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THERIOTICAL BACKGROUND

Definitions of recruitment:
Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to
stimulate them to apply for the jobs
"Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the
requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that
manpower in adequate number to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force".
-Dwivedi
Recruitment is the process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the
requirements if the staffing and to employ effective selection of an efficient selection of an
efficient working force.
- YODER
Recruiting is the discovering of potential candidates for actual are anticipated
organizational vacancies it is the linking activity bringing together those with the jobs to
fill and those seeking jobs.
- DAVID
It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The
process beings when new recruits are sought and end when the applications are submitted.
The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.
- ASHWATHAPPA
OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT:
To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experience that suits the present

and future organizational strategies.


To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization.
To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company.
To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company.
To search or head hunt people whose skills fit the company's values, strategies etc.
To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits.
To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent.
To search for talent globally not within the company.
To anticipate and find people for positions that does not exist yet.

COMPONENTS OF THE RECRUITMENT POLICY:


The general recruitment policies and terms of the organization

Recruitment services of consultants


Recruitment of temporary employees.
Unique recruitment situations
The selection process
The job descriptions
The terms and conditions of the employment
A recruitment policy of an organization should be such that:
It should focus on recruiting the best potential people.
Top ensure that every applicant and employee is equally with dignity and respect
Unbiased policy.
To aid encourage employees in realizing their full potential.
Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection.
Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs.
Optimization of manpower oat the time of selection process.
Defining the competent authority to approve each selection.
Abides by relevant public policy legislation on hiring and employment relationship.
Integrates employee needs with the organizational needs.

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY:

Organizational objectives
Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.
Government policies on reservations.
Preferred sources of recruitment.
Need of the organization.
Recruitment costs and financial implications.

PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RECRIUTMENT:


Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization.
Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the
organization.
Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its
personnel planning and job analysis activities.
Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.
Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly
under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave
the organization only after a short period of time.
Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate
candidates.
Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques
and sources for all types of job applicants.

Recruitment Strategies:
Recruitment of the most crucial roles of the human resource
professionals. The level of performance of and organization depends
on the effectiveness of its recruitment function. Organizations have
developed to follow recruitment strategies to hire the best talent for
their organization and to utilize their resources optimally. A
successful recruitment strategy should be well planned and practical
to attract more and good talent to apply in the organization.
For formulating an effective and successful recruitment strategy, the
strategy should cover the following element:
(1)

Identifying and prioritizing jobs requirements keep arising at various

levels in every origination: it is amount a never ending process. It is


impossible to fill all the positions immediately. Therefore, there is a need
to identify the positions requiring immediate attention and action. To
maintain the quality of the recruitment activities, it is useful to prioritize
the vacancies whether to focus on all vacancies equally or focusing on key
jobs first.
(2) Candidates to target the recruitment process can be effective only if
the organization completely understands the requirements of the type of
candidates that are required and will be beneficial for the organization.
This covers the following parameters as well:
A.
performance level required: Different strategies are required for
focusing on hiring high performers and average performers.
b.
Experience level required: the strategy should be clear as to what is
the experience level required by the organization. The candidates
experience can range from being a fresher to experienced

senior

professionals.
C.
Category of the candidate: the strategy should clearly define the
target candidate. She/he can be from the same industry, different
industry, unemployed, top performers of the industry etc.
(3)Sources of recruitment the strategy should define various sources
(external and internal) or recruitment. Which are the sources to be used

and focused for the recruitment purposes for various positions? Employee
referrer is one of the most effective sources of recruitment.
(4) Trained recruiters the recruitment professionals conducting the
interviews and the other recruitment activities should be well trained and
experienced
Conducting the activities. They should also be aware of the major
parameters and skills (e.g.: behavioral, technical, etc) to focus while interview and
selecting a candidate.
(5) How to evaluate the candidates the various parameters and the ways
to judge them i.e the entire recruitment process should be planned in
advance. Like the rounds of technical interviews, HR interviews, return
tests, psychometric tests, etc.
In short, recruitment is the process of discovering the potential applicants for actual or
anticipated organizational vacancies. Recruitment is a "linking activity" bringing together
those with the jobs and those seeking jobs. Recruitment is a positive process as it increases
the selection ratio by attracting a large number of applicants for the jobs. The function of
recruitment is a twofold:
1. To discover the sources of manpower and
2. To attract an adequate number of prospective employees

Sources of Recruitment:
The sources of recruitment may be grouped in to two:
A) Internal Sources
B) External Sources

A) Internal Sources:
The internal sources include personnel already on the payroll of the organization.
Whenever any vacancy arises, somebody from within the organization may be looked in to.
Various internal sources are:
a) Promotion:

