79

****
****
****
****
**~*

****

OIL 08SERVATION RniARKS


L~r9e Patch~s

of tarballs

VerY thick Mousse;exten3ive;sa~Ple;aircr


aft sPraYs disPersant
Aircraft c:Jeparts~Mousse appears concentr
ated ~ thickened

Receive caMera,filMJSO.MPle lables,&info


re ovrfli9hts froM helicopt~r

**** ****
**** ****
****

**** ****

""***
****
**** **.;;.*

****

****
""***
****
****

****

****

**** ****
****

****

****

****
****

*.;;.**

~10USSE ... I

w/i slick on sta V-4

****

I 19 Au"'3 1979

NONE SHEE TARS MOUS WIND SARG TRIG HYAC

****

****

'E

117 Pieces oiled hYacinth & 21 Pieces 1.m


oiled sarCJO.SSUI'l observed.~.~,/i 12 Min offp
SaMPlin~

**** ****
****

****
****

ed)& sheen

****

.;;.;:.**

LONGHORtl c rui s

C:ont. i nuOllS windrows, t,a rbo.ll s (Panc.ak e

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

s~all

tarballs in

windrow~

190

F'AGE#

SEA

26.0

26~

1~.9

282

0315D 25 04.0

97 26.0

045

6.6

282

0525

25

~4.0

97 26.0

0. (1

2E:2

0535

25 85.0

97 26.0

0300

25 04.0

9~

Plo.JW

284

18

295

20

27.8 3i::. 492


27.4 36.501

97 28.0

0800

24 48.0

97 28.0

197

o.~

302

22

0900

24 40.0

97

2~.8

219

8.0

310

..;...:.

1000

24 31.0

97 31.0

197

?.2

319

lf:

:.::e.s

?;- :.::1.2

1=--h

3.1

320

1100

2J. 28.0

97 :32.0

207

3.1

~:23

18

1200

24 10.0

97 39.0

1330D 24 10.4

97 35.0

084

.,
,;.,..;

1350D 24

10.~

97 34.1

084

2.5

1445D 24 10.8

97 31.6

084

.:;.,

1525D 24 11.0

97 29.8

084

'
.:. -'

..

35(1

1530D 24 11. 0

97 29. 6

IZ184

2. 5

350

24 11.2

97 27.6

084

2.5

352

1640D 24 11.3

97 26.5

084

2.5

353

1905

97 20.0

24 12.0

149 15

283

24 55.0

1~15D

lHilD

18

0700

1010i) 24

163 11

219

26.9 36.47'5

1:~:::

27.5 36.391

207 12
Anchor \II-1

342

"'"

UP o.ncho t

346

..

t.>ji,J

28.7 36.

...)

0~39

Se.e oi 1

cofl

Off o.nchor

191

LONGHORN crulSi MOUSSE-II 1? Au1 1979

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

PAGE#
0 I L OBSEF:VAH OH REtIARKS

L1 P-l.: oi 1 1~ sfo:1 ::O 11 r~ re::.e:nt.


red ~ dark-alMost li<tuid

**** ****
*.;.,** ****
;;.~.;.,* ****

Hto.vY ::-he en ~' sMall \ o. PProx lCf'r)


s;see:Ms to 9~t thicker further S
HeavY sheen &lar9er tarballs

~-arbo.ll

~soMe

tarbc

lls bleedin9

Clear;sheen aPPearin9 on horizon

****
****
**** ****
**** ****

HeavY sheen

**** ****
.;,.*** ****

Lar9e area

**** ****
**""* ****

Lar9e area sheen'

t~

SNO:ll to.rballs

sheen~few

tarballs

av~

tarball concentrJt

icn

Sfc water fairly clean


Divers in water,se:e diver lo9;Zodiac col
lectin~ sfc saMPles

192

LONG W)
1915

CSE 'SPD

DIST DPTH

24 12.0

97' 20.0

1935D 24 08.9

97 18.2

15~

10.S

363

2000

24 05.0

97 16.0

097 10.5

3~7

99

2040

24 07.5

97 09.5

097

7.5

373

174

2055

24 07.0

97 09.0

067

.::.. '

..,

374

SST

SSS

SEH

IH tH1
t.J.'LJ

2200D 24 09.1

~7

06.5

~147

232BD 24 11.7

97 03.5

047

.,

29.0 35.911

136 15

097 10

'/!-:~:

f,O

Plan!:

VI-~

Sto. '/I-3

o-._. ( {

2.8

381

LONGHORN crul:E' MOUSSE-II 20 At.F.; 1979

TI11E

LATOn

LONG(Wl

CSE/SPD

0(1\31

24 13.0

97 02.0

092

0108

3.5

DIST DPTH
38$

252

SST

SSS

29.1 36.254

SEA

REMARK~;

I.JI !IIi

119 21

130 16

29.1 36.157

100 12

C/C.

005

24 04.0

96 55.0

012 11.2

394

0145D 24 13.7

96 52.7

012 13.2

404

0200

24 17.0

96 52.0

012 13.2

407

732

29.4 36.340

121 10

:>400tth!

0250

24 30.9

96 49.0

015 15.9

420

585

29.5 35.995

!54 11

29.5

0355

24 39.0

96 47.0

01~

8.5

430

516

29.5 36.032

128

0455

24 47.0

~~

42.0

087

9.2

439

293

29.3 36.416

226

0530D 24 52.8

96 40.9

010 10.1

445

0555

24 57.0

96 40.0

057 10.2

449

201

29.4 36.116

229

0650

25

0~.0

96 36.0

057 10.3

45~

19~

29.2 8i.070

212 10

465

169

29.2 36.175

.,:.,:.,

0730D 25 12.0

9~

32.7

027 10.0

0750

96 31.0

057 10.1

25 15.0

,.-,..,

193

LONGHOR/1

cru1~e

MOUSSE-Il 19

Au~

PAGE#

197?

NONE SHEE TARB MOUS WIND SARG TPIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


4 barn swallows

****
****

NuMerous tar/oil coated

h~acinth~

Net unidentifed f1Yin9 f1sh

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 20 Au9 197?


NONE SHEE TAR8 MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

****
****

****

****
****

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS


Several windrows of heavilY tar/oil coat
ed lar9e hYacinths

****
~***
NO 011 visible w/ search li9ht

****
VerY littlE oil seen

****

****

****
****

****
****
***~

****
****
**** ****
**** ****

****

F1Yin9 fish
ManY f1Yin9 fish;showers in area
Position esti~ated due to inabiltY to ob
tain accurate LORAN readin9 in squall

194

F'AGE#
~lOtlE

'3HEE

TA:-:~8

110U'3

~ll liD

:::R~G

'?

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

TF; I C HYRC

0815D 15 20.8

?6 29.3

615 14.4

475

0830D 25 24.3

96 28.3

015 14.4

478

0850

25 29.0

96 27.0

057 14.4

483

157

29.2 36.122

183 10

0950

25 35.0

96 26.G

012

6.0

489

148

29.1 36.092

106 13

1030D 25 43.0

96 24.0

013 12.3

497

1050

25 47.0

''6 23.0

352 12.3

501

150

2:3,7 36.022

128 12

1150

25 56.5

96 22.0

002

9.5

511

126

28.9 36.344

137 10

1300

26 08.0

96 22.0

9.8

522

102

29.2 36.322

134 13

1305D 26 08.8

96 22.0

005 10.0

523

1400

96 21.0

002 10.0

532

86

28.8 36.103

153 11

26 18.0

077

1435D

8.2

1500

26 29.0

96 22.0

002 11.0

652

112

29.9 34.389

149 13

1608

26 37.0

96 20.0

002

8.2

540

238

29.9 33.316

143

1650D 26 45.8

96 20.8

275 10.5

549

1700

26 47.5

96 21.0

002 10.5

551

397

29.9 33.726

120 13

1800

26 55.0

96 21.0

002

7.5

558

408

29.9 34.140

111

1900

27 04.0

96 20.0

002

9.0

567

289

29.8 34.177

117

2000

27 13.0

9~

20.0

002

9.0

576

192

29.5 35.559

124

2025~

27 15.7

96 18.5

579

183

St.o. II-7

2230

27 16.0

96 19.0

580

161

IJ/W

Plo.nk

195

.LONGHORN
HOt~E

crt11se

MOUSSE-II 20

SHEE TAPB MOUS

~ItiD

Au~

1979

SARG TPIC HYAC

PAGE#

OIL 08SEPVATION

PEMAR~S

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------**+* Frequent hYacinth! coat~d


tar/oil
b!/

*~**

****
****
****
****

****

****

****

146 windrows in 15

****

Tern w/oil on underbody

~in ~eriod

****
***~

*~**

****

****
****
****

15 windrows Per Min ; ManY flyinq

fi~h

***~

Out of lar~e sheen-tarball area; 5catter


ed Pancake tarballs

****
****
****

****
****

70 windrows in 8 Min

****

+.++.+.

****
****
**~*

*~**

3 Wilsons & J CorYs

****
****

****
****

Occasional sMall tarballs


ths

~I

SMall tarballs
Very little sfc oil

****
****
****
****

Little sfc oil

W/

afew

h~acin

196

LONGHORN
TH1E

LAT:tP

2330

27

LONGHORN

MOUS;E-Ii 20

~rui~i

197?
F:EI1iiF'I:o

1~.2

9~

cru1se

22.0

MOUSSE-II 21

nu

THIE

LATOI!

LO~lG

0000

27

1~.~

96 22.7

0145

27 17.7

96 22.7

317

0245D

2~

20.9

96

26.~

0315

27 22.5

9~

04BGD 27 22.5
,.., . . . . .-.~.

Au~

Au~

CSE.'SPD

1979
DI ST DPTH

SEA

130

8.0

586

130

320

4.9

591

2?.0

137

593

96 29.0

045

0.0

593

137

0.0

593

1:'

95

0530

27 23.5

96 27.5

279

2.5

595

95

0600

27 23.2

96 32.5

27~

8.~

600

0630

27 24.0

96 36.0

0850D 27 23.6

96 34.7

160

0.5

604

0910

~r::

34.5

307

0.5

604

96 35.2

331

8.3

605

.::..::. ....

WIHD

340 15

Gft Anchor
Plo.nL

.;.o

0915D 27 23.?

SSS

5:::6

1)450

27 23.5

:.ST

176

I I-6

Rncho r I I-.:.

160 11

St..;; I l-6

191

Plo.nk II-5

:3

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 21 Au; 1??9


T li'IE

LAT (tl':o

LONG(WJ

1025

27 28.5

96 44.7

1030D 27 28.6

96 J4.8

316

1.1

615

1220D

2~

96

~6.4

316

1.1

617

1300

27 30.5

96 47.0

357

1320

2~

2S.~

3J.5

~~

50.0

1350D 27 33.i

9i

~9.~

CSE./SPD

DIST DPTH
615

01S

- . '

SST

SSS

SEA
2

4. 1

621

0.~

~22

WIIID
Plo.nk I I-2.

197

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 20

ALl9

PAGE# 10

197S

NONE SHEE TARB MOllS WIND SARG TR!C HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 21 Au9 1979

fiONE SHEE TARE:

~lOllS

WIIID SARG TR!C H\'AC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

t~c

.:.f.:. ,.o.r/oil :;.een or collec:r:.ed o.t

II-

****

A few tar/oil coated hYacinths & to.rbQll


s seen enroute to II-6

**~*

Windrows of tar/oil coated hYacinths R P


ancake tarballs runnin9 po.ro.llel to sh1P

****

****

.;;..;;.;...;..

