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electric & hybrid marine technology international

April 2015

UKIP Media & Events Ltd

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2015-04-07 13:22:37

In this issue...


APRIL 2015

04: 2030 vision

Leading figures from the
marine industry offer their
predictions as to what
the electric and hybrid
propulsion sector might
look like by the year 2030
12: Design liberation
Variable engine speeds
and DC distribution is
offering a new kind of
freedom for system design,
explains Bernd Friedrich,
senior manager at MAN

60: Electric & Hybrid

Marine World Expo
Conference Program


67: Twos company

A pair of dual-fuel hybrid
ferries, planned for service
in Vancouver Bay, will
balance performance
requirements with
environmental concerns

18: Fuel for thought

Hydrogen cells are finding
a range of uses within
the marine sector. And
continuing development of
the technology could yield
more interesting results

70: High-power batteries

Offshore and marine
operators seeking to reduce
emissions while maintaining
performance can benefit
from the implementation of
high-power battery systems


26: Making waves

The effects of the next
wave of tough emissions
legislation will impact
developers working in all
aspects of the industry

72: Drive implementation

The benefits of hybrid and
pure-electric drives depend
greatly upon experienced
installation of the
technologies and systems

32: Dragon boat

A new trimaran megayacht, the Dragonship 80,
showcases the latest in
marine engineering, and
incorporates a range of
advanced technologies

74: Marine inverters

Customers with
specific onboard power
requirements can benefit
from the use of the latest,
highly efficient inverters

38: Planning progress

The US Navys Technology
Development Roadmap
details the progress
made toward the wider
deployment of electric ship
power and propulsion


44: Supplier interview

Lance Deng, vice president
of corporate strategy at
Microvast, explains the
companys decision to
move into the marine sector
48: Electric & Hybrid
Marine World Expo
A definitive look ahead
to the industrys leading
showcase of cuttingedge marine propulsion
technologies and concepts

77: Supplier interview

Development of
electrification could be key
to a host of new industry
developments, explains
Echandia Marine CEO
Joachim Skoogberg
80: Support systems
Hybrid drive systems give
offshore support vessels
the ability to cope with the
most extreme conditions


84: All-electric car ferry

The worlds first batterydriven car ferry has made
use of innovative lithiumpolymer battery technology

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 01

88: Marine power stacks
Advanced power electronics
in marine applications
require the implementation
of power stack systems

The word wizards

Editor: Dean Slavnich
Deputy editor: Matt Ross
Assistant editor: John Thornton
Production editor: Alex Bradley
Chief sub editor:
Andrew Pickering
Deputy production editor:
Nick Shepherd
Senior sub editor:
Christine Velarde
Sub editor: Alasdair Morton


92: Hybridized horizon

Advances in PM technology
are increasing uptake of
electric-hybrid systems

Contributors from
all corners
Richard Kennedy, Stevie Knight,
Wendy Laursen, Philip Morano,
Adam Rahman, Harry Reynolds,
Karl Vadaszffy, Saul Wordsworth

94: TPPL battery systems

Small craft can benefit from
cost-effective, efficient lead
acid TPPL technology


96: Mobile LNG power

Cruise ships can reduce
their dependency on
onshore power through the
use of an LNG hybrid barge
98: High-power hybrids
Modular high-performance
battery systems are ideal
for high-power applications

The ones who

make it look nice
Art director: James Sutcliffe
Art editor: Andrew Locke
Design team: Louise Adams,
Andy Bass, Anna Davie,
Craig Marshall, Nicola Turner,
Julie Welby, Ben White
Production people
Head of production and logistics:
Ian Donovan
Deputy production manager:
Lewis Hopkins
Production team:
Carole Doran, Cassie Inns,
Frank Millard, Robyn Skalsky
Circulation manager:
Adam Frost


100: Energy management

Efficient configuration of
electric or hybrid drive
systems can simplify
component installation
102: E-propulsion systems
Increasingly, electric
propulsion is being
considered as part of shipwide energy management
104: Modern propulsion
The latest control
technology and drive
systems deliver maximum
efficiency and performance
106: PM technology
Permanent magnet motors
and generators can offer
major efficiency gains
110: Data acquisition
Monitoring onboard
systems makes advanced
data acquisition vital
112: Hybrid transmission
Implementing a hybrid
transmission can reduce
system fuel consumption
114: PM propulsion
Combining marine and
automotive technology can
help meet emissions targets
116: Last word
Electric marine propulsion
conversation with Torqeedo
CEO Christoph Ballin


The ones in charge

CEO: Tony Robinson
Managing director:
Graham Johnson
Editorial director:
Anthony James
Commercial colleagues
Publication director:
Mike Robinson
Publication directors:
Michael Blackhurst, Oliver Taylor

A long weekend in Venice got me thinking about the impact that new-generation marine
propulsion technology is having on waterways, canals and coastal regions around the
world. Or not, in Venices case.
Steeped in history with iconic landmarks around every corner, Venices only means of
transport is through its latticework of waterways. And here diesel-engined boats are king,
beaten in numbers only by the man-powered gondolas.
From the airport, one is transferred to the main island in a rickety, chugging 80-seater
sea hopper thats seemingly been designed with passenger comfort last in mind. In
fact, the journey was about as uncomfortable and rudimentary as Venice is relaxed and
beautiful. The water taxis that connect the islands are just as basic, buzzing, smoking
away, getting Venetians and tourists from A to B.
Dont get me wrong, I am a big, big fan of the diesel engine, regardless of industry or
application, but if ever there was a case for eco-friendly, next-generation silent-running
hybrid and electric marine propulsion, Venice is it. Having a macchiato, with the Italian
sun beaming down from on high, would be so much better along a quieter thoroughfare
without the sound of a rumbling diesel motor, or the smell of spent fuel. That day will come
for Venice, for sure. In fact legislation is already making sure such a dream will become a
reality; its just a shame that it didnt happen before my weekend away.
Those in charge of Venices transportation system should definitely take a trip to
Amsterdam a city thats not only embracing new-gen propulsion solutions to clean up
its canals and waterways but also the place where the second Electric & Hybrid Marine
Technology Expo will take place. Across June 24, 25 and 26 at the Amsterdam Rai,
leading developers and innovators will be showcasing new technologies, designs and
concepts that will reshape cities like Venice. I wonder if the coffee will be as good.
Dean Slavnich, editor

02 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

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The views expressed in the

articles and technical papers
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This publication is protected
by copyright 2015. ISSN
2052-5184 Electric & Hybrid
Marine Technology International .
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Future proof
How exactly will marine propulsion technology have changed by 2030?
Some of the worlds leading experts in the engineering field gaze into
the future of the electric and hybrid marine industry

Martial Claudepierre,
consultant, Bureau Veritas
Marine propulsion is seeing a rise in electrical
power, and this will prompt developments
such as common distribution grids that are
able to optimize engine performance even at
low loads. More stringent environmental
regulations and economics will also play a part.
By 2030, we will see a general uptake of
alternatives, with common carbon fuels such
as heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil replaced
by different energy mixes. LNG will become
the most widely used source, while ethane
and LPG stand next in line to become the
next carbon gases to be used; however, these
will be combined with lithium-ion battery
packs and hydrogen fuel cells.
Batteries and fuel cells will also contribute
toward improved safety by providing power
back-up as well as zero-emissions operations
and fast dynamic response. There is another
benefit: this trend in decentralized energy
producers will enable the flexible location
of electrical equipment and a more functional
layout arrangement, allowing for bigger cargo
space and improved overall vessel efficiency.

By 2030 we will
see a general uptake
of alternatives, with
common carbon fuels
replaced by different
energy mixes
04 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Luis Benito, director,

Lloyds Register Marine
Battery packs already exist on smaller
LR-classed vessels, but we are looking at
supporting the technologys move to much
larger ships. At the moment it only makes
commercial sense with more compact
applications with short-range requirements.
However, I believe its a like the gas-as-fuel
story again, with a broader uptake being born
out of a very niche profile.
How broad an uptake? There are issues to
getting a number of parallel energy sources on
board and they arent simply technical. It is
only when the ship owner has a defined profile
that will last the life of the ship that you get a
chance to integrate very different technologies.
For example, the TESO ferry, which is about to
start construction in Spain, mixes LNG, fuel
oil, batteries and even solar power, but the
reason it can be built is that it is specifically
designed for a particular trade and the owner
will know that it will gain enough benefit
from its ability to switch into different modes.
One of the end games of this whole story is
the autonomous ship. Some people think that
its too futuristic, but its not about whether or
when it will be possible, its about the steps
the industry is taking toward it. And that, in
my opinion, is another non-stop trend.


Greg Atkinson, director

and chief technology
officer, Eco Marine Power
During the next 10-15 years, barriers that
currently exist, such as the relatively high
cost of batteries, are likely to disappear and
new energy storage systems fuel cells for
instance will probably also make their way
on board ships, resulting in the dominance of
hybrid and eco-ships.
In addition, improvements to DC power
grids will help make it easier to integrate
renewable energy systems that will gradually
become, in some form or another, a standard
feature for hybrid or eco-vessels. Computer
automation and robotics will also play an
important role in the development of hybrid
ships as they will make it possible to more
intelligently manage on-ship power and fuel
consumption. These automated or robotic
systems will also enable data to be analyzed
without human interaction and be able to
auto-adjust to optimize performance.
It is quite possible that by 2030 some
unmanned hybrid ships will be in service,
although probably relatively small in size and
focused at that stage on very specific niche roles
such as oceanographic work or mine-sweeping.

It is quite possible
that by 2030 some
unmanned hybrid ships
will be in service

By 2030 conditionbased monitoring

will be a no-brainer;
electric propulsion
systems will become
fully automated
Henrique Pestana,
head of ship design, ABB
By 2030, about 15% of the worlds fleet will
have electric propulsion. Most of these new
orders will be equipped with batteries to
provide redundancy and improved fuel
efficiency through peak shaving and vessels
engaged in local traffic will operate fully on
batteries that can be charged at various points
within the operational area. I also think that
by this time we will see a few electric vessels
operating fully on hydrogen fuel cells and
discussions around hydrogen availability,
safety and bunkering will probably resemble
todays discussions about LNG.
By 2030 condition-based monitoring will
be a no-brainer; electric propulsion systems
will become fully automated with monitoring
and troubleshooting delivered remotely by
specialized engineers. This means information
will need to be shared between a number of
assets: there is reason to think that both ship
owners and classification societies could have
online remote access to monitoring systems.
One further scenario springing from this is
that officers on board could see a change
of role, becoming situation managers
supervising these automated systems and
acting only on high-level advice supplied,
not by a human, but by a supercomputer.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 05


There will be some level of

penetration of hydrogen fuel cell
systems for small vessels and for
auxiliary power in larger ships
Jas Singh, CEO and founder, Auriga Energy

Prins Doornekamp, CEO,

Emission regulations will surely speed up
the integration of hybrid technology, so that
by 2030, hybrid marine technology will no
longer be a choice it will be the standard.
Batteries will play an important part in
making the overall system more efficient and
reducing fuel consumption, but I dont think
we will see big changes in the short term as
new technology takes between 20 and 40
years to mature, and in most cases batteries
are mainly being developed for small energy
systems with low charge and discharge rates.
For example, while a big automobile battery
is 85kWh, a very small hybrid marine battery
is 150kWh, an average installation is 1.5MWh
and a big system is 7MWh to 10MWh. Also,
cell phones, laptops and car batteries are at
the end of their life after approximately 500
cycles, but for marine installations 5,000 to
10,000 cycles are required.
And when it comes to safety, it has to be
underlined that reliability and cycle count are
much more important than taking off the last
ounce of weight.

Future solutions
will be based on
optimal fuel burning
diesel engines with
scrubbers, fueled
with HFO or LNG

By 2030, we are likely to see the widespread use of hybrid propulsion

systems to help reduce pollution and costs, compensating for future rises
in fuel price. There will be some level of penetration of hydrogen fuel cell
systems for small vessels and for auxiliary power in larger ships; there
may even be an opportunity for burning hydrogen in existing engines or
turbines. If the anticipated breakthrough in the development of porous
storage materials (for example, metal hydrides) produces a cheap way of
storing large quantities of hydrogen in a small volume, then the balance
will shift toward hydrogen-powered propulsion in marine vessels by 2030.
Development will be supported by high-efficiency components such as
DC/DC converters and continued improvements in battery technology,
but one essential point for shipborne electrical power systems in the next
decade will be the need to shield out both salt water and salt in the air.
That said, the most important point will be the gathering of energy from
the elements and recovery from waste and emissions. This should lead
toward an integrated energy harvesting, storage and utilization system.

Mischa Kyanin, senior support manager,

Imtech Marine
Long-term requirements on marine propulsion systems will be twofold
on one hand commercial, driven by cost price, increase of reliability
and flexibility, while the other main requirement will be the green aspect
driven by stringent regulation on emissions. To achieve both requirements,
and taking into consideration available fuel oil qualities, future solutions
will be based on optimal fuel burning diesel engines with scrubbers,
fueled with HFO or LNG, where all dynamic behavior will be provided
with electric propulsion systems. As the complexity of a ships propulsion
system will increase, smart energy management systems will enable the
operator to sail the ship in the most optimal way.

06 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International












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Manufacturing capacity


Brent Perry, CEO,

C Rate Solutions
I see top battery companies developing key
partnerships with integrators to service
customers with turnkey solutions: complete
monitoring and support systems will deliver
low-risk, high-performance systems.
Importantly, the information gained by these
relationships will be the fuel that powers the
next generation of battery technology.
So, purpose-designed products will increase
efficiency: even now, it seems that the next
generation of marine batteries will be able to
support continuous operation of between four
and 10 times the rated power with lifespans
up to a decade which is at least a fourfold
improvement on the best available today.
Energy storage will drive a fundamental
change in business strategy and contract
execution. No longer will we focus on
short-term paybacks and risk management
we will be driven by integrated solutions
where long-term operational savings and fuel
reduction are key elements. Environmental
savings in ports and offshore applications will
also become key factors for marine operators
ability to win work. Companies that invest in
this infrastructure will be rewarded by both
lower-cost vessels and improved operational
bottom lines.

Energy storage will

drive a fundamental
change in business
strategy and contract
execution. No longer
will we focus on
short-term paybacks
and risk management

We will see another

rise in interest from
those who need to
make further fuel and
environmental savings
while we await
the arrival of viable
fuel cell technology
David Oakey, propulsion
and hybrid consultant
Currently there is a split in the market
between the bigger and smaller vessels. On
the larger end, hybrid technology is of great
use in commercial applications including tugs.
Its nothing to do with being quiet or even
particularly environmentally friendly, but it
gives flexibility of power and a huge amount
of instantaneous grunt in the water. However,
on smaller, sub-24m vessels its been mainly of
interest for unmanned drones such as the
Roboat, which is able to take shallow water
bathymetric surveys automatically. I see this
continuing in the future as drones can get into
places that you dont want to send people.
But the problem so far has been the cost of
batteries; this is its Achilles heel. Although
there is a lot of research into new batteries
and hopefully the cost problem will have
been solved by 2030 at present these battery
packs are still far too expensive for general
take-up in the sub-24m class vessels.
However, while fluctuating diesel prices also
dont help the hybrid market this wont last
forever, and soon we will see another rise in
interest from those who need to make further
fuel and environmental savings while we await
the arrival of viable fuel cell technology.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 09


Graeme Hawksley, founder, Hybrid Marine

A big part of the appeal of a hybrid propulsion system is its ability to
provide a good deal of electrical power in a very compact space. In many
applications this can be the driving consideration, with fuel savings being
a secondary advantage. However, while the marine hybrid industry has
been through a similar (albeit lesser) cycle to the one that characterized
the flurry of investment and subsequent crash of the revolution,
it has endured to become an integral part of all our lives and I believe that
the marine hybrid industry is likewise now on a realistic growth curve.
It should be noted that in the automotive world, it was the larger
companies such as Toyota who drove the introduction of hybrids for the
mass market, and billions of dollars were invested before profits were made.
The leisure marine world is a lot smaller, so investment in new technologies
is much more modest, but when the larger marine engine manufacturers
become interested and start to push, I think everything will shift up a gear.

By 2030 we see the

potential of hydrogen
as a fuel for powering
electric and hybrid
propulsion systems
on our small ferries
James Anderson,
senior technical manager,
Caledonian Maritime Assets

Clive Coker, CEO, CQ Consulting

The environmental agenda is growing, and over the next 15 years, I see
increased pressure to use low pollution fuels or forms of energy when
maneuvering in and on the final approach and departure from some
ports. Pressure to bring in these restrictions may well come from those
pollution-sensitive communities such as California, Hamburg, Rotterdam
as well as others who are just beginning on this path.
The response may be to put low pollution systems with limited range
on board, possibly by using biofuels or electricity from battery banks
charged while ships are outside the pollution restricted areas. It follows
that ships not complying with the restrictions could then be charged at
a higher rate to use the port facilities. So, both carrot and stick will
push and pull development.

I see increased pressure to use low

pollution fuels or forms of energy when
when maneuvering in and on the final
approach and departure from some ports
10 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

By 2030 we see the potential of hydrogen

as a fuel for powering electric and hybrid
propulsion systems on our small ferries. At
CMAL, we are looking at a concept design for
an electric and hybrid propulsion system on
our smaller ferries powered by hydrogen fuel
cells and large lithium-ion battery banks.
Many coastal environments in Scotland
have immense potential to produce very
substantial quantities of energy that can be
used to produce low cost green hydrogen. The
Western and Northern Isles of Scotland have
significant problems with excess generation
capacity. Conversion of instantaneous excess
electricity to hydrogen allows for timeshifting of the availability of energy to its
supply when there is demand for it.
The wider objective is to both develop and
commission an entirely emissions-free vessel
type that can take advantage of constrained
energy sources around our coast for its fuel
production and for export potential to areas
with similar potential. Coastal environments
have immense potential to produce very
substantial quantities of energy that can be
used to produce low cost green hydrogen.

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2004-001_15_Adaption_COS_Electric+Hybrid_215x275.indd 1

27.02.15 14:09


DC renaissance

Are the issues that have held back the uptake of onboard DC systems paired
with variable engine speeds finally a thing of the past? Bernd Friedrich, senior
powertrain manager at MAN Diesel & Turbo, discusses the propulsion future

12 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


Recent developments in
DC technology as well as
distributions and energy
management allow diesel
engines to operate at
variable speed, which
means the engine speed
can be adjusted for
the minimum fuel oil
consumption according
to the current system load

ccording to Bernd Friedrich, senior manager

of MAN Diesel & Turbos powertrains and engine
auxiliaries medium speed business unit, following
an era of AC, DC systems are undergoing a renaissance.
He speaks of it as a liberating experience: While
onboard diesel-electric systems have until now been
constrained by the need to run the diesel engine at a
constant speed, the new DC distribution approach MAN
has developed with its partners can run at anything
between 60% and 100% speeds, freeing us to use much
more of the engines map.
In fact these fuel oil maps become unexpectedly individual
when the dimension of speed is considered reminiscent
more so of a craggy mountain range than a sinuous curve
and a far cry from the lie that suggested gensets set at
720rpm, for example, were simply running at optimum.
Because of this, Friedrich says taking advantage of the
extra degree of freedom relies on clever power handling:
We have created some in-house software, actually a
mathematical algorithm based on specific engine data,
that returns the best speed for each individual genset.
Variable speeds and DC distribution also result in a
less centralized system and fewer components than a

similar solution. In fact, he says it typically amounts to

a 25% reduction in space and weight. This, the senior
manager points out, translates into payload another
argument to balance the cost burden.

Taking a load off

One of the most important elements of MANs Eprox
system, an innovative approach to a fuel saving electric
propulsion system, is energy storage. Batteries or even
supercapacitors if the uptake and discharge is quick
enough can give us the ability to take the strain from
the engines, giving them time to ramp up. Of course,
the engines end up taking the load anyway, but how you
present it has a huge impact on maintenance and life.
Engines dont like to be stressed.
He goes on to say that this DC and integrated energy
storage approach can take the load off in more ways than
one: When we want extra from the engine we tend to
rely on things like jet-assist injecting pressurized air at
30 bar toward the turbocharger. But compressed air is
always expensive on board. You need compressors and
bigger air receivers, and if you support the extra load for
too long it can be costly for the engine and turbocharger.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 13


Although theres a lot to gain, these changes inevitably
have repercussions for the other components: Weve had
to enhance the genset design, admits Friedrich. Its
taken a lot of fairly detailed R&D.
The alternator, for example, is mounted on to the base
frame and we had to investigate the potential for resonance
at certain rpm. In fact we found that the standard coupling
could develop problems as it needed more elasticity than
the usual single rubber ring. Generally now we can say in
principle that it works, but since the different rotor designs
have varying inertias, we have to dig deeply, do individual
calculations and make order-related adaptations.

Overcoming familiarity

The new DC
distribution approach
MAN has developed
with its partners
can run at anything
between 60% and
100% speeds, freeing
us to use much more
of the engines map
Bernd Friedrich, senior manager, powertrains and engine
auxiliaries medium speed business unit, MAN Diesel & Turbo
MAN Diesel & Turbo
provides all kinds of
CoDLaD / CoDLoD system
packages, including PTO/
PTI/PTH features and
electric cross connections

Given all these positives, what exactly is holding back the

uptake of onboard DC paired with variable engine speeds?
One issue is simple familiarity. DC systems were common
in the 1970s for ice-going vessels because DC is capable of
delivering very high torque, says Friedrich, but then AC
infiltrated everything to become the default choice.
So its not exactly revolutionary. But still, an ordinary
electrician is not used to it. There arent any comparable
industrial applications, and of course on board the power
range is high, so you have to do special cabling and some
applications have bus duct systems instead, so that is yet
another reason people dont really like it. DC is not rocket
science, but it is not well known or well understood yet.
Friedrich is certain that, as so many useful possibilities
come with a power strategy such as the Eprox system, it
will, in time, grab a larger share of the market. So while
it is at present a pilot project, MAN has readied the design
for the eventual uptick in interest.
However, one of the biggest challenges to its viability
has been outside MANs remit: the circuit breakers. The
problem is that while a short circuit in an AC system will
cause it to shut off when its sine-wave pattern passes
through the zero point, DC doesnt, and just carries on
burning. Quite reasonably, people have been worried about
this dramatic arcing characteristic, but now the problem
has been solved by new semiconductor circuit breakers.
I would not be afraid of DC any longer, Friedrich adds.

DC systems were
common in the 1970s
for ice-going vessels
because DC is capable
of delivering very
high torque, but
then AC infiltrated
everything to become
the default choice
Bernd Friedrich, senior manager, powertrains and engine
auxiliaries medium speed business unit, MAN Diesel & Turbo

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 15


When powered solely

by electricity from
storage sources, the
Eprox system produces
zero emissions

The big challenge is the software.

You need a brain something needs to be
able to think about the complete system
Bernd Friedrich, senior manager, powertrains and engine auxiliaries medium speed business unit, MAN Diesel & Turbo

Waiting game
Despite this, there is a limitation due to the difficulty in
getting effective circuit breakers for very high voltages,
so DC current is limited to an upper range of 1,000V at
present. Friedrich continues, At the moment, while its
usable for, say, PSVs and smaller ferries or tugs, it is not
mature technology for, say, dual-fuel LNG carriers or
cruise vessels that need 45MW or more of power. But,
we know from our electrical partners that there are new
systems being worked on that will put DC in the cruise
liner power range. We already have the engines. Our
32-bore engine sits right on the 20MW technology path,
so its just a question of waiting for our colleagues at ABB,
Siemens and others to develop things a little further.
But this is already on the drawing table it seems, so what
is the next big development hurdle for these systems? For
me, says Friedrich, the big challenge is the software. You
need a brain something needs to be able to think about
the complete system. At the moment you have a power
management system that listens to the consumers and
switches certain power sources off or on, and there is also
the propulsion control that deals with gears, pitch and so on.
So we are missing something if each part only
delivers its own bit in isolation. To achieve overall
efficiency, an integrated approach is required. We
somehow need to bring all the separate bricks together
to build a complete energy management system.

16 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Making the most of it

Flexibility in an engines running speed can

yield huge benefits. But taking advantage of
all this is a complex business and, as Carsten
Stuermer, head of powertrain integration for
MAN Diesel & Turbos medium speed unit,
explains, it has an impact on fuel delivery:
Weve had to look at the parameters for
both the injection timing and the pressure,
he says. Variable speeds fit in well with
MANs electronic, common rail system as it
is capable of being tailored to each point on
the load map with variable start points and
duration for the injection cycle.
However, there is potential for even
greater efficiency. Engines of various sizes
can be tied together in the same plant,
allowing the use of specialized gensets
for low loads and for high load operations,
Stuermer says. This configuration can
be pretty efficient compared with an
arrangement with equal engines.
Further, it also means theres no need to
wait for the generators to synchronize. This
removes the usual delay in switching them
on, as the engines output can be linked
directly into the DC busbar.
However, Stuermer adds that the energy
storage solution element may not always
just come down to batteries: For very
short peak-load operations, you can also
look to supercapacitors. If you know how
much power is likely to be demanded and
how long for, then you can calculate what
capacity energy storage you need. This is
very important in making a complete offer,
a solution with individual parts that arent
over-dimensioned but also one that still has
enough spinning reserve.