It means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher

responsibilities, facilities, status and .salaries. Various positions of existing employees in the
organization are usually filled on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of these.
b) Transfer:

It refers to a change in job assignment. It may involve a promotion or

demotion or no change in terms of responsibility and status. A transfer may be either

temporary or permanent depending on the necessity of filling the jobs. Promotion involves
an upward mobility while transfer involves a horizontal mobility of employees.
c) Retrenched Employees: If a particular organization retrenches the employees due to layoff, the organization has got the statutory obligation under Industrial Disputes Act 1947 to
take back the retrenched employees for organizational requirements.
d) Dependents of diseased, disabled, retired and present employees: Some organizations
with a view to develop the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his
family' members and to build up an image to provide employment to the dependents of
deceased, disabled and present employees.

B) External Sources:
The external sources include:
i) Campus Recruitment: Companies realize that campus recruitment is one of the best
sources to induct new blood by recruiting the cream of the Educational Institutions.' Many
big organizations maintain close contacts with Educational Institutions for recruitment to
various jobs.
They hold preliminary on campus interviews and select some students for final interview
mostly at their offices.
ii) Advertising: Advertising in newspapers and periodicals is one of the most important
methods of recruitment. The company needing manpower advertises details about the job,
requirements,
salary prerequisites, duties and responsibilities etc. Advertisement gives the management a
wider range of candidates from which to choose. Its disadvantage is that it brings large
number of applications whose screening costs may be quite heavy.
iii) Employment Agencies: There is Government as well as private employment agencies
providing a nation-wide or area-wise service in matching personnel demand and supply. In
some cases, law requires Compulsory Notification of Vacancies to the Employment
Exchange. Employment seekers get themselves registered with these exchanges. These
exchanges bring the job givers in contact with job seekers.
iv) Gate Hiring: In a country like ours, where there are a large number of unemployed
people, it is usual to find job seekers thronging the factory gates. Whenever workers are
required, the people who are available at the gate are recruited in necessary number.

iv) Labor Unions:

In many organizations labor unions are regarded as a source

from which to recruit manpower. This facilitates increasing the sense of co-operation and
in developing better industrial relations. However this source of labor supply is not reliable
since sometimes labor unions support a candidate who is not fit for the job and is not
acceptable to management. This will be a hindrance to the organization.
v) Waiting Lists: Many organizations prepare

waiting

lists of candidates who have

gone through the recruitment process but who have not been employed for the time being.
When the need arises, such candidates may be called for employment,
VI) Labor Contractors: In many Indian industries, workers are recruited through
contractors who are themselves the employees of these organizations.
vii)

Employee Recommendations: In order to encourage the existing employees, some

concerns have made a policy to recruit further


viii) Staff only from the applicants recommended by employees or employ unions. Preference
will be given to friends and relatives of existing employees.
ix) Ex-employees: 'Ex-employee' means a person who has worked in the enterprise and has
left the organization and is now eager to return. Such employees require less initial training.
x) Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from the different
sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes etc and feed them in the
computer. It will become another source and the company gets the particulars as and when it
needs to recruit
xi) Deputation: Many organizations take people on deputation from other organization such
people are given choice either to return to their original organization after a certain time or to
opt for the present organization
xii) Leasing: To adjust short-term fluctuations in personnel needs, the possibilities of leasing
personnel for some specific period may be considered. This system of leasing has been well
adopted by the public sector organizations.

Pre-requisites of a Good Recruitment Policy:


All organizations, big or small recruit people but only some of them have a
consciously worked out recruitment and selection policy. A recruitment policy will avoid
hasty or ill-considered decisions. Hence there is a need of pre-planned recruitment policy.
The principal elements of a sound recruitment policy are as follows:

It should

be

in conformity with its general personnel policies if any or

organizations objectives.

It should be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an organization.

It should be so designed as to ensure employment opportunities for its employees on a


long-term basis so that the goals of the organization should be achievable and it should
develop the potential of its employees.

It should match the qualities of employees with the requirements of the work for
which they are employed.

It should highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis.

It should assure employees of fairness in all employment relationships including


promotions and transfers.
RECRUITMENT PROCESS:

Recruitment planning
Strategy development
Searching
Screening
Evaluation and control
As stated earlier, recruitment is the process of location, identifying, and attracting
capable applications for jobs available in an organization. Accordingly, the recruitment
process comprises the following five steps:

Recruitment planning;

Strategy Development;

Searching;

Screening;

Evaluation and Control.