****

A few sMall tarbo.lls

****

****

Vo::ry little oil

LONGHORN cruise MOUSSE-II 21 Au9 1979

NONE SHEE TARS MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

****

****

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

Much

flotso~'well

oiled

Divers in water; see dive lo9

198

LOtiGHORN

cru1!e

MOUSSE-II 21

Au~

19~9

T HIE

LAT, tl

1435

27

33.~

9~

49.0

322

0.~

622

1500

27

3~.0

9~

54.0

317 12.0

627

1600

27 42.0

317

634

96 57.0

6.5

PAGE~

204

22

11

Plan~

II-~

153 14

u. to II-1

029 10

Anchor Ii-1

199

LONGHORN

cru1s~

MOUSSE-II 21 Au9 1979

tiONE SHEE TARE: NOIJ:; IHIW SAF:G TR!C H'IAC

F'AGE# ll
OIL OBSEPVAT!ON REMARKS

**.;.:..;.:.

****
FairlY clean water , isolated tarballs

****

200

5.7 Sample Log

201

LOr!GHORtl

CF~U

I SE tlOUS:::E-I I: :3AtIPLE LOG

>=o.::~.:-

S TFI#-'DATE TH1E

ACT I \1 IT',' CODE

LRTdli

15 AJ.l::t

:?.FC-1, SFC-2

26 5:3.0 '317 14.0

1700

LOII<IL<

DEPTH

F:Et1AF:KS

S1.<rf

Tric.h. + Tor

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------St. o 1'.,1-4
So.r,r. 1
STD 7
26 11.5 . ' 07.(! 0-14
6 Ro;.e:t
2'345
TRANS I\t'-4
26 11.5 97 07.0 (1-14
2329-2~=40

16

Au:;~

0[115

(H}45

0100
0115
0130

0"

FLUOR 1'/-4
1'1-4-1
LVFF'OC I \1-4-2
l'.,.'FPOC 1'1-4-5
LliFPOC I'l-4-10

L\!FF'OC

0335

l'/P-IV-4-5
L'..'F'-I'l-4-1
L'/P-11/-4-10
L 1/P-! 'l-4-14

0627-0642

STD 8

0230
f1300
0315

26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26

~~

t ~

11.5 '37 07.0


11.5 97' 07.(1
11.5 '37 07.0
11.5 0"' 07.0
11.5 97 07.0
11.5 97 07.0
11.5 97 07.0

11.5 97 07.0
11.5 97 07.0

0-14

1
2

U)

1
1
10
14

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sto. I ',0-1 0550


SFC !V-1
26 11.7 97 00.5 0-25
0650

0700
0740
0755
0810
13835
0910
0920

0940
1105
1145
1210

TRAI1S IV-1
FLUOR IV-1
LVFPOC IV-1-1
LVFPOC IV-1-2
L'./FPOC IV-1-5
L'iFPOC IV-1-10
CARS IV-1-5(1)
CAB IV-1-5(2j
L '/P Iv'-1-1
LVP 1'/-1-5
L'/P IV-1-10
SHEEt! I '/-1
GRAB 111-1-25
PLRtiK IV-1

26 11.7 97 00.5
26 11.7 97 (10.5
26 11.7 ~7 0tl, 5
26 11.7 97 00.5

97 00.5
97 00.5
97 00.5
97 00.5
97 00.5
97 00.5
97 00.5
0" 00.5
" 00.5
97
26 11.7 97 00.5
26 11.7 97 00.5
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26

11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7

0-25
0-25

6 Rosette-

=llf')P

l e::.

1-25

1
2

5
10
5
5
1
5
10
1
25
0-25

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------I'l-5 1638
FLUOR IV-5
26 10.0 96 54.0 0-30

S~a

1655
1700-2000
1715
1735
1755
1815
1825
184~

1840
1900
1904-1914
1930
1930
1945

2045

LIIFPOC I I.J-5-1

26
26
L'v'FPOC I '1-5-2- 26
LVF?OC IV-5-5 26
LIJFPOC Il!-5-10 26
LVP IV-5-1
26
GRAB IV-5-35
26
L\/P IV-5-5
26
SFC IV-5
26
L'IP IV-5-10
26
STD 9
26
TRANS IV-5
26
L'/P !V-5-15
26
LVP IV-5--20
26
PLANK I'/-5
26

CM IV-5-1

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

96 54.0

96 54.0

96 54.0

96 54.0

54.0
96 54.0
96 54.0
% 54.0
96 54.0
96 54.0
96 54.6
96 54.0
96 54. (1
96 54.0
96 54.0
Q'
.o

1
1
2
5

10

1
35
5

5
10
0-30
0-35
15
20
0-35

9 Rosette

SO.NPlE':5

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sto. I 1/-2 2300


SFC IV-2
26 10.0 96 39.0 :surf
17 Au:;

2330-0480
0000
0014-0034
0015
(1040
0055
0155

Ct1 IV-2-1
FLUOR I'/-2
STD 10
L'/FPOC

LVFFOC
L'v'FPOC
LVFPOC

26 10.8 96
26 10.0 96
2S 10.0 96
IV-2-1 -0 10.0 96
IV-2-2 26 10.0 96
I '/-2-5 26 10.0 96
IV-2-10 -0 10.0 96

,.
,.

39.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

39.0
39.0

39.8

13-30
0-49

1
2
5
10

12

F~oset t

Sllf'lf:l 1 t::.

202

LQ!.lGHO!t~H
'3TA~L"DrlTE

CRUISE MOU3':.:E-I I; :3Ar1PLE LOG

TIME

ACT I\' IT\'

CODE

02(1(1

L\'P I '/-2-1

021(1
0225

i... \ F'

0225
02'~:0

03013
13338

0345
0445

IV-2-5

L'/F I\'-2-10
::TD 11
':...\1? !i,l-2-20
L'/P I\-'-2-30
TRANS I'\''-2
GF:A8 I V-2-4'3
PLANk !'.'-'=

Pl':l~

LATOn

LOtH I~)

26 10.0 96 39.0
26 10.0 '?6 39.0
26 10.0 ?6 39.0
26 113. 0 '?6 39.0
26 10.0 96 39.0
26 1 0. ~3 ~6 39.0
26 10.0 96 39.0
26 10.0 96 39.0
26 10.0 96 39.0

DEPTH

P.Et1MRf~S

1
5

10
0-49

tlN.l 9(160

20
3[1
0-4~

49

0-49

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------a. IV-C 0153(1


L'/P IV-6-1
26 10.0 '36 29.5
:::. t

i)634-t1646

tb40-l325
0640
0700
~720

0738
0740

0750
0820
0840
0900
8910
0920

STD 12

Ct~

I'l-6-1

L\IP IV-6-5
L'IP 1\1-6-10
TRANS IV-6

26 10.0 96 29.5

26 10.0 o.b 29.5

26 10.0
26 10.0
26 10.0
STD 13
26 10.0
L\/P IV'-6-20
26 10.0
L\IFPOC IV-o-1 26 10.0
L".IFPOC !V-6-2 26 10.0
LVFPOC IV-6-5 26 10.0
LVFPOC IV-6-10 26 10.0
FLUOR 11/-6
26 10.0
GRAB I\1-6-62
26 10.0

96 29.5
29.5
29.5
29.5
29.5
29.5
29.5
29.5
96 29.5
96 29.5
96 29.5

CM IV-3-1

96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
% 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5

96
o.b
96
96
96
96
96

0-62

1
5
10
0-62
0-62

12

Ro~~tte

SO.f'IP 1 ES

Mod 9060

20
1
2
5
18
0-35
62

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1210
FLUOR IV-3
26 138.2 96 22.5 8-30

Sta I '/-3

1230-1515
1230

1300
1300
1320

1320
1330
134(3

1355
1415

143B

1440-1500
1500
1500
1510

L\IFPOC IV-3-1
L"/FPOC IV-3-2

IV-3-1
LVFPOC !V-3-5
LVP IV-3-5
SFC I\1-3( 1)
LVFPOC IV-3-18
LllP

LVP IV-3-10

TRANS !V-3
SHEEN J'.,.'-3
ST!I 14
SFC IV-3(2)
STD 15
PLANK I'l-3

26
26
26
26
26
26
26
2~

26
26
26
26
26
26
26

08.2
08.2
08.2
08.2
08.2

08.2
88.2
08.2
08.2
88.2
08.2
08.2
08.2
08.2
08.2

1
1
2
1
5
5
Sur I

10
10
0-92
Su rt'

0-n

10 Rosette

0-92

Mod 9060

Surf

SO.tlP 1 E'S

0-92

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1620-1845 CM !V-7-1
26 10.0 96 22.5 1

Sta !V-7

1620

1620
1620
1640
1640
1640
1700
1700
1720
1739-1754
1750
1800
1817

L'JFPOC !V-7-1
SFC IV-7(1)
LI/P IV-7-1
SFC IV-7(2)
SFC IV-7<3)
LVFPOC I'-l-7-2
LVP !V-7-10
LVFPOC !V-7-5
L'-.IFPOC IV 7 10
STD 16
FLUOR !','-7
STD 17
TRAijS !\.'-7

26 10.0 96 22.5

26 10.0 96 22.5
26 10.0 96 22.5
26 10.0 96 22.5

26
26
26
26
26
26
26

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
26 10.0
26 10.0

96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5
96 22.5

1
Surt'

1
Surf
Surf

2
10
5
10
0-100
0-30
0-100
0-97

So.r"CJO..S.SI.ll"'
Sa r<Jo.~suM & HYa.cint.h

9 Rose-t.te
11od 9060

SQf'IP

10: S

203

LCtlGHOP.N CF.:UI:::E
'3TA#.-DATE

~11lll'3 'oE -II

: SAMPLE LOG

f'l ':''?

LOfl ( W>

TIIlE

ACT I'/ I TY CODE

LAHti:.

1820
1850

GRAB !V-7-H10

26 10. 0 ''6 22.5


26 ~9.2 ~6 23.2

0300

LVFPOC V-7-1
STD 18
L\IFPOC V-7-5

PLAI~K

IV-7

DEPTH

PEIlAF;KS

100
0-97

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------'/-7
:3245
SFC 1/-7
25 12.0 .o 36.0 surf"

0'

:: t 0.

.,o,.

Al...t9

0302-03~:9

0330

0345
0355

0440
>)455
053(1

0600

L\.'FPOC 1/-7-10

STD 19
LVP \1-7-1
L','P V-7-5
LVP V-7-1@
PLAI~K

V-7

25 12.0 96 36.0
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.6
25 12.0
25 13.@
25 13.0

96
96
96
96
96
96

36.0

36.0
36.0
36.0
36.0
36.0

96 36.0
25 13.0 96 36.0

0-168

5
10
0-168
1
5
10

12 Rosette

Soli'H~'

1&S

Mod 9060

0-168

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta V-6
13715
PLANK V-6
25 13.0 96 47.0 0-95
0735

0745
0800
0810-0840
0815
0815-1030
0845

0845
0910
0910
0940

0940

0940

0945
1000
1005

LVFPOC V-6-5
LVP V-6-1
LVFPOC l,_}-6-10
LVP V-6-5
LVP V-6-10
FLUOR Y-6
CARB \1-$-5(1)
CARB 'v'-B-5(:2)
LVP V-6-15
TRANS V-6

47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0
25 13.0 96 47.0

FLUOR <i-6A
L'/FPOC V-6A-1
CN V-6A-1
SFC V-6A<2)

25 12.0 96
25 12.0 96
25 12.0 96
25 12.0 96

FLUOR Y-5
L'JP Y-5-1
LVFPOC V-5-1
CM V-5-1
LVP Y-5-5
LVFPOC '1-5-2
L'JP V-5-10
LVFPOC V-5-5
LVP \1-5-15
LVFPOC 1..'-5-10
GRAB 'J-5-70
STD 22
TRANS Y-5
STD 23
PLANK V-5

25 12.9
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.0
25 12.0

STD 20
SFC '.J-6

L'IFPOC './-6-1

STD 2!

L'.'FPOC './-6-2

Cl1 V-6-1

25 13.0 %

0-95

Mod 9060

sur~

1
0-95

9 Rosette

:SO.f"'P 1 e-~.

1
5
1
10
5
10
0-30
5
5
15
0-90

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta V-6A 1!15


Hea.vY Mousse
SFC Y-6A(!)
25 12.0 96 36.0 surf
1120

1200

1210
1210

36.0
36.0
36.0
36.0

0-3<1
1
1

Surf

96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51. e
96 51. e
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0
96 51.0

0-30
1
1
1
5
2
19
5
15
10
70
0-70
0-70
0-70
0-70

t1ousse o.fter

SJ:>r>lY

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sto. V-5
1300
SFC Y-5(! >
25 12.0 % 51.0 surf
.,
ij

.J

1310
1320
1325
1330-1535
1340
1350
1400
1420
1420

1440

1440
1505

1520
1545-1555

1630

.,.
-o

25
25
25
25
25
25

12.0

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
11.5

Mod 9060
9

Ros~tte

SilNPl e:=.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1720
PLANK \1-4
25 1!.0 97 e0.e 0-57

204

LOt~GHORtl

'3TA#

CF:UISE NOus:.E- I I; SfliIPLE LOG

ACT I '/I TY CODE

LAHID

LOI~<W)

DEPTH

REMARKS

!730

ST:D 24

.,,
.'

0-57

Mod 9(160

1755-1805

FLUOR 11-4
STD 25

25 11.0

1740

1805-1 '?40
1815

Ct1 V-4-1
LVFPOC 'v'-4-0

DATE TH1E

Sto. '/-4

P'J.9>?

1820
1830

!845
1855
t?GO

1910
1910
1930

LVP V-4-5
LI!FPOC V-4-2
LVFPOC V-4-5

LVP 'v'-4-10
SFC V-4~'2)

L'..'FPOC V-4-10

GRAB V-4-57
TRANS V-4

25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
-~ 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
25 11.0
o~

00.0
97 0[1, 0

0"(

00.0

97 00.0
97 00.0
0"
. ( 00.0
97 00.0
97 00.0
97 00.0
97 00.0
97 ee.o
97 00.0
97 00.0

0-30

0-57
1
5U

12 Ro:=..:-tte

SO.f'IPlt.a.

rf"

5
2
5

10
surf

10
57
053

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------St.., ...'-3
2125-2240 Cl1 'i-3-l
25 05.0 97 12.0 1
2125

2145
2150
2205
2210
2220
2225

2235
2247-2255

2300
2300

2315

FLUOR V-3

l'v'FPOC V-3-1

L\IP V-3-1
LVFPOC V-3-5
LVP V-3-5
STD 26
LVFPOC 1/3-10
L\/P V-3-10
STD 27
SFC V-3
TRANS V-3
PLANK V~3

25 05.0 97 12.0
25 05.0 97 12.0
25 05.0 97 12.0

25 05.0 97 12.0

25 05.0 97 12.0

25 05.0 97 12.0

25 05.0 97
25 05.0 97
25 05.0 97
25 05.0 97
25 05.0 97
25 05.0 97

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

0-30
1
1
5
5
0-34
10
10
0-34

11 Rose-tte

SO.f"'P l

e-:=:

surf

034
0-34

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Au
PLANK V-2
0000
25 08.0 97 15.0 0-30
Sta. V-2

0020
0030
0030

0035
0050
0100-0240
0110
(<!15
0140
0150

0200
0205-0215

FLUOR V-2
L'<FPOC V-2-1
SFC V-2
LVP V-2-1
LVFPOC V-2-5
CM V-2-1
LVFPOC V-210
LI/P V-2-10
LVP 11-2-15
STD 28
TRANS V-2
STD 29

25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 os.e 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0
25 08.0 97 15.0

0-30
1
2
1
5
1
10
10
15
0-28
0-28
028

25 04.0 '37 26.0


25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0
25 04.0 97 26.0

surf

11od '3060
7 Ro:s.ett.t-

SO.C'lP 1 o?S

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------V-1
'J-1-1
25 04.0 97 26.0
St.11

0325-~3517

C~l

0330
0340
0345
0400
0400
0420
0420
0435
0445

SFC V-1

0445
0500-13510

0530

LVFPOC \1-1-1
L1lP V-1-1
LI/FPOC V-1-5
L'v'P 11-1-5
L'/FPOC V-1-10
LVP V-1-10
TRANS Y-1
STD 30
FLUOR Y-1
STD 31
PLANK V-1

1
1
5

5
10
10
016
0-16
016
0-16
0-16

Mod 9060
8 Rosette- saMPles.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

205

LO!'IGHCRt~

CF:lll ~:E

MOUSSE-I I:

3RiIPLE LOG

r.a.:;~e

STR# 'DATE THIE

ACTIVITY CODE

LRTUD

St ,,

24 10.0 97 39.13
24 18.0 97 39.0
24 10.0 97 39.0
24 10.0 97 39.0
24 10. a 97 39. f1
24 10.0 0
. '' 39,0
24 10.0 97 39. f)
24 10.0 97 39,0

'./l-1

1200

CN \IJ-1-1
FLU OF: \,II -1
<:Fe \/I-1
L'IFPOC 'i!-1-1
LVP VI-1-1

1230

LV'P \J!-1-5

1245

L\IFPOC VI-1-5
L\/P VI-1-10

1140-1.330
1151
1155

1281

1245

LI!FPOC 1!!-1-10
TRAijS 'JI-1
:>TD 32
~;TD 33
PLANK VI-1

DEPTH

LOIHW"'

1
0-18

1
1
1
5
5
10
10
0-18

24 10.0
24 10.0
24 10.0
24 18.0
24 10. 0

97
97
97
o-'

39.0
39.0

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.8
12.0
12.9
12.@
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97

20.0
20.0
20.0
29.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

1
0-30
5
1
5
10
10
15
0-64
0-64
0-69
0-64

FLUOR Y!-3
STD 36
STD 37
LVFPOC Vl-3-1
SFC VI-3-1
L'/FPOC 'v'I-3-5
L\'P VI-3-1
L'/FPOC ''l-3-10
LVP Vl-3-5
L\.~P \1!-3-10

24 07.5
24 07.5
24 07.5
24 07.5
24 er.s
24 137.5
24 07.5
24 07.5
24 97.5
24 07.5

97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97

09.5

0-30
0-150
B-150
1

o- 15.7 93
25 1o.7 93
26 15.7 93
26 15.7 93
26 15.f 93

2300

L'JFPOC I l-7-1
STD 38
Lv'FPOC ll-7-5
LVFPOC I I-7-10
L'/P ll-7-1
LVP Il-7-5
FLUOR ll-7
CARB II-7-5(1/
CARS Il-7-5(2)
STD 39
PLANK ll-7

26 15.7
26 15.7
2b 15.7
GO 15.7
27 16.8
,_
_, 16.0

0015
8025

L'v'P !l-3-1
L'/FFOC ll-3-1

_, 17.7 96 22.7
o-

1250
1255

1255

39.0

RE11ARKS

0-18

Hod 9060

0-18
8 Ro:::se-P,e s.a.f'lP 1e-s
.97 39.
39.0 0-16
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta ','I-2 1550-1845 Clol 'i!-2-1
24 12.0 97 29.0 1
1.::15-1325
1341:3
1600

1600
1620

1630

1645

1715
1720
1730
1755
!820-1830
1840
1900

LVP Vl-2-1
FLUOR. VI-2
LVP VI-2-5

24
24
24
L'v'FPOC 1/I-2-1 24
L'1'FPOC VI-2-5 24
L'lP '/I-2-10
24
LVFPOC VI-2-10 24
L'./P Vl-2-15
24
TRANS Vl-2
24
STD 34
24
STD 35
24
PLAHK '1!-2
24

(1

11 Rosette
Mod 90oe

:SQftP 1 t?"!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta VI-~ 2040


PLAHK 'v'I-3
24 07.5 97 09.5 0-150
205'5
2100
2131
2135
2150
2155
2205

2215
2235
2255

99,5

09,5
19.'5

09.5
09.5
09.5
09.5
09.5
09.5

Mod 9060
11 Roset.te

SQf'IPles

surf

5
1
10
5

10
----------------------------------------------------------.---------------------Sto. ll-7 2025
SFC Il-7
26 15.7 93 18.5 surf
20

At.l.;;~

21345

2852-2113
2105
2130
2130
2145
2145
2159
2155
2243

-"

~-

18.5
18.5
18.5
18.5
18.5

93 18.5
93 18.5
93 18.5
93 18.5
96 19.0
96 17.5

1
0-166
5
10
1
5
0-39
5
5
0-165
0-165

11

~1od

R:)s<:t t. e SO.MPl<?S

9060

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sto. II-3 2330


PLANK l!-3
27 17.2 96 22.0 0-124

21

Au9

27 17.7 96 22.7

1
1

206
LONG!iOF:~l

STA#

CFU l e:E 1101J': :::-E -1 I; SAr1P:_E LOG

DATE TIME

ACT I'./ iT".'

CCDE

rJo 9E

LAT.tD

DEPTH

LOtl (li)

,;;.,
17.7 ;.t; _.:.. "f
27 17.7 96 22.7
, ......
27 "
96 22.7
'. f
27 17.7 '?6 22.7

0120-(:11~:7

CN !I-3-1
l'-/F II-3-5
L'...'FPOC. !I,>5
L'/P I!<:-10
l'/FPOC !1-3-10 27 17.7 '36 22.7
STD 40
27 17. 7 96 z-;.--'...
STD 41
27 17. 7 ~6 22.7

13325-0505
0325

CM Il-6-1
L'/P II-6-1

0030-[112~1

0040

0045

0050
1)100
;) 115

,~

>:EIIAF:V,S

1
5
5
1(1

10
~)-120

Nod

0-124

!1

~06C

Rcsct, te Soll')f:olo:.:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------03!5
2':'1,
L'/FF'OC II-6-1 27 22.5

:=:to II-6

~j345

0345
0350
0420

LVP II-6-5
L'IFPOC ll-6-5

'3FC II-6

-~6

>)

27 22.5 96
27 22.5 96
27 22.5 96
27 22.5 96
27 22.5 '"6
27 22.5 96

29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0
29.0

0435
0440-0457
0445
0530

II-6-10
L'v'FF'OC II-6-10 27 22.5
CARS II-6-5<1l 27 22.5
STD 42
27 22.5
STD 43
27 22.5
CARS II-6-5(2) 27 22.5
PLA11K Il-6
27 22.5

0630-0830

Cl-1 II-5-1

l420
0435

L\IP

96

'j6

96
96

96
96

5
5
s.u rf

10
10
5
0-90
0-90
5

11od 9060

11 Rose-tte sas(st=- 1 e-s

e->e

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta II-5 0630


STD
27 24.0 96 36.0 e-73
tlod 9060
44~

0640

0640-0652
0700
0715

0740

;)825

0855

L'/FPOC II-5-1
STD 45
L\IFPOC I I-5-5

LVP II-5-1
LVF' !I-5-5
L'iP II-5-15
PLANK I I-5

27 24.0 96 36.0

Z7 24.0 96 36.0

27
27
27
27
27

24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.9
27 23.5

36.0
36.0
36.0
36.0
36.0
96 34.5
96
96
96
96
96

1
1
a-73

11 Rosette SO.f'lPlt:s

1
5
15
e-7e

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------St. a Il-2 1025


PLANK !I-2
27 28.5 96 44.7 e-50
!030-1155
1040
1045

CM !I-2-1
SFC Il-2
LVP Il-2-1
TRAHS !I-2
STD 46

CRRB II-2-5(2) 27

30.5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30,5 96 47.0
30.5 96 47.0
30.5 '36 47.0
30.5 96 47.0

1340
1340
1345-1351
1355
1400
1400-1420
1435

LVP I I -4-5
STD 48
STD 49
TRANS II-4
LVP II-4-10
CM I I -4-1
PLANK I I-4

28
28
28
28
28
28
27

33.5
33.5
33,5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.7

50.0
50.0
513.0
50.0
50.0
96 50.0
96 49.0

5
0-32
0-32

1607

STD 50

27 42.0 96 57.0

0-20

1050

: 100
1105
1125
1127-1137

1200
1200
!205

LI/P II-2-5

LVP II-2-10

STD 47

27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27

CARS Il-2-5(1) 27

SHEEH II-2

27

surf

1
0-50
0-50
5
10
0-50
5

Mod 9060
11 Rosette $O.s'1Ples

surf'

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------13:30
L'IP I I -4-1
28 33.5 96 50.0 1

Sta. II-4

96
96
96
96
96

0-32

Mod 9060

9 Rosette saf'lF:>le-s

10
1
e-32

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sta I I -1
1600
PLANK Il-l
27 42.0 96 57.0 0-20
Mod 9060

207

LOHGHOF:II CRUISE
STR# 'DATE

MOUS';E-I I; SAMPLE

LON(W)

LAT(Hl

1615-1655

Ct1 ll-1-1
STD 51
CAR8 II-1-5<1l
LVP II-I-I
LVP ll-1-5
TRAHS Il-l
L'IP II-1-10

27 42.0 96 57.0
27 42.0 96 57.0
27 42.0 96 57.0

1630
1645
1645
1700

Il

ACT!I'!T'i CODE

1b30

F:-o.<:~e

T!~IE

1622-1630

. 'l

LOG

27
27
27
27

42.0
42.0
42.0
42.0

96 57.0
96 57.0
96 57.0
96 57.0

DEPTH

REMARKS

1
0-20

8 Ros.ette

I
5
0-20
10

SO.f"lf:' 1t!~

208

6 CRUISE FSU-II (31 OCTOBER - 6 NOVEMBER 1979)


6.1

Cruise Objectives
The major objective of cruise FSU-II was to recover some of

the current meter arrays deployed on FSU-I.

Some of these were

refurbished and redeployed while others were left in location.

All

will be recovered in July 1980.


A related objective was to study the thermohaline stucture of the
water column using STD stations and XBT sections.

These programs are

part of the Florida State University project to study the Western


Boundary Current in the western Gulf of Mexico (see section 3.1).

Current

meter and XBT data are being processed at FSU and are not included in
this report.

STD data, collected by UTMSI/PAML personnel are

presented in Part II.


A further objective of the cruise was to make surface observations,
as in the three previous LONGHORN cruises, for the presence of Ixtoc
oil and to collect samples for geochemical analysis.

At this time

(early November) the currents were no longer bringing Ixtoc oil ashore
on Texas beaches, the beaches had been cleaned up considerably and
public interest in the oil spill was generally waning.
6.2 Cruise Narrative
The departure of cruise FSU-II was delayed for two days
because of the passage of a cold-front through the South Texas region.
Prior to the front's passage strong winds (20-30 kt) had been blowing
from the southeast.

The reversal of the wind direction momentarily

calmed the seas and departure was made on 31 October 1979 at 1210 CST.
The cruise track is given in Figure 92 and the cruise log is presented

209

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W

95W

96W

97W

28N
Ccr-pu.. Chri ..t.i

27N

UNITED
STATES

26N

MEXI 0
121111121121 5 Nov

25N

~L-~--~~~~ov~---r----J24N
1

121121111121 4 Nov

CRUISE TRACK. 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 92

210
in section 6.6.

A direct course was set to the inshore end of the

current meter section at 24N.

Sea-surface observations were made

until nightfall: cloudy, discolored water, man-made debris and Sargassum,


but no oil.

Due to a burned-out searchlight, no night observations

were made from the bow but attempts were made from the stern when each
surface-salinity sample was collected.
At first 1i ght on 1 November 1979, tarba 11 s were observed at
24 39'N; 97 18'W, and two surface samples collected.

Winds were

steady from the north and seas began picking up with many whitecaps.
Tarballs were found from here south to the 24N parallel where the first
STD station (#52) was taken (see Part II for STD station location map
and the sample log, section 6.7, for positions).
STD stations were taken throughout the day and night and surface
observations made wherever time and personnel permitted.
light lamp had been installed.

A new search-

During the daylight hours of 2 November

current meters #1, 2 and 4 were recovered (.see Table 1 for positions).
At 2100 hrs, STD station #58 was taken in 2000 m of water with winds
and seas increasing.
meter #5.

Overnight the ship steamed slowly towards current

Visibility was poor and it was not possible to observe

from the bow due to breaking waves.

A LORAN-e malfunction further

complicated matters and LONGHORN was virtually hove-to for several


hours.

The port-side stabilizer ("flapper-stopper") parted during the

night and the ship began to roll substantially in 8 to 10 ft seas.


Despite these problems, observations continued and no oil was seen
overnight.

At daybreak on 3 November STD station #59 was taken in

2400 m of water.

STD #59 occurred in the roughest weather to-date and

probably represented the limit that LONGHORN can operate in with this

211
type of equipment.

The station took 2 hrs 45 mins to complete.

The

LORAN-e seemed to operate normally in daylight, although occasional


bad data were displayed.
The weather remained bad throughout 3 November and it was deemed
too rough to attempt a current-meter recovery.

Consequently, LONGHORN

steamed out along the current-meter section as far seaward as 95W,


taking an XBT profile.

Occasional windrows containing tarballs were

seen overnight, although observations were hampered by heavy rolling


and bright moonlight causing reflections off the sea surface.

Seas

calmed down somewhat by morning and current-meter array #6 was


recovered.

STD #60 in 3328 m of water was the deepest station ever

taken from LONGHORN.

The station took 2 hrs SO minutes to complete.

Following this, LONGHORN steamed north taking XBT drops, changed


course at 25 32'N; 95 44'W to a direct line for Port Aransas.

More

STD stations were taken until an electronics failure prevented further


use of the STD.

More tarballs were found well into U.S. waters, as

well as Sargassum, occasional water hyacinth and some Trichodesmium


blooms.
6.3

Distribution of Oil and Relationship to Other Factors


6.3.1

Tarballs, Sheen and Flotsam


Tarballs were the major form of oil seen during cruise

FSU-II (Figs. 99, 108 and 116).

Sheen was seen only once on the

cruise and no maps of sheen distribution are presented.

The tarballs

were generally small, perhaps smaller than observed on the three


previous cruises.
with Sarsassum.

They were frequently found in windrows and together


They were found in three widely scattered locations,

each one quite extensive in area:

(1) along the Mexican coast from

212
24" 40'N to 23" 55'N and then out to sea to 97"W; (2) a sma 11 er area
centered on 23" 50'N; 95" 35'W; (3) along the trackline from 25" 50'N;
95" 55'LI to 26" 30'N; 96" 20'\L

At the southernmost part of the

cruise track tarba 11 s were 120 nm offshore.

They were also 30 miles

north of the border, 60 miles offshore at a time (5 November 1979) when


the current reversal was supposed to be transporting the oil southward.
At several locations tarballs of considerably darker color were
mixed in with the more traditional mousse-colored balls.

Occasionally,

these darker pieces were seen to have goose barnacles growing on them.
A great effort was made to sample these (sample FSU-II-SFC-4).

The

darker "tarballs" turned out to be small pieces of driftwood with


barnacles attached.
Extensive areas were observed where no oil was seen.

Also, along

parts of the cruise track, no. observations were possible so it is not


known how far north tarballs were on the inshore parts of the track
(Figs. 99 and 108).
Due to the strong winds prevailing during the cruise, most of the
debris including oil was found in windrows (Figs. 101, 110 and 118).
At times even these were obscured by foam and whitecaps.

However,

north of 26" 30'N, no windrows were seen.


Sargassum was abundant but only in the waters south of 26" 30'N
(except for an isolated patch at 27"N; 97"W).

Sargassum was seen mostly

aligned in windrows with other flotsam; sometimes these windrows were


comprised entirely of Sargassum floats and similar-sized tarballs,
indicating that some grading was occurring perhaps because the floats
would be the last part of decomposing weed to sink (see Figs. 100, 109
and 117 for Sargassum distribution).

213

Occasional Trichodesmium concentrations were found well out to sea


(Figs. 102 and 119).

At 26 32'N; 96 22'H (cruise log, section 6.6,

p. 9) masses of peculiar white fronds were seen subsurface within a


Trichodesmium patch.

No sample of this substance was collected.

few water hyacinth pieces, mostly stems, were seen coated with oil
while one plant was observed still green.

On no other cruises had

green hyacinth been seen (Figs. 102 and 119).


Man-made debris was sparse but the usual styrofoam objects were seen,
often covered in oil.
6.3.2 Hind and Hater Masses
The wind was strong throughout the cruise, averaging
about 15 kt (Figs. 96, 105 and 113).

It blew with remarkable persis-

tence from the north to slightly north of northeast for the whole time
except briefly during the passage of a weak front (Fig. 105).

Just

prior to the cruise the winds had been blowing steadily from the
southeast for several days, uncharacteristically for that time of year.
Sea-surface temperatures were considerably lower than in the
previous three cruises, ranging from 2l.8C to 26.7C (Figs. 97, 106
and 114).
cruise.

A few cold fronts had reached the Gulf coast prior to this
The difficulty of presenting the data as if it were collected

synoptically is illustrated in Figure 97 where a temperature drop of


3C near Aransas Pass occurred in the five and a half-day period of
the cruise.

The dynamic effect of the outbreak of cold air following

a frontal passage (see Nowlin and Parker, 1974) was revealed on


several XBT profiles and on the more northerly STD profiles (see Part
II).

Below the Mexican border, temperatures were uniformly about

26.5C.

214

Sea-surface salinity varied widely from 28/oo near the Aransas Pass
to 36.7/oo south of 25N.

An isolated lens of water <33/oo was found

around 26 20'N (Fig. 98) coincident with the Trichodesmium blooms and
the region where tarballs were found at their most northerly point.
An extraordinary rainfall of 12 inches in one day at Freeport (NOAA,
l979a) occurred on 19 September (also 13 inches reported at Aransas Pass),
but little rain fell throughout October.

These persistent fresh water

lenses must have their origin in runoff from abnormal rainfalls such as
this and those that occurred in July and earlier in May (see NOAA l979b,c).
6.3.3 Subsurface Oil
Very little oil was observed to be subsurface on this
cruise (all observations were made from the surface vessel).

The

considerably rougher weather and number of observations made at night


under poor lighting conditions may have accounted for this.

However,

nowhere in the cruise log (section 6.6) is mention made of subsurface


oil, although I recall seeing small tarballs just subsurface in some
windrows.
6.3.4 Beaching of Oil During Cruise FSU-II
No "new" oil was reported to have beached in Texas during
the period 31 October to 6 November 1979.

However, considerable amounts

of tarballs were at the tide line each day along Mustang Island beaches
and a dramatic upswing in the number of oiled shorebirds occurred
subsequent to 6 November l 979 (Amos, in preparation).

It was generally

considered that the tarba 11 s were "reworked" Ixtoc oil being washed
ashore as the beach profile changed and buried Ixtoc oil was exposed.
On 9 November 1979 the first oil from the BURMAH AGATE washed ashore
on San Jose Island.

My own observations were that small quantities of

215

new oil washed up on Mustang Island immediately after the cruise but
whether this was Ixtoc or AGATE is unknown.
6.4 Pelagic Fauna
6.4.1

Birds
Pelagic birds were scarce on this cruise with only two

being sighted.

One of them has been tentatively identified as a

species of Skua, possibly the South Polar Skua, Catharacta maccormicki.


Photographs of this individual (Fig. 93) have been forwarded to
various experts for verification of this record.

If correctly iden-

tified, this would be the first record of a Skua from the Gulf of
Mexico.

The bird was sighted at 23 44.3'N; 96 38.2'W.

A Sooty Tern,

Sterna fuscata, was seen resting on a floating one-gallon cooking oil


bottle at 25 37'N; 95 48'11.
Migrating landbirds seen were Marsh Hawk, Mockingbird, Eastern
Meadowlark, Tennessee Warbler and Lincoln's Sparrow.

All tried to

find refuge on the LONGHORN; the Eastern Meadowlark succeeded and was
given a free ride from Port Aransas to 90 miles south of the Mexican
border (see Fig. 120 for 1ocati on).
6.4.2 Other Sightings
Fish were not as commonly seen on this cruise as on
the previous three cruises.

Flying fish were the most abundant, being

restricted mainly to Mexi.can waters.


widespread.

Sightings of porpoise were

Monarch butterflies were seen on two occasions, one

about 40 miles offshore (Fig. 120).

216

Figure 93.

Bird seen during cruise FSU-l!, tentatively identified


as a species of Skua.

217

218

6.5 Cruise Maps

219

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

\
27N

I
\
til12!11i!i3

CRUISE TRACK. 26N

\.. 100121

1 Nov

o 28N; 96W to 98W


Figure 94

26N

220

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-11. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N
1210 31 Oot
+

012!05 6 Nov

... ...

...

+
+

27N

:t
+
+

+
+

"*"++

-;.
+

"*
12!0012!

1 Nov

1012!0

26N

SURF ACE OBSERVATION'S. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


LOCATION OVERLAY . .
Figure 95

221

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97\V
98\V
96W
28N

27N

l1

>

l
j

26N
liZI.IZ!Kt.s
21ZI.IZ!Kt.s
31ZI.IZ!Kt.e

5m/eec

SURFACE WINDS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


Figure 96

liZim/sec
15m/eec

222

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

.?
r&<y

f:r"

.'I;

"'
1')15

.17~

J'

<y'b
.'I;

(~)-"

f:;o~

N'/;

27N

q,

)I" ' ) '

f:;o'b

.'I;

f:r~

.'I;

.'<-<y

"'"
~

&:~

rrjJ'~

26N
f:;oq,
.1:;

SURFACE OBSERVATION~. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


TEMPERATURE (C) .,..'l>Figure 97

223

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II, 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


96\V
97\V
98W
28N

"'q,.

27N

J
I

,~<

">'=':~

26N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS~ 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


SALINITY Cppt)
}""~
Figure 98

224

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N
Corpus Christi

+N

+N

+N

+N
+N

+N

27N

+N
+N
+N
+N

'

+N
+B

26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W
N=NO OIL SEEN: B=TARBALLS
Figure 99

225

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97\V
96\V
98\V
28N

'l

27N

26N
~~

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W


G=SARGASSUM
Figure 100

226

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

27N

+W

+W
+W

26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W
W==W I NDROWS
Figure 101

227

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
28N

27N
+T

+m

26N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 26N to 28N; 96W to 98W
T=TRICHODESMIUM; H=WATER HYACINTH
Figure 102

228

229

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
IIIJ !alil

26N

1 Nov

MEXICO

25N

wP"""

3 Nov

CRUISE TRACK. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


Figure 103

230

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
95W
26N
+

MEXICO

25N

...
+
+
+
+

+
+

.......
+
+ lill1l01il 2 Nov
....
..

.,. ...
+

;t-A01

24N

++
+

3 Nov

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to


LOCATION OVERLAY Figure , o4

98~

231

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
26N

MEXICO

tj
25N

'\

'

.//111 I

J!

IJ

24N

.
Figure 105

SlJRF Ar.F WTNnS. ? 4N t.o

?AN~

flnW t.o

!Iff I

232

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


'!}'
96W
97W
98~1
<:>

26N
MEXICO

25N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


TEMPERATURE (C) Figure 106

233

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


96\V
98\'/
97W
X

00

'

26N
<!>
'Q

MEXICO

<?

.,,

?><:>
X

.p'~-

t/'

.f.;''?>

/7b
'?>

25N

'\

'/,'<>'

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


SALINITY (ppt)
Figure 107

234

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97W
98\v
26N
MEXICO

+N

25N

+N
+8
+8
+8
+!il

+8

<1!8 +8 +N

tJN+e>B

24N

+N
+N
+N +N

+l

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


N=NO OIL SEEN; B=TARBALLS
Figure 108

235

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98 11/
97W
96W
26N
MEXICO

25N
J

+G
+G
+G
+G
+G
+G
+G

~G

+G

+G
+G~

+G

24N
+(

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


G=SARGASSUM
Figure 109

236

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W
97W
96W
26N
MEXICO

25N

+W
+W

+W
+W -HI

-oltl;;w

+W
+W

24N

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 96W to 98W


W=WINDROWS
Figure 110

237

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97W
96W
95W
26N

Elflllm 5 Nov

25N

24N
CRUISE TRACK, 24N to 26N;
Figure 111

238

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


95W
97W
96W
26N

I>
+

...

...
....

...

...

111111flll'l 5 Nov

25N

...

...

...

i: oF 'i OOI'lfll

+. .,. . .

2 Nov

24N

+
+

-t+

+
+
~.,.I<IDfiJ1 3 Nov

..,..,.

+
+

+
+

.,..,.

fll_f

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N ~ 26N; 95W... to 97W


LOCATION OVERLAY Figure 112

239

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97W
96W
95W
26N

l
25N

\
24N

SlJRFAf:F WT

Figure 113

240

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


.~ 96W
95W
97W
<:>

26N

,.roo"-

"
,.......

:v

17'0
#

..

*~
>:"'

.'V

,~\

...

,h~

25N

rff>''l.

~e-

:;,'t,t "
,r,)f;."e

... I'>

.1!>'
~~

<

:r

I'>

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N:


TEMPERATURE (C)
Figure 114

24N
95~~o

97W

241

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


0""
96 w
95W
97W
K

(j)

26N

-r. .

~'?>
e:,-":1

'!i

'?>":>

-r'?>

lo

$":>

'?>":

25N

~'0

~'0

,p-"
~

~'?

"?0

lo

~'ll>''?>4>.'?>
X

'lP

4>'
-r lo 4>''?> '1>- lo
~'0 ":>/ / . ' 'lP "''lP'/, 'lP'/,
3&

"

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N


SALINITY (ppt)
Figure 115

24N
~

'/,

...

~- -r. -r. ~

to~26N:

,p

95~~o

lo

97W

242

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97W
96W
95W
~

26N

~8
I

+8
+8

+N
+N

""+~

.25N

+N
+N
+N

'

+N

it'N +n+B

+N

.s.

24N

+N

+N
+N

+N +8+N +8

SURFACE OB~~RVATIONS. 24N t;


N=NO OIL SEEN: B=TARBALLS
Figure 116

+N

+N

;~N:

+N

+N

;5W+N ;; 97W

243

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II, 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97W
96W
95W
26N

~G

+G
+G

+G

25N

24N
+G

+G

+G-+6;
+G +G+G +G

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N


G=SARGASSUM
Figure 117

;g

+G

+G

26N; 95W to 97W

244

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


97W
96W
95W

26N
+W

+W

25N

I
-

24N

+W
+W +'II +W

~~

SURFACE OBSERVATIONS, 24N to 26N; 95W to 97W


W=WINDROWS
Figure 118

245

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


95W
96W
97W

26N

T
+HI
+H

25N

24N
SURFACE OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 26N; 95W to 97W
T=TRICHODESMIUM; H=WATER HYACINTH
Figure 119

246

LONGHORN Cruise FSU-II. 31 Oct to 6 Nov 1979


98W

96W

97'11

95W

28N
Co,...pue Ch,...i .. t.i

27N

UNITED
STATES

26N
..S......y T.....,
+Teow
111...-l:ol

MEXI 0

25N

24N
+SI<ua Sp.

BIRO OBSERVATIONS. 24N to 28N; 95W to 98W


Figure 12Q

247

6.6 Cruise Loa

248
F"AGE~

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------F;EtlAF;I o

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.. -'
-

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1500

27

1~00

27 13.0

97 04.4

!82 !0.5 36

~:3

1~00

27 03.0

97 05.5

182 10.0 46

35 25.2 3:::. 3;5

1747D 26 55.4

97 06.1

184 9,6

54

1800

26 54.4

?~

06.;

182 5.4

55

34 25.1 32.787

1900

26 45.2

97 07.2

1Z2

8.~

64

32 25.3

2000

,,..
.!.b

182

-~.5

?4

26 25.5 33.85::0

002 11

2100

26 26.2

97 07.3

172 ?.5

83

18 25.3 34.456

359 13

2200

26 16. 7

97 06. 3

172 9. 5

93

18 25.5 34.421

359 15

2~.5

~7

04.0

"'""Jo ...,

:)

~82

10.0 2
24.8 32.471
3

001 12

002 11

3~.462

C/C 1~5

-------------------------------------~------------------------------------------

2300

26

LONGHORN
. Tlt1E

97

06.~

cru1se

04.~

172 10.2 103

FSU-2

21 25.3 34.951

359 17

1 No" 1':17'9

LF!T(N)

LONGcW;

SSE.'SPD

0000

25 56.5

97 04.0

172 10.! 113

24 25.7 35.032

001 14

0100

25

4~.4

9~

04.4

187 10.0 123

25 25.8 35.007

003 11

0200

25

3~.2

~~

1),._;,(1

187"

132

25 26.3 35.026

003 11

0300

25 26.9

97 88.0

187 10.4 143

27 2b.t1 35.171

004 13

0400

25 18.4

97 0s.;

187 9.5

151

33 26.2 35.384

006 14

0500

25 08.0

?7" 12.0

192 10.5 161

39 26.3 35,329

006 14

0600

24

??

192 10.6 172

45 26.5 35.327

004 14

5~.

!~.5

?.::

DIST DPTH

SST

SSS

SEA

l.J!IID

REMARKS

C/C

180

c,c 185

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

249

....... ..:. ...

Debri~-plastic

~*""'"'

+.:...:,.;.:.

pie~es+bottle

Sun sets No visual observatiOns

'

****

****

LONGHORN cruise FSU-2


I lONE SHEE TARB tIOU,. 1-11 ND '3AF:G T?I C HYAC

""*"'*
+***

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

oJerni~h

250

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FEr1AF:f:::
CSE ;PD DIST
SST SSS
h
D~TH

LOtK'~

51 .::,;.4

0845

2d 32.2

9~

1S.?

......
'

A":"

':l

..,

198

5'?
1.,.1/!,o.l

(I'? SOD

24 '26. 2

?7 20. '?

0949

24 23.0

'?~

1000

24 22.1

lHW

24 13.1

?~

1200

24 05.4

97 3B.6

1243

23

5~.7

1300D 23 59.5

26.8 36.263

188 8. 2

214

187

8.~

20~

97 21.5

187 5.0

208

62 26.7 36.245

328 12

23.3

232 ?.1

217

64 26.4

36.1~6

003 12

232 10.2 227

49 26.5 36.253

801 13

97 35.0

117 9.7

234

27

344

?7 34.9

161 8.8

234

34.7

0?7 0.8

235

1400D 23 58.3

97 32.6

107 8.2

237

1437

23 56.9

97 27.3

087 2.2

242

1500D 23 56.5

97 27,4

192 0.8

242

1520

23 56.3

97 27.4

077 0.7

242

1528

23 56.4

97 25.8

077 11.0 244

1600D 23 56.3

97 21.3

031 7.8

_..._.

1633H 23 56.3

?7 16.6

067 7.8

252

1700

97 16.3

262 0.6

253

1345

23 53.9

23 56.!

9~

21.3

tn38 l7"

1~

Sto. 2

C/C 225

Sta 3 STD52
St.CI.

2?

~03

13

U/W off ata

001 11

Sta 4 STD53

2S. 5 36. 31~:

StQ 4

084 23

0:34 14

121

2'54 13

;ta. 5 STD54

1::01

C1'tb 15

Sta. 5

60

').;.,:.

U/W orf sto

26.7 36.448

251

PAGE#

NOttE SHEE TAPS MOUS WIND ;APG

... .,.. ... .,.,

----

T~IC

H','AC

) I L OE.::.EF'\.'AT I Otl F'Etl!iF:I-."3

Tarbalis +
lftCh

sar~'as::uP

In windrow::-1

Tar~all

sat~DlE

#FSU-~-Sl

FSU-2-S2;Lar~e, nodular
round ta
rballs in windrows of sheen

Windrows about 1GA aPart;ocean


ou<:~h-_,lh it. >?CQPS
***~

Sa.~Ple

.;.;.+~<

;.;. ,. . .:. ,. **""""'


.,.;....;..,.,..,.,.

~o

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+***

*.,.,...,.+.;;
. . *. .

!hdelY scattered'

Si'I'J.ll

9ettln~

tJ.rba.lls;

SCJ.t.t.E

t-ed Sa r<;.~a.:.:.suf',

A few Pieces Sar9assuM

VerY narrow windrows of closelY-Packed


arballs:two colors-dark ~ Mousse

Lorte Patches .sarassuM Wtth tarbails


;~ed-

~~~

in

Cleo.t" tlue ,_uated little


w quar~er-si=ed ~arballs

.sar=;~rJ.s:sur,;

Tarball:: in iJlndr:O\JSi 1.;.=::.


er than bo?fon:

fe

freq,~e-nt.l<J~-,

Seas 4-5 feet: WindrOb!S of sr1all


~ r1 L~.:-d w. '::.,!0. 11 ..SD r i 3::. s::t t"-3

tarb~ll

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Dc.tL _:

\.'t:t'Y

REMAP~S

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ta.r;

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of s.ar9a.s.::.w,
t~o

LONGHOPN

crUIS-E

FSU-2

det in it~ tarballs

se~n

2 Nov 1'?79

NONE SHEE TARS MOUS WIND SAPG TRIC HYAC

OIL 08SEF'\IAT!Oil F'EIJAF:ICS

1n

s.Potll~ht

<'54

F'AGE#

TINE

LAT.Il:

os00

23 57.5

97 to.o

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23

5~. =

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300

(H)4 1 '?

307 0.3

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314

300

23 56.0

97 04.9

321

300

12[1f1

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301

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97 04.-

0?2 0.3

301

613

1325

23 56.1

~7

03.9

081 2.3

382

004

1330

23 56.0

~~

02.1

081 8.8

302

1400

23 56.0

96 59.4

087 6.8

306

1500D 23 55.9

96 49.9

691 8.7

315

1600

23 55.7

9~

40.4

087 8.7

323

23 51.?

96 32.2

1127.7

23 50.9

96 28.?

139 7.6

335

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335

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97 08.3

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1030

23 56.0

~~

04.8

235 i.8

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23 55.?

97 04.8

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16

26.8 36.232

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Sta 11 CM#4
CM :on .:urt.

255

PAGE#
1] I L

_.._ __ ..,..,.. .......

08'3EF:'/AT I Otl F:EflARf:S

ll 1 ndrotl;; ot ;:,o. r"ill~.sslJ!'I t.J t :i tbo.ll .:. j


t.C sh1~.: cour:::.:.: t l1n:;c; t1~h

Occo~lono.l

W/

~ieee~

~ar~assu1q

in

~O

(J>: .,.

wlndro~.:

SMall tarballs

"""':'**

. . '*""'*

tlorr)l,,l U.lindrot,l.: o+ :;ar9a::..:.1J,1 "f l:":'.t;:.'


l'"nln) 1.$.1'10.11 rorbo.ll::.;tlnn"il ti.:.h

Water blue-blue; CU1'1Ulon1Mbus

256
LOt-J,:;noF:rl

.:ru1.;. .:

F:u-~

REtIAF:K:O

T tlE

LFIT di '

1945

23 4?.0

96 29.7

2100

23

4~.0

2308D 22 45.5

0001

23 46.7

96

22.~

1!7 0.9
-,'-

.:. ; '

336

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1:"

1811

2012

004 22

Sta12 STD5S
:.t.Q

2012

;:

004 15

2012

~:

001

28.~

04S 1.8

340

LOtlGdJ'

CSE.SPD

I1JST DPTH

96 27.4

027 1.9

342

SST

~SS

SEA
3

1811

12

1:-'

fl !liD

REMRRLS

233 26

-----------------------------------------------------------------~-------------26.2 36.450 ~;
23 4t:.1 96 26.1

0020

0028

23 46.1

96 26.2

20~

2.8

343

0046D 23 46.3

96

06~

1.8

344

00540 23

~6.4

96 25.4

066 1.8

344

9100D 22

4~.4

9~

25.3

066 1.8

344

023BD 23 47.6

96 22.7

066 1.8

347

05BBD 23 49.4

96 18.3

066 1.8

351

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96 16.6

066 1.8

353

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96

1~.8

066 1.8

353

B640D 23 50.6

~6

!5.4

066 1.8

354

0705

23 50.9

96 14.7

077 1.7

355

0730

23 50.9

96 11.8

12~

~.4

358

9820

23 50.6

96 12.8

277 1.1

358

25.~

007 15

c.c 200
c:c 000

26.7 3b.391

2b. 5 36.

e r r.:ot

Sta13

STD~~

3'~4

4
2359

LOF:AN

OB5 26

257
5
OIL OBSEPVHTION PEMARYS

LONGHORN cruise FSU-2


NOt~E

SHEE TAPB !1C:US ~~I tlD '3hRG TF: I C HYHC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

-----------------------------~--------------------------------------------------

258

I r1E

u~:

SEA

r!

F: Et1 HF: 1~.::.

lJ It HI

26.6 36.3;.":2
1155D 23 51.0

9~

06.5

OSS 5.4

371

122 5.4

37"1

1208

23 51.1

1300

23 48.7

96 01.4

092 5.0

376

26.736.308

1400

23 48.8

95 55.6

0'?2 5.3

381

26.7 36.383

1580

23 47.7"

95 5t.3

092 4.0

385

26.7 36.2@4

084 23

16013

23 4 7. 1

'?5 45. 5

092 5. 4

39~1

26.7 36.176

004 21

1700

23 46.3

95 38.?

092 6.1

397

26.7 36.192

804 21

1800

23 45.8

95 32.3

087 6.1

403

26.5 35.894

003 21

1900

23 45.:::

'?5 25. 7"

(1'~2

6. !

40'~

26.5 35.185

004 21

2000

23 45.8

95 19.5

092 5,7

414

26.7 35. 121

004 22

2108

23 37.4

95 13.6

087 9.9

424

26.4 35.340

006 15

2200

23 45.2

95 06.8

087 10.0 434

26.4 35.356

006 15

2300

23 44.5

95 00.3

292 5.5

440

26,3 35.703

002 17

SST

LONGHORN

cru!5~

15225

004 21

FSU-2

TIME

LAT'tl'

LONG(W!

CSE.'SPD

DIST DPTH

0000

23 45.8

?5 05.5

292 4.5

444

0100

23 47.6

95 12.1

28~

6,4

451

95 18.9

297 6.4

SSS

SEA

lH IW

004 15

(H37

1~:

12

0301)

23 .51. 8

~5

24. i

297 5. 5

463

~306

0400

23 51.9

95

32.~

267

r.s

471

(B)9 11

0500

23 47.7

95 36.6

262

s.s

~76

C/C

285

259

F"HGE#

OIL OBSEPVRTION

REMARf~S

--...-- ---.,.,.

Wtndrows of sartassu: u. tarballs


PoorlY-deftned w1ndrows ot

sarassu1~;

f 1

"1n-s t 1s.h

windrows of sartassur,;

-,.,.--

on~

tar ball

+~"**

.:,..**'""

Noonlt"9htffull i;shu:

roll1n~

hel\)11;

****

*'***

LONGHOPN

cru1~e

tlONE '3HEE TFIF:8

FSU-2

ttou:.

4 fko" 1979

lJ I tW SAF'I:; ;pIC H'i'FIC

OIL 08SEPVATION

REMAR~S

Seas calMin down


~.:;;.+.,..

~*+-:o-

8r1s;ht.

f'JC<~::on

Phlke:: 1t dtf+t:ult \:

+or oil

Nothln visible in

s~otlltht

ct1e:.~

260

SSE'SPD

DIST DPTH

S3T

SSS

SEA

REt1ARI:e:

IWID

TH1E

LHT.tl

0525

23 46.9

~5

35.0

177 3. 8

0558

23 44.5

~5

38.0

35~

4.2

480

001 13

8ta14

CM~6

0~10

23 43.6

95

38.~

052 1.0

481

084

CM on

~urf

0~20D

23 43.8

95

38.~

045

1.~

481

0751

23 44.5

95 38.0

222 1.7

482

008 13

retrieve CM

~.,j5

38. 2

22'? 1. 0

482

0300D 23 44. 3

::.:

0~00D

23

43.~

95 39.0

229 1.0

483

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23 44.0

95 38.6

32~

7.9

485

009 15

dYe Paten

1020

23 43.5

95 39.4

287 0.9

486

001

3t.a15 STDt:O

1115

23 43.0

95 39.?

287 0.8

486

001 11

Sto:'> 15

1290

23 42.7

95 40.3

317 0.6

487

3328

005 13

Sta 15

1300

23 42.4

"35 41.4

277 1.1

488

3328

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St.o. 15

1319

23 42.4

95 40.1

037

3.~

489

3319

1400

23 44.5

95 38.6

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492

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064 17

PDR problef

1448

23 44.5

95

38.~

35~

0.7

4Q~

3200

004 2!

u-w orr sta

95

38.~

358 8.7

494

26.5 :35,'?74

503

26.6 36.094

004 13

XBT 25

13.6 516

26.6 36,116

008 15

XBT 26

26.6 36.044

006 14

~BT

1500D 23

4~.3

1600

23 55.0

'?5 3'?.!

357 ::.. ';"

1700

24 08.6

95 39.4

35~

180~

24 12.3

95 40.0

357 3.7

520

27

261

LONGhORtl srulSE
t~ONE

FS~-2

3HEE TAF:E: r1CHJ::,

~i

PAGE#

OIL OBSEPVAT!ON PEMARkS

I tiD .:.HF:G TF: I C HYAC

:::lick F::it:.ho::: 1.o.11th .::.,to.ll


1tO: .:.o. r<:lo.s::.ur

ono: Patch of

t~rbo.ll::.

:: ;:..:.

sh~en

one Patch of half-dollar .:.tzed tarball::


+**~

****
***~

****

+'**""

**""*

Sar9assuM; diMe-stzed tarbo.lls; Juvenal

t i::.h

wtndrows ot onE 1nch tarballs W/SQr90.!3u


('I

T:irbo.lls
Ui'l

r.-la~tlC

de-bn::;

lo:ts of" SQr9a:::.;;;:.

263

PAGEt
N0t4E SHEE TARS MOU; WitlD SARG TRIC HYAC

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

... :.,..:..,..
~.;.;..-~

SPOt 11 -!1ht

LONG~ORN

cru1se

Cob.=.

FSU-~

NONE SHEE TRR8 MOUS WIND SARG TRIC HYAC

**~.;.:.

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

SPotli~ht

obsrevation

E~tensi\e

windrows o+

.:,:.+.+.+.-

****
****
**.;.."""

.:.;.+;.

--*.;.:. .:..**

--.:...;.:. *-**
***':'"

***.:..+.+++.As above+
**~*

sar~

+ tarballs;

trichodes~lUM

subsurface

****
Occasional

~"""*""

*+** ,...,:.*"'

3ar9assu~.-TrlchodesMiuM

***"'

--~

*+*- ... ,.. ... .:.


~,.-~

~**

as be

ore one tQrball

E~:tens1ve windrows tar+ sar9:Man~


~~ater 9reener; Much Trich

""*""'".:,...

--~~

Pieces water hYacinth(oiled)

Windrows tar+sori;a
?reen frond

--.:.;.-~***+one

t~w

r~Mnant

flSh;

H~acinth

2E2

:..:)t-lGHOF:t1 .; nn..: ~

F:.u-~

PAGE#

LONG(tl

CSE..-SPD

I1IST DPT!-i

1900

24 13.4

95 40.4

~5~

1.2

2100

24 38.9

95 41.5

35~

16.6 547

2300

24 55.9

95 43.5

35~

8.4

563

~lou

l97':l

LONGHORN cru1se FSU-2

T!liE

LAT'N

LOttG r tJ,.

CSE..-'SPD

0000

25 05.2

95 44.3

35~

1)100

25 06.9

0200

SET

s::.s

521

26.3 35.588

332

SEA

001 12

RE~IARKS

~IIHD

D I ST DPTH

SST

9.3

573

26.4 35.492

091 15

'?5 45.1

357 1.9

575

26.3 35.374

001 12

25 23.3

95 45.2

357 16.3 591

1646 26.3 35.310

001 18

o3Bft

25 32.0

?5 44.8

35~

001 22

0515

25 32.0

~5

0690

0700

s.;-

e;eo

1317

44.3

357 0.2

600

1317

25 37.0

95 47.9

332 2.0

606

988 25.8 35.544

001

25 44.8

95 53.5

332 9.2

615

1042 26.1 35.313

901

0730D 25 48.7

95 56.5

326 9.4

620

0800

25 52.6

'35 59.3

332 ?.4

625

1042 2-5. 1 35. 0~9

(1~11

12

0900

25 59.8

96 04.5

332 8.6

633

33.76~

001

722 24.5 33.108

001

:3

978 24.4

96 11.3

280 0.8

641

1116

2S 05.2

~6

332 0.8

642

5:32

0131

1200

2-5 10.5

96 16.9

342

649

448

001

1207

26 11.3

96 17.0

349

~.1

Stat;' STD62

1007D 26 05.0

12.3

Sta16 STD61

23.9 32.61;)4

C/C

335

265

LOt~GHORr~

PAGE#

crul!e F5U-:

SaMRle FSU-2-83 netted

****
** ... *
**""*

SaM~le

~***

****

.,.;. ;.; :. ;.; **""""

FSU-2-84 neetted

H1ndrows to.r

sar~

:.;, Tridd

JUf'lPln~

flsh

.,.;...;*;.. .,.;;...4..,.;.

Hater ver~ 9re~n & full of Tr1ch: soMe


tran9e white trends subsurface
t.1ater now blue but st 111 t.urbicH
~

..:;.~arbo.'9e

tloatin..:;.~

No oil seen

****
****

s~ot

1i

<:~ht.

'Metal druM

lo..:;.~

Wlth

SPotli9ht

obs

***.;.:.
***+

***""
**+*
LONGHORN cruise

FSU-~

HONE SHEE TRPB MOUS WIND SRRG TPIC HYAC

****
****
~***

****

OIL OBSERVATION REMARKS

t'

lcuH 1n

266

6.7

Sample Loq

~CTIV!T'i

St.o. 1

StoJ. ,::.

0845

SFC-i

CODE

LATlNJ

LON<W>

DEPTH

24 32.2 97 19.9

Surf

24 23.0 97 21.3

Surf

FEtlARKS

ll

SaP1Ples

131 ~:

'3TD 52

23 59.7 97 35.0

0-27

1455

:3TD 53

23 56.8 97 27.3

0-58

Sta 5

1643

STD 54

23 56.3 97 16.8

0-121

6 RosettE SaMPles

Sta b

1834

'3TD 55

23 56.7 97 89.0

0-406

6 Rosette SaMPles

Sta 7

21337

STD 56

23 55.7 97

as.e

0-587

6 Rosette SaMPles

STD 57

23 53.9 96 52.6

0-1299 12 Rosette

2104

STD58

23 47.0 96 28.7

B-1839 12 Rosette SdMPles

GblO

STD 59

23 513.9 96 11.8

0-2243 6 Rosette SaMPles

STD 60

23 43.5 95 39.4

13-3116 12 Ro:=.ette So.filf:lles

STD 61

25 32.0 95 44.8

0-1244 6 Rosette SaMPles

St l 12

5 Nov

Ros~tt~

Sa1~Ples

St a 17

1014

'3TD 62

26 05.0 96 11,3

0-654

b Rosette SaMPles

Sto. 18

1335
1415

STD 63

26 24.3 96 19.3

0-525

26 26.7 96 20.2

Surf

6 Rosettes onlY

1445

SFC-4

26 28.1 96 20.8

Surf

Sta 19

SFC-3

Sar~assuM+Tarbls

267

7 SUMMARY
Four cruises were made aboard R/V LONGHORN during the period
23 July to 6 November 1979 on which observations and collections were
made specifically to study the distribution and morphology of Ixtoc I
oil at and beneath the surface of the western Gulf of

This

~lexica.

is Part I of the Final Report on the findings of those cruises and


it covers the observations of oil, both surface and subsurface, and
some of the mechanisms controlling its distribution.

Part II contains

the physical oceanography, while Part III has the geochemical results.
The report covers the time from when the oil was well south of
the Mexican border but spreading north, through the period of maximum
activity and publicity when the oil beached on South Texas beaches,
to a period when the seasonal current change had apparently reversed
the flow of oil back into Mexican waters.
7.1

Forms of Ixtoc Oil Encountered and Conditions Observed


On all cruises oil was observed at the surface in one or more

of several forms and in several frequently observed conditions and


"associations".
The common forms were: (1) tarballs; (2) sheen; (3) mousse.

The

conditions specifically noted were: (1) no oil seen; (2) the existence
of windrows.

The associations were: (1) Sargassum; (2) water hyacinth;

(3) Trichodesmium; (4) other flotsam, including anthropogenic.


conditions noted although not systematically observed were:

Other

faunal

associations, including fish, invertebrates, pelagic mammals and birds


and migratory landbirds and insects.
Systematically measured and noted at least every hour while the

268
ship was underway were: (1) sea-surface temperature; (2) sea-surface
salinity; (3) wind speed and direction; (4) sea state; (5) basic
v/eather observations.
7.2

Distribution of Ixtoc Oil at the Surface


The cruises covered the region from 23 50'N to Port Aransas

(27 44'N) and out to sea as far as 95W or 150

n~

offshore at 24N.

In late July 1979 all the oil was well south of the border (FSU-I);
by early August some had penetrated 30 miles north of the border
(MOUSSE- I); in mid to 1ate August (MOUSSE- I I) oi 1 was found over the
entire cruise track and was seldom not seen.

By early November

isolated large areas of tarballs were still encountered (with one


patch 30 miles north of the border), but most of the Ixtoc oil was
then south of the border.
The nearest LONGHORN came to the source of Ixtoc I oil was 320 nm.
By the time the oil reached the areas investigated the well-known
"mousse" form had generally degraded into tarballs.
of heavy mousse was found:

Only one region

during cruise MOUSSE-II in Mexican waters

at 25 lO'N; 96 SO'W (map, Fig. 85; photographs, Figs. 5, 6, 60


and 61).

The mousse patch completely dampened all but the ocean

swell (under light wind conditions), imparted a strong odor to the


surrounding atmosphere, contained considerable amounts of debris,
mostly unrecognizable, provided a cover for some schooling fish and,
while we were examining it, was sprayed with a dispersant from a
passing aircraft.
Tarballs, sheen and windrows, while noted separately during observations are related in their distribution to the wind field in such
a way that they will be discussed together here.

Tarballs or tar

269

pancakes (as they might more appropriately be named) were by far the
most common form of oil seen.

Their median diameter was probably less

than 3 em and only seldom were they up to 20 em wide; frequently,


they were less than 1 em in diameter.

During cruise MOUSSE-II it

appeared that the entire ocean (as viewed along our cruise track,
Fig. 59) was covered with tarballs; but not as a continuous cover.
Rather, whenever one looked at the sea surface one saw tarballs.

The

actual surface area covered was, in my opinion, not estimable by


inspection.

The tarballs were normally in patches, streaks and, most

often, in windrows.
Hhen the wind was calm or light the tarballs spread out over the
surface and invariably a sheen patch formed.

Tarballs were then seen

to be "bleeding" irridescent wakes into the sheen, particularly in


sunlight.

He never encountered oil-produced sheen without tarballs.

Conversely, however, tarballs were often found without a surrounding


sheen.

As the wind increased from calm the patches of sheen broke up

into smaller patches, then into wide streaks and finally into windrows.
The stronger the wind. the less shiny was the surface of the slick.
and in winds in excess of 20 kt or so it was hard to tell whether or not
sheen was present.
7.3 Distribution of Ixtoc Oil Subsurface
7.3.1

Viewed from Surface Vessel


Hhen the tarballs were concentrated in windrows they

could frequently be seen sinking, sometimes out of sight and other times
returning back to the surface if that particle could be observed long
enough.

Occasionally a tarball would suddenly leave the surface and

begin to sink quite rapidly for no apparent reason (e.g., no wave

270

broke over its surface to provide any impetus to sink).

Wnen the winds

were calm and tarballs were usually in patches of sheen they were never
observed to sink.
7.3.2 Diver Observations
Oil (tarballs) was seen by the divers beneath the surface on ten of the eleven dive stations occupied on cruises MOUSSE-I
and MOUSSE-II.

Tne one station where no oil was seen subsurface had no

oil on the surface.


Tarballs were mainly found in the upper 10 ft but were observed as
deep as 65 ft.

Underwater photographs were mainly unsuccessful in

documenting the concentration of tarballs subsurface, so the divers'


descriptions have been used.

Results of the quantitative pumping

experiments are still being evaluated (see Part III of this report)
and are not included here.
Divers were in general agreement about the subsurface oil although
some were consistently more conservative in their estimates.

The con-

centration of oil subsurface was much less than that on the surface.
Particles were usually only a few millimeters in dimension and were
almost always described as thin and flaky (one diver said he had to
wait for one to rotate before he could photograph it).

Four samples

of these flakes were collected by the divers.


All stations were taken in water shallow enougn for the divers to
reach the thermocline (detected by body sensitivity to temperature),
frequently the near-bottom nepheloid (turbid) layer, and occasionally
the bottom.

They reported no obvious change in particle density

coincident with the thermocline, just a general thinning out of


particles with depth.

Only on one station was a layer of "high

272

Mexico.

It was found in great abundance, sometimes exceeding that of

Sargassum, on the first three cruises but only in a few locations on


the last (November) cruise.

The plant was sometimes seen intact:

roots, stems, leaves, bladders and even flowers in a few instances,


but was more often in fragments of one or more of the above parts.

It

v1as always seen floating at the surface, was often found in windrows
with both tarballs and Sargassum, and was almost always oiled.

In

fact, water hyacinth was seldom seen without tarballs or not oiled.
The oiling of this plant was extensive--all parts seemed to absorb
oil, the more decomposed the plant was (with more fibrous material
exposed), the greater was the oiling.

At times, oiled hyacinth looked

like giant tarballs in the shape of the plant.

Several of these oiled

plants were collected and are now preserved at PAML.


7. 4. 3 Tl'i chodesmi urn
Blooms of this
the first cruise (July)..

blue~green

alga were found on all but

The patches were generally extensive and

were located most frequently north of 26N and may have been associated
with the interfaces between fresh and salt water lenses at the surface.
They were most often detected on days when the winds were calm or
light; they imparted a slick-look to the ocean surface and often
dampened capillary waves.

At the edges of a typical bloom a scum

would form and the algal cells, presumably in aggregates, could be


seen several centimeters beneath the ocean surface.

Quite often

tarballs were found within a slick area that contained masses of


Trichodesmium.

In these instances the surface slick was enhanced by

active bleeding of the tarballs.

Trichodesmium blooms had a white-to-

yellow-to-orange color when viewed from the surface vessel.

273

7.4.4 Other Flotsam


Pieces of wood and man-made garbage were also frequently
seen and often smaller pieces would be associated with tarballs along
with other flotsam in windrov1s.

The most ubiquitous form of anthropo-

genic material was styrofoam cups; these and other styrofoam objects
were generally coated with oil.
7.5

Pelagic Fauna
Although these observations were not made in any systematic way,

the results of our observations show that no obvious massive kills of


organisms (large enough to be seen v1ith the unaided eye) occurred due
to the presence of oil at the surface.
unoil ed fish were found dead.

One unoi 1ed bird and a few

Only one oiled bird was seen on cruise

MOUSSE-II and two on MOUSSE-I.


7.6

Hind and viater Regime


Hinds shifted from the preva i1 i ng southeaster] i es during July

and August to northerly winds during the November cruise.

There were

very few periods of calm during the cruises.


Hater temperatures reached their peak of about 30C during the early
part of August but dropped to below 22 in the northern part in November
in response to the outbreaks of cold air accompanying frontal passages.
Evidence of coastal upVJelling was found on the two tftOUSSE cruises
in August.

This could be seen in both the STD sections (Part II) and

in the surface temperature record.

Temperatures as low as 26C were

measured off Brownsville, and a band of VJater whose surface temperature


was <29C persisted all along the U.S. and tiexican coasts.
Low salinities were found well offshore to the north of the Mexican
border on a 11 four cruises.

These were anomalously 1ow for this 1ate

274

summer-early fall season and were probably caused by the abnormally


high precipitation that occurred in the Texas-Louisiana coastal
region. 1
Direct surface current measurements, made only on MOUSSE-II anchor
stations, showed a predominantly northerly flow on the offshore ends
of each section, but a more coastally-directed flow on the nearshore
ends.

Northeasterly currents of 2 kt were measured at 25 lO'N;

96 SO'W.

Ship's drift estimations showed that, at least during cruise

MOUSSE-I, there was a southerly-directed flow associated with the


low-salinity lenses surveyed when an overflight had reported oil in
the region.

Two coastal stations received phenomenal rainfalls in July and


September: Alvin (July), 35.7 inches; Freeport (September), 31.6
inches.

275

8 CONCLUSIONS
A hypothetical model--to illustrate the behavior of Ixtoc oil in
the Gulf of Mexico, based on our field observations--follows:
As the semi -1 i quid form of oil known as "mousse" flows away from
the well-site it weathers into tarballs by a process not observed
by us in the field.
of dispersants.

This process may be accelerated by the use

The tarballs go through a sequence of events that

contribute to their further weathering at sea:

with winds blowing

above 10 kt they are concentrated into windrows due to the convergence of Langmuir cells in the upper mixed layer of the ocean.
Within these

~~indrows

they are subjected to turbulent forces and some

may sink beneath the surface in local downwelling zones.

When

buoyant forces overcome local turbulence they rise again to the


surface.

In shallow water, should they sink to the bottom turbulent

(and turbid) boundary layer, they may become entrapped there and
if they adhere to sedimentary particles might be incorporated into
the surficial sediments.

This would most easily occur in a well-

mixed, neutrally stable water column, such as those found at some


locations on the shelf (e.g., at STD station #53, the entire 58 m
of the water column was isothermal and isohaline; see Part II).

strong thermocline may well present a barrier to sinking of a


particle whose density is less than unity.
As the winds and sea change to calm, subsurface tarballs rise back
to the surface and spread out over a large area.

The action of

direct solar radiation and heating in the surface microlayer causes


the more volatile fractions of the oil to ''bleed'' and a sheen or

276

slick region is produced.

These processes are repeated over and

over again with the normal cycle of surface wind fluctuations.


A factor peculiar to the Ixtoc oil spill during late summer 1979
was the contact of the oil with masses of water hyacinth.
the plants in a coating several millimeters thick.

Oil covered

Whether the plants

ultimately become water-logged and sink is not known, but this may
be a mechanism for transporting oil into the bottom sediments.
It is known that some Sargassum sinks (Hoodcock, 1950) due to
encrusting organisms or seasonal mortality and ultimately reaches
the bottom (Schoener, 1970).

The hyacinth, however, is remarkably

buoyant (Penfound and Earle, 1948), especially the bladders, and with
a coasting of oil would be even less likely to sink in saline water.
Water hyacinth covered with oil began washing up on Texas beaches
along with tarballs and the hyacinth is probably an efficient scavenger
of oil from the sea water, transporting it to shore rather than to the
bottom of the ocean.
While some literature exists on Sargassum in the Gulf of Mexico
(El-Sayed et

~.,

1972), I can find no reference to hyacinth being

washed out to sea and its ultimate fate.

The plants have a low

tolerance to salt water (Penfound and Earle, 1948) and undoubtedly


die shortly after entering the marine environment.

The source of the

hyacinth is probably the rivers of southern Tamaulipas,Vera Cruz,


Tabasco and Campeche.

The rainy season is these states occurs from

May and June to October, at a time when runoff from Texas and Louisiana

.,.,

Rivers is (normally) at a minimum.

I observed immense rafts of water

hyacinth being transported out to sea near the mouths of several rivers
in these Mexican states during the month of July, just prior to cruise FSU-I.

277

Ixtoc oil does not adhere to Sarcassum, perhaps due to the weed's
naturally produced oils not presenting an absorbant surface.'

Even

samples of oil and Sargassum collected together showed no oil adhering


to the plant.

Other debris scavenged Ixtoc oil from the water: glass

and polyethylene containers, metal cans, and particularly styrofoam,


became coated with oil.

At this writing these oil-covered items still

wash up on Texas beaches.


Ixtoc oil washed up for only a few days on South Texas beaches
before the current reversal pushed it back south.

During this time,

in many places, it washed in as mousse rather than tarballs.

Yet north

of the border we observed only tarballs at sea, even close to shore.


It is probable that the tarballs coalesce into a form of mousse in the
surf zone under the action of solar heating and wave action.
The large-scale transport of Ixtoc oil as revealed by the LONGHORN
cruises' field observations was not greatly different from that deduced
from the aerial observations.

Not readily detectable from the air,

however, were the windrows of small tarballs on the leading edge of


the advancing oil slick.

A comparison of LONGHORN data as ground truth

for aerial data is now being undertaken at this laboratory (Amos, in


preparation).

Some Trichodesmium blooms were misidentified as oil

slicks from the aerial surveys.


Two features of the circulation not revealed from the overflights
were the persistence of fresh surface water well offshore throughout
the late summer and fall with apparent southerly flow and upwelled
cold water along the~coastline, particularly from Brownsville south.

Sarqassum weed, when washed ashore and dried out, does get coated
with tar.

278

The fresh water was caused by the abnormal rains of July and September
1979, and the upwelling induced either by the constant onshore winds
or by the convergence of the opposing coastal current regimes typical
of the western Gulf of Mexico.

Both of these features may have

affected the fate of lxtoc oil and its ultimate beaching.


The existence of large amounts of tarballs some 30 miles north of
the border in early November, long after the seasonal current reversal,
was a surprise finding.

The retreat of Ixtoc oil may have been an

oscillatory phenomenon as strong southeasterly winds alternated with


northeasterlies prior to the passage of each front.

Smith (1978) shows

the importance of coupling between the wind field and currents on the
inner shelf in the western Gulf of Mexico.

His current measurements

also demonstrate that cross-shelf currents periodically dominate the


flow vtith both onshore and offshore currents occurring (Smith, 1977).

279
9 REFERENCES
Amos, A. F., 1980.

At-sea observations of Ixtoc-I oil.

Texas Academy

of Science Meeting, March 7, 1980, Corpus Christi, Texas.


Amos, A. F.

(in preparation).

Ground truth observations of Ixtoc

oil compared to overflight data.


Amos, A. F. (in preparation). The oiling of shorebirds following the
Ixtoc oil spill.

To be submitted to American Birds.

Armstrong, R. S., and J. R. Grady,


the Gulf of Mexico.

1968.

The late summer waters of

Commercial Fisheries Review 30(8-9):56-60.

Assaf, G., R. Gerard and A. L. Gordon,

1971.

Some mechanisms of

oceanic mixing revealed in aerial photography.

Geophys. Res.

76(27):6550-6572.
El-Sayed, S. Z., vl. M. Sackett, L. M. Jeffrey, A. D. Fredericks, R. P.
Saunders, P. S. Conger, G. A. Fryxell, K. A. Steidinger and S. A.
Earle, 1972.

Chemistry, Primary productivity and benthic algae of

the Gulf of Mexico.


22.

Serial Atlas of the Marine Environment, Folio

American Geographical Society, 29 pp + 6 plates.

Ewing, G,

1950. Slicks, surface films and internal waves.

J. Mar.

Res. 9(3):161-187.
Flint, R. W., and N. N. Rabalais (eds.), 1980.

Environmental studies,

south Texas outer continental shelf, 1975-1977.

Special report to

Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C. Contract AA55l-CT8-5l.


Fogg, G. E., 1978.

Nitrogen fixation in the oceans. Ecol. Bull.

(Stockholm), 26:11-19.
La Fond, E.
731-751.
NOAA, l979a.

1962.

Internal waves lD_

1~.

N. Hill (ed.) The Sea, Vol. I.

New York, Interscience Publishers.


Climatological data, September 1979, Vol. 84, No. 9,

NOAA, Environmental Data and Information Service, National Climatic


Center, Ashville, N.C.

280

NOAA, 1979b.

Climatological Data, July 1979, Vol. 34, No. 9.

NOAA, Environmental Data and Information Service, National


Climatic Center, Ashville, N.C.
NOAA, l979c.

Climatological Data, May 1979, Vol. 84, No. 9.

NOAA, Environmental Data and Information Service, National


Climatic Center, Ashville, N.C.
Nowlin, W.O., Jr. and C.A. Parker, 1974.

Effects of a cold-air

outbreak on shelf waters of the Gulf of

~lexica.

J. Phys.

Oceanogr. 4: 467-486.
Parr, A.E., 1939.

Quantiative observations on the pelagic Sargassum

vegetation of the western North Atlantic.

Bull. Bingham

Oceanogr. Coll. 6: 94 pp.


Penfound, v!.T. and T.T. Earle, 1948.
hyacinth.

Ecol. Monographs 18(4): 448-472.

Schoener, A., 1970.

Pelagic Sargassum and its presence among the

deep-sea benthos.
Smith, N.P., 1977.

The biology of the water

Deep-Sea Res. , 17: 923-925 ..

Near-bottom cross-shelf currents in the north-

western Gulf of Mexico:

a response to wind forcing.

J. Phys. Oceanogr. 7: 615-620.


Smith, N.P., 1978.

Low-frequency reverses of nearshore currents in

the northwestern Gulf of Mexico.


Smith, N.P., 1980.

Contr. Mar. Sci. 21: 103-115.

BLM hydrographic project, 1!!. Flint, R.W. and

N.N. Rabalais (Eds.), Environmental Studies, South Texas


Outer Continental Shelf, 1975-1977.

Special Report to Bureau

of Land Management, Washington, D.C., Contract AA551-CT8-5l,


3 volumes.

281

Sturges, W. and J.P. Blaha, 1976.


Gulf of Mexico.
iloodcock, A. H., 1950.

9: 77-92.

A \1estern Boundary Current in the

Science, 192: 367-369.


Sursurface pelagic Sargassum.

J. Mar. Res.,

282

10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
10.1

Contract Support
Cruises FSU-I and FSU-II were NSF-sponsored cruises headed

by Dr. Wilton Sturges of Florida State University supported by NSF


Grant No. OCE78-20722 entitled "Response of a Western Boundary Current
in the Gulf of Mexico."
Cruises MOUSSE-I and MOUSSE-II were funded by NOAA-ERL and
DOT-USCG under NOAA Contract No. NA79RAC00141, Tasks II and III,
respectively.

Task II (Principal Investigators:

A. F. Amos and P.L.

Parker) entitled "Mexican Oil Underwater Search & Survey Expedition";


Task III (Principal Investigators:

P.L. Parker and A. F. Amos) entitled

"Study o"" a Concentration Gradient of Hydrocarbons along the TexasMexico Coast".


10.2 Cruise Personnel
I wish to thank the permanent crew of the R/V LONGHORN who
assisted with the scientific data collection in addition to their
ship-handling duties:
Dona 1d L. Gibson

Boat Captain

Noe T. Cantu

Technical Staff Assistant IV

Hayden B. Abel

Technical Staff Assistant III

Tracie R. Laatz

Cook II

The following scientific personnel participated in the


cruises aboard LONGHORN:
Cruise FSU-I:
Wilton Sturges

FSU

Professor (Chief Scientist)

Anthony F. Amos

UT-PAML

Research Associate

Phi 11 i p Bedard

NOVA U

Research Associate

283

Gary Mitchum

FSU

Research Associate

David Szabo

FSU

Research Assistant

Edward Tankard

NOVA U

Research Assistant

Halter Sohl

UT-PAML

Research Assistant

Anthony F. Amos

UT-PAML

Research Associate (Chief Scientist)

E. W. Behrens

UT-GGL

Research Scientist

Craig Hooper

NOAA-ERL

Project Coordinator

Jerry L. Bird

UT-PAML

Graduate Research Assistant III

UT-PAML

Graduate Research Assistant III

Garry Ph ill ips

UT -PAf1L

Summer Student

Carlos Brunet

UT-PAML

Summer Student

Mac Irvin

UT-PAML

Summer Student

Cruise MOUSSE-I:

~1ark

A. Northam

Three additional people were aboard on Leg 2 of this cruise:


Jim Rudde

CBS-TV

News Reporter, Da 11 as

Paul Riggs

CBS-TV

Cameraman, Channel 7, Dallas

Jim McDonald

USCG

Strike Force Observer

Anthony F. Amos

UT -PM1L

Research Associate (Chief Scientist)

Craig W. Griffin

UT-PAML

Research Scientist Associate II

John Patton

ERCO/U. GA

Research Scientist/Fed. Coord.

UT-PAML

Research Scientist Assistant I

VJilliam Laatz

UT-PAML

Research Scientist Assistant I

Scott Milton

UT-PAML

Research Scientist Assistant I

Jerry L. Bird

UT-PAML

Graduate Research Assistant III

Cruise MOUSSE-II:

~like

Litwin

Richard K. Anderson UT-PAML


r~ark

A. Northam

Roger Burke

Graduate Research Assistant II

UT -PN1L

Graduate Research Assistant III

TAMU

Graduate Student

284

Cruise FSU- II:

Hilton Sturges

FSU

Professor (Chtef Scientist)

Anthony F. Amos

UT-PAML

Research Associate

David Hunley

FSU

Research Assistant

Pablo Clemente-Colon TAMU

Graduate Student

Michael Gunter

UT-PAML

Graduate Research Assistant I

Mark Dobbs

UT-PAML

Technical Staff Assistant

Edgar Findley

UT-PAML

Technical Staff Assistant

would especially like to thank Tony Sturges, Craig Griffin and

the many people who "eyeballed" the ocean, day and night, looking for
oi 1.

i[

A-1

APPENDIX
Hewlett-Packard 9825-A Computer Programming
On each of these cruises, an H-P 9825-A desk-top calculator
with printer, two flexible disk drives and an interface buss (HP-IB)
was used to collect and process data presented here.

At the laboratory

a Hewlett-Packard 9872-A four-color plotter was used to produce the


distribution maps in this report.
The system of programs described below was largely developed
for this project and as an aid to producing the report.
pertinent to part l are described here.

Only programs

A-2

Cruise Logs

The sequence of programs used to produce the cruise logs:

DEKDIL Records Deck log and Oil log data on cartridge tape.

Data entered

by hand at end of each 24-hour or other convenient period.

Computes

true course and speed of ship and wind velocity.


Subroutines called:

DIST, LZERO, POSIT, WINDV

INTERP Interpolates positions between fixes using the tapes recorded by


DEKOIL.

Given a time when any event (course, speed change, underway

sample taken, observation made, stop on station or start up off


station) occurred, a position, course, speed (or drift) is calculated.
Subroutines called DEDREK
BECKMN Computes salinity from conductivity ratio determined for surface
salinity samples using a BECKMAN induction salinometer.

Records

data on DEKOIL output tapes.


TABLE Prints cruise log data as reproduced in this report (sections 3-6,
4-6, 5-6 and 6-6).

Cruise Maps

Programs used to produce the cruise maps (sections 3-5},

4-5, 5-5 and 6-5).


DigGMX Used to digitize western Gulf of Mexico coastlines and major
isobaths.
bathymetry.

Includes provision to enter place names and label


Data re-recorded on flexible disk.

GMXplt Plots coastal outlines and/or bathymetry using data from DigGMX.
Plots using Mercator projection to any scale or segment of the
region (minimum 1 latitude by 1 longitude)
Subroutines called: Mercator

A-3

TRKp lt Plots the fo ll o~ti ng data on Mercator projection maps.


"

Cruise track, surface temperature, surface salinity, station


location, locations where observations were made and one or more
of several symbols where different types of oil or other
conditions were observed.

Data sources are the DEKOIL tapes

Subroutines called: Mercator


VECplt Computes and plots wind vectors on Mercator projection maps.

Data

sources are the DEKOIL tapes


Subroutines called DEDREK, key
CURplt Computes current roses and plots them on r1ercator projection maps.
Essentially the same as VECplt but its data source are separate
files of current meter data loaded using CURNT
Subroutines called: DEDREK
CURNT Loads surface C/M data on tape

Navigation programs
LORAN

l)

Has two modes of operation

Computes geographic position from LORAN-A fixes, LORAN-e

fixes or a combination of the two.


2)

given a geographic position computes all LORAN-A and LORAN-e

lines for that location (or any two specified lines)


Subroutines called AZIMTH
DEDRIK (Uusually used as a subroutine) performs dead-reckoning computations.
Can accept as input geographic positions, course, speed, start
time, end time or elapsed time or any combination and output the
remaining parameters.

Can also be used to compute vectors.

Subroutines called DIST, Tdift, Tadd.

A-4

Subroutines
AZIMTH Computes geodetic distance in meters between two fixes and the
geodetic forward azimuth.
DEDREK ca 1cul ates a dead-reckoning course and speed between t1vo known
positions given two times and a third for which the interpolation
is to be done.

(see navigation for full explanation)

DIST

Calculates the distance between two fixes using Clarkes 1866 spheroid

KEY

Plots a key for vector diagrams

LZERO Adds leading zeros or blanks to alphameric data fields for printouts
i4ercator:

Converts latitude and longitude to the correct scale factor for

plotting on a t1ercator projection


POSIT Converts geographical positions to quadrart-form and vice-versa
e.g. 97 15'W ~-96.250
Tadd

Adds a time, in hours to a time date group to produce a time date


group (e.g. 26 July, 2000 hrs + 14 hrs

Tdif

= 27 July, 1000)

Computes the difference in hours between two calendar time/date


groups (e.g. 26 July, 2000 to 27 July 1000 hrs

= 14

hrs)

WINDV Calculates true wind speed and direction given relative wind speed
and direction and ship's course and speed.