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required to drive AC accessory loads directly from the High Voltage DC Drive or Battery
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and power range up to 6000W. The DC/AC inverter utilizes CAN communication to the
vehicle controller which allows selection of operational modes and frequency selection.
The DC/AC inverter is built in a sealed IP67 aluminium enclosure, ready to be mounted
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Further development of hydrogen fuel cells for use in marine

applications could result in power solutions with an array of benefits

18 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


ydrogen fuel cells are the subject of much industry

interest, and while the initial breakthrough of the
technology has been heralded by much fanfare, its
the continuing development of this power source that has
the potential to yield the most exciting results.
Following closely behind the development of the
better-known low-temperature proton exchange
membrane (PEM) cells are other fuel cell advances
which may catch up or even overtake PEM technology
with characteristics that suit a variety of applications.
The landscape is complex: both Didier Bouix,
innovation engineer for CEA and Joe Pratt, researcher for
the US Sandia National Laboratories, agree that what is
needed is more than a one-size-fits-all solution. Whats
more, the choices inevitably require a consideration of the
technology in a wider sense. The point is not to replace
one kind of power with another, says Bouix, but to
facilitate a mix so that you have a breadth of systems to
choose from, depending on what you need.
Because, while fuel cells have varying characteristics,
one thing the high-temperature versions usually dont offer
is a sharp energy release generally slower to respond,

HTPEM cells are starting

small, but continuing
development means there
are bigger unit sizes on the
way. Photo: Serenergy

theyre a natural fit for a hybrid system. A regular route

where you know the size and duration of power demand
means you can carve out whats needed from a fuel cell
stack and another kind of energy whether thats a battery
pack or even an LNG engine, says Pratt.
If you can configure the fuel cell close to the average
power draw using batteries for low- or peak-load periods
(such as initial or high-power bursts of activity) and using
the cells to recharge the batteries, you have a possible
win-win, Bouix explains. Used in this way, the fuel cells
tend to have a longer life and the batteries are recharged
with excess energy after the cells have ramped up.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 19


A sense of scale
Fuel cells do have scalability on their side: some
manufacturers are working on fairly small cells that can
be linked together, but there is no reason that you cant
work with 5kW cells that could be run into really very
large systems, says Mads Friis Jensen, commercial
manager of Serenergy.
Pratt agrees, and explains that, at present, the market
is looking more at onboard power for bigger vessels
but taking things slowly is the way to break into a
conservative industry, and prove that it works before
larger-scale implementation.
Jensen adds, Although fuel cells can be scaled up from
providing onboard power without too much difficulty, to
running the drive on smaller vessels such as ferries, if you
are looking at really big cruise ships, for example, its not
really suitable main propulsion. However, it could easily
provide auxiliary power and a limp home capability
something that could have proved useful during a recent
Carnival cruise line incident, where a power failure
aboard the Carnival Triumph caused passengers to be
without even adequate sanitary facilities for days.
Furthermore, some fuel cells allow the mixing and
matching of base fuels after all, a number processes
allow hydrogen to be reformed from a remarkably wide
range of sources, including biofuels.
Take, for example, the high-temperature and very
innovative molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack on
board the Viking Lady. A jump into the unknown, this
stack broke with tradition by sidestepping the more
common low-temperature versions, bypassing a number
of developmental streams to adapt a technology more
usually associated with land-based applications.
MCFCs run hot, often around 600C, and bring with
them a number of benefits, including the ability to handle
the dirty hydrogen that comes with reforming another
gas or liquid in Viking Ladys case, LNG on board.
This avoids the issue that dogs the lower-temperature
PEM cells, which are poisoned by the merest whiff of
carbon monoxide. Its a sensitivity thats meant that PEM
installations often need bulky hydrogen tanks to
guarantee fuel purity, explains Sandias Pratt, adding, On
board, the space needed for tanks of hydrogen fuel has
been holding back the uptake. If you can use the existing
fuel you dont have to worry about that.

The point is not to replace one kind of

power with another, but to facilitate a
mix, so you have a breadth of systems to
choose from depending on what you need
Didier Bouix, innovation engineer, CEA

20 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

The U212A, a fuel cell

powered submarine
developed by Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft, is
almost totally silent and
radiates virtually no heat

Cell concerns
For researcher Eirik Ovrum of DNV Research and
Innovation, there are other issues surrounding lowtemperature PEMs despite their benefiting from the
largest slice of development so far. Going from electricity
to hydrogen and back to electricity can be horribly
wasteful. If the electricity comes from a thermal power
station, its not just environmentally unfriendly, but its
also not very efficient. You can lose half of the energy from
burning coal, and 30-50% from making hydrogen from
electricity. Then, of course, theres a further 30% loss from
the hydrogen fuel cell, so your efficiency comes down to
between 18% and 25% in the end.
Reforming a fuel already on board, Ovrum believes,
such as Viking Ladys use of LNG, which is already
powering the main engines, is a solution which holds
much greater promise.
Furthermore, an MCFC or solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
stack uses its own heat to run the necessary reforming
process, whereas lower temperature systems using
reformed fuel are forced to obtain the energy required
from elsewhere.
There are also difficulties with the technology the
heat causes its own problems. An MCFC fuel stack like
Viking Ladys, Ovrum says, is made up of around 500
paper-thin cells 1m 2 wide, which means its a bit like
having 500 wafer-thin batteries in series. These physical
characteristics mean the stack doesnt take well to sharp
changes in load, either up or down: Although you can
operate at low load conditions, and this might even be
good for the fuel cells, you cant change over between
modes quickly, as the cells physical structure will be
damaged by the thermal shock, Ovrum explains.
SOFC cells have the same issue they operate that
much hotter again, often at over 1,000C, and although
(as the name suggests) they are solid, the cells can still be
vulnerable to this kind of temperature change.

- D

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Aiming high
Serenergys Jensen has another point of view. Despite its
relative lack of maturity, high-temperature PEM (HTPEM),
he believes, is the most practical solution. These cells
inherit the load variation resilience of their cooler PEM
cousins, while possessing some of the fuel versatility of
the much higher temperature systems, as they can handle
the dirty hydrogen resulting from reformation processes.
Serenergy has pointed its efforts to methanol as a source
fuel. It can be reformed in a simple, single process on
board into hydrogen and, as it happens, is the most traded
chemical commodity.
What is also interesting is that you can produce it a
number of ways. You can use natural gas, and even diesel,
but it can also be produced by many other novel methods
and there are a number of green methods out there,
including biogas, Jensen explains. LNG has been
thought of as the clean fuel of the future, but I think
methanol has a role. Logistically, methanol is easier to
transport and to bunker. Jensen adds that investigations
by shipping companies, based on the belief that LNG was
going to have the lowest cost per energy unit, have had to
factor in the infrastructure and installation costs and, as
Jensen concludes, leaves LNG and methanol looking
fairly similar on price.
However, the whole methanol system developed by
Serenergy leads to greater use of the energy. In fact you
can have quadruple use of the fuel, Jensen says. First,
you can put the thermal excess into an absorption chiller.
You can also use the captured heat in a desalination plant,
and the last step to make use of the waste is the normal
comfort heating on board. Plus, if you bring in some of
the heat to run the reformer, you can save 10% on the
energy there too.
But possibly the biggest selling point for HTPEM cells
is that methanol may also be already in use a number
of companies already use methanol for running gensets
making it a relatively simple proposition to implement
parallel use in a fuel cell. Right now, the diesel
combustion engine is very advanced. Its simple to
combine with a system that converts methanol to
di-methyl ether (DME), and for most combustion engines
that can be done with no problem at all. Jensen points
out that Scanlines has already started trials on the
auxiliary engines of the Stena Scanrail, and may well
eventually convert about 25 ferries to run on methanol.

Although fuel cells can be scaled up from

providing onboard power without too
much difficulty, to running the drive on
smaller vessels like ferries, if you are looking
at really big cruise ships, for example,
its not really suitable main propulsion

22 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Mads Friis Jensen, commercial manager, Serenergy

Maximizing efficiency

The fuel cell system

aboard the Viking Lady
reforms fuel on board
LNG in this instance

But why, if theres a green source of LNG or methanol

already being used, would there be a need to bother with
a fuel cell? There are still efficiency benefits from using
natural gas in a fuel cell over burning it in a combustion
engine, as there arent as many losses involved, Pratt
points out. How great those benefits are depends on the
way you do it, but Pratt believes an estimate could rate the
efficiency of a fully mature system at 1.5 to two times that
of a combustion engine. You dont have as many emissions
either what people forget is that you still have a few with
LNG. Although its a little harder for a fuel cell to compete
with natural gas than with diesel, because the emissions
difference is not so dramatic, you do have some gains on
both sides.
However, Ovrum explains, the main issue is that all
fuel cells are expensive and will have to be mass produced
for the price to drop. They also have lifespan concerns
that, at present, influence the economics factoring in
cell replacement. The life issue is something developers
are working on, says Ovrum. And there are mitigation
technologies. For example, Viking Ladys stack was
protected from electric disturbances, ship movements,
hull vibrations and air salinity. Investigation after a year
showed no signs of degradation.
Its a complicated calculation and one that doesnt
depend entirely on economics. Ovrum continues, It will
take time before fuel cells can become a realistic onboard
alternative, mostly because of price, but also because of
limited product development. However, he believes that
with greater thermal integration enabling the use of
exhaust heat, the arguments for fuel cells get stronger.
Its also worth noting that the US government is on side
with fuel cell projects and willing to help give them the
first kick over the fence when it comes to development,
says Pratt. The US government is also interested in the
bunkering infrastructure potential. All of which will help
give fuel cell projects themselves some propulsive speed.

- D

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Gen-set Sonics sound/vibration reduction technology (suitable for generators)
Emission-reduction systems Heat-recovery systems Electric/hybrid control systems

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nd hybrid marine propulsion technologies, components and solutions!

Electric pod/bow/side thrusters Electric/hybrid propulsion technology and systems

Electric/hybrid crane, winch, cargo door systems Hybrid electric drive systems System
integration Shore-ship power/grid-tied converters Fuel-cell technology LNG/hybrid
propulsion Power distribution Shaft generator Emission standards Exhaust aftertreatment technology Busbar technology



The next wave of emissions

legislation might be the
toughest yet, and its having
a direct impact on the design of
new propulsion systems as well
as every part of the marine world

Inset top: The Corvus

Energy 2.7MWh battery
bank on board the
Prinsesse Benedikte
Inset left: The Prinsesse
Benedikte in dry dock for
its propulsion conversion
Main: Scandlines
Prinsesse Benedikte
utilizes a hybrid system
when in harbor, resulting
in huge energy savings.
Photo: Scandlines

26 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


ts now less than a year until the

Emission Control Areas (ECAs) drop the
axe on fuel with over 0.1% sulfur
content. The feeling within the maritime
world is that the industry is being hit by
one crosscurrent after another. On the one
hand, there are the issues posed by
increasingly demanding environments and
application areas; on the other there are
the turbulent waters stirred up by tough
regulatory and political agendas.
The past 24 months has seen the start of
the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
and the Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan (SEEMP), both aimed at
reducing greenhouse gas potential. And
coming up next is the Tier III NOx control
regulations that deal with rated engine
emissions and the monitoring, reporting
and verification (MRV) of emissions from
ships entering EC ports.
Yet despite such clear and challenging
targets, the entire thing is looking more like
a game of snakes and ladders every day. A
number of items might be put back, such as

the Tier III rules and the global sulfur cap,

but the issue here is that even some
breathing space for marine operators could,
as CIMAC (The International Council on
Combustion Engines) puts it, lead to
stranded investments, jeopardize jobs in the
shipbuilding industry, and weaken the
reputation of the IMO.
And then there are other items that are
also unexpectedly showing up on the
legislative radar. Patrick Baan, director of
Wrtsils research and development
electrical and automation business, explains
that just in the past year, the IMO decided to
expand the remit of the EEDI to include
vessels with non-conventional propulsion,
meaning that all types of novel technologies,
including fuel cell and battery solutions, will
soon be under scrutiny.
As such, the overriding feeling by most in
the industry is that legislation is presenting
some serious technical challenges; as ships
shave more off their performance to achieve
the required efficiencies, it can leave less of
a safety margin to deal with the unexpected.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 27


Hybrids to the rescue

This is where hybrid configurations can show their
strength. After all, not only is there a number of wellestablished hybrid vessels already operating in demanding
environments, but hybrid technologies also potentially
hold the key to answering apparently contradictory issues,
binding together diverse inputs into a scheme that could
answer the twin calls for innovation and reliability.
Take for example the difficulty in getting LNG gensets
to respond to big load changes. Wrtsil has improved
the loading capability of dual-fuel engines considerably,
but still if you ask too much from them they basically
switch to diesel mode, admits Baan, adding that despite
extra heat and smoke, diesel engines have better loadtaking capabilities. According to the Wrtsil director,
the answer is to have peak loads taken up by batteries,
thereby smoothing out the changes.
Whats more, the ability of hybrid technologies to
embrace very divergent needs has an impact on vessels
working in sensitive environments one of the most
difficult being the Arctic oil and gas exploration projects,
which combine the push into more extreme locations
along with a developing regulatory regime. In fact many
have noted that the oil companies aiming to work in this
arena are interested in keeping their image whiter than
the surrounding snow.
Therefore Baan says that there is already an interest
being shown in ultra-clean drillships and support vessels
with the dream pairing of LNG engines and batteries.
Of course the oil majors are very concerned. They want

to go into the Arctic in the cleanest possible way, which

will be with gas engines plus batteries, the greenest and
safest technology we have at present. However, he admits
there are still certain technical and engineering issues to
be overcome, not least that the scale and weight of the
requisite bank to fit on board one of these huge drillships
could be problematic.

Long time coming

While some in the industry argue that tough
environmental legislation is piling on the pressure,
resulting in too much change too soon, not all agree.
Martial Claudepierre, environmental services business
development manager for Bureau Veritas (BV), argues
that this pressure in itself is no bad thing, and change
has been a long time coming: Shipping is still largely in
the stone age. Compared with other sectors, it hasnt
really progressed very far in the last 50 or 60 years.
He says that the pace of change is pushing the market to
consider technology from other industries: There is a lot of
catching up to do but there is also a lot of potential. Baan
partly agrees, adding that the shipping world has been the
beneficiary of wind farm and automotive developments that
have accelerated battery technology, and says, Since
batteries have now higher power densities and lower costs,
they are becoming more attractive for shipping as well.
Even now, batteries are an option, depending on the
balance between application and legislation-dense
territory. Take the 2.7MWh energy bank by Corvus
Energy retrofitted on Scandlines Prinsesse Benedikte,

28 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

The Viking Lady,

owned by Eidesvik
Offshore, features a
hybrid installation that
has been the starting
point for the new DNV
class rules for
battery-powered ships.
Photo: Wrtsil

a 16,000-ton ferry operating out of Denmark. Brent Perry,
at the time of writng this article, the then CEO of Corvus,
said that the vessel has six very large gensets but, to ensure
compliance with safety parameters, four of them had to be
kept churning all the time while the vessel was in the harbor.
Perry, now head of PlanB, a corporate consulting and
investment company focussed on developing turnkey
energy solutions, explained that cutting back to just one
engine running alongside the batteries for harbor waters
has meant a huge reduction in fuel: The operators will
save well over 1,000 tons of fuel this year alone, he predicts.
And the payback time on the investment is estimated at
around only four years.

Freed from fixed speeds

As well as reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and
meeting tough legislation, there are other advantages to the
implementation of hybrid technology. Ismir Fazlagic, global
product and solutions manager for ABB Marine, explains
that if you can remove the need to run at a fixed rpm, there
are gains from being able to adjust the engine depending
on load. Matthias Schulze, director at Siemens Marine and
Shipbuilding agrees: Running an engine at a fixed speed
is not necessarily the most economical thing to do.
Therefore Siemens and ABB have put together a DC grid
to distribute the energy on board, with two important
elements being familiarity and footprint. The DC bus bar
and relevant converter technology is all very compactly
integrated into one module, Schulze says. Cables
throughout the ship are the same as before so theres
nothing fancy and its still easy to handle by the crew.

Shipping is still largely in the stone age.

Compared with other sectors, it hasnt
really progressed very far in the last 50
or 60 years
Martial Claudepierre, environmental services business development manager, Bureau Veritas

1. Wiring up electrical
distribution on a hybrid
vessel. Photo: Corvus
2. Removing a genset
from the Prinsesse
Benedikte. Photo: Corvus
3. Battery cost is no
longer as prohibitive as
it used to be. Photo: PGE
4. Platform supply vessels
are packed with demanding
technology. A DC system
can be used to relieve the
overall electrical footprint
5. Ferries can make
particular use of battery
power for acceleration
and schedule catch-up

As such, its a neat tie-in with hybrid solutions, but

Schulze adds that a competent electrical systems
integrator needs to address the high currents occurring
in conjunction with DC and battery packages, plus a safe
and quickly reacting selectivity and protection concept
with corresponding power management, protection
devices and fast breakers. ABBs Fazlagic adds that issues
around the high current can be addressed by an island
principle, and though certain items use different types
of current, all in all theres a net gain to be had.
The first ABB DC application on the Dina Star, despite
not having a battery, had other advantages beyond fuel
efficiency, as Fazlagic explains: A platform supply vessel
like the Dina Star is often jam packed with technology
and the DC system frees up space, reduces weight and
allows much more flexibility in laying out components.
In fact, the weight loss in the circuitry can be dramatic,
dropping by almost a quarter.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 29

Redundancy redesigned

Picture: Kotugs RT Adriaan hybrid tug

A visible pull

Environmental awareness is also exerting its

own pressure on the industry. Claudepierre
at BV explains that the big pull toward hybrid
technology has been affecting tugs, to the point
where things are now partly driven by how
visible a black plume is from the shore.
Tug design is also being pulled forward by
owners asking for more flexibility, combining port
duties with deepwater operations. So even if the
smoke is eliminated, quite large tugs spend a lot
of time at relatively low rpm while still needing
the option of a very immediate, high bollard pull,
explains Claudepierre. As a result, a common
curse has been poor fuel consumption and
excessive emissions. Among the first to address
all this was Kotugs RT Adriaan, which started
operations in 2011 using electric power for
standby and during the 4.5kt run between jobs.
More recently the Green Tug project from OSD
has been looking at hybrid designs for harbor
tugs, however, Marc van der Zwaluw adds that
there are a couple of stumbling blocks in this area:
For tugs that only cost in total 4m to 5m, the
batteries are a large proportion of the investment
unlike, say, an offshore supply ship, which can
be four times the price. So, a 1m bank for a tug
can be around 20% of the overall cost and there
are still some lifetime issues to be resolved.
Despite this, Claudepierre says that hybrid
solutions are rapidly staking a claim in what has
traditionally been thought of as a conservative
market, and account for around half of the new
projects that he is seeing. For example, Svitzer
Australia is adding hybrids to its fleet this year:
each of the four 80-ton bollard pull vessels
will be fitted with three in-line, MGO fueled
Wrtsil 20 gensets with a battery bank, a new
development in a sector that has been dominated
by sheer grunt power for its entire history.

30 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

The big hybrid technology news is yet to come, centering

on industry moves that will help hybrid and battery
systems make a big splash in the lucrative oil and gas
markets. Although the spinning reserve mandatory under
DP2 and DP3 rules has until now only been answerable
by engine power, it seems the classification societies and
developers are at present involved in proving that battery
packs could take on this traditional role, with the
innovative Viking Lady commencing trials with batteries
from Corvus to demonstrate the technology.
Wrtsil too has been investigating the kinds of loads
usually associated with DP systems and according to Baan
is now directly involved in progressing the use of batteries
for offshore support and anchor handling vessels.
However, Baan explains that instead of using variable
speed gensets and DC distribution to help with low loads,
Wrtsils target is to use batteries whenever possible,
reserving the engines for use near their optimum load.
While it may mean a slightly bigger battery bank, it
results in fewer running hours for the engines, which also
helps with the maintenance.

The EEDI factor

Another important consideration for many new-builds is
the introduction of the EEDI, which quantifies the amount
of CO2 that a ship emits in relation to the goods being
transported. The attained EEDI is calculated based on
guidelines published by the IMO and it must be below
the MARPOL-prescribed level.
Claudepierre points out that a battery can be quite a
useful EEDI solution: If its carved out to respond to one
particular design point lets say, maneuvering in difficult
weather the battery is excluded from the EEDI equation,
he outlines. It also means you are not sizing your engine
for the extra power you will only need occasionally. As
such, it seems that ferries will be able to take advantage of
batteries for the same reasons. Short range ferries will be
able to use batteries to assist in acceleration and the
perennial schedule catch-up. For them, the additional
power results in a slight benefit, as smaller engines and
less installed power helps their overall EEDI attribution.
But propulsion is not the only area that could benefit
from hybrid solutions theres also the draw of hotel loads
and onboard equipment. For example, Japans Mitsui OSK
Lines car carrier, the Emerald Ace, delivered in 2012,
retains its conventional two-stroke propulsion but solar
panels take over electrical generation en route, tapping
into stored battery energy while at berth.
Grieg Star and DNV recently collaborated to simulate
crane operations on one of Grieg Stars open hatch vessels.
DNVs COSSMOS simulation tool was used to model and
compare the use of onboard diesel-electric gensets to
power four cranes, and the use of battery hybrid sets. The
results were startling, as the hybrid ship used around 30%
less fuel, made annual savings of US$110,000 and the
equipment had a payback time of less than a year.

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Enter the
Building a trimaran mega-yacht
calls for the latest advances in
maritime engineering. And the
development of the Dragonship
has also made use of some
fascinating new technologies

32 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


he Dragonship 80 might look like a

futuristic dream, but it has very
solid research underpinning each
element of its design. And the vessel has not
only benefited from cutting-edge technology,
its also taking it forward.
Will OHara, CEO of Pi Yachts, explains
that the idea sprang from the racing trimarans
that take on arduous circumnavigation routes.
We had the idea that the principles of the
trimaran must work well for a luxury yacht.
However, OHara continues, studying the
yacht market led his team to realize that a
mega-yacht had to be built to a certain scale.
We decided that an 80m vessel was the best
size this also being one which we could
comfortably produce. And at this size, the
yacht should be capable of speeds above 25kts
both while under power and under sail.
The idea for the luxury
Dragonship trimaran was
inspired by racing vessels.
The design incorporates the
latest marine technologies
in order to address some
of the vessel types issues

Three is the magic number

Co-director Mike Smith points out that
despite historical issues trimarans are often
associated with bridging sections breaking up
under heavy pounding forces the vessels do
have a number of benefits: the extra beam
makes it possible to accommodate the kind
of spacious deck required for top-end yachts,
while also offering good stability and lower
hydrodynamic resistance than an equivalent
monohull. Happily, composites and
associated building technologies have come
a long way in the past few years, and are now
able to quite literally support this kind of
design. Pi Yachts is also advancing its own
research, adds Smith, with the help of
students from various universities.
There have also been other issues to
overcome. The dilemma we had was that a
vessel with a 30m beam would have a huge
problem in getting into restricted spaces,
says OHara. This prompted the development
of a fairly broad central section and a pair of
sponsons that can be pulled back into the
sides of the vessel where they fit fairly
snugly, thus making a 30m beam yacht
capable of reducing its size to 19 or 20m.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 33

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Our yacht has to be green too, OHara

continues, and this was where one of Smiths
colleagues came into the picture. Jack MannersSpencer has in fact been involved in wing sail
design for some years, putting versions on his
own yachts, as well as designing them for cargo
ships. Now, with the addition of a computer to
control it from the bridge, his Autosail design
has been readied for take-off.
The sails have a symmetrical aerofoil
section, resulting in a three-dimensional
shape not unlike a Spitfire wing, explains
Manners-Spencer, who goes on to explain
that there are a lot of misconceptions about
the different performance characteristics
of symmetric and asymmetric sections.
Although the asymmetric variety produces
more lift, there is also an increase in drag, so
for general cruising the symmetrical model
offers a better compromise, with a more
robust pattern and only a small difference
in power when the wind is on the beam.
Internal battens drive the Autosail, and since
theres no need to rely on sheet control from
the deck, the sail can spread across a broad
area. But, importantly, the battens that give the
sail shape and position can move up and down
the mast on external bearings, so it remains
reefable and can fold down, something critical
for safety, Manners-Spencer says. Sometimes
you need to be able to bring down the sails,
close the hatches and ride out a storm.
Although there have been a number of
versions of the wing sail, Manners-Spencer
continues, you are always faced with a
balance between performance, handling and
seaworthiness. In this case, he believes a
small sacrifice in performance is one worth
making in the name of seaworthiness, as this
boat will be heading into the ocean, not just
going out for a days racing.
The Dragonship has a trio
of adjustable Autosails,
which can be operated
from the vessels bridge
Inset: The vessel has a
broad central section and
two retractable sponsons

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 35


Chemistry lessons

A vessel like Dragonship

takes months in the planning
stage even after we have the
design, so the actual building
will take around two years
Will OHara, CEO, Pi Yachts

The three freely rotating cantilever masts

are especially noteworthy. They are supported
only by two bearing units, one immediately
above the top of the keel and the other at
deck level. These masts have to deal with
particularly high loads given the sheer force
located near the deck as a result, they have
been designed with variations in the thickness
of the walls, to even out bending moment.
The photovoltaic cells, inlaid into the sails
and across other surfaces on the vessel, will
charge an innovative mix of new graphene
batteries the main propulsion power source
for the ship. Under sail, the propellers will
pick up regenerated energy, passing it back
to charge the battery bank.
A vessel like Dragonship takes months
in the planning stage even after we have the
design, so the actual building will take
around two years, says OHara. For those
keen to get a good look at the principles
before then, Pi Yachts is building a 25m
demonstrator version.
The matter of cost is something OHara
is guarded about given that it is standard
practice never to divulge the cost of a
superyacht to anyone other than the
purchaser. He offers a hint, however: The
80m version could be somewhere between
US$100m and US$200m, depending on the
level of luxury required.

36 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Graphene, says Mike Smith of Pi Yachts, is the future. He also

predicts that there will be a number of uses for it, especially when
it comes to onboard power.
This purer version of something many know as pencil lead has
amazing properties. Graphene can be arranged in ultra-thin sheets
and gains strange, and very useful properties such as the ability
to hold and disperse large amounts of electrons.
Graphenes first use is in lithium-ion battery anodes, where
it can also be combined with other chemistries the materials
conductivity and large surface area grants it significant advantages.
Charging times could drop by half, or even to one-seventh of what
we experience at the moment, and charge capacity could double,
says Jesus de la Fuente of Graphenea.
However, there remain some issues to overcome, de la Fuente
explains. Not least that, while they perform well for around 50 cycles,
then the cells start to degrade. However, he continues, its the same
pattern of progress faced by the first lithium-ion batteries, so tweaking
this performance aspect falls within a well-trodden developmental
path. Furthermore, he points out theres a big difference between
laboratory prototype and commercially viable unit.
Additionally, there are other developments that pair well with
graphene: potentially cheap lithium-polymer batteries and the
newer rounds of sulphur-based lithium (Li-S) combined with
graphene anodes promise an energy density in the region of
400Wh/kg a lot higher than current Li-ion batteries.
However, graphene is not only being used for the electrodes, but
also for the active material itself making them less like batteries
and more like supercapacitors, with the ability to hold enormous
power and charge within a few seconds. Whereas batteries hold
their charge longer as they insert ions into the atomic structure of an
electrode through a chemical reaction, capacitors just have these
ions clinging to it.
A highly porous form of graphene with a huge internal surface
area would seem to be a good replacement for the usual activated
carbon in supercapacitors, giving greater electrostatic charge
storage, and maybe even allowing them to take almost as much
energy as Li-ion batteries. Added to this they could charge and
discharge in seconds, and maintain charge over tens of thousands
of charging cycles.

Graphene has a number

of properties that make
it extremely suitable for
marine power applications

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Inspired Engineering


A technician conducts
a routine check on one
of four LM-2500 engines
used for propulsion on board
the guided-missile destroyer
USS Russell (DDG59)

38 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


Prime time

The US Navys Technology Development Roadmap will see it pushing ahead with the
development and implementation of energy magazine and hybrid electric drive systems

he next US Navy Technology

Development Roadmap (TDR) is due to
be released in the next few months and
it will update plans and progress toward the
development of electric ship power and
The last TDR was published in 2013 and it
outlined a new route for the further creation
of power and propulsion following the halt of
the DDG1000 program on three vessels and
the cancellation of the next-generation cruiser
(CGX) project.
Stephen Markle, director of the Electric Ships
Office in US program office PMS 320, exclusively
told E&H Marine that the TDR put forward
the concept of the energy magazine (EM).
We introduced the concept as a bridge
between the legacy architecture that we have
on a DDG51 Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
and the future, which may encompass
high-energy, high-power weapons and sensor
systems, he says. Part of our challenge as we
backfit these systems is their impact on the
prime movers the gas turbine generators
and the diesel generators ability to take
continual transient pulses.
The arrangement of the prime movers
is a balance of several naval architectural
rules and physics. In both mechanical and
integrated propulsion system (IPS) variants,
space and weight must be made for air
intakes and uptakes and cooling systems.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 39

In a traditional mechanical plant, the
prime movers associated with propulsion
are connected to large reduction gears that
transmit power via shafts and propellers. In
an IPS ship the tyranny of the shaftline is
removed, since in IPS systems prime movers
drive generators and not propulsion train
components, Markle explains.
This allows for transmission of power
throughout the ship via electrical cables to
the propulsion motors and other loads. In this
case, the prime movers can be located so as to
optimize the location of intakes and uptakes,
which also offers advantages from a ship total
survivability perspective no longer do they
have to be located close to the reduction gear.

IPS advantages
However, the IPS developed for the DDG1000
destroyers is not suitable for all types of ships.
For example, commercial ships steaming
between two points at a steady rate carrying
their commodity do not need an IPS, as the
application can use its diesel propulsion plant.
Yet in some naval vessels where there are
several operating modes it is advantageous
to be able to shut down the very large main
propulsion prime movers and opt to drive the
propeller shaft through the hybrid electric
drive (HED) system. Such a system has been
developed on the USS Makin Island (LHD 8)
and is being put on the DDG51s.

Interestingly, though, the DDG51 is not

being fitted with an IPS system as it retains
its machinery plant with some equipment
modifications (see Pass the test on the
following page).
On the DDG51, something like 50% or
more of its operational profile can be covered
using the HED, which allows us to shut down
the LM2500s and run the ships service gas
turbines at a higher efficiency, Markle says.
By just running the gas turbine generators,
which provide power to the ship at a higher
efficiency, the vessel can still be propelled
while the lights are on and still consume less
fuel in total. However the options for the
design are still open for the US Navy.
Ships with HED do not need an EM because
the concept is for energy conservation rather
than pulse loads. However, they are still not
able to generate power when they are stationary.
It depends on what the electric plant
might look like depending on the mission
profile. If we have a new ship design or
capability that the navy would have to
provide, it would incorporate high-power,
pulse-type loads, I would expect we would
be looking at an IPS system with alternative
prime movers, whether diesel or gas turbine,
and with the functionality of the EM in terms
of the ability to the buffer the load from a
perspective of not breaking a prime mover,
Markle adds.

Above: The amphibious

assault ship USS Makin
Island. The Navys TDR
is exploring electric ship
power and propulsion on
a number of vessel types
Left: The USS Wayne
E Meyer, an Arleigh Burkeclass guided-missile
destroyer, arrives in Busan

If a ship is to be fitted with a load that has

a high energy requirement, such as a direct
energy (DE) weapon, laser or radar, then it
will require an EM system that includes
energy storage, control and cooling systems
to provide an immediate energy supply to
give the pulses required to support them.
That is the big challenge the systems that
have pulse loads. The mechanical generators
have limits for pulse loads, hence the concept
of the EM. The navy is investing in the
technology to design and build, test and field
the EM in a prototypical way, states Markle.
A supplier contract was awarded to DRS
Technologies, a subsidiary of Finmeccanica,
in September 2013 for an energy storage
module to provide power to hold up the bus
of a DDG51-class ship for three minutes as
a back-up source of power.
The contract also has beginnings of the EM
construct, which will be a chemical storage
unit and cooling system that are modular and
will form the backbone of the energy storage
element of the EM technology.
Cooling is a vital component of these
systems because they run at about 25-30%
efficiency. This means that if you require an
output of 100kW then the system needs to
produce 300kW. The excess 200kW of power
wasted is dissipated as heat.
The control system is just as essential,
acting to inform the power system of what
the loads are and when they are needed. It
is about getting from a varying voltage from
the random load generation on to a stable
bus called the grid and keeping the grid
stable without missing a step.
The capability to move power from
propulsion to a sensor or weapons was
something first used in sci-fi by Captain Kirk
in the Star Trek series but now could become
a reality. This is where we need to go, says
Markle without hesitation, and that is the
vision of where we are headed into the future.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 41


The first ESM system unit with an energy

requirement of 125kWh from DRS is due to be
delivered to the navy in the FY18 timeframe.
Eric Lindenbaum, vice president of navy
maritime programs at DRS, told E&H Marine
that the battery technology is being provided
by LithiumStart and that the system can go
from 500kW up to tens of megawatts. It is
also modular and fits through hatches, so it
can be placed anywhere on the ship without
having to cut holes or modify the hull,
mechanical and electronic systems.
According to the DRS VP, the system is
load agnostic and it can provide highenergy instantaneous loads like a rail gun
or a more continuous load like an AMDR.
We have engineering design modules
already and we have hardware that has
been tested in the lab. We are now doing
integration testing. We had a first round
that was successful, so we are getting more
advanced with more power, he adds.
After the passing of fault tests, the next
major milestone is the lower-rate initial
production phase and alongside this will be
further studies into the EM concept. The 2018
deadline will support the US Navys Surface
Electronic Warfare Improvement Program
(SEWIP) active phase, block 3. This will be
followed by laser support.
The company is also working on the power
conversion modules for the AMDR that will
be fielded on the DDG51 Flight III ships and
is expected about the same time as the ESS.
One generator can supply the load for a
DDG51 doing normal shipboard operations,
but for power redundancy the navy will run
two, Lindenbaum adds. But they will
share the load and therefore do not run at
a fuel-efficient speed.

With ESS, the ship can put the load on one

generator and run more efficiently, with the
technology providing a back-up safety margin
so that the ship does not lose power if the
generator shuts off for some reason. It will
also provide power throughout the ship until
the second generator is brought online.
It is connected into the system using an
interoperable power supply. It will float on
the ships electrical distribution system, and
if the distribution system were to go below a
certain frequency and current then it would
automatically kick in without any human
intervention and supply the load while the
other generator is automatically brought up,
he explains.
Lindenbaum expects the ESS to go on the
Flight II DDG51s, with the HED going on the
IIAs. Flight III solutions are still to be decided
but could easily be a combination of the two
because the HED produces power only when
the ship is moving and its prime movers are
generating power.

42 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


( Integrated Fight Through Power )

Four electric zones 3 MW/zone

Reconfigurable/survivable 1000
VDC longitudinal bus
User Distribution:
650, 375V DC
440V AC

Above: A key focus for

Navy research is on
developing power solutions
that provide redundancies
in survival situations
Below: The DDG1000
destroyer USS Zumwalt,
which also utilizes 4,150V
AC for power generation

Pass the test

The development of HED for the DDG51 will see

Flight Environmental Qualification Testing (EQT)
completed over the course of several months
in CY15. Integration testing will be conducted at
the Naval Surface Warfare Center Ship Service
Engineering Station (NSWC SSES) and Land
Based Engineering Site (LBES) commencing in
the last quarter of CY15.
The testing will demonstrate the integration
into the DDG51 Class Main Reduction Gear
(MRG) and the Machinery Controls Systems
(MCS) computer software development and is
planned for a six-month duration.There are two
installations planned for the fourth quarter of
FY16 to be backfitted on the DDG51 Class Fight
IIA ships during scheduled CNO availabilities.
For the DDG51 Flight III, the HED is not a part
of this program, but looking at what the Flight III
is being asked for in terms of the new radar that is
going on board, the navy is upping the distribution
voltage from 450V AC to 4,150V AC, which
means a new gas turbine generator is needed.
The vessels will be fitted with three gas turbine
generator sets, each producing about 4MW per
unit. This is a power increase from the previous
ships of this class from 3MW per unit.
The DDG1000 also uses 4,150V AC for power
generation, but the needs of the DDG51 Flight
III with regard to power are different as it has
a smaller prime mover (based on the RR MT5
engine), so it is being modified to increase fuel
efficiency and power to be able to provide the
output for the AMDR.

Permanent magnet electrical machines in ship propulsion

with the PhiDrive and Thorque concept.
Fuel saving
Lower emission
Reduced maintenance cost

- Direct connected permanent magnet electrical
machines saves fuel by utilizing variable rpm on the prime movers
and eliminates the gear box and frequency converters.

- in cooperation with Scana Propulsion
The fuel-saving PhiDrive propulsion system
delivered by Inpower to MS Multi Green.

Direct drive permanent magnet motor. Save fuel, space and maintenance
cost by unique efficiency and eliminating the mechanical gearbox.

INPOWER AS, Molde Kunnskapspark, Britveien 4, N-6411 Molde, Norway Tel: +47 911 52 100 E-mail:


Though originally focused on electrified

vehicles, a developer of advanced power
solutions has moved into the marine sector

44 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

F R E E S E R V I CE !

Though Microvast was initially established with an

electric vehicle remit, the company diversified while EV
development was still in its infancy. Over the years that
followed, Microvast applied its expertise to power systems
in the commercial vehicle sector, seeing that market as
having more immediate potential. At the moment we
have more than 3,000 electric bus systems deployed in the
field, Deng says. And we already have orders for more
than 6,000 units. Microvast has also developed and
supplied systems for industrial, heavy-duty applications
in a number of fields, while continuing to grow from a
company with staff of 20-30 in 2006 to currently
employing close to 1,200 people worldwide.
In 2014 Microvast made the decision to move into the
marine sector, making the industry a substantial priority
in its plans for the future. The first time we got in touch
with the marine industry was at the Electric & Hybrid
Marine World Expo, Deng says. We knew that there was



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and rapid information
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technologies and services
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marine technology international

Sea change

UKIP Media & Events Ltd

nonymity, reflects Lance Deng, vice president

of corporate strategy at advanced power and
technology company Microvast, has its drawbacks.
Were probably one of the most interesting battery
companies that people have never heard of, he says,
acknowledging the low profile the firm has kept since it
began operating in 2006. At that time Microvasts founder,
Yang Wu, had recently sold a package of water
purification technology to US behemoth Dow Chemical
and was looking for his next project. Wu, whom Deng
describes as a technology geek the guy went to
university at 14 years old harbored an interest in
electric vehicles, but acknowledged that one of the biggest
obstacles facing the industry was the battery systems
those vehicles used. We had a good team of chemical
R&D people, Deng explains. So he set up Microvast to
work on battery chemical solutions that allow a battery to
be fast charged and last over a long cycle life.

April 2015

Lance Deng, VP corporate strategy, Microvast

electric & hybrid marine technology international

Wed like to take

two or three years
to work with our
existing partners to
develop and improve
our system product and
design. However, I think
theres going to be a major
increase in demand for these
hybrid and electric systems


solutions for its move into the marine sector. We use a
unique cooling system. We immerse the whole battery
module in a cooling liquid that we designed, creating
modules that are completely sealed off from the
environment. Plus, our IP 67 casing system and racks can
be installed easily into any space on a boat. These creative
and innovative designs, we think, give us a good chance
to come out with rugged, suitable products for the sector.
Deng explains that Microvast even has a specific team
the Heavy Duty Application R&D Task Force working
on marine applications, alongside other projects with
similar design attributes. Were trying to concentrate on
solving issues of tough environments for the batteries.

Learning on the job

a possibility for marine application of our technology and
products. Basically, if you have a good battery theres a
chance you can provide hybrid solutions for anything and
everything that requires an engine. But we really didnt
understand the market or know about its huge potential
until we attended that show. We made contact with a lot
of integrators and system developers.
The crossover between the marine industry and
Microvasts previous application experience has helped
facilitate the companys decision. Our path has been to
provide industrial-standard, heavy-duty products and
solutions to the market, Deng explains. Some companies
are focused on high-end, luxurious, very fancy products.
But our experiences are based on heavy-duty, everyday
work products. We can migrate that experience in handling
heavy-duty requirements, tough working environments,
environmental tolerances and so on, into the marine sector.
The tough conditions experienced by many marine
applications make Microvasts experience of ruggedization
invaluable. In general we set out to make industrial
solutions. We dont set out to make toys for the market,
Deng continues. I mean that in a good way. Some of those
products are really good and high end, but you cant put
them in everyday work machines. Theyll break in two days.
Since the Electric & Hybrid Marine Expo, Microvast
has been actively working with integrators interested in
the companys product portfolio. And its become clear
that some of its existing applications have imparted
expertise that stands the company in good stead. We
have experience of some of the toughest requirements for
vehicles in the battery industry. Buses run almost 24
hours a day, non-stop, carry large loads and experience a
lot of dirt and vibration. So we have good experience in
designing for those requirements, and a lot of deployment.
Thats a good thing to start with.
Preventing the battery from being corroded by the
environment is another very important issue to look into
for marine applications. And were lucky enough to have
some experience in that area. We also do stationary
energy storage systems for grids mostly for frequency
regulation and renewable integration. And most of those
applications are on isolated islands such as Hawaii and
Puerto Rico, so have design requirements for preventing
sea element corrosion.
In addition to tapping into existing extensive experience,
Microvast is also working on specifically developing new

Microvasts LpCO Modular

System (pictured above) is
a tough, resilient product,
designed to maximize
available space in high
energy applications
including marine projects

46 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

NDAs mean that Deng cant give specifics of some of the

clients Microvast is collaborating with, but he does reveal
details of a pair of marine projects the company is currently
involved in. The first is a pure-electric propulsion system
for a fast-charge, heavy-duty car ferry in Europe.
The vessels used to use lead-acid batteries for shipping
cars to a remote island, but they needed to operate two
boats, with one always on standby, as the batteries on
each boat had to be charged for up to 18 hours before
being put back into operation for another day. We
introduced our fast-charging LPTO battery as a
replacement for the lead-acid battery. This battery is
as safe as lead-acid, and with the proper charging
infrastructure on land can be fully charged in less than
half an hour. When theyre loading vehicles, they can
charge the battery at the same time, and half an hour
later the boat is ready to go. By using the LPTO battery,
both the boats can be in operation at the same time.
The second application involves the system
hybridization of tug boats vessels that have very specific
dynamic power output requirements as a result of their
specialized work patterns. Most of these boats are already
diesel-electric, Deng explains, but by putting a very
simple rack-based energy storage system between the
electric motor and the diesel engine, the system can adjust
power output to suit the most dynamic requirements. It
keeps the engine optimized, cutting fuel costs by around
20%, as you dont have to jack the engine up or bring it
down. When energy is generated it is stored in the battery,
and when the electric motor demands higher power
output, it drains energy from there. When the motor
needs less power, the battery can be charged by the diesel
engine. The system acts as a balancing reservoir.
The company is excited about these projects, and about
other products that will be unveiled in the coming
months. But Deng is also realistic about Microvasts plans
for the years ahead. It took the bus industry 10-20 years
to accept the hybrid or pure-electric concept. I would
hope it would be faster for the marine sector, but with all
the certification and classification requirements for
systems aboard boats, I think wed like to take those two
or three years to work with our existing partners to
develop and improve our system product and design.
However, I think that theres going to be a major increase
in demand for these hybrid and electric systems.
Patience, though, is key. For this year, well get these
projects finished and gain experience. Then well prepare
for the next move.




April 2015


electric & hybrid marine technology international

UKIP Media & Events Ltd

Visit to
request exclusive and rapid information
about the latest technologies and
services featured in this issue

marine technology international


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

Electric & Hybrid Marine World

Expo at Amsterdam RAI, the
Netherlands, this June is the
worlds only show dedicated to
highlighting brand-new electric
and hybrid marine technologies

Exclusive conference

Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo, which takes place

in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on 23, 24 and 25 June,
is the best place to get up-close and personal with all
the very latest high-tech electric and hybrid propulsion
developments, technologies, concepts and systems that
are helping to realise the marine industrys sustainable
transportation dream.
This global industry event will draw an expected 160+
exhibitors from over 25 countries, including some of the
worlds leading research and development propulsion
pioneers, such as ABB Marine, Cummins, Corvus, GE
Marine, Imtech, MAN, Renk, Torqeedo and Volvo Penta.
Over 2,500 maritime engineers, architects, heads
of R&D, propulsion manufacturers and vessel
owners are expected to attend. From small
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propulsion technology, to large international
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Three-day conference
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Visit the website to book your place now:

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Prices increase on 25 May!

48 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

Wednesday 24 June
17:30 - 19:00hrs
Free drinks party in the exhibition hall.
Everyone is welcome!

more about tomorrows diesel-electric solutions, as

well as boat builders or engine manufacturers that are
concerned about stringent emissions legislation on the
horizon, this show has something for everyone.
In among all the cutting-edge technology and
innovation, Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo also
features a three-day conference programme (rates
apply) with big-name engineering speakers from ABB,
Rolls-Royce Marine, GE Marine, DNV GL, Siemens and
Doosan Heavy Industries as well as a raft of speakers
from some of the leading academic marine institutions
in North America, Europe and Asia. In total, around
350 delegates are expected to attend. With so much
to see and do, Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology
International has prepared the ultimate guide to the
worlds only show that's 100% dedicated to electric and
hybrid marine technology see you there!
w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om

Exhibition entry
is free // register
online now for
your free pass!

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 49


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

Exhibition entry
is free // register
online now for
your free pass!

Who will win at this year's Electric

& Hybrid Marine World Expo Awards?

Electric & Hybrid Marine

World Expo Awards
The second Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo will also play
host to the Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo Awards a
ceremony that will honour those who are making a difference
when it comes to developing and realising sustainable marine
technologies. The awards categories include Supplier of the
Year, Chief Engineer of the Year, Innovation of the Year, Electric
& Hybrid Propulsion System of the Year and Propulsion System
Manufacturer of the Year.


1 5 : 2 0 HRS O N T H U R S D A Y
Carsten Johansen, chief
engineer at Scandlines (left)
and James Anderson, senior
technical manager, from
Caledonian Maritime Assets
(right), collect their awards
at the 2014 ceremony

Ready, genset, go
Volvo Penta // Booth: 5110


Volvo Penta will present an off-the-shelf marine genset at this years Electric &
Hybrid Marine World Expo, underlining its many years of involvement in
diesel-electric and hybrid propulsion solutions. The D13 MG offers low fuel
consumption (around 192g/kW at 1,500rpm) as well as low emissions. Other
benefits include standard worldwide service and documentation available in advance.
The company believes in the multiple engine concept in order to make
applications more fuel efficient, reduce emissions and enable lower maintenance
costs. Volvo Penta engines are ready for future emissions demands since they are
prepared to integrate with any aftertreatment installation. Furthermore, Volvo
Penta allows for a very high backpressure on its engines, which results in a
compact catalyst that could replace a standard muffler (in function and size).
New and available in parallel with the start of this years expo will be low-spec
AUX engines for local-build marine gensets that is, without an engine control
system. These will enable local genset builders to independently build up control
systems, reducing the cost of the base package of the AUX engines. Members of the
Volvo Penta team will be pleased to explain how this will open up opportunities
for genset builders and system integrators worldwide.

50 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

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Testing partner

Advanced solutions
relating to hybrid
boat testing will form
the centerpiece of
the Dewesoft booth

Dewesoft // Booth: 9090

Dewesoft will use the expo to underline its expertise as
a manufacturer of total solutions for hybrid boat testing,
including electrical and battery systems, engine testing and
combustion analysis, powertrain, chassis testing, durability
testing, fatigue testing and vehicle dynamics on water.
The company will showcase its systems, which offer
synchronized data acquisition and processing for all types of
analog and digital sensors for voltage, current, temperature,
strain, force, position, angle, pressure, accelerometers,
microphones, rotation, speed, vibration, noise, video and
high-speed video, CAN, FLEXRAY, LIN, LAN, WLAN, Ethercat,
CCP, telemetry and PCM.
The companys software has been installed more than
10,000 times in the research industry. Its award-winning
software suite can handle up to 200MB of data stream online
in processing and storing.

Inverters and
Bel Power Solutions // Booth: 7120
Bel Power Solutions will exhibit its latest products targeted
specifically at the marine market: inverters, inverter chargers
and DC/DC converters. The benefits of these products are a
wide DC voltage input range (230VDC-430VDC or 400VDC850VDC), full galvanic isolation between input and output,
CANbus serial interface, flexible output connectivity, the
possibility to parallel up to six (for inverters) and four
(for DC/DC converter) units, robust packaging and a
wide operating temperature range.

This year Bel Power will

be exhibiting inverters,
inverter chargers
and DC/DC converters

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Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 51


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Propel to the future

Renk // Booth: 4030
Exhibition entry
is free // register
online now for
your free pass!

The Renk team will be on hand to demonstrate how propulsion

systems of tomorrow must provide optimal performance over the
whole mission range: efficiency, reliability, redundancy and low noise.
The company will display the Renk AED (Advanced Electric Drive),
suitable for hybrid propulsion applications together with
a diesel engine or gas turbines, or as the sole main drive only,
providing the perfect alternative to direct electric drives. The Renk
AED offers a 40% weight reduction, significantly smaller main
dimensions, and a remarkable low-noise potential. The AED is
available in a power range of 1.4MW to 6.0MW, and Renk views it as
the ideal future propulsion module for mega-yachts, research vessels
and navy applications.

Bakker will showcase the

advantages of permanent
magnetics in propulsion systems

Magnetics marvel
Bakker Magnetics // Booth: 4085
Bakker Magnetics is a leading supplier of permanent magnets and
magnetics assemblies. Its main markets are drive and motion (propulsion,
electrical drives, hybrid solutions) as well as renewable applications (wind/
wave/tidal). The company will demonstrate the advantages of permanent
magnets in propulsion solutions at the expo. The handling and assembly of
the powerful magnets needs expertise and experience Bakker Magnetics
will use the show to highlight how, through its facility in the Netherlands
and its joint venture in China, it is well equipped to produce magnetic
assemblies in all desirable sizes.

The Renk Advanced Electric

Drive system offers an
impressive 40% weight reduction


Plug in and sail

Lynch Motor Company // Booth: 9010
Lynch Motor Company, which has been producing motors for over
25 years, will showcase an impressive range of marine drives,
from direct drive to belt and even sail drive. Solutions range from
2.5kW 24V through to 26kW 72V. In particular, the company will
highlight two fully working drive systems, including a Marlin 5 and
Bluefin, providing a complete plug-in-and-sail solution. Combining
high efficiency and low voltage, such simple to use systems offer a
fantastic pre-made package. Staff will also be on hand to discuss
an electric-powered outboard engine, to deliver the highest level
of efficiency for longer, more powerful performance, which the
company is currently working on.

52 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Innovative energy
storage solutions
MG Energy Systems // Booth: 5030
MG Energy Systems, a leader in battery and battery management
solutions, will be at Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo showcasing
a raft of high-end innovations, including high-energy-density
lithium-ion NMC battery modules that are suitable to handle high
charge and discharge rates. The battery modules can be placed in
series up to 1,000VDC and in parallel to make battery banks of several
hundred kWhs in total. Liquid-cooled versions of the NMC modules
are also available, allowing for active thermal management capability.
Also on show from MG Energy Systems will be lithium-ion LFP
battery modules, which, due to their similar voltage capacity, are very
suitable for lead-acid battery refit projects. As visitors to Electric &
Hybrid Marine World Expo will find out, systems with these modules
are very simple to install and use.

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2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

Automated mooring
solutions will be among
the many things to
see at Cavotec's booth

Automatic plug-in perfection

Cavotec // Booth: 8110
At this years expo, Cavotec will exhibit its range of innovative
power transmission, distribution and control technologies,
including: MoorMaster automated mooring, which removes
mooring lines from the mooring process; Alternative Maritime
Power (AMP), which enables ships in the port to connect to
land-based electrical supply; and its Panzerbelt cable protection,
as well as marine propulsion systems, radio remote controls and
motorized cable reels. The company will also showcase one
of its latest innovations: the Automatic Plug-in System, which
automates the connection of cranes, ships and other mobile
equipment to the power grid.

Femsan will exhibit

an entire state-of-the-art
product range


Propulsion system solution

GE Marine // Booth: 3070

Experts in motion
Femsan // Booth: 5080

A propulsion system solution that frees up space to carry 10% more revenuegenerating cargo, meets emissions limits with no SCR and toxic chemicals, and
boasts the reliability of jet engines, will be on show by GE Marine. The companys
aeroderivative gas turbines range from 4.5MW to 52MW and are excellent prime
movers for mechanical drive, hybrid or combined gas turbine, electric and steam
(COGES) systems. Applications can include cruise ships, fast ferries, LNG carriers,
container ships and military vessels. Gas turbines are compact, generate low NOx
emissions compared with traditional diesels, and can operate on various fuels,
including MGO, biodiesel and LNG/natural gas.

Femsan will be attending the expo to promote its electric

motors, alternators, gearboxes, drivers, controller and
feedback devices. Staff will be on hand to discuss and
demonstrate the companys product range, including
battery-operated brushless servo motors, battery-operated
servo motor drivers, control panels and throttles,
mechanical interfaces, permanent-magnet DC motors
and 4Q drivers for PM DC motors.

Capacitor benefits
JSR Micro // Booth: 9060
JSR Micro will highlight its innovative lithium-ion capacitor,
Ultimo, which is a safe storage technology with a combination
of high energy and high power density, no hazardous
substances, high cycle and calendar life (up to two million
cycles), wide operating temperature range (-30C to 70C), high
voltage (between 2.2V and 3.8V), and low self-discharge.

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om

Another big-name pioneer

exhibiting at Electric & Hybrid
Marine World Expo is GE Marine

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 53

no emissions


Hybrid boat by SEATECH 30


Via Garibaldi, 8
24067 SARNICO (BG) Italy


We welcome you
at Electric & Hybrid marine
world expo 2015
23, 24, 25 june in Amsterdam
booth: 2040
for your hybrid experience!



Hybrid system by

Via Guido Rossa, 4

21013 Gallarate (VA) Italy
Ph. +39 0331 28421
Fax +39 0331 2842911


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s
Acclaimed V-POD technology will be
on display from Verhaar Omega. The
electric propulsion system offers high
thrust and efficiency capability in one
high-tech package, as well as being
lightweight, compact and easy to install

Pod propulsion
Verhaar Omega // Booth: 1080
At the center of Verhaar Omegas booth at this years Electric & Hybrid
Marine World Expo will be its latest V-POD technology, offering users
360 electric propulsion that includes high thrust and efficiency capability
in one high-tech package, as well as being lightweight, compact and easy
to install. As visitors to the Amsterdam RAI on June 23-25 will discover,
the new-gen V-POD is an electric propulsion and maneuvering system that
can replace the conventional screw shaft line with rudder.
The V-POD is a so-called pod drive technology, where the electric
motor is located in the housing (pod) under water. An internal planetary
gear inside the pod housing makes the outer diameter very slim and
the propeller runs at the most economical speed, resulting in best
performance with regard to efficiency and thrust. Due to the use of a long
shaft through the hollow motor rotor shaft, forces are better handled, with
less bending moment. The technology is also ideal in DP or ice conditions.
The V-POD can be used both in combination with a diesel-electric unit and
with an LNG-electric generator set. Its available in the power range from
330kW to 2MW and in pull and push execution.

Small wonder
Grenland Energy // Booth: 5050
Grenland Energy will display its range of active cooled battery
systems, which deliver more than 6C continuous and 12C peak
discharge, enabling a smaller overall package and lower weight ideal
for retrofit and peak shaving applications, such as cranes, active heave
or dynamic positioning systems. Although the storage capacity of
power-optimized batteries is lower, the limiting factor is often the
charge/discharge rate over long periods of time. However, Grenland
specializes in determining the necessary power range, by ensuring
the cell specification for its battery solutions is selected to match each
customers requirements.

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om

Exhibition entry
is free // register
online now for
your free pass!

Advanced hybrid system

Transfluid // Booth: 2040
Transfluid will showcase its range of hybrid modules that are suitable for
diesel engines, from about 75kW (100hp) to about 1,400kW (1,900hp),
and electric power 8kW (11hp) to 300kW (400hp). Two different propulsion
systems are installed diesel and electric to allow a real and tangible
reduction in consumption as well as a route to zero emissions.
This year, to help demonstrate the Transfluid hybrid system, the company
will present a special hybrid boat model the SEATECH 30 Hybrid Limousine
manufactured by Sea Technologies.


To help demonstrate its

hybrid systems, Transfluid
will present the SEATECH
30 Hybrid Limousine

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 55

Efficiency makes the difference

Do you want to save fuel? Switch to hybrid propulsion; your fuel consumption will drop, possibly with as much as twenty per cent.

Your tailor made solution

We offer tailor made solutions, that seamlessly fit your ship and your
method of operation. The reliable way and the only way to gain maximum

Our services are:

MS GOBLIN Hybrid: Baumller high torque motor - 2x 285 kW

Hybrid Ship Propulsion B.V.

Waalhaven Z.z. 42
3007 GD Rotterdam
+31 (0)10 486 5066

Design, delivery and installation of electric propulsion.

Design of mechanical construction and the layout.
Software installation.
Installation of monitor and control equipment.

The major benefits of hybrid propulsion

> Reduces fuel consumption, in some occasions with as much as 20 per cent.
> Makes your propulsion future proof, complies with the new CCR rules of 2016.
> Reduces emissions, which can lead to a reduction of port dues.

Visit us at:

R405_B-VBAT_Mise en page 1 04/02/2015 11:09 Page1

Saft Photos : Saft, Fotolia R405/B

For safe & clean

Saft has developed the Seanergy range to offer the proven
safety, performance and reliability advantages of SLFP
chemistry in a fully integrated solution designed specifically
for civil marine propulsion installations. The range includes
a variety of energy and power modules that offer the
flexibility and adaptability to create highly efficient, costeffective battery systems to power full-electric and hybrid
electric applications for a wide variety of vessels including
work boats, ferries, offshore vessels, yachts and cargo ships.
Saft. Designed for industry.


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s


ABB will present the innovative Azipod

electrical thruster series, which offers
improved performance and efficiency

Alternative drive concept

Reintjes // Booth: 4010
Reintjes, a leading manufacturer of marine gearboxes for main drives
with power ratings from 250-30,000kW, will present its innovative
hybrid solution technology. The compact system achieves low energy
consumption, far lower noise levels and enables smooth running.
As visitors to the Amsterdam RAI will discover, the RHS technology offers
a solution for numerous operating modes, with diesel or electric drives being
able to be selected. Depending on what is required, both types of propulsion
can be used within their optimal efficiency curves. In addition, a booster
function is planned, which will offer the possibility of combining the diesel
and electric drive for higher speeds or higher thrust.
RHS can be used as a PTI so that the necessary energy for slow-speed
drive or booster application is provided by a genset or a battery pack on
board. Optionally, the system can be used as a PTO. In this mode, the diesel
engine drives the electrical machine, working as a generator, and provides
electrical power to charge batteries or to supply the onboard grid.
To enable easy installation, the combined electric motor and generator
are already flanged to the gearbox and supplied with a frequency converter.
Part of the Reintjes range, the RHS is suitable for fixed propeller applications
and available with electric machines from 60-630kW.

New electrical
thruster series

The RHS innovation, a

compact system that achieves
low energy consumption,
far lower noise levels and
enables smooth running,
will be at the Reintjes booth

ABB // Booth: 7100

ABB will present its recently launched Azipod electrical
thruster series, Azipod D, at the expo. A new thruster
for power up to 7MW, its main benefits are improved
performance and efficiency levels. Compared with a
mechanical thruster, up to 25% less installed power is
required for operation.
ABB staff will also demonstrate the companys hybrid
propulsion concept with energy storage, which is a feasible
solution in many applications and offers benefits such as
energy efficiency and reduced emissions.

Aradex // Booth: 5100
Aradex will showcase the next generation of its Vectopower inverters for
connecting spread-out power components to the DC link and for energy
management. The bidirectional inverter with power from 25kW to 1.6MW
covers all possible applications: propulsion drive, DC/DC converter, charging
device and onboard power supply.

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om

Exhibition entry
is free // register
online now for
your free pass!

Pure lead, pure luxury

EnerSys // Booth: 2070
EnerSys will display the Odyssey range of rugged lead-acid batteries that
feature thin-plate pure-lead (TPPL) technology, making them ideal for high-rate,
deep-cycle applications. Odyssey PC1800-FT batteries are used in new hybrid
systems developed by Yanmar Marine and Hybrid Marine in collaboration with
E P Barrus in the UK. The first two systems were shipped to Taiwan-based Isara
Yachts in late 2014 for installation on the Isara 45 luxury sailing catamaran. This
dual-hybrid system provides over 100hp engine propulsion, 20kW electric drive
and 20kW power generation. Power regeneration under sail supports all the
yachts power demands (including cooking and air-conditioning), recharges the
battery and supports complete autonomy.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 57


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

Variable masterpiece
Cummins // Booth: 2030

The groundbreaking
Cummins QSK50 engine
will be at the expo

Cummins will be at Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo to present the
recently announced QSK50 engine, optimized for variable-speed dieselelectric (VSDE) applications. The QSK50 has been used in fixed-speed
diesel-electric applications, as well as traditional propulsion and power
generation, since its launch in 2006. Early reports published by system
integrators show significantly reduced fuel consumption, far lower CO 2
emissions, and decreased system weight for the complete VSDE package
compared with fixed-speed diesel-electric gensets.
Cummins will also make a presentation titled, Optimizing efficiency using
variable-speed diesel-electric technology, in the Technology Demonstration
Area on Day 1 at 3:00pm.

New and highly efficient

MAN engines will also be
at the expo in June


Propulsion by remote
Noris Group // Booth: 9070
Noris Group will be at Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo to present its
simple to install and highly cost-effective propulsion remote control system
that is suitable for hybrid applications. Key benefits to the technology include
hybrid-specific adaptation of vessel thrust setting, a focus on best possible
operation performance, and an integrated touch panel for monitoring and
parameter setting.

58 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Exhibition entry
is free // register
online now for
your free pass!

Experts on engines
MAN Rollo // Booth: 8080
MAN Rollo, a leading specialist in gas engines for power generation
and diesel marine propulsion engines, offers reliable and cost-efficient
LNG technology. The company will present its new MAN E3262
LE222 engine 500kW at 1,500rpm unit, which has been developed on
the basis of the lean-burn combustion process and is used in the newly
built passenger vessel, Helgoland, as an auxiliary engine. Compact
and lightweight, its benefits include lower emissions and low noise
level. The engine will be released for the maritime market in 2015.

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om

DST2 high torque motors for

energy-efficient propulsion

Visit u
s at
ric &
H y br
Stand orld Expo
no. 4


648 kW at 1800 rpm

REINTJES Hybrid-Systems
The best choice for your vessel!
REINTJES hybrid systems are ideal for slow-speed
operation and enhance the efficiency of your propulsion
They are suited for fixed-pitch propellers and available
for electric motors from 60 kW to 100 kW. The complete
package comprises the gearbox and a combined
electric motor and generator as well as a frequency
converter all components come from REINTJES.

Fuel savings of up to 20%

Zero emission operation in electro-mode
Low noise and vibration levels due to smooth
running characteristics
Improved maneuverability as high thrust available
at low speeds
Reduction of operating costs through downsizing
of diesel engine

Increased efficiency.
Reduced costs.
Cleaner environment.

Feel free to contact us, we also have a green solution

for your vessel!
REINTJES GmbH | Eugen-Reintjes-Str. 7 | 31785 Hamelin | Germany
Phone +49 51 51/104-0 | Fax +49 51 51/104-300 |

E&HMTI_April 2015_90x250.indd 1

30.03.2015 13:01:43

be in motion


Day 1 //
Tuesday, June 23
Keynote Presentations
Room A Main
Moderator: Prof. John Carlton, professor
of marine engineering, City University
London, UK

9:10am Hybrid propulsion

opportunities for ships and small craft
Prof. John Carlton, professor of marine
engineering, City University London, UK

9:35am Advances in hybrid-electric

Jan-Erik Rsnen, business manager,
ABB Oy, Finland

10:00am Future perspectives for

electric and hybrid vessels
Oskar Levander, VP innovation,
engineering and technology, Rolls-Royce
Marine AS, Norway
10:25-11:00am Break

11:00am Hybridization of the marine

Marie-Chantal Ross, research
development officer, Transport Canada,

11:25am Green coastal shipping

Narve Mjs, director battery services and
projects, DNV GL, Norway

11:50am The benefits of gas turbines

for hybrid commercial ship
Brien Bolsinger, vice president marine
operations, GE Marine, USA

12:15pm What hybrid and electric

marine can learn from the hybrid and
electric automotive sector.
Dr Ulrich Eichhorn, managing director,
VDA German Association of the
Automotive Industry, Germany
12:40-2:00pm Lunch

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Lessons to be learned through
military applications

MAY 25!

Room B Breakout

Efficiency gains from electric
and hybrid applications

Moderator: Dr Timothy J McCoy,

president, McCoy Consulting LLC (former
director of the US Navy Electric Ship
Office), USA

Room A Main
Moderator: Prof. John Carlton, professor of
marine engineering, City University
London, UK

2:00pm Positive effects of electric

and hybrid machinery on the GA

2:00pm Hybrid solution for naval

vessel applications
Andrea Lombardi, vice president
Fincantieri Electro, Fincantieri SpA, Italy

2:25pm Commercial technologies

for use in military hybrid drive

Pivi Haikkola, head of R&D, Deltamarin,


Aydin Mohtashamian, director of

programs, L-3 Communications, USA

Timo Srkk, manager, offshore oil and

gas, Deltamarin, Finland

2:25pm Optimizing vessel efficiency

using hybrid power
Ken Wittamore, managing director, Triskel
Marine Ltd, UK

2:50pm An introduction to Doosans

HTS (high-temperature
superconducting) motor

Dr Timothy J McCoy, president , McCoy

Consulting LLC (former director of the US
Navy Electric Ship Office), USA
Iigo Atutxa Lekue, technical director
for industrial and marine drives, Ingeteam
Power Technology, Spain

2:50pm Advanced electric hybrid


Heejong Moon, senior manager, Doosan

Heavy Industries, Korea

Bernhard Vollmer, senior manager sales,

Renk AG, Germany

3:15pm Power system stability: the

hybrid effect

3:15pm Operational perspective on

the propulsion system of the F125
Baden-Wrttemberg class frigate of
the German Navy

Milton Korn, managing senior principal

engineer, American Bureau of Shipping,
3:40-4:10pm Break

4:10pm Dynamic power and

efficiency measurements in electric
ship propulsion drives
Prof. Johannes Teigelktter, professor,
University of Applied Sciences, Germany

4:35pm PhiDrive: patented direct

permanent-magnet propulsion
Geir Larsen, CEO, Inpower, Norway

5:00pm Fuel-efficient solutions for

hybrid vessels
Ketil Aagesen, manager, process
industries and drives drilling and marine,
Siemens AS, Norway

60 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Commander s.g Clemens Baumscheiper,

equipment, information technology and
in-service support, Naval systems branch,
German Federal Ministry of Defence,
3:40-4:10pm Break

Power electronics and system
Room B Breakout
Moderator: Graeme Hawksley, managing
director, Hybrid Marine Ltd, UK

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

4:10pm Electronic system

integration for hybrid and electric
marine applications

10:00am Supercapacitors in marine

powertrains: timeline of improvement
and adoption 2015-2030

Gerd Petra Haugom, project manager,

guideline for large maritime batteries, DNV
GL, Norway

Dr Christopher Quigley, director, Warwick

Control Technologies Ltd, UK

Dr Peter Harrop, chairman, IDTechEx, UK

Sverre Eriksen, classification expert

battery systems, DNV GL, Norway

4:35pm Integration of electrical

propulsion systems based on MTUs
MELT engineering
Dr Peter Riegger, senior manager research
and technologies, systems, MTU
Friedrichshafen GmbH, Germany

5:00pm A completely new concept

in parallel hybrid technology
Dr Ugo Pavesi, managing director,
Transfluid, Italy

5:25pm Soft starters: more than just

limiting current and torque
Yuval Paz, VP engineering and projects,
Solcon Industries Ltd, Israel
3-day pass = 1150 // 2-day pass = 1025

Until 25 May!

10:25-11:00am Break

11:00am Improvement of Li-ion

battery life using new SOH sensing
Joe Steiber, principal engineer, Southwest
Research Institute, USA

11:25am Application of high-power

MW-scale batteries for maritime
hybrid systems
Dr Egil Mollestad, CTO, ZEM AS, Norway

11:50am Risks associated with large

maritime battery installations and
their mitigation
Bernard Twomey, head of electrotechnical
systems marine technical policy, Lloyds
Register Marine, UK
Louise Dunsby, lead technology specialist
electrotechnical systems, Lloyds
Register Marine, UK

Day 2 //
Wednesday, June 24

12:15pm Q&A
12:30-2:00pm Lunch

Enabling technologies: energy
storage and charging

Lunchtime Panel Discussion:
Guidelines for large maritime
battery systems

Room A Main
Moderator: Prof. John Carlton, professor
of marine engineering, City University
London, UK

9:10am Li-ion batteries for maritime

Dr Lars Ole Valen, CTO, Grenland Energy
AS, Norway

9:35am Advances in state

estimation for lithium-ion batteries
Dr Matthias Vetter, head of department PV
off-grid solutions and battery system
technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar
Energy Systems ISE, Germany
Stephan Lux, head of the battery modules
and systems team, Fraunhofer Institute for
Solar Energy Systems, Germany

Technology Presentation Area

Moderator: Narve Mjs, director battery
services and projects, DNV GL, Norway

1:00pm Class rules and guidelines

for large maritime battery systems

Bernard Twomey, head of electrotechnical

systems marine technical policy, Lloyds
Register Marine, UK
David Lokhorst, director of engineering,
Corvus Energy, Canada

Enabling technologies: energy
storage and charging (cont.)
Room A Main
Moderator: Prof. John Carlton, professor of
marine engineering, City University
London, UK

2:00pm Battery integration and

charging technologies
Prins Doornekamp, CEO, Super B BV,

2:25pm A techno-economic
optimization methodology for energy
storage in all-electric ships
Prof. Zuomin Dong, professor and chair,
department of mechanical engineering,
University of Victoria, Canada

2:50pm Any voltage, any frequency:

the future of ship-to-shore connection
John Roger Nesje, vice president and site
director, Rolls-Royce Marine Power
Electric Systems, Norway

3:15pm How to reduce battery cost

by downsizing, thermal management
and advanced electrical, mechanical
and thermal design

Sverre Eriksen, classification expert

battery systems, DNV GL, Norway

Felix von Borck, executive managing

director, Akasol GmbH, Germany

Gerd Petra Haugom, project manager,

guideline for large maritime batteries, DNV
GL, Norway

3:40-4:10pm Break

1:25pm Panel Discussion: Guidelines

for large maritime battery systems
Dr Egil Mollestad, CTO, ZEM AS, Norway
Dr Lars Ole Valen, CTO, Grenland Energy
AS, Norway

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om

4:10pm The use of TPPL batteries in

the hybrid industry
Dr Thomas Verghese, product manager,
EnerSys, UK


Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 61


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

Day 3 //
Thursday, June 25

4:35pm Integration between lithium

battery systems and DC/AC power

Environmental considerations

Dr Davide Dal Pozzo, project manager,

Aliant Ultralight Battery, Italy

Room B Breakout

5:00pm Maritime Battery Forum

Moderator: Narve Mjs, director battery

services and projects, DNV GL, Norway

Design development and

2:00pm NCE Maritime Clean Tech:

new maritime concepts and projects

Room A Main

Synne Opsand, managing director,

Maritime Battery Forum, Norway

Innovative hybrid systems for
small craft
Room B Breakout
Moderator: Graeme Hawksley, managing
director, Hybrid Marine Ltd, UK

9:10am Unique parallel/serial

configuration for a small hybrid

Hege kland, CEO, NCE Maritime Clean

Tech, Norway

Moderator: Prof. John Carlton, professor of

marine engineering, City University
London, UK

Nils Aadland, maritime advisor, NCE

Maritime Clean Tech, Norway

2:25pm Renewable energygenerated hydrogen for electric drives

Kenneth Brown, CEO/managing partner,
Safe Hydrogen LLC, USA

Aleksander Dubas, KTP senior research

associate, TSL Technology Ltd, UK

2:50pm Diesel-electric in heavylifting vessels in offshore operations

9:35am Holistic and

multidisciplinary challenge of
complex power system architecture

Graeme Hawksley, managing director,

Hybrid Marine Ltd, UK

Kasper van der Heiden, R&D manager,

Jumbo Shipping, Netherlands

9:35am Hybrid propulsion: more

than just silent cruising

3:15pm Lithium-ion batteries helping

natural gas deliver the promise of
clean power

Gerhard Hesse, international sales

manager propulsion and hybrid drive
systems, Fischer Panda GmbH, Germany

Geoff Crocker P.Eng., director, Corvus

Energy, Canada

10:00am Development of a hybrid

drivetrain for inland waterway vessels

3:40-4:10pm Break

Dr Geert Maurice Herman Waeyenbergh,

professor, KU Leuven Group T, Belgium

4:10pm Meeting environmental

regulations with mechanical-based
systems an alternative to hybrid

10:25am Break

11:00am Water turbine as an

efficient renewable energy source for
Sena Nomak, general manager, Milper
Propeller Tech, Turkey

11:25am Utilizing regenerative

plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion
on a sailboat
Jn Bjrn Sklason, general manager,
Icelandic New Energy, Iceland

11:50am Multiple-hybrid
performance 40ft cruiser
Joso Perkovic, independent designer,
Hreko, Netherlands
12:15pm Q&A
12:30-2:00pm Lunch

9:10am Driving forward electric rim

propulsion with computational fluid

John Roger Nesje, vice president and site

director, Rolls-Royce Marine Power
Electric Systems, Norway

10:00am High-fidelity vessel motion

dynamics and electric power plant
Prof. Eilif Pedersen, associate professor/
vice dean of education, Norwegian
University of Science and Technology,
10:25-11:00am Break

Per Arne Haug, managing director, Kumera

AS, Norway

11:00am Dina Star PSV: operational

results from DC grid
John Olav Lindtjorn, onboard DC grid O&G
exploration, ABB AS, Norway

4:35pm Joint Industry Project (JIP)

Hybrid 111
Peter van Terwisga, Director Group
Research, Damen Shipyards and Chairman
of the JIP 111 project, Netherlands

11:25am Designing DC distributionbased power plants for electrically

propelled vessels

5:00pm Q&A

Juan Jose Valera, senior R&D engineer,

Ingeteam Power Technology, Spain
Arne Ove Rodstol, market manager,
Ulstein Power and Control, Norway


62 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

11:50am Imtech Marines hybrid grid:

an active controlled DC grid
Mark Simmeren, manager concept
design and consultancy, Imtech Marine
Netherlands BV, Netherlands

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om


2 3 / 24 / 2 5 Ju ne 2 0 1 5 // A m s t e r d am / T he Ne t he r l and s

12:15pm Alternative design of

shipboard electrical distribution
energy systems for passenger ships
Konstantinos Sfakianakis, PhD candidate,
University of Strathclyde, UK
12:40-2:00pm Lunch

9:35 ZeroCat 120 plug-in batterydriven car ferry

Edmund Tolo, sales and marketing
manager, Fjellstrand AS, Norway

10:00am Ecotractor: innovation in

tugs through simulation
Dan Veen, senior business developer,
TNO, Netherlands
10:25-11:00am Break

11:00am Blue Star Delos renewable

energy innovation project

1: 1 5 -1:4 5 P M - D O N T
2:00pm Designing a new generation
of Quadro drive with additional energy
storage technology
Paul Winson, senior vice president,
Norwegian Electric Systems, Norway

2:25pm Transient analysis on

electric propulsion system using ETAP
Kyunghwa Kim, researcher, Korean
Register, Korea

2:50pm Safe connection of power

and battery systems on hybrid and
electric vessels
Mark Burg, business development
manager, Rebling Power Connectors, USA
Alex Sinton, lead engineer, Rebling Power
Connectors, USA
3:15-3:45pm Break

Case studies and applications
Room B Breakout
Moderator: Graeme Hawksley, managing
director, Hybrid Marine Ltd, UK

9:10am MS Goblin: ready for 2016

(EU stage 4)

Gregory Atkinson, chief technology officer,

Eco Marine Power, Japan

11:25am ReVolt: the unmanned,

zero-emissions, short-sea ship of the
Hans Anton Tvete, senior researcher, DNV
GL, Norway
Andreas Brandster, strategic research
and innovation, DNV GL, Norway

11:50am E/S Movitz: retrofitted into

a supercharged electric ferry
Joachim Skoogberg, CEO, Echandia
Marine Sweden AB, Sweden

12:15pm Solar electric coastal water

passenger transportation: SoelCat12
David Czap, CEO, Naval DC BV,

Panel Discussion: Making
economic sense of electric and
hybrid propulsion
Technology Presentation Area
Moderator: Prof. John Carlton, professor of
marine engineering, City University
London, UK

3:45pm Hybrid shipping: the real

economics and new financing models
Dr Jan-Olaf Willums, senior research
associate, Norwegian Business School,

4:10pm Panel Discussion:

Making economic sense of
electric and hybrid propulsion
Dr Jan-Olaf Willums, senior research
associate, Norwegian Business School,
Oskar Levander, VP innovation,
engineering and technology, Rolls-Royce
Marine AS, Norway
Marie-Chantal Ross, research
development officer, Transport Canada,
Prof. John Carlton, professor of marine
engineering, City University London, UK
*This program may be subject to change

12:40pm Lunch

2:00pm Stockholm full-electric

shuttle operations and savings
Didier Jouffroy, marine product manager,
Saft, France

2:25pm SeaBus project: a new

hybrid 24m passenger transportation
Japec Jakopin, founder, Seaway Group,
Prof. Dino Nascetti, president, University
Promostudi La Spezia, Italy


MAY 25!

2:50-3:15pm Q&A
3:15-3:45pm Break

Michel Vermeulen, team leader marine,

Mitsubishi Turbocharger and Engine
Europe BV, Netherlands

w w w.E l e c t r ic andHy b r idMa r ineWo r l dE x p o.c om


3-day pass = 1150

2-day pass = 1025


Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 63

hybrid marine


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What will you see at Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo? Energy storage

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Dual aspect
A range of new technologies has been combined in the design for
a pair of dual-fuel hybrid ferries destined for service in Vancouver Bay

ancouver Bay is set to become home to

a pair of new Canadian ferries vessels
that are of particular interest, as they layer
together a number of innovative technologies.
The two 149 x 26m ferries will replace the
ro-ro ships currently operating Seaspans
route across the bay; these are limited to a
capacity of between 26 and 38 trailers, while
the new single-deck vessels will be able to
accommodate up to 59 trailers each.
However, given that Canada is particularly
environmentally-conscious, these new ferries
are going to be a very deep shade of green.
The vessels have recently begun
construction in Turkeys Sedef Shipyard, and
Eric Wiecherink of Istanbul-based Elkon (a
subsidiary of Imtech Marine), is working on
the electrical power installation. The project
represents the breaking of new ground for the
company, as, despite the fact that Elkon is an
established name with a 30-year history in
diesel-electric solutions, this is actually the
first hybrid it has taken on.
And its an ambitious first hybrid project.
Not content with one or the other, the vessels
design will tie together both batteries and
dual-fuel technology.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 67

Environmental factors

The batteries can fill

in the peak demands
and help the engines
take on the load steps.
All this allows for a
not-so-steep ramp-up
for the engines
Eric Wiecherink, manager, naval projects, Elkon

A pair of dual-fuel ferries,

which are currently under
construction in Turkey, will
cross Vancouver Bay with
less environmental impact
than the existing ro-ro ships

This type of dual-fuel approach is particularly

suitable, Wiecherink explains, as these ferries
will benefit from a locally available liquefied
gas source, thanks to the Douglas Channel
LNG project being back on track so it
makes sense even if the initial investment
in the dual-fuel installation is a bit more
expensive. Just how much more expensive
is difficult to gauge, but other vessel types
would suggest an increase in the region of
between 10% and 15%.
Despite the arguments for implementing a
combination of clean-burning gas and liquid
fuel, there remains a number of good reasons
to combine these technologies with a hybrid
battery. While dual-fuel engines are well
suited to straightforward, fast runs, ferry
operations are typically much more varied,
with greater amounts of slow harbor
maneuvering which are sometimes followed
by periods of hard acceleration as soon as the
vessel is out of a speed-restricted area, in
order to make up time on a delayed crossing.
However, most industry sources agree,
current dual-fuel engines are still a little
sensitive to this kind of handling when in gas
mode. Too great a challenge and they will, as
a necessary safety measure, flip over to liquid
fuel running, so ideally they need a little
latitude. Whether on diesel or gas, the
batteries can fill in the peak demands and
help the engines take on the load steps,
Wiecherink says. All this allows for a
not-so-steep ramp-up for the engines.
But how best to tie it all together? The best
configuration, Wiecherink explains, is to
have a DC system with two big 4,660kVa
generators producing a fixed 930V output to a
hefty DC bus, which also provides the main
tie-in point for the battery bank. All the other
consumers hang by their own individual AC
threads from this central DC bus, the
propellers and bow thrusters RPM varied by
frequency controllers and smaller islands for
ship controls and domestic loads.
The reason for doing it this way, Wiecherink
continues, is simple efficiency. Usually, when
you have a battery bank, each item requires
taking the power from AC to DC and back
to AC again. But this way you have just this
one, single DC multidrive, you load
everything onto it, then convert each user
back to AC. It removes the middle step.
The system is arranged so that either
engine or the battery bank can pick up the
power demand if theres a drop-off in voltage,
securing the balance between generation and
consumption. Where to start charging the
batteries or supporting the engines is a lot
simpler when all pulled together in one place,
under a DC multidrive, Wiecherink adds.

68 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

There were questions

over whether or not the
batteries could take this
kind of deep draining
without shortening
their life. We didnt
want one emergency
to ruin the batteries
Eric Wiecherink, manager, naval projects, Elkon

Strength in reserve
Oddly enough, Wiecherink explains, its been
the diversity of power sources that has really
sold the idea to the Canadians. They can see
that, if one genset fails, the other will be there.
But if theres some kind of issue affecting both,
then with a battery you still have a reserve
that can sail the ship for half an hour. They
can be sure that they can still dock safely.
But, Wiecherink goes on to say, one major
issue has been the characteristics of the battery
banks. In an emergency situation, the car ferry
would be completely reliant on battery power
there were questions over whether or not the
batteries could take this kind of deep draining
without shortening their life. We didnt want
one emergency to ruin the batteries.
Its unavoidable that batteries constitute a
significant proportion of any build costs, and
have a fundamental impact on finance
arrangements. Although Wiecherink doesnt say
it, its entirely possible that the crew of a vessel
might hesitate for a fraction of a second before
hitting the override button if they knew such a
step could have serious financial implications.
It has taken very close discussion with
international battery supplier Corvus
headquartered not far from the Canadian ferry
operators base of operations to resolve this
particular issue. Although the details have yet
to be entirely settled, an appropriately scaled
installation could involve a battery array
providing 546kWh from four packs of 21
modules, together yielding a minimum voltage
of 840V DC and a max voltage of 1,050V DC.
Although the scaling will still only allow for
low-power sailing, it should be enough to get
the ferries safely back into harbor.

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High-power batteries
High-power battery systems can help offshore and marine operators
reduce costs and emissions without compromising performance

ncreasingly stringent regulations on air

pollution and energy efficiency are
driving greater demand for electric and
hybrid propulsion. By reducing reliance
on diesel gensets, operators of offshore
support vessels (OSVs), ferries and
offshore installations can reduce their
emissions while saving fuel.
Battery technology has been developing
rapidly in recent years and is now capable
of delivering high power for heavy-duty
marine applications. Fully electric and
hybrid diesel-electric vessels are already in
operation and lithium-ion (Li-ion)
technology has high-power capabilities.
To this end, Safts Seanergy modules have
recently been certified by Bureau Veritas
for marine and offshore applications.
The latest Li-ion battery technology has
huge potential for marine and offshore
applications. By installing a high-power
battery system, operators can downsize
diesel engines to deliver a relatively constant
average load and then call on stored energy
to meet peak demand a measure known as
load smoothing or peak shaving.


Safts acclaimed Seanergy modules have

recently been certified by Bureau Veritas for
marine and offshore industry applications

Holding position
One application is in using batteries to
support dynamic positioning on OSVs.
Much of these vessels lives at sea is spent
traveling between port and the platforms
they supply, and full power from their
twin high-power diesel gensets is needed
only when they arrive at offshore platforms.
The OSVs use dynamic positioning
thrusters to remain stationary
in turbulent seas while they unload
passengers and heavy cargo. Safety is

70 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

paramount and vessels are designed to

take account of waves, wind and current,
as well as unexpected ocean surges.
A typical OSV might have engines rated
at a total of 8MWe to run five thrusters and
the propulsion motor, as well as other
onboard loads. If an engine drops out, the
vessel may lose half of its power.
By integrating a battery system to
support dynamic positioning thrusters, the
engines can be downsized by 25-40%.
Downsized gensets will deliver 5MWe
power for propulsion, hotel loads and
battery charging. The 1.5MWh high-power
battery system will provide extra power
(5-6MW) during dynamic positioning, and
the worst-case scenario is the loss of a
single thruster rather than a genset.
Battery power will not affect the
operation of the thrusters, and will lower
fuel consumption and emissions there are
also additional benefits, as the downsized
engines will operate at a steady highefficiency load with reduced running hours
and reduced maintenance.
Elsewhere in the oil and gas sector,
drilling vessels and platforms can also
benefit from integrating Li-ion battery
systems scaled up to deliver megawatts of
power enough to support an entire
installation while operators restart the
network or enable safe shutdown.
High-power batteries also have the
potential to deliver 100% of the power for
propulsion and hotel loads on board
ferries. They can accept fast charge in just
a few minutes while passengers board and
disembark from the ferry. As a result, fuel
consumption and emissions are reduced.



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hybrid propulsion

aking the switch to hybrid propulsion

can result in a vessels fuel consumption
dropping by as much as 20%. An
engine delivers its maximum performance only
at a specific rotational speed, and any deviation
from that speed decreases the efficiency to a
greater or lesser extent. Hybrid propulsion
keeps the motor running at the designated
speed for maximum performance.
Hybrid propulsion not only offers a reduction
in fuel consumption, but also makes propulsion
future-proof by complying with the forthcoming
2016 CCR rules. It also cuts emissions,
which can lead to a reduction of port dues.

Reliable techniques
Hybrid propulsion is based on well-known
techniques that have proved their reliability
for many years in inland shipping a diesel
engine and an electromotor. Application
of these established techniques results in
a dramatic increase in performance.
Customers can rely on the quality of
Hybrid Ship Propulsion. The company has
successfully converted several ships to hybrid
propulsion the river vessels Goblin, Terra2,
Martinique, and the tugboat Eddy Tug, for
example. The company only uses products of
the highest quality, such as Baumller motors.
Hybrid Ship Propulsion offers tailor-made
solutions that fit seamlessly into a customers
ship and method of operation. The companys
services include the design, delivery and
installation of electric propulsion; the design
of mechanical construction and layout;
software installation; and the installation
of monitor and control equipment.
Since March of last year, Hybrid Ship
Propulsion has been a Baumller dealership,
delivering Baumller electric propulsion in
Benelux, as well as creating solutions
including gasoline- and diesel-driven engines.
The high-torque motor can be equipped with
a solid or hollow shaft.
Hybrid Ship Propulsion is currently busy
with two projects the tugboat Sil-Jeske-B
and the inland ship Indus. The Indus project
represents an important step for the company,
as the vessel will be equipped with pureelectric propulsion only. The vessel will
include a diesel generator, but full propulsion
will be delivered by Baumller motors.

Experienced installation of hybrid and pure-electric drives can result

in a range of operational, economic and environmental advantages

Real-world application

The Sil-Jeske-B is fitted

with diesel engines and
generator-powered electric
motors. The ship can also
be operated electrically

72 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Work on the tugboat Sil-Jeske-B is underway

in partnership with Koedood Dieselservice
in Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht in the Netherlands.
The tug will be completed by Shipyard
Kooiman in Zwijndrecht.
The 23.5m hybrid tug will have a bollard
pull of 26 tons. The end user of the vessel is
BMS Seatowage. The Sil-Jeske-B is fitted with
diesel engines for propulsion, and electric
motors that can drive the propellers. These
electric motors are powered by two diesel
generators. During normal navigation the
electric motors can also function as a shaft
generator, which enables the entire vehicle
to be operated or powered electrically,
without the need to start the separate
diesel generator set.
The electric drive can also operate the
vessel at low speeds and perform standby
operations with one or two diesel generator
sets, without the use of the main engines. In
addition to making the system economically
attractive, this offers environmental
advantages. The ship is also able to maneuver
much more accurately than with conventional
diesel propulsion, enabling more efficient
operation and lower risk of damage.

Embracing electric
Hybrid Ship Propulsions first
pure-electric project, the inland
cargo vessel Indus, utilizes
a pair of Baumller electric
engines on a single propeller

Hybrid Ship Propulsion is also working on

the full-electric inland cargo vessel Indus.
The ships Baumller engines will be fed with
generator power of 2 x 603kW (at 1,800rpm).
The propulsion system will feature two
Baumller electric engines on one propeller.
A hollow shaft motor will produce 400kW
and a solid shaft motor will produce 700kW.
Hybrid Ship Propulsion has a number of
projects planned for the coming year, covering
a diverse power range. Currently the company
is working on projects with a power range of
100-1,800kW. However, as shown in the Indus
project, it is possible to attach further engines
to increase capability. Hybrid Ship Propulsion
is currently working on an application
involving power levels up to 4,500kW.

OSWALD Elektromotoren GmbH

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are known for their compact build and power.
Flexibility for customer specification, electrical and mechanical
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Marine inverters

Specific customer requirements can be met with the latest in highly efficient inverters

hen a German hybrid drive systems

manufacturer was looking for an
inverter to power its AC and DC
components, Bel Power Solutions had the
answer. The German company found several
players on the market, but only Bel Power
Solutions could deliver its latest technology
coupled with full galvanic isolation between
input and output.
On a hybrid-electric or full-electric boat,
either the propulsion system or a stack of
lithium-ion batteries provides the boat with a
certain bus voltage. Bel Powers 350INV60120-240-9G and 700INV60-120-240-9G are
highly efficient DC/AC inverters that convert
high-voltage DC power into the split-phase
AC power 120/240V AC required to drive AC
accessory loads directly from the high-voltage
DC drive or battery bus. The liquid-cooled
DC/AC inverter operates at input voltages from
240-430V DC or 400-850V DC and power
ranges up to 6,000W. CAN communication
to the boat controller enables selection of the
inverters operational modes and frequency.

Inverters and chargers from

Bel Power Solutions can
perform a vital role in meeting
specific project requirements
set out by drive manufacturers

The inverter is built into an IP67 sealed

aluminum enclosure, ready to be mounted to
the boat chassis, and is a commercial off-theshelf solution for electric boat manufacturers
and developers. Air-conditioning is standard
in modern boats, and these units have been
designed to support the high current
requirements. A single inverter can power
two air-conditioning units.
The inverter can deliver either 120V AC or
240V AC single phase simply by connecting
the two phases in series. It can also operate
in a three-phase environment by connecting
three units in a three-phase configuration.

Customer service
One of the customers requirements was the
ability to power low-voltage DC loads on the
boat. Previously a DC/DC converter from a
local source had been used, but it did not have
the capability to display messages if problems
arose on the boat users dont want to be left
alone on the ocean without battery power and
an electrical system that is no longer working.
Bel Power Solutions offered its latest product,
350DNC40-24-9G, as a solution to this
problem. The 350DNC40-24-xG is a 4kW
DC/DC converter that creates DC voltages in
hybrid and electric boats suitable for powering
low-voltage accessories. The liquid- or
convection-cooled DC/DC converter operates

74 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

at input voltages from 240-430V DC and

delivers power up to 4,000W (liquid-cooled)
or 3,300W (convection cooled). The device
features very high efficiency, high reliability,
low output-voltage noise, excellent dynamic
response to load/input changes, and is built
in an IP67 sealed aluminum enclosure. Mode
selection is via CAN communication to the
boat controller, enabling fast reaction to an
alarm or warning indication.
The customer was also interested in Bel
Power Solutions 15kW inverter charger,
which converts AC to DC voltages in charge
mode and converts DC voltages to pure
sine-wave AC to power AC accessories. The
liquid-cooled unit operates at 250-435V DC
and 120/240V AC (60 Hz), and powers up to
15kW in either direction. The device features
very high efficiency, high reliability, low total
harmonic distortion (AC), low output-voltage
noise (DC), and excellent dynamic response
to load/input changes. When docked in the
marina, batteries can be charged via the
mains connectors in the harbor, while at sea
AC loads can be powered.
The excellent support of Bel Powers
engineering team, and meeting all expectations,
led to us extending our relationship with the
company for future projects, says the
German customer. It is a trusted partner that
is totally committed to the customer.

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June 23-25, 2015 Booth 2070


Cleaning up the


Electrification offers the marine industry countless opportunities. But with even
wider thinking outside of the box, there will be yet more ways to make savings

Echandia Marine CEO

Joachim Skoogberg
explains that the Swedish
companys propulsion
solutions outperform
combustion engines

ounded in 2008 in Sweden, Echandia

Marine is a cleantech company,
specializing in the innovation of marine
propulsion technology. An independent
evaluator of smart technologies that are used
in the automotive industry, the company
establishes their possible uses in the marine
industry and delivers turnkey solutions for
complete supercharged plug-in hybrid
electrical propulsion systems.
The company, whose main market is
the commercial boat sector, particularly
passenger ferries, offers two types of pod
motor one designed for high-speed planing
boats and the other for displacement boats.
Both use the same technology in the same
design: watertight housing encompasses a
submerged permanent magnet electric motor,
which removes the need for additional
gearboxes and cooling. The pod motor
directly drives the propeller and surrounding
seawater is used to cool the motor.

We offer solutions that outperform

conventional combustion engines in terms of
lower lifetime costs and environmental impact,
explains CEO Joachim Skoogberg. The whole
motor is outside the hull, so maintenance is
reduced to a minimum. Its also lightweight
the entire driveline weighs just 330kg.
Echandia Marine, whose solutions are
available for new-build vessels or for
retrofitting, integrates either fixed-speed or
variable-speed generators on a customized
basis, offering power ranging from 10-500kW.
Available for battery-powered boats are
supercharging stations, as Skoogberg
explains: By using our automated docking
and supercharging systems, passenger ferries
receive the full benefit of the electrical drive
concept. Using renewable energy sources
through the land-based power grid can
reduce energy use by about 65% and CO2 by
almost 100%. Normal supercharging power
capacity is 300-800kW, which means its

possible to charge a typical passenger ferry

in approximately 10 minutes.
Since August 2014, Echandia Marines
propulsion system has powered the worlds first
supercharged electric passenger ferry, which
is run by Green City Ferries in Stockholm.
Full-day operation will begin this spring.
Costing US$1.6m and carrying 100
passengers on an 8 nautical-mile journey
from Solna Strand to Gamla Stan, the ferry
weighs 65 tons, is 24m long and capable
of 11kts.
Skoogberg offers a progress update: Green
City Ferries has managed to generate new
passenger interest people have been
interested in traveling on the boat because
its so quiet and has the green profile.
Full-day operation over the coming
months will see the investment in electric
propulsion come into its own. There will
be even more traffic, which will increase
income and bring the return on investment
sooner. And there are more revenue streams:
because its so quiet, its possible for
companies to hold conferences on board,
and to offer wining and dining.
Such has been the ferrys popularity and
success that in March, Green City Ferries
received an accolade for Best Shipping
Company from Skrgrdsredarna
(Archipelago Shipping Companies), a
business association founded in 1988 that
awarded performance in the Swedish market
during the past fiscal year.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 77


Skoogberg comments, Green City Ferries

has, thanks to our electric propulsion system,
managed to reduce its fuel costs at marching
speed (8.3kts) from 19 per nautical mile
using diesel, down to 8 per nautical mile
using electricity a reduction of 60%.
In addition, maintenance costs are
lower due to no oil and filter exchanges
or mechanical wear. After a full year of
operation, CO2 emissions will be reduced
by 280 tons (a reduction of 85%, calculated
using Swedens average electricity CO2
footprint), NOx by 3 tons, and PM10 by
150kg. Weve calculated that NOx and PM10
will be reduced by almost 100%, even if the
genset has to be run occasionally.
Discussions with naval architects, operators
and authorities in continental Europe, Turkey
and the Nordic region are underway. In some
of these places, Skoogberg expects projects to
commence by the autumn.

Integrating innovation
Echandia Marine is currently involved, as
systems integrator of the propulsion system,
in the BB Green Project, an R&D initiative
part-funded by the European Commission that
aims to bring the worlds first air-supported
and battery-powered, zero emissions, fast
commuter ferry to market. Powered by an
Emrol-designed lithium-ion-titanate battery
bank, the 20m demonstrator should be on the
water in May, and is expected to reach 30kts
with a capacity of 75 passengers.
The aim of the vessel is to demonstrate
very low resistance for high-speed purposes,
adds Skoogberg. The hull design has very
low energy consumption, so it would be
possible for future developments to be
electrically driven where the distances arent
very long for 20 minutes, for example. We
believe that air-supported vessel technology

will reduce hull water resistance by 40%.

And about 80% of the vessels weight will
be supported on a cushion of air, thanks to
an electric lift fan system and the hull form.
When it comes to future trends in terms
of battery use, Skoogberg believes there may
be change on the horizon. He explains that
when looking into electrification and return
on investment, many ferry operators calculate
depreciation over 20-25 years.
But Echandia Marine, together with its
battery supplier, Nilar International, is
challenging this way of thinking. Should we
really pay for batteries at todays price just so
that we can have them for eight or 10 years?
Skoogberg asks. When doing this, its likely
we have to buy a greater number of batteries so
that they can be used with a smaller window of
charging. For instance, you only use 30-50% of
a batterys energy-storage capacity, otherwise
youll kill the battery with too-deep cycles.
So lets do calculations for batteries to last for
four or five years instead. If you cycle it deeper
with a bigger window maybe 65-80% of the
energy storage the battery will die sooner, but
they will cost less in eight or 10 years. So why
invest for such a long period in a technology
thats progressively developing and high cost?
In addition to a smaller up-front cost, such
a strategy could reduce fuel consumption.
And, says Skoogberg, you could trade in
some tons of batteries for more passengers,
thereby achieving greater revenue. Or the
boat could be made smaller as it wouldnt
carry so many batteries. Either way, the setup
would be more efficient.

78 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Echandia Marine offers

solutions that outperform
conventional combustion
engines in terms of
lower lifetime costs and
environmental impact
Joachim Skoogberg, CEO, Echandia Marine

Echandia Marine is
involved in the BB Green
Project, an R&D initiative
aiming to bring the worlds
first zero-emissions fast
commuter ferry to market

Leveling work at sea

Did you know that misalignment of rotating machinery accounts

for between 30% and 40% of equipment failures on a workboat?
Research shows this, and also indicates that misalignment is
generally caused by inadequate measurement techniques or
unsuitable chocking. The biggest part of the downtime is not
the re-alignment process but the choice of chocking method.
Some methods will result in longer downtime due to the
installation process and logistics.
SKF can help reduce costly downtime and technically improve
the chocking process with one simple solution the SKF Vibracon
re-adjustable steel chock.
SKF Vibracon is easy to install first time and every time and
is adjustable when re-alignment is needed, as many of the
worlds leading companies already know.
Leading global workboat companies are already specifying
SKF Vibracon as their standard chocking solution for most
of their rotating equipment.

The Power of Knowledge Engineering |


Support act

Developers of offshore support vessels must balance

an array of conflicting factors and hybrid drive systems
could offer the solution to a number of design challenges


alling oil prices mean that offshore support vessel

development now has a tough course to negotiate,
balancing fuel costs, environmental concerns, and
the quest to mature some of its innovative technology.
Into this challenging landscape comes an interesting
craft: the new Havyard 833 WE ICE platform supply
vessel was designed, explains Gunnar Larsen, senior vice
president, market and business development at Havyard,
to operate as efficiently as possible and with the least
amount of influence from exposed waters in, say, the
Arctic region.
The vessel has a forerunner. The hull lines were recently
developed for a slightly smaller PSV design the Havyard
832 L WE Polarsyssel, which was tailored during
construction to meet DNV ICE 1B class notation, and is
suited for oil and environmental watch duties in the
Svalbard Islands, with the superstructure modified to
mitigate against the perils of this kind of climate.
However, the Havyard 833 WE ICE takes things a step
further, and is being equipped with a new hybrid battery
diesel-electric system thats been developed in partnership
with Norwegian Electric Systems (NES), based in Bergen.

80 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Demanding conditions
The new vessel not only requires significant propulsion
five main generators, yielding a total of 6,750kW to feed a
pair of 2,100kW main propulsion motors, a pair of 1,100kW
bow thruster motors and an 880kW azimuthing unit but
is also being launched during a period of heightened
financial and environmental sensitivity. PSVs commonly
run flat-out to a distant offshore site often negotiating very
steep seas in order to nudge up to a rig in dynamic
positioning mode so the vessel can deliver supplies or take
off waste. In reality, these engine demands are usually
interspersed with a great deal of loitering, resulting in huge
peaks and troughs in terms of engine load.


Havyard signed a deal with

Fafnir Offshore for an 833
WE platform support
vessel, featuring a hybrid
diesel-electric drive system

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 81


Battery capacity and technology is a

fast-growing and improving business.
The last few years have seen advances
of two to four times the energy
Jan Berg, executive vice president of business development, NES

It makes sense, therefore, to look at hybrid systems as

a way to meet some of this demand. The 833 WE ICE
features the very first installation of NESs Quest2 system,
which will provide the battery feed, running it into the
main switchboards via a DC/AC converter. Batteries can
supply energy quicker than a diesel engine. We want to
exploit this and make the vessel able to adjust its position
faster, says Tommy Strand, NESs energy systems product
manager. The result of this will hopefully reduce the
workload on the thrusters.
Much of this technology will be familiar to those
working in the automotive sector, but marine systems
operate on a different scale a car may output around
100kW in total, while ships such as the Havyard 833s
built for Fafnir produce energy levels that are measured
in megawatts. Furthermore, says Strand, these systems
are nowhere near as straightforward.
Introducing energy storage on a ship can be rather
complex, considering, first of all, two power sources. With
a ship you have to think about what you need from the
batteries at every operation point, whether its in transit,
standby or DP mode, he explains.
Jan Berg, executive vice president of business
development at NES, is frank about the challenges of
developing the most appropriate technology. The fact
is that with this type of hybrid solution we have to
develop a new energy management system, he explains.
Such development is far from simple. The power
management systems normally take care of genset
demand and prioritize the draw from the automation,
DP systems and other such subsystems. But a hybrid
setup also has to manage the batterys input in peak
shaving, low-load scenarios and charging modes that
are themselves subject to changing seas, giving rise to
an extremely dynamic network.
As a result, matching the profile of a vessels operations
with the power demand across the load and time curves
is a challenge, says Berg. NES has, he adds, put many
man-hours into getting the protocols right research
that has paid off, as it has brought information to the table
which is far more optimistic than our first calculations.

Above: The Quest2 drive.

Battery power can speed
up a vessels ability to
adjust its position, reducing
demand on the thrusters
Below: Tommy Strand,
NESs energy systems
product manager, at
the Quest2 test station

82 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

The first hybrid package for Fafnir is an excellent

example, Berg continues, and should result in between
5% and 20% fuel reduction for transit times, with
standby and harbor modes benefiting from a 25-30%
saving and, at the top of the list, a vessel operating on
DP2 will see a fuel use reduction of up to 35%. Although
the figures are fairly startling, the principle has already
been proven, Berg points out, by Eidesviks Viking Lady
hybrid PSV. And, since the Quest2 system will be added
to the NESs established Quadro Drive frequency
converters, Berg ventures that we may see slightly better
figures, although time will tell.

Storage conditions
However, getting the energy storage right throws up its
own unique challenges. Theres a lot of calculation to be
done on the lifetime of the batteries, says Strand. You
need the pack to be large enough and also get the batteries
to look after themselves. After all, heavy conditions can
increase the DP mode power demand by a factor of as
much as eight or nine. Very high seas and winds mean
the thrusters and so on must work much harder, he
continues. Keeping the batteries full is one thing, but
we also cant afford to discharge the batteries too quickly
either or they will be damaged.
So far, it looks as if the battery installation will be
around a ballpark 500kWh, Strand says. We are
working on scaling the battery banks to run all the drives
for 5-15 minutes, but we are not yet sure what the rules
from the classification societies will be. The point is
echoed by Berg, who adds that, due to the innovative
nature of the system, testing and verification is a high
priority as if to illustrate this, NES has invested heavily
in one of the biggest diesel-electric test stations in Europe,
featuring a complete PSV power plant and, more recently,
the first stand for the Quest2 system.
A lot of the advantages of a hybrid PSV hinge on battery
development which, Berg explains, has recently come a
long way. Battery capacity and technology is a fastgrowing and improving business. The last few years have
seen advances of two to four times the energy. It seems
that the argument for a hybrid system has reached tipping
point, so an energy-storage system like NESs Quest2
can reduce the space, volume and weight.

electric & hybrid marine technology international
April 2015



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and rapid information
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marine technology international


STADT STASCHO drives supplies

sinusoidal voltage and current to the
electric motor and back to the main
switchboard. This gives very low
harmonic disturbances without
using transformers or filters.


Battery power is optional.



car ferry

Implementation of lithium-polymer battery technology was

fundamental to the development of the worlds first all-electric car ferry

84 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Norleds Ampere,
the worlds first fully
battery-driven ferry,
relies on cutting-edge
battery systems provided
by Corvus Energy

he worlds first fully battery-driven car ferry has been

built and begins operation in the spring of 2015.
Owned and operated by Norled and built by the
Norwegian shipyard Fjellstrand, the zero-emissions ferry
is an integral part of Norways highway and transportation
system, ferrying vehicles across the Sognefjorden,
Norways largest fjord. Both a major route for north-south
transportation and a popular tourist destination, the fjord
sees almost one million cars crossing each year.
In 2011, Norled partnered with Fjellstrand and Siemens
to enter a design competition commissioned by Norways
Ministry of Transport to encourage a reduction in
greenhouse gas emissions within its domestic ferry
system. For some years Fjellstrand had been working on
the entrys energy-efficient design platform. Siemens, a
company with extensive expertise in power management
and electric drive systems, had successfully
implemented several lithium battery-powered
marine propulsion systems using energy storage
systems from Canadas Corvus Energy.
Not only did the collaboration win Norled
the contract to operate the electric ferry on
the Sognefjorden crossing for 10 years,
but its innovative design earned the
Norled Ampere the first vessel
produced using Fjellstrands ZeroCat
design platform the prestigious title
of Ship of the Year 2014 from
Norwegian trade journal Skipsrevyen.
Passengers, crew and residents of
the picturesque villages of Lavik
and Oppedal at either end of the
crossing will appreciate the ferrys
emissions-free and near-silent
operation. Since the ferry is run
entirely on battery power, it does
not emit greenhouse gases or
particulates. The vessels batteries
are recharged using low-impact
hydroelectric power from the existing
electric utility grid infrastructure in
each village, further minimizing the
impact of the ferry service.
In contrast, each of the two conventional
diesel-powered ferries traveling the route
consumes around one million liters of diesel
fuel annually a cost that will not have to be
borne by Norled to operate the Ampere. Moreover,
each diesel-powered ferry produces around 2,680 tons
of carbon dioxide and emits 37 tons of nitrogen oxides
annually, at a considerable cost to the environment.

Quick charge challenge

The 5.6km Sognefjorden crossing takes just 20 minutes
at an average speed of 10kts. But the ferries make the
crossing 34 times during 17 hours of operation each day,
365 days a year, pausing for only 10 minutes at the quay.
The quick turnaround creates an interesting challenge.
For optimal energy efficiency, keeping battery weight
low is desirable, so it was decided to size the battery
with the capacity for only several crossings and recharge
throughout the day. However, the villages electrical grid
could not meet the sudden and high energy demand to

recharge the batteries quickly, without cost-prohibitive

grid infrastructure improvements being made.
The key concept behind our ferry is the top-up charging
of the batteries at both quays while the vessel is loading and
unloading, comments Ivan Fossan, CEO of Norled, in the
Skipsrevyen Ship of the Year 2014 issue, referring to the shore
power stations that use additional liquid-cooled lithiumpolymer batteries from Corvus Energy to store energy from
the grid and enable battery-to-battery energy transfers.
It took the combined expertise of Norled, Fjellstrand,
Siemens and Corvus Energy to create the innovative and
feasible solution. Built from the ground up, a primary
consideration of the ZeroCat platform design was to reduce
energy consumption compared with conventional ferries
in order to minimize the size of the battery required.
By using a slender catamaran style structure made of
seawater-resistant aluminum, the ballast-free hulls are
lightweight and have minimal resistance, resulting in
energy savings of approximately 40% at 10kts.
The double-ended ferry maintains its schedule by not
turning round. The ferry foregoes side-thrusters in favor
of Rolls-Royce azimuth thrusters at each end, only one of
which is used for each direction of the crossing. The
large-diameter propellers have slim blades and a low
rotation rate optimized to reduce energy consumption.
To reduce drag, the idle blades are feathered. The system
results in a further energy saving of around 7%.
Energy-efficient LED lighting and HVAC systems, as
well as solar panels, have been incorporated into the
ZeroCat platform to reduce energy demand. As a result of
the energy-efficient design of the vessels hull, propulsion
and interior systems, minimum consumption was achieved.

Low-load electric drive system

The Amperes light weight about half that of the dieselpowered ferries and reduced drag place less demand on
the drive system. Power is provided by two Siemens electric
motors with variable speed drive, energized by Corvus
Energy lithium-polymer batteries. The motors and other
machinery are controlled from the bridge using Siemens
power management, alarm and monitoring systems.
Corvus Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) incorporating
lithium-polymer batteries were selected by Siemens.
We have successfully implemented Corvus Energy
battery systems in previous marine applications, including
hybrid ferries, so have a good understanding of expected
performance and deep confidence in Corvus Energys
ability to deliver a safe and reliable product, says Odd
Moen, sales director at Siemens Marine and Shipbuilding.
Two Corvus ESSs with a combined capacity of
1,040kWh are mounted on the Ampere, one at each end
of the ferry, occupying a total of just 20m 3. The Corvus
ESS is made up of arrays of AT6500 battery modules,
each of which contains 24 lithium-polymer cells.
Advanced cell chemistry Li-NMC layered pouch cells
are the foundation of the Corvus batterys characteristics
that make it ideally suited for the ZeroCat platform.
Building on this foundation, Corvuss marine-rated design
and battery management system harness the capabilities of
the cell in a safe and controllable manner.
The Li-NMC battery module is known for its high
power-to-weight ratio. The power density of the Corvus
battery is 951W/kg, compared with only 41W/kg for a

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 85


Corvus ESS

Energy Density (Wh/kg)

Comparison of energy density for various battery types

Left: Corvus Li-NMC

batteries have a high
energy density,
and a high maximum
rate, making them
suitable for use
aboard the Ampere
Below: The Amperes
power and charging
infrastructure, built
on the ZeroCat
design platform, are
specifically tailored
to the requirements
of vessels crossing
the Sognefjorden

lead-acid battery or 685W/kg for a typical lithium-ion

battery. The energy density of Li-NMC is also high, as
depicted above. With the Ampere design calling for
1MWh of energy to be stored on the vessel enough for
several crossings a high energy density was critical to
keeping the overall weight of the battery low, thereby
minimizing the required output of the motors.

Ferry fleets and beyond

Norleds Ampere project is likely to create a buzz in the
marine industry.
The Ampere will prove the feasibility of battery-powered
ferries and rapid shore charging, says Andrew Morden,
CEO of Corvus Energy. She demonstrates that sufficient
energy can be stored on a vessel, and offers a solution for
rapid battery recharges where the local grid may not have
sufficient capacity.
Norled will continue the development of electric
ferries and encourage the rest of the shipping industry to
follow, Norleds technical director, Sigvald Breivik,
comments in Worlds first battery-driven car ferry,
published in the Skipsrevyen Ship of the Year 2014 issue.
Norways ferry fleet is aging, and Fjellstrand counts 40
crossings that could potentially be operated by batterydriven ferries employing designs similar to its ZeroCat
platform. It is estimated that in the Norwegian domestic
ferry system alone, as much as 400,000 tons of CO2
emissions could be eliminated with the use of batterydriven ferries. In the search for zero-emissions solutions,
the lithium-polymer battery could play a starring role.

Shore power solutions

The Li-NMC batteries also boast a high maximum charge/
discharge rate, which provides rapid top-up charges to the
ferrys onboard batteries. One Corvus ESS is installed on the
quay in each village, from which a rapid battery-to-battery
charge is performed during the 10-minute docking.
These shore stations use Corvus AT6500-LQ liquidcooled battery modules and store 410kWh each. With
active liquid cooling, these units support 2.5 times the
continuous current of the vessel-mounted batteries,
enabling use of the smallest onshore battery system
possible on each shore while safely fulfilling rapid
charging design requirements. The shore power stations
ensure sufficient onboard stored energy throughout the
day. The onboard batteries get fully recharged directly
from the grid overnight, when demand is lowest.
The shore batteries, on the other hand, are continuously
recharged from the villages grid. Recharging is controlled
through Siemens demand-management technology at a
rate permitted by the grid infrastructure based on other
demands, which vary throughout the day. As with the
vessel batteries, the shore batteries fully charge overnight.
A low impedance in the Li-NMC battery modules,
combined with active cooling of the shore batteries,
means the onboard batteries can be charged via a rapid
discharge from the shore battery. Corvus AT6500-LQ
modules can each support peak discharge/charge currents
of 1,500A/450A and true continuous (root mean square,
continuous alternating charge and discharge) currents of
225A much higher than in other lithium-ion batteries.


Safety measures
The Corvus ESSs have received type approval from DNVGL, American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) and Lloyds
Register demonstrating the measures taken by Corvus to
ensure the quality and safety of the energy storage system
incorporated into the Ampere ferry.
The Corvus ESS is built to withstand impact and
vibration, and its advanced mechanical design and rack

construction provides fire suppression and antipropagation in the event of thermal runaway.
All Corvus ESSs are current- and temperaturemonitored by a battery management system that
provides warnings, fault, charge and discharge
management. In the Ampere installation, Corvus has
incorporated an advanced active liquid cooling system
for the shore batteries, which uses a proprietary thermal
conductor to remove heat generated during intense use.
As an added bonus, modifications to the mooring
systems to accommodate recharging the Ampere also
enable the diesel ferries to operate more efficiently.
The electric ferry has to be kept completely steady
while at the quayside in order to plug it in. To make this
possible, we developed a unique automated docking
system, says Norleds Fossan, explaining that when the
ferry is safely moored and stabilized, a laser sensor guides
the power connector to a hatch at the side of the ferry,
connects the vessels battery and begins recharging. This
mooring system can also stabilize the diesel ferries, and
can therefore decrease fuel consumption.


Energy Storage Azimuth

520 kWh
Energy Storage
410 kWh


86 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Forward Power Station


Energy Storage
520 kWh

Aft Power Station

A line diagram of the Ampere drive systems

Energy Storage
410 kWh


Beckers LNG concepts are proving once again the companys innovative spirit
on behalf of our environment: The ground-breaking LNG Hybrid drive of
the Wadden Sea and the elblinien ferries signicantly reduces the negative
impact of passenger shipping on European coastal waters and waterways.
Additionally, the LNG Hybrid Barge generates energy for cruise ships lying in port.
Compared to the current method of producing energy using their on-board diesel
engines, the implementation of power supply by the LNG Hybrid Barge will lead to
a dramatic reduction of harmful particle emissions during harbour layovers.

Visit us at Electric & Hybrid Marine

World Expo, Amsterdam, Netherlands,
hall 11, booth no. 7060, 23rd-25th June 2015

W W W. B E C K E R - M A R I N E - S Y S T E M S . C O M

hybrid marine

Launching next year:

Americas own elect
and hybrid marine
technologies show!


The International Exhibition of Electric and Hybrid Marine Propulsion Systems, Technologies, and Components



power systems

The use of power stacks in marine electric

system construction can answer the demand
for complex electrical architectures

s in many other fields, marine

applications have to cope with
environmental regulations. Power
electronics is a key technology in optimizing
energy management, providing the conversion
needed to operate motors, generators, battery
storage and shore supply. Complex power
electronics systems are represented as the
interconnection of conversion blocks, as in
AC/DC, DC/AC, DC/DC and AC/AC. This
gives a good overview on a system level,
but hides a lot of technical problems that
converter designers have to handle. Converter
design is still restricted to specialists;
nevertheless, the advent of stacks is a step
toward simpler system construction. The
emergence of complex electrical architectures
in marine applications will increase the need
for power converters with high reliability and
simple maintenance requirements.

From device to converter

Building a power converter has always been
a compromise between the available power
semiconductor switches, converter topology and
system requirements. Often several technical
solutions achieve a projects goals, especially
when dealing with high-power converters.
Power semiconductor manufacturers are
in search of the perfect switch one with
high voltage and current capability, as well
as low losses. This search is informed
by semiconductor material and process
improvement (silicon-based thyristor, GTO,
MOSFET, IGBT, IGCT), and also by converter
topologies that use multiple cells or switches.
The implementation of power devices in a
converter has become more complex, as system
requirements grow increasingly stringent
regarding lifetime, reliability, EMI and cost.
The emergence of new materials (such as
silicon carbide) will certainly have an effect on
the design of converters and power systems.

88 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International



Right: Votage capacity can

be increased by having
converters on both sides of
the ground connection


Left: Semikrons SKiiPX

IPM features increased
power density and greater
environmental resistance

Nevertheless the basics of power electronics

will endure and a new trade-off will be found.
IGBTs are currently well established in
industrial applications. A product range of
600-6,500V covers low-voltage as well as
medium-voltage applications. After its success in
industrial motor drives with 1,200V technology,
the wind industry encouraged a push on the
1,700V class, improving chip performance in
terms of robustness and loss reduction.

Using stacks
The basic building block of converters is the
half bridge. This may be either a power
module (transistor and diode) or an intelligent
power module (IPM), which includes driver,
sensor and protection functions integrated into
a single device. The SKiiP IPM from Semikron
also includes its own cooling system. The
complete power device is designed and
optimized to achieve a high level of cycling
capability (meaning it has a long life), and
outstanding reliability. The integrated drivers
ensure close protection by the integrated
sensors, adding reliability at system level. The
insulation is designed and tested to exceed
industrial isolation requirements.
SKiiP devices use the latest IGBT chip
technology plus other state-of-the-art
techniques such as using sinter technology
instead of solder, and spring contact instead of
solder contact providing incomparable
cycling capability. The driver uses a digitalbased signal transmission for logic signals, and
also for current, voltage and temperature
measurement, thus ensuring safe electrical

Right: A three-phase
inverter connects DC to
AC, but may be used as a
three-phase interleaved
buck-boost converter

insulation in accordance with standards.

Built-in thermal sensors close to the chip, and
fast current sensors, ensure safe operation up
to hard short-circuit. In addition, a CAN
interface is available for application settings
and for detailed diagnostics in fault conditions.
Using this IPM, Semikron offers a range of
three-phase inverters the so-called stacks
with water-cooled designs, qualified and
ready to use in a power cabinet.
The design meets a very wide range of
international standards, from motor drives to
solar applications, and has passed a stringent
environmental qualification including
mechanical, climatic, biological, test-intransport and operation.
The stack product range offers standard
frame sizes and various electrical
characteristics, and covers a wide range of
applications. The DC link, using dedicated
qualified film capacitors, reaches 100kHrs life
under nominal conditions. Additionally, the
SKiiP built-in sensors provide the highly
accurate current and voltage measurements
required by the application control.
Semikrons 690V AC inverter block,
Semistack RE, ranges from 1MVA to 1.5MVA.
With output current up to 1,400A and DC
link operation of 1,250V, it includes all the
power parts required in a three-phase voltage
source inverter and interfaces to ease cabinet
integration: AC and DC power connections,
control interface, water coupler and
mechanical fasteners. With more than 60
years of experience in power semiconductors,
and 30 years in stack development, Semikron
is able to provide fully specified functions,
extensive testing, and UL certifications.
An example of two stacks integrated into a
600 x 600 x 2,200mm cabinet, with watercooled du/dt filter is shown on page 87. A
control board is needed to change this stack
into a converter with dedicated characteristics,
by providing high-side and low-side logic
signals to the IGBT switches, and monitoring
current, voltage and temperature feedback
from each half bridge, as well as error signals.
Both converters are internally connected on
the DC side. To ensure good coupling between
the two DC links, a bipolar connection (using
busbar construction) is implemented on the
top and bottom of the stack.


Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 89






Increased operating voltage



DC busbar 4x2000A

Fuses 16x1000A








Using such three-phase stacks makes it

possible to increase power by block
parallelization. Inverter parallelization requires
special care. Additional inductors are needed
between inverter outputs to ensure good
dynamic current sharing. This hard-paralleling
mode is made easier by the use of a parallel
board, which provides an interface between
the inverter blocks and control board by
collecting logic signals and scaling sensor
signals. The use of a multiple winding
generator or motor offers a way to get rid of
additional parallel inductors. With the
complexity of multiple control boards, active
paralleling is also possible. Many factors have
to be considered in such a multiconverter
system the control architecture is a key point,
as it may include separate inverter control (for
redundancy purposes, for example).
Converters used in wind applications
feature two three-phase inverters back-toback, one connected to the grid and the other
to the generator (AC/DC and DC/AC). The
evolution of generators, caused by power
increase and maintenance-cost-reduction
targets, is moving from double-fed induction
generators (DFIG) to permanent magnet (PM)
generators. Even if this move does not change
the topology used, it has modified the sizing
conditions and the overall power of the
converter (increasing from about one-third
of the installation power for DFIGs, to full
power for PM generators). Together with
increases in windmill power (up to a total
output of 10MW), the need for high-power
converters is continually growing.
The following example shows how an AC/AC
converter with a range of 4-5MW may be
designed using stacks in parallel, and how the
wiring of these blocks is affected. In the first
configuration (shown in Figure 1, above), the
rectifier function is built out of rectifier stacks
(RECT) in parallel, and the same for the
inverter (INV). Each cabinet contains two
stacks. It should be noted that the inverter and
the rectifier use the same stack. Filtering is
accomplished by line filtering on the grid side
and du/dt filtering on the motor side. The line
filter uses separate filters per converter for
current sharing. Additional brake choppers are
part of the system. The result shows a good
separation of functions rectifier, inverter and
filter. This functional separation creates a
significant DC connection between rectifier and
inverter, handling the whole DC current, and
DC fuses sized to carry the DC nominal current
of each converter. The second configuration
(Figure 2), shows a similar AC/AC converter
with the same stacks, power, filters and cabinet,
but wired differently. Each cabinet is made out



stack combinations



Figure 1 (top): An parallel

AC/AC converter
with a range of 4-5MW
Figure 2: A similar system,
but using an alternative
wiring configuration

of one rectifier and one inverter back-to-back.

Cabinets are parallelized using individual filters
that improve current sharing. This
configuration reduces the need for high-current
DC distribution and corresponding highcurrent fuses. The energy goes directly from
AC to AC through each paralleled block. DC
fuses handle only unbalanced current
between cabinets and have to be sized
for transient operation (brake chopper
operation if needed). The DC connection
between cabinets is necessary to ensure a
common DC voltage for control purposes,
in case of hard paralleling.

DC/DC combinations
A three-phase inverter converts DC to
AC, but may be used as a three-phase
interleaved buck-boost converter that
will be able, as a reversible converter,
to charge and discharge batteries, with
the benefit of filtering optimization due
to interleaving. By using interleaved
switching on a three-phase
configuration, the apparent switching
frequency seen from the DC side (input
or output) is three times the switching
frequency, therefore reducing the filter
size. Inductor optimization is also
improved by splitting current over
smaller-sized inductors. The ripple
current in the battery can be further
improved by additional LC filtering, if
required. From a system point of view it
reduces the number of converter blocks,
thus improving standardization.

90 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

When fewer megawatts are considered,

system optimization tends to increase
operating voltage (from low to medium
voltage) in order to reduce wire gauge and
corresponding losses. If the benefit for
cabling is straightforward, this brings a
number of issues regarding converter design,
performance, cooling and maintenance.
Though multicell converters are now widely
used in many applications, there are
alternative solutions in cases where the
conditions do not lead to a clear choice.
Stack paralleling allows current increase.
Stack series connection is also a possible
solution to increase voltage capability. The
main issue lies in isolation. One well-known
method for increasing voltage capability is to
have converters on both sides of the ground
connection (positive and negative). The
outputs of each stack cannot be directly
connected and the use of a multiple winding
transformer or motor is required. Once again,
the interaction between system and
component is a key point. The choice between
a dedicated high-voltage converter using a low
switching frequency, and widespread
industrial component technology, is less a
technical decision than an industrial one.

Right: An example of two
stacks integrated into a
600 x 600 x 2,200mm
cabinet, equipped with
water-cooled du/dt filter
Below left: Semikrons
range of three-phase
inverters are water-cooled,
qualified and ready for use
inside a power cabinet

Stack benefits
Using limited numbers of subassemblies
and taking advantage of standardized
production and cost reduces the maintenance
requirements of stacks. A new generation of
power semiconductor chip technology is
introduced every three to five years, and is
obsolete after 10-15 years. Upgrading
converters due to component obsolescence is
not that simple even if, from a performance
perspective, new chip generations always
provide improvements. The backward
compatibility has to deal with mechanical,
thermal and electrical parameters, but also
with system-sensitive matters such as EMI.
The IPM includes drivers as well as current,
voltage and temperature sensors. Electronic
circuit life of each circuit is covered by the
IPM itself.
Semikron is already working on the next
generation of power stacks. Using its newly
developed SKiiPX IPM, power density will be
increased, as will the ability to withstand
environmental factors.
New SKiN technology, together with
efficient water cooling, provides outstanding
performance. The modular construction of
the SKiiPX offers modularity regarding
current rating. The housing provides a 3K4
climatic category together with a pollution
degree 3 rating, improving operation in
harsh environments. Combined with
innovative construction and optimal thermal
management, it will lead to a 3MW,
four-quadrant converter, fitting into an 800 x
600 x 2,000mm cabinet.
For a converter manufacturer, purchasing a
higher-level function such as a stack strongly
reduces the required development and
manufacturing effort, improves time-tomarket and quality yield, and eases lifetime
management. For a system integrator, the
stack represents a way to build an innovative
power system, using a simple and reliable
power function, without the constraints of
power device implementation, freeing up
development resources.
& Hybrid
// October
& Hybrid
// April2014


Advances in permanent
magnet technology
are speeding up the
introduction of
electric propulsion
system hybridization in
marine applications



here are three factors that affect the

development of marine propulsion
systems: fuel savings, maintenance costs,
and legislation dealing with environmental
protection. The integration of an electric drive
in marine propulsion systems harmonizes
propulsion power needs; optimizes operating
resources; reduces fuel consumption, time
and maintenance costs; increases redundancy,
robustness and operational safety; and reduces
greenhouse gas emissions.
There are differences between vessels that
operate as passenger ships, working units
and local transportation ships, and those
that navigate environmentally protected
waterways. However, the owners of all these
vessels like to maximize comfort and minimize
service costs. And whenever electric drives
are used, the advanced technology premium
or super premium efficiency (IE4) categories
should be used. Hence, permanent magnet
(PM) technology must be applied. Motors
and generators with PM technology are
always accompanied by power electronics
and advanced digital controls. These make
the system more complex yet unbeatable in
terms of comfort, user-friendly operation,
and energy transfer efficiency.
Compared with conventional diesel engine
propulsion systems, todays electric equivalents
offer much better performance, but are
hindered by a lack of adequate energy source
capacity. This means comparing up-to-date
battery energy capacity with a fuel tankconcentrated chemical energy, and as such,
Above: Parallel hybrid
solutions offer a good
compromise between
navigation autonomy,
space usage and
investment, and can
optimize system efficiency

the ship owner has to invest much more

money at the beginning to enjoy long-term fuel
savings and get a return on their investment.
Practical applications today use conventional
fuel-like energy sources, but propulsion
energy control is achieved by electric systems
via a process called hybridization.
When a diesel engine is connected to
a generator and when an electric motor is
connected to a propeller shaft, an electric
shaft, referred to as a serial hybrid system,
is installed between the power source and
propeller shaft. The propeller is always
driven by an electric motor.
In this system, a common DC bus solution
is the best choice. When a genset supplies a
DC bus, there is no need for constant
frequency operation. Here, a diesel engine
can operate in variable speed and generator
frequency mode (VSGS), offering maximum
efficiency. By controlling the engine speed
through measuring the output voltage and
current, VSGS can operate as a battery
charger, or control the engine speed separately.
It can also use a step-down converter to
stabilize the output voltage. The best solution
is offered by using a diesel engine speed
controller to optimize fuel consumption and
an active front-end solution for voltage buck
and boost control. The system requires more
investment, but it makes a return on the
investment much faster than conventional
systems, reduces fuel consumption, and offers
the best common DC bus performance.
An electric motor and diesel engine
connected on the same shaft is referred to as
a parallel hybrid system. The propeller can
be driven by the electric motor and/or diesel
engine. The mechanical connection between
the diesel engine, electric motor and propeller
can be achieved in different ways.

92 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Small ships and boats usually use an in-line

configuration. Here, it is important to operate
the propulsion shaft in both directions with
the diesel engine and electric motor. The
diesel engine should be able to drive the
propeller for maneuvering and navigation. The
same applies to the electric motor, giving users
a choice of which system to use and which to
have on standby.
The battery should be charged by the electric
motor running as a generator and driven by
the diesel engine, or by batteries charged from
a shore connection point. A coupling control
between the diesel motor and propeller shaft
should be as simple as possible, and should be
robust and engaged for low torque and low
power systems.

The core of electric propulsion

Advanced technology and innovation in
PM electric machine design are making
significant steps toward the introduction
of electric propulsion system hybridization.
A serial hybrid solution offers the best
marine propulsion system efficiency. It is
usually used in more powerful marine
propulsion systems. Combining several
variable speed gensets with an electric
propulsion motor connected over an active
front-end and inverters to a common DC bus
generally provides flexible maneuvering and
navigation features with improved efficiency.
Meanwhile, a parallel hybrid solution
makes for a good compromise between
navigation autonomy, space usage and
investment. It offers redundancy, compact
installation, and optimizes the overall system
efficiency. Such a configuration is usually
selected for boats and small ships, as well as
speedboats and yachts, to boost the main
engine before vessel planing.

- D !
-A E


hybrid marine

IN YOUR D 016!

JANUARY 11-13, 2016


Launching n
ext year:
Americas o
and hybrid m electric
technologie rine
s show!


The International Exhibition of Electric and Hybrid Marine
Propulsion Systems, Technologies, and Components.


20kW controller

20kW motor /

Power split

Battery bank



100hp (75kW)

Figure 1: Hybrid Marines

parallel solution means the
IC motor can be operated
at maximum efficiency,
reducing costs and
enabling zero emissions
Below, left: EnerSys
batteries are cost-effective
and can be implemented
into hybrid powertrains

The use of advanced lead-acid

TPPL technology in a hybrid
system can lead to highly
efficient, cost-effective marine
power solutions in small craft

eading industrial battery manufacturer

EnerSys has been working closely with
Hybrid Marine to provide a cost-effective
battery solution for the latters range of hybrid
marine powertrains. In Hybrid Marines
parallel hybrid solution, an electric motor/
generator powered by a battery bank can drive
a propeller when the IC engine is not able to
run efficiently. An additional extra load can be
added to the IC motor, enabling it to operate at
maximum efficiency. This load can then be
used to recharge the battery, as shown in
Figure 1. This system maximizes the efficiency
of the IC engine, reducing fuel costs and
giving the vessel the ability to run with zero
emissions when required. Other renewable
sources of energy can be used to increase the
efficiency of the system, and electrical loads
such as navigation systems, lights, washing
machines, electric ovens, induction hobs and
even air-conditioning on the boat can be
driven by the same system. The battery
technology for this application was critical and
needed to meet a number of specific criteria.

94 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


Application requirements
In order to meet the needs of the application,
the battery had to be large enough for long
run times and to maximize the running
efficiency of the engine. It had to operate for
long periods of time in a partial state of charge
without great degradation in performance. In
addition, the battery needed to accept charge
quickly and effectively to maximize the
efficiency of the engine when running at high
loads. A good energy density was required, to
reduce weight on the boat, and the battery
needed to present a cost-effective solution.
EnerSys was able to offer a 10kWh
battery bank based on its Odyssey range.
The thin plate pure lead (TPPL) technology
used in Odyssey is widely employed in the
telecommunications industry for running cell
phone systems in off-grid areas, and was
specifically developed for hybrid systems. The
battery bank is a 48V system based on four
Odyssey PC1800 12V blocks, weighing 240kg.
In the Hybrid Marine system, the
maximum depth of discharge (DoD) of the
battery is set to 80%, which enables the IC
engine to run at optimum efficiency while
also maximizing the cycle life of the battery.
The PC1800 in this application is able to offer
600 cycles at 80% DoD, 1000 cycles at 60%
DoD, and in excess of 1,500 cycles at 50%
DoD. The cycle life applies up to 40C
ambient. The high charge acceptance
capability of the Odyssey products ensures
that when the IC engine is running, the
battery is recharging, further extending the
life of the battery. TPPL technology can be
fully charged from flat in less than one hour.
The capital cost per kWh for the Odyssey
PC1800 compares favorably with other battery
chemistries, so the savings achieved justify the
use of a hybrid system. The battery has proved
to be reliable and robust in service, and is a
critical component in a complete system that
offers cost savings, increased electrical power
and luxury to the consumer.

- D !
-A E


hybrid marine

IN YOUR D 016!

JANUARY 11-13, 2016


Launching n
ext year:
Americas o
and hybrid m electric
technologie rine
s show!


The International Exhibition of Electric and Hybrid Marine
Propulsion Systems, Technologies, and Components.



Mobile LNG power

An LNG hybrid barge can provide a mobile alternative
to cruise ships dependence on onshore power supplies

96 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


Mobile solutions

UKIP Media & Events Ltd

A floating LNG Hybrid Barge, however, can

be moved between terminals in a port. It
can be made available all year round and
independent of port calls. During the cruise
off-season, it can produce electrical power
and heat that can be fed into local grids,
supplying households in the city as an
additional benefit. The power can be
delivered at 60Hz for the majority of cruise
ships, or 50Hz for public grid and industrial
customers. No separate and expensive
shore-side converter is needed. On the

Opposite: The LNG Hybrid
Barge can be quickly and
easily deployed to ports
where OPS is unavailable,
and where implementation
of the infrastructure that
would be required may
take a large amount of time

April 2015

Alternative power

The future application of the LNG Hybrid

Barge means that no more sulfur oxides and
diesel particles will be produced during port
layovers, unlike the use of conventional marine
diesel, which has a sulfur content of 0.1%.
Emissions of nitrogen oxides are reduced by
up to 80% and emissions of carbon dioxide
are cut by 20%.
In the cruise ship season, one leading
operator will make 73 calls to the Port of
Hamburg. With this number of calls, the LNG
Hybrid Barge could save 616 tons of carbon
dioxide and 53 tons of nitrogen oxide, while
no diesel particles or sulfur dioxide will be
produced at all.
The complete system complies with the
IEC/ISO/IEEE 80005-1 regulation, making
it possible to serve all ships complying with
the international standard.
Cold ironing has come a long way in the
past five years, but now the Port of Hamburg
is ready to make the next technological leap,
opening new horizons with its LNG Hybrid
Barge, says Stevie Knight from GreenPort.

electric & hybrid marine technology international

While onshore power supply (OPS) is not yet

available for cruise ships in Europe, and the
provision of the necessary infrastructure will
inevitably take time, the LNG Hybrid Barge
can easily and quickly be made available to
all interested ports.
An OPS also known as high-voltage
shore connection (HVSC) is a step in the
right direction, but one step is not enough.
This solution is fixed to one berth (or to a
single point on a berth), a big frequency
converter is needed to change from 50Hz
to 60Hz, and the emissions are simply
transferred from the cruise ship to a
possibly coal-fired power plant on
shore. Ultimately this might even result
in higher emissions than if the power had
been generated on board. In this regard,
OPS has severe limitations and does not
necessarily guarantee cleaner air in ports.

LNG Hybrid Barge, liquefied natural gas is

converted to electric power of up to 7.5MW
by five generators, which is fed into the
onboard power grid. Handling small-scale
LNG is currently a challenge and calls for
innovative solutions. The barge is equipped
with two 12m (40ft) LNG containers, each
with a capacity of 15 tons, enough for three
cruise ship arrivals.
As a part of the testing program for the
LNG Hybrid Barge, the first container of
marine fuel was delivered on December 15,
2014. The testing of the gas engines at the
Port of Hamburg is a first for both the
classification society and participating
authorities, said Dirk Lehmann and
Henning Kuhlmann, managing directors of
Becker Marine Systems.
The gas container from Shell Gasnor was
formally delivered to Becker Marine Systems
at the Blohm + Voss shipyard. The container
had previously made the journey from the
Fluxys LNG Terminal in Zeebrugge, Belgium,
to Hamburg.



to request exclusive and rapid information
about the latest technologies and services
featured in this issue

marine technology international

n average, cruise ships spend 40%

of their operating time in port.
These ships mostly use their onboard
engines to generate power, which causes
high levels of emissions. Ports are often in
densely populated cities, such as Hamburg,
and cruise ships increasingly call in at these
major European destinations. Therefore it is
of great importance that emissions from
ships in port are reduced.
Becker Marine Systems a market leader
in high-performance rudders, maneuvering
solutions and energy-saving devices and a
leading cruise operator developed the
classified seagoing LNG Hybrid Barge to
reduce emissions in ports. It is an
innovative, pioneering project aimed at
providing a quick and flexible power supply
to cruise ships during their layovers at port
one that is more eco-friendly, flexible and
economic than all other options.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 97



battery systems
Scalable high-performance battery systems are an
ideal fit for hybrid high-power marine applications

98 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International


here are a growing number of modern

marine applications where there is a
demand for hybrid high-power
applications with lithium-ion batteries.
Akasol develops and manufactures modular
lithium-ion battery systems specially for these
applications. Developed for hybrid ships,
these systems can also be used in areas such
as aerospace, hybrid vehicles, commercial
and special purpose vehicles, and stationary
high-performance applications.
Akasols engineers designed a system
with 10Ah pouch cells for hybrid high-power
applications, with a life expectancy of 7,000
cycles (at 100% DoD, 25C) and millions of
subcycles. Thanks to its liquid cooling, the
Akamodule HHP weighs only 5.9kg and
measures just 182 x 130 x 182mm. Its NMC
lithium-ion technology gives it a high power
density of more than 2.6kW/kg.

Demanding applications
Lithium-ion battery systems, such as
Akasystem HHP 8M, are particularly suitable
for hybrid high-power applications in the
marine environment. They offer high power
density, free scalability and a high level of
customization to meet installation space
constraints. Applications range from harbor
logistics such as hybrid automated guided
vehicles (AGVs) and straddle carriers to
yachts, offshore supply vessels, drilling ships,
excursion boats, tugboats and ferries.
Lithium ion battery systems are capable of
fast-charging. Vehicles and ships that travel
the same route and stop regularly can
make use of this and therefore require
battery systems with much lower
capacity. Smaller batteries can then be
installed, and the extra space used
for additional cargo or passengers.
Due to their regular schedules and
identical routes, ferries are the
ideal vessels to be powered by
hybrid or fully electric propulsion
systems with lithium-ion batteries.

Technical innovations
Reliable, safe, long-lasting and
highly efficient batteries are
a prerequisite for long-term,
successful introduction of technical
innovations in marine applications.
After all, shipowners and operators
working in harbor logistics need to
transport large payloads at the lowest
possible deadweight. Akasols efficient,
high-performance battery systems can
provide a decisive advantage in terms of
weight, and lower maintenance and repair
requirements throughout the life of the system.
It is no coincidence that Akasol is one of the
leading global manufacturers of energy storage

solutions for marine applications. The company

has experts in system development, mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, software,
safety, cell chemistry, test, simulation and
service all gathered together under one roof.
These experts work together in a creative and
passionate atmosphere that demands technical
challenges. The companys ambition is to share
the results of its work, not just in the lab, but
also in the harbor and on the water.
For this reason, Akasol is fully committed
to finding new battery solutions for highperformance marine applications, providing
customers electric or hybrid marine
applications with the necessary power to
give them a decisive head start over the
competition, whether the application
involves container logistics in the harbor,
yachts, excursion boats, tugboats or ferries.

Scalable solutions
Akasol batteries are installed in many marine
applications. The flexible, modular system
design can be easily adapted to meet specific
customer demands. Offshore supply vessels
and drilling ships which require enormous
amounts of instant power to maintain their
position use lithium-ion batteries to meet
their demanding load profile. The resulting
benefits are reduced fuel consumption,
emissions and maintenance costs.
Yacht owners use Akasol batteries to reduce
the environmental impact and noise of their
ships. In addition to these benefits, owners
can manage for extended periods without
using shore power or a generator.
AGVs for container handling are often in
continuous operation for 24 hours a day,
seven days a week, and use large amounts of
fuel. With a view to increasing fuel efficiency,
reducing CO2 emissions and lowering
maintenance costs, Akasol has installed its
lithium-ion batteries in fully electric AGVs
for Hamburgs Container Terminal
Altenwerder. In combination with an
intelligent battery charging infrastructure,
the AGVs are able to operate with maximum
power and minimum standing times.

Top: The Akasystem

HHP 8M. Featuring eight
Akamodules and weighing
84kg, it measures 444 x
808 x 175mm and can
reach a maximum power
density of 1.45kW/kg
Above: Suited for use
aboard ferries and large
ships, the Akasystem
1080 M has a storage
capacity of 2.5MWh and
a maximum discharging
power of 12.8MW

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 99


Energy management
Enabling the efficient
configuration of electric
or hybrid drive systems
can simplify the connection
of individual components

ven though the potential savings

are enormous, electric and hybrid
propulsion systems are only slowly
gaining ground. The main reason for this
lies in the additional costs for energy storage
and the complex adjustment of the individual
modules. The energy management of the total
installation in particular can be extremely
challenging and complex.
The Multiple Energy Control System
concept (MECS) from Aradex makes
connection of the individual drive
components easier. With MECS, nearly all
kinds of energy storage, power generators
and consumers can be flexibly combined and
connected to the DC bus. MECS is suitable
for simple systems (battery and electric motor,
for example) as well as for more complex
systems consisting of several generators,
various energy storages, onboard grid supply,
land-charging device and propulsion.
A practical example of this system is the
conversion of the diesel inland cargo ship,
the Enok. The ambitious goal was 25% energy
savings while using standard components.
Right: The implementation
of Aradex technology in
the conversion of the
Enok enabled the project
to exceed its ambitious
energy-saving targets

Supply and demand

In order to cope with the different load
requirements, the large diesel generator was
replaced by a 420kW diesel generator and two
210kW generators. They are connected and
disconnected according to demand, and
supply the 650V DC bus, which in turn
supplies onboard power and propulsion.
The drive motor consists of two 200kW
permanent magnet torque synchronous
motors, without gearboxes, mounted directly
for both propulsion shafts. The efficiency
of the motors is 90% even if drive capacity
is only 10%.
The system has a number of advantages.
Smaller generators can easily be integrated
into the existing ships structure. The center
of gravity was moved to the middle of the
ship, which is much more suitable for
traveling in shallow waters. Three small
generators cost less than a single larger
motor as they are manufactured in larger
quantities. The redundant design guarantees
maneuverability. Expensive batteries
are not required for energy storage.
One of the principle challenges is flexible
energy management. The diesel generator
sets have to operate with maximum
efficiency. In particular, the stabilization
of the DC bus with large load changes that
could occur during maneuvering is a huge
challenge for the energy management system.
The danger is that current pulsations in the
DC bus can cause resonances of several
hundred amps that have to be compensated
for in less than one millisecond.
At this point MECS comes into play.
The system consists of hardware and software.
Vectopower hardware ensures easy connection
of system components to the DC bus, assumes
fast and deterministic current control and
delivers additional, exact data about the
status of connected components. The MECS
software receives all the data and regulates
the individual components accordingly in
real time 2,000 times per second.

100 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

A modular approach
MECS offers functional components in the
form of software modules. The diesel-electric
power management module used in the Enok,
for example, allows the configuration of the
number of generators, the maximum power
of each one, and the ideal operating point
of the motors. This arrangement means
that the MECS software on board the Enok
is always aware of the behavior of the
complete system, recognizes the interactions
between component, and is capable of
reacting quickly to changes.
If, for instance, the hardware is extended
with battery storage for emission-free travel
in densely populated areas, then the
battery storage energy management can
be flexibly integrated into MECS. The
integrated Vectostudio software development
system from Aradex is a complete
development environment with multiple
functional modules and can be used to
shorten development times considerably.


Vectopower hardware
ensures easy connection
of system components to
the DC bus. Pictured above
is the Vectopower 600

Aradexs own bus system, the Vectobus,

is used for data transfer. This system is less
susceptible to external disturbances because
the signals have higher voltage amplitude.
The real heart of MECS, however, is the
Vectopower product family currently the
fastest bidirectional inverters for mobile
applications available. They are the physical
connection to the DC bus; they control and
monitor the actual power yields.
Vectopower inverters are incredibly flexible.
One device can be used as propulsion,
generator, DC/DC converter, charging device,
or for creating the onboard supply, simply by
altering the device parameters. As well as easy
connection to the DC bus, this also has the
advantage that just a single device needs to be
kept as a replacement, and can be very swiftly
switched out if required. On board the Enok,
eight Vectopower devices are in use: three for
power generation and connection to the
generators, four as traction drives with two
motors on each shaft, and one for the onboard
three-phase power supply. One Vectopower
weighs less than 15kg, so no chain hoists are
required for integration.

As well as being totally flexible for easy

handling, Vectopower inverters regulate the
current every 2s a hugely important
feature for safe energy management.
In practice, this means that an increase in
motor current signals to the Vectopower that
a propeller is digging into the river bank even
before the vibrations reach the driving cab.
The propeller is stopped before damage occurs.
In order to prove that the Enok conversion
was a success, the ship carried out a key
comparison journey. Loaded with 1,230 tons
of wheat, the transport ship traveled through
Germany to the Netherlands. The ship arrived
70 hours later, having consumed 3,300 liters
of diesel fuel. Before conversion, the Enok
required 70 hours and 4,460 liters of diesel
for the same load. The new diesel-electric
drive system required 1,160 liters less fuel for
the same journey a saving of 26%.

Further applications
The first voyage with the Enok was five years
ago. Since then Aradex has implemented many
other projects, also in the shipping industry. At
first, the focus was on energy savings, whereas
nowadays the emphasis is more on emissionsfree operation. At the time of going to press, a
ship relying on batteries alone is restricted by
the distance between two charging stations
and therefore is only suitable for certain uses.
However, auxiliary units such as onboard
power generation can be implemented so that
the required energy comes from a battery, at
least during times in port.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 101


propulsion systems
Increasingly, integrators are considering electric propulsion
as part of an overall onboard energy management system

ts a big step, but making the move to

electric propulsion is becoming increasingly
common. Living a green, low-energy
lifestyle once meant renouncing modern
technology for a more primitive existence.
Nowadays, however, electric propulsion
maximizes creature comforts while helping
to save the environment. Boat builders are
also noticing the trend and more models are
being offered with electric propulsion.
Replacing an ancient, corroding and
polluting engine with a clean and quiet
electric system has a lot of advantages. What
better argument is needed than the ability to
cross the waters with electrical devices
humming and without burning a drop of fuel?
Combustion engines are noisy, have poor
efficiency and require a lot of maintenance;
electric motors offer a maintenance-free
system with high-torque propulsion. And
motor sailing with electric propulsion by
no means diminishes the experience.

Going mainstream
Electric propulsion technology is still in the
developmental stage. But over the past five
years Oceanvolt has been able to refine many
aspects of the electric drive. The company
focuses on producing electric propulsion
systems for catamarans and sailboats, and
combines those systems into overall onboard
energy management. Every part has been
specifically designed for electrical use and
the systems are silent, simple and reliable.

Oceanvolt systems are available for

virtually any boat currently designed for
10-40hp diesel engines for example,
monohulls up to 10-12 tons and catamarans
up to 15-16 tons, to a maximum of 18.3m.
In some boat models, Oceanvolt is the only
electric option available. Eighty systems have
been delivered using the Oceanvolt SEA
(Silent Electric Autonomy) system as
standard. The Oceanvolt SEA concept is
a unique system that combines electric
propulsion and hydro-generation with
high-capacity energy storage using Super B
lithium batteries.
Switching to an electric drive requires
a number of issues to be considered. The
weight of the batteries, especially lower-cost
lead-acid gel and AGM batteries, can be
significant on board a boat. However, using
Super B batteries overcomes this, as they can
be placed anywhere in the boat to improve
the trim. The Oceanvolt SEA system is able to
recharge batteries under sail at up to 5kW per
motor. This energy is stored in Super B
battery banks to be used at a later stage for
example, to run the air-conditioning silently
at night. An AC diesel generator would need
to run constantly.

102 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Right: Super B battery

interface boxes are the
electrical interface
between the batteries
and the application load
Below: Super B batteries
such as the SB12V160E-ZC
can be placed anywhere
within a vessels layout in
order to improve the trim

Simple operation
The design of the electric motors, and the
fact that they have fewer components,
means that fewer things can break or go
wrong. Electric motors are easy to maintain
and owners can generally perform work
without specific training and specialist tools.
This reduces maintenance requirements and
ensures reliable operation.
Super B engineers advise integrators on
systems that are pre-tested, together with
racking, distribution and electric drive
components and subsystems ready for
plug-and-play installation on a vessel. This
avoids time-consuming trial and error during
integration. Advanced unit monitoring,
alarming and trending functions are typical
features of a modern control system, and form
a major focus of the Super B training program.
A common misconception is that electric
propulsion systems cost more than
combustion systems, once the cost of batteries
is factored in. However, electric propulsion
systems vary in price and Super B batteries
last for years when properly maintained.
Total costs will continue to drop as more
users make the switch to these systems and
economies of scale enable manufacturers to
lower prices. Super B offers a very generous
five-year limited warranty for marine hybrid
and electric applications, making the
systems a safe, ideal choice for auxiliary
power on recreational sailing vessels, as
well as on many other types of watercraft.
The system can also be converted into a
hybrid system with a generator. A compact
DC generator can provide direct propulsion
and recharge even simultaneously. Compared
with traditional AC generator systems, the
hybrid system DC generator runs 20-30% of
the time, reducing operation and maintenance
costs as well as pollution. The propeller spins
when left out of gear during sailing, thereby
charging the batteries. Using the motor for
short periods only will cause minimal drain.
Oceanvolt always advises users to hoist the
sails, even in moderate winds, because adding
a few knots to the propulsion power makes a
huge difference to the range. Under
regeneration, the intelligent algorithm
minimizes drag: a 6-ton sailboat sailing at 7kts
will lose only 0.1kts while regenerating 500W.
Every Super B battery is equipped with a
decentralized proprietary battery management
system (BMS), monitoring and managing all
four of its cells using true adaptive balancing.
The BMS keeps tabs on the state of charge,
monitoring the energy into and out of the
pack and, most importantly, balancing the
pack. Each Super B BMS is equipped with a
CANopen communication port and hardwired

contacts for easy integration. All that is

required is to connect the interface to a PC.
This interface takes care of output voltage
and frequency, as well as the programming
of the relay. The relay and fuses can change
depending on the voltage and current of the
system, offering full control of circuits as well
as the ability to view important onboard
system information. When more than one
battery is in the bank, each is connected
to the CANbus interface and all individual
BMSs function as one. These modes are all
user configurable, and Super B will also
program the basic profile for a given motor.
The entire system is operated with an energy
management module, giving the captain
touchscreen control of every electrical device
on the boat.
Making that all-important cup of tea
couldnt be any easier hot water is available
simply by connecting a water heater to the
propulsion battery bank via an inverter.
The inverter also makes the energy available
to power everything else on board, so users
can, for example, have an electric cooker
instead of the more usual gas, and recharge
mobile devices several times a day.

An example installation of
the Oceanvolt SEA system
with Super B batteries
aboard a catamaran.
The system can be used in
vessels up to 15-16 tons

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 103

Figure 1: Liebherr offers a range of
durable, robust components for
use in electric propulsion systems
Figure 2: Propulsion systems have
a number of essential requirements


propulsion solutions
Combining modern control technology and drive systems with
power electronics and energy storage can help deliver maximum
performance, reliability and economy to customers

ontrol technology and drive systems

from Liebherr are characterized by
maximum performance, reliability
and profitability. Modern control technology
combined with power electronics and energy
storage units provides high effectiveness,
lower total cost of ownership and thus added
value for the customer.
In the early 1950s, Liebherr started to
work on the electrification of its systems and
developed its own electrical control technology
as well as electric motors and generators. In
those early days these products and systems
were exclusively used in Liebherr Group
machines such as tower cranes, maritime
cranes (port equipment) and off-highway
vehicles. In the 1980s, PLC-controlled systems
and (for the first time) the companys own
power-electronics modules, based on thyristor
technology, were developed for ship-to-shore
cranes. Since then this technology has been
further developed and extended by IGBT
frequency-converter systems and energystorage units based on double-layer capacitors.
Liebherr power-electronics modules are
marketed under the brand name Liduro,
which has become known for highly durable
and robust components that are suitable for
operation under extreme conditions with
maximum reliability. Liduro modules are the
basis of the Litronic control system, which is
in use in many other applications such as,
since 2010, the worlds largest dump truck
with a system output power of 4.5MW.
Furthermore, since the beginning of 2015 it is
also being used to drive ship-to-shore cranes.
Litronic offers the interaction of intelligent
control technology and power electronics
within a system for use in an application.


The requirements for a modern and

future-oriented drive system include more
material handling in a shorter time, together
with reduced energy input. Litronic systems
are designed to fulfill these requirements.
For diesel-electric and pure electric
systems, the Litronic system handles power
control and distribution. It ensures that the
asynchronous or synchronous machines on
the output side, and the combustion engine
on the input side, are operated optimally.

Efficiency and


Engine speed

with low

Intelligence and efficiency

An essential element of an efficient system
is an intelligent control system for the
drivetrain. Low-loss frequency converter
systems, speed controllers for the
combustion engine of diesel-electric
drives and additional use of energy storage
units are advanced options for boosting the
efficiency of the application.
Frequency converters generally achieve very
high efficiencies. Depending on the application
and load profile, this can be improved even
further by fine-tuning the control strategy
during operation and actuating the power
modules accordingly. There are two kinds of
internal losses that affect efficiency switching
losses and conduction losses. Every time a
semiconductor power module (an IGBT, for

104 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Customized engineering




(e.g. joystick)

Request power

Request speed


n ref





Stall protection
Figure 3: Liebherrs lifecycle expertise
Figure 4: Engine control regulation
architecture in the Litronic system
Figure 5: A comparison of a double-layer
capacitor energy-storage system

Service requirements
Another step of the design phase is deriving
a suitable maintenance and service strategy.
Depending on the application and operation,
the various load profiles are subdivided into
segments. Essentially these are acceleration,
constant speed and braking/deceleration
actions. Each action places different
requirements on the system and in
particular on the power electronics. The
Litronic control system recognizes a change
in the operating situation and adjusts the
regulation strategy accordingly. This prevents
premature aging and unnecessary losses
within the power modules. Unexpected
damage caused by a system that has either
not been configured or has been incorrectly
configured for the application is prevented,
thereby reducing maintenance costs.
Because key technologies are developed
and manufactured in-house, Liebherr
Components is able to respond with great
flexibility to customer requirements to
provide process reliability and a consistently
high level of product quality.
After-sales support and the long-term
availability of spare parts rounds off the
range of services offered by the company.

DLC system switched off

Liebherr Components attaches great

value to offering the right solution for the
customers task. To achieve maximum
productivity and efficiency, the focus is on
a finely tuned complete system. Even during
the very first system definition and design,
the expected load profile is analyzed with the
customer. During further development, the
components are emulated and analyzed using
modern simulation methods. The results are
directly incorporated into the design of the
control and power modules for example,
the frequency converter system and into
the related control strategy.

DLC system switched on

Figure 6: Low loss switching

Mission profile of DLC storage system

example) is switched on or off, losses are

generated, resulting in a temperature increase
within the module. This temperature increase
has to be dissipated by a suitable cooling
system. The more frequently the modules are
actuated, the more losses occur. In cases
where a reduced number of switching cycles
is possible (while keeping in line with the
requirements for example, running an
electric motor with lower output frequency),
losses can be reduced without affecting the
output torque. At the same time, this measure
will substantially increase the service life of the
semiconductor module, as this is influenced
by its thermal load, and will allow the cooling
system to be configured for a lower cooling
output. In liquid-cooled systems, the
reduction of power losses can be clearly seen
in the temperature profile of the coolant.
Another opportunity to reduce operating
costs is the additional use of a suitable
energy-storage unit. Since 2008 Liebherr has
successfully employed such a system in a
rubber-tired gantry crane. Comparisons with
machines of the same type and power class
show that fuel consumption can be substantially
reduced without performance being affected.
When the load is lowered, potential energy
is converted by the electric motors, which are
operated as generators, and stored in modules
based on double-layer capacitors. The energy
remains within the system and is available for
later use. The storage modules are connected
to the intermediate DC link, either directly or
via additional power electronic modules.
During operation, such as when driving or
lifting, the stored energy is released. This
means that substantially less energy
has to be fed into the system.
An active speed control of the
combustion engine is another
option for reducing energy
consumption and increasing the
efficiency of the complete system.
The speed of the combustion
engine is directly controlled,
based on the required drive
power. This enables the
reduction of engine losses as
far as possible. The challenge
is to adjust the speed precisely
enough to provide exactly the
power needed without overloading
and stalling the engine. The Litronic
engine control system monitors the
complete actuation and control process,
ensuring that performance of the
machine is not impaired and guaranteeing
more efficient operation examination of
results has shown that fuel savings of 20% are
possible. Depending on the machine and the
number of operating hours per year, cost
savings of five figures can be achieved.

Regular switching

Low loss switching

Actual output


Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 105



ship propulsion
Permanent magnet electric motors and generators, in combination
with variable-speed engine operation, can deliver major efficiency gains

Inpowers mission is to save fuel in ship

propulsion through the use of permanent
magnet (PM) electric motors and generators,
in combination with running the diesel or
LNG engines (gensets) at variable speed. That
approach has led to several unique solutions
in ship propulsion, including the patented
and proven PhiDrive diesel-electric propulsion
system, which is one of the most fuel-efficient
propulsion systems on the market today.
Fuel consumption is reduced by connecting
the PM generator directly to the PM propulsion
motor, eliminating the mechanical reduction
gearbox and cutting the amount of installed
power on the variable-frequency converters.

Right: A graph of PhiDrive

efficiency. The patented
diesel-electric propulsion
system is, its creators
claim, one of the
most fuel-efficient
solutions available today

106 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Fuel Consumption







DP standby

DP unloading

(80% speed)

(80% speed)

PhiDrive Diesel electric Difference

Difference in fuel consumption

Core technology

Above: Normann Sandy

founded Inpower (then
Norpropeller) in 2001,
alongside Reidar Vrdal
and Robert Nilssen.
Sandy also founded
two other companies

Fuel consumption [liter/hour]

rom his earliest years on the west coast of

Norway, Normann Sandys interests lay
in the sea and technology. These concerns
shaped his whole life, both personally and
professionally. Born in 1941, he died in 2011.
Sandy studied in Trondheim to realize his
dream of becoming a chief engineer. Thus
began a long career in the shipping industry,
first as an engineer and then as chief engineer
in the international merchant fleet.
It was not in Sandys nature to slow down,
even after retirement. When he gave up the
sea, he actually became more visible in the
Norwegian marine industry. Driven by the
urge to create, Sandy established Inpower
(originally Norpropeller) in 2001, alongside
Reidar Vrdal, the boss of Elmarin, and
Robert Nilssen of the Norwegian University
of Science and Technology. Following
Inpowers creation, Sandy was granted five
patents and founded two additional
companies to develop and commercialize his
ideas. They were Marine Power Technologies
and CleanPower. His professional capacity
and personal exploits allowed Sandy to
exploit a lifetime of experience in propulsion.

The main advantages of PM electric
machines are high torque density, high power
density, high efficiency, low rotor losses (which
mean easier cooling of the rotor), and more
flexible and easier integration with mechanical
equipment such as rim-driven thrusters and
mechanical hybrid reduction gearboxes.
A PM machine is a synchronous unit
where permanent magnets replace the
electromagnets in the rotor poles. This
offers great advantages in rotor construction,
particularly for propulsion motors and other
low-speed, high-torque (directly driven)
applications. The permanent magnets can
produce the same magnetic field as an
electromagnet in less volume, and
implementing a larger number of poles while
keeping the diameter small becomes easier.
Since no current is required to maintain
the magnetic field, rotor losses are much
lower than in both field-wound synchronous
machines (current in electromagnets) and
asynchronous machines (reactive
magnetizing current). The reduced losses
in the PM machine give higher efficiency,
particularly at partial loads (and speeds).
Torque density and pole size yield
superior torque/power density in low-speed,
high-torque applications. The stator in a PM
machine is identical to synchronous and
asynchronous units in terms of construction
and manufacturing processes, and no
magnetizing equipment (brushes,
magnetizing machine, control unit, and so
forth) is required. The converter rating is
lower than in drives for asynchronous
machines, owing to the better power factor.
PM machines are used today in vast numbers
of industrial applications and devices, and their
high efficiency and power/torque density are
perfect for direct-drive propulsion motors.

The Eiksund car ferry fitted

with Brunvoll rim-driven
PM thrusters and Inpower
PhiDrive propulsion system

Variable-speed engines

for a PSV

At quay

DP standby

(100% speed)

DP unloading

(80% speed)

Block performance
Fuel stop power
DBR curve
P = f(n)


Left: A motor fuel map

under different load and
speed conditions.
Changing gensets from
fixed to variable speed in
such conditions can cut
fuel consumption by
10-30%, maintenance
costs by 40% and NOx
emissions by 86%

Sandy claimed that no combustion engine

was efficient when running at a high fixed
RPM and with a variable load. This view was
supported by analyzing fuel maps for each
individual engine, which showed very clearly
that specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC)
varied with RPM and load condition. But
generator and switchboard technology in the
early 1990s was not capable of running at
variable RPM while producing fixed voltage
and frequency. The industry accordingly
ignored these findings.
Then the idea of the PhiDrive system was
born. Using PM technology in combination
with variable speed gensets was the solution
Sandy really believed in.
Engines are more efficient in a loaded
condition reducing RPM will increase
cylinder load and greatly reduce fuel
consumption in low-load conditions. A
genset operating in an offshore support vessel
averages a 25% load. The recommended load
is 85% at a nominal speed of 1,800rpm.
The kinetic energy in an engines rotating
parts is a function of speed squared. This
means that a relatively small change in the
speed of the engine produces a relatively large
change in the forces acting on the engine parts.
Gas temperatures rise when engines are
run at a higher load, and SCR operation
requires higher than 300C. With speed
reduced to match the load, the SCR plant
can operate in the 10-100% load range.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 107

Technology verification

Above: Geir Larsen, MD

of Inpower, says directly
connected PM electric motors
are ideal for vessel propulsion
Below: The Thorque concept,
developed with Scana
Propulsion, embeds the pitch
control and thrust bearing
of the propeller in the PM
motor, and is up to 10% more
energy- and fuel-efficient
than a conventional electric
motor and gearbox system

Inpower changed from a one-man show

in 2010, expanding to three employees
as professional investors came in as
shareholders. The Eiksund project, launched
that year, involved retrofitting this old car
ferry with new diesel engines and Brunvoll
rim-driven thrusters directly connected to
permanent magnets on the diesel gensets.
This ferry became the prototype for
both the PhiDrive propulsion system and
Brunvoll rim-driven thrusters. The outcome
was an impressive 30% fuel saving compared
with other car ferries operating on the same
route. Now operated by Atlantic Ship
Management in Kristiansund, Eiksund is
still given high marks because of its fuel
efficiency and maneuverability.
However, verification of the technology in
the ferry project was not sufficient to prove
that the system could work on an offshore
support vessel with really heavy demands
on safety and dynamic positioning systems.
Inpower accordingly entered into a technology
verification project with the Offshore
Simulator Centre, SkanEl, Kongsberg
Maritime and Sintef Energy, to prove the
PhiDrive system for offshore support vessels.
The final project report stated that the
PhiDrive system was not only qualified to
be installed in an offshore vessel, but was
also more fuel efficient than vessels operating
with conventional diesel-electric systems.
In addition to Eiksund, Inpower has
installed a PhiDrive system aboard Rig
Andromeda, owned by Norways Tanus
Shipping, and a variable speed PM shaft
generator system on Lily Johanne, which
belongs to Norwegian company Aqua Star.
Additional projects include PM motors for
Scana Propulsions contra-rotating propeller
system and Brunvoll azimuth thrusters.

108 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Successful ventures
The latest Inpower project was a PhiDrive on
FSV Groups fish farming service vessel, Multi
Green. This is the future, FSV Group chief
executive Petter Thoresen affirmed when the
contract was signed in December 2013. The
fuel-saving propulsion system was given high
marks by the vessels owner, builder Vaagland
Btbyggeri, and designer Solstrand Trading.
The vessel was named and delivered in Molde
on December 6, 2014.
Thoresen finds it gratifying that a small and
innovative team like Inpower can deliver in
line with expectations. When we opted for
this solution, we incorporated a level of risk in
our calculations for moving from mechanical
propulsion to a diesel-electric concept, he
observes. We also took account of risk related
to technology and the ability to execute, but
the benefit from savings on maintenance,
emissions output and fuel consumption
overshadowed the risk. Our experience from
this project is that Inpower offers a very
effective environmentally friendly technology
that functions, and not least an organization
able to implement the project.
Inpowers PhiDrive provides a higher level
of efficiency than comparable diesel-electric
solutions. It includes directly connected PM
electrical motors in combination with variable
revolutions on the diesel engines. Permanent
magnet electrical machinery is an accepted
and well-proven technology used in such
applications as wind power and electric cars.
Endre Brekstad, technical manager at FSV
Group, was eager to see the outcome of the
project, and whether Inpower would cope
with a delivery on such a scale.
I was also keen to see whether the system
would be too complex for the ship, and
whether the design basis was accurate,
Brekstad says. Ive been surprised in a very
positive way by Inpowers professional project
follow-up, while it allowed us to make
suggestions so that the solution was tailored
to our needs. Thats very positive for a
company thats delivering its first complete
propulsion system.
Brekstad describes the system as simple,
with a user-friendly interface. It is actually
simpler to use than competing systems.
Its stable, with very little vibration, which
enhances shipboard comfort.


Asynchronous motor
(Emerson 200kW)
Asynchronous motor,
(Emerson 200kW)
PM-motor, corrected



Above: The PhiDrive

propulsion technology
can also use alternative
energy sources such as
batteries and fuel cells
Left: Technical manager
Lars Erik Holo and his
colleagues at Inpower
develop innovative uses of
PM electric motors and
generators to reduce
vessel fuel consumption

Above: PM motors offer

better efficiency over
the whole speed range
than more commonly used
asynchronous drives
Below: Thorque a PM
direct propulsion motor

Collaborative approach
Peter Kristjan Vaagland at Vaagland Btbyggeri
is also pleased with the collaboration between
his yard and Inpower. Given what we know
so far, this has been a positive project, he
says. Cooperation with Inpower and its
Elmarin subcontractor has been good, and
all the challenges have been overcome in an
appropriate manner as theyve arisen. Wed
have no problem taking on a new project
with the same team.
Reidar Aas at Solstrand Trading, who
designed Multi Green, has also been
surprised in a positive way by the technology
and the way the project has been handled
by Inpower. Installation and testing have
gone according to plan, and no big challenges
arose, he reports.
Were very gratified that FSV Group
opted for our PhiDrive solution as part of
its environmental commitment, says Geir
Larsen, managing director of Inpower. He
notes that directly connected PM electric
motors combined with variable-speed diesel
engines give high overall efficiency and are

optimum for vessel propulsion. With this

project we now have the opportunity to
document the gains offered by our unique
propulsion system in the form of lower fuel
consumption, reduced emissions to the
environment and lower maintenance costs.
The project, Larsen explains, was a
turnkey delivery, where Inpower was been
responsible for Multi Greens complete
propulsion system. Everything from the
main engines to the propellers was been
delivered and coordinated by the company,
all based on its PhiDrive solution.
Inpower collaborated with Scana Propulsion
in Volda on developing the Thorque PM
propeller drive as part of a joint commitment
to the market for vessel propulsion.
Other subcontractors to the delivery
include Vacon and Nogva, as well as Elmarin.
Innovation Norway has also been an important
contributor to the project. Collaboration
with the shipping company, the designer,
the yard and our subcontractors has been
fantastic in this project, says Larsen.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 109



data acquisition
Advanced data acquisition
technology is vital for the
monitoring of onboard
systems and components

ith advances in ship design

including engines, drivetrains,
safety and security there is an
increasing need for detailed measurement of
all components. To be able to synchronize
recorded data and replay complete
information from the ship (such as battery
level and temperature, vibration in the
transmission, combustion-cycle analysis,
accurate position and orientation data with
additional CAN and Modbus/RS232
information) is vital. Todays data
acquisition technology makes this possible,
improving results and shortening test time.
Dewesoft has developed an all-in-one flexible
hardware and software solution specifically
for such purposes, so that ship developers
can quickly respond to test results.

Detailed systems analysis

Standalone navigation systems are no longer
used, but rather a combination of various
sensors such as GNSS receivers, gyroscopes
and accelerometers, which provide
maximum reliability, the highest accuracy
and low operating costs. Dewesofts

solutions, with the latest DS-IMU2 inertial

platform, are a match for the extensive
environmental standards and high-accuracy
systems used in many marine applications.
Communication with internal RTUs and
PLCs which interface with field-sensing
devices, local control switch boxes, valve
actuators and so on is essential for
operators to be able to recognize possible
errors in the system. Therefore CAN,
Modbus and even Ethernet capability is a
must for such a data acquisition system.

Vessel power
The primary source of power on many ships
is the diesel engine. Detailed combustion
analysis during development of the engine
makes it possible to achieve better
operational reliability, reduce emissions and
lower fuel consumption. The Dewesoft
Combustion Analyzer enables the user to
display and compare measurement data
using several diagrams, such as the pV
diagram (pressure over volume) and the
CA-Scope (pressure over angle). Calculations
such as mean effective pressure, heat
release, start/end of combustion, start/end
of injection, indicated power, maximum
pressure and the pressure derivative are
presented as color diagrams or data tables.
For further analysis, statistic calculations
per cylinder or over the complete engine can

110 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

be performed. Additionally, Dewesoft

provides a dedicated knocking detection
and combustion noise algorithm.
The basis for all these calculations is
precise angle position data and cylinder
pressure measurement, and Dewesoft
provides the perfect hardware for the task.
The galvanically isolated SIRIUSi charge
inputs (with up to 24bit resolution) are in
perfect sync with Dewesoft supercounters. This unique combination of
time-, angle- and frequency-domain data
acquisition in one system makes it
possible to run multiple analysis functions
(for example, order tracking, torsional
vibration, power) concurrently.
A ships electrical power systems
have to supply many items of
equipment (motor, generator, pumps,
air-conditioning, heating, among
others) which are operated at different
voltages and frequencies. Testing of the
complete power system was until now
only possible using a number of
measurement instruments, but due to
the unique system architecture of the
Dewesoft Power Analyzer, it is possible
to fulfill a number of measurement
applications with just one device. The
Dewesoft Power Analyzer combines all
the functionality of an oscilloscope,
datalogger, FFT spectrum analyzer,


pV diagram

Super counter


Figure 2: Dewesofts
powerful FFT Analyzer can
provide dedicated markers
to assist measurement
specialists in identifying
the sources of noise
and torsional vibration

CA scope

Order tracking

CPB analysis



Multi domain

Vessel dynamics

Vessel buses

Pass by noise



Power analyzer

Transient recording

FFT/Harmonic FFT

Figure 1: The ability to

recognize potential
system errors is essential,
so communication with
remote terminal units and
with programmable logic
controllers is vital

Figure 3: The DS-IMU2

platform enables the use
of a range of high-accuracy
systems that are required
to provide modern marine
applications with sufficient
processing power and data
Figure 4: The unique
architecture of the
Dewesoft Power Analyzer
combines the functionality
of an oscilloscope,
datalogger, FFT spectrum
analyzer, transient recorder
and power analyzer,
making a comprehensive
analysis of a vessels
power systems possible

transient recorder and power analyzer. In

combination with the powerful hardware
and the high number of input channels,
comprehensive analysis of the entire ships
power system is possible. The high accuracy
(0.05%), high sampling rate (up to 1MS/s)
and high bandwidth (2MHz) of the SIRIUS
high-voltage and low-voltage input
amplifiers ensures detailed analysis for
wideband applications (frequency inverter
analysis, efficiency and energy analysis,
frequency monitoring and much more).
The power analysis can be done for different
wiring schematics (DC, one-to-three phase
AC) and also for several fundamental
frequencies (50Hz, 60Hz, 400Hz, 800Hz,
variable frequency).
When it comes to identifying the root
source of noise and vibration, measurement
specialists usually face a complex frequency
spectrum. Dewesoft simplifies the task with
its powerful FFT Analyzer, providing
dedicated markers such as harmonic,
sideband and peak. Bearing fault frequencies,
for example, can be easily identified. Defects
on the cage, rolling element, outer or inner
race (FT, BSF, BPFO, BPFI), as well as their
harmonics, can be seen. Users need only
select manufacturer and bearing type in the
bearing database.
Real-time analysis tools for torsional
vibration (to detect the torsional resonance of
the shaft) working with high-accuracy supercounters, two-plane field balancing, order
tracking, and even structural analysis with
easy-to-setup modal testing, will enrich your
toolkit. If this is still too little, correlation
and cepstrum mathematics can be performed
to determine periodic shocks of rotating
machinery and detect faults in suspension.
With the development of hybrid and
electrical propulsion systems, batteries have
become a major part of the ships overall
systems. As a result, monitoring and
measuring parameters such as temperature,
voltage and cooling of such a system is vital to
provide a high level of security, efficiency and
reduced maintenance costs. With a flexible
and scalable solution from Dewesoft, it is
possible to measure more than 1,000 channels
from different sensors, all synchronized with
each other. The Dewesoft system can be used
for the development of batteries (efficiency
analysis, cell characterization, endurance
tests, crash tests, short-circuit analysis,
overheating and overloading tests, aging
tests and so on), as well as for monitoring
applications (including datalogging, transient
recording and charge-discharge analysis).

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 111

Opposite page: An
example schematic
showing implementation of
a Transfluid hybrid module
into a vessels existing
onboard drive systems


Below: Transfluid hybrid

transmissions, such as the
HTM700, can be fitted into
the existing power line
without interfering in the
management of the engine

Installing a hybrid transmission can meet
demand for reduced fuel consumption
and greater environmental sensitivity

iven the growing sensitivity of the

marine market toward the protection
of the environment and reducing fuel
consumption, Transfluid has tapped into
its substantial experience and expertise
in designing and developing a system that
meets these new needs.
The Transfluid hybrid system can be
installed both as original equipment and
retrofitted. The hybrid transmission is
suitable for any type of use, be it in pleasure
or commercial applications. With this system
it is possible to reduce fuel consumption,
environmental impact and noise pollution
while improving performance.
Yachts, ferry boats, tugs, fishing boats, taxi
boats, passenger boats and many other types of
craft can benefit from the advantages this
hybrid system offers in every operational phase.
The range of hybrid transmissions can be
installed on boats of all sizes and shapes, in
any operational environment including those
over 50m. The models currently offered are
suitable for diesel engines from 75kW (100hp)
up to 1,100kW (1,475hp) and for electric
machines from 8kW (11hp) to 300kW (400hp).
The integration of the hybrid system into the
propulsion line is made possible by a
transmission that has been designed as an
accessory just like the marine gear and fits
into the power line without interfering with the
management of the diesel engine or with other
components fitted on board. The transmission
is simple to install and takes up minimal space,
so the hybrid system can be easily integrated
into new and existing drivelines.

System integration
The carefully designed integration of the
energy system on board ensures optimal
management of various elements of the
hybrid system, including batteries, solar
panels and onboard generators. Because all
the component parts are standardized,
Transfluid has been able to reach a costeffective and high-quality standard that
is unrivaled and satisfies the very highest
expectations of the market.
The efficiency of the two installed systems
(diesel engine and electric motor) ensures an
effective reduction in fuel consumption and
zero-emissions navigation.
Electric mode propulsion, using the batteries,
enables navigation at low speeds and is ideal for
sailing in sheltered waters, coastal areas, ports
and protected areas such as natural parks.

112 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Diesel mode propulsion is suitable for

traditional navigation, and presents a choice
between two further features. The first,
booster mode, adds the power supplied by the
electric motor to that supplied by the diesel
engine, giving a higher thrust