Recruitment Planning: The first involved in the recruitment process is planning. Hire, planning involves to draft
a comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outline its major and minor
responsibilities; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay;
starting date; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special condition, if
any, attached to the job to be filled.
Strategy Development:Once it is known how many with what qualification of candidates are required, the
next step involved in this regard is to device a suitable strategy for recruitment the
candidates in the organization. The strategic considerations to be considered may
include issues like whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or hire it
from outside, what type of recruitment method to be used, what geographical area be
considered, for searching the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced,
and what sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the
organization.
Searching:This step involves attracting job seeders to the organization. There are broadly two sources
used to attract candidates. These are:

Internal Sources

External Sources.
Screening:Through some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it
as an integral part of recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only
after the application have been screened and short listed. Let it be exemplified with an
example.

In the Universities, application is invited for filling the post of Professors.

Application received in respond to invitation, i.e. advertisement are screened and short
listed on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then, only the screened applicant are
invited for seminar presentation and personal interview. The selection process starts from

here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview. Job specification is invaluable n screening.


Applications are screened against the qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and
experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are straightway
eliminated from the selection process. The techniques used for screening candidates are vary
depending on the source of supply and method used for recruiting. Preliminary applications,
de-selections tests and screening interviews are common techniques used for screening the
candidates.
Evaluation and control:Given the considerable involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is,
therefore, imperative. The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include:

Salary of recruiters;

Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement, etc;

Administrative expenses;

Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled;

Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates.

LITERATURE REVIEW
The present review strives to highlight the trend of current recruitment practice from a
global perspective. So, it is important to ascertain the role cultural differences play in the area
of recruitment, if any. Ma & Allen (2009) did a conceptual research, which explores how
cultural values influence the effectiveness of recruitment practices in different cultural
contexts. In todays business environment one of the popular sources of hiring people is the
word of mouth which significantly affects the behavioral and perceptual outcomes of the
decisions taken to hire right people. This phenomenon was studied by Van Hoye and Lievens
(2009) sample of potential applicants, targeted by the Belgian Defense. They found that
having positive information regarding potential talents through word-of-mouth early in the
recruitment

process

was

significantly

correlated

with

perceptual

(organizational

attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions).


Another study conducted by Russo et al. (2001) attempted to investigate how
employers' recruitment strategies change in response to different conditions on the relevant
regional labor market. Their empirical findings show that the hiring of unemployed
candidates and the use of the public employment service are events more likely to happen in a
slack regional labor market. On the basis
of their results they concluded that the use of advertisements and the hiring of alreadyemployed job seekers are more likely to occur in the presence of excess demand on the
relevant regional labor market.
The influence of personal networks positively influences the wages of referred
individuals (Antoninis, 2006). However, the value of recommendations to the employer
depends on the type of vacancy and the provider of information. It has been shown that new
recruits receive a higher start wage when recommended by a causal agent with direct
experience of their productivity. On the reverse, the use of recommendations from friends and
relatives has no influence on the starting wage and may even be even negatively related to
wages in non-expert jobs (Antoninis, 2006).
According to Edwin B Flippo
Recruitment is nothing but the process of searching the candidates for employment and then
stimulating them for jobs in the organization. It is the activity that links the employees and

the job seekers. It is also defined as the process of finding and attracting capable applicants
for employment. It is the pool of applicants from which the new employees are selected. It
can also be defined as a process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of
the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting the manpower in
adequate numbers in order to facilitate the effective selection of an efficient working force.
A very important study on recruitment sources has been done by Subbarao (2006). He tried to
explain the recruitment sources used by individual job seekers at various levels. Another
study which highlights the importance of different types of approaches used at the time of
recruitment which in turn makes any organization well-established or less established. Sarkar
and Kumar (2007) have tried to identify the reasons for an organization to be either
wellestablished or less-established organization - according to the approach which they adopt
while recruiting their employees. They have importance to a holistic model of recruitment i.e.
emphasizing the importance of the whole process of recruitment and the interdependence of
its parts.
According to David A De Cenzo
The recruitment needs are of three types which are as follow:
(a) First one is Planned Needs: These are the needs that arise from the changes in the
organization and retirement policy creating vacancy for new jobs.
(b).Second one is Anticipated Needs: These are those movements in personal which an
organization can predict by studying trends both in external as well as internal environment.
(c) Last one is Unexpected Needs:
These needs arise due to various reasons like deaths, resignations, accidents, illness,
relocation etc.
Taylor, P. (1998). Seven staff selection myths
This article outlines seven commonly held misconceptions about recruitment And selection
practices. Areas discussed include the validity of various Recruitment and selection measures
(e.g., interviewing, reference checks), the Conditions necessary to maximize the effectiveness
of these practices, and Common mistaken perceptions of the interview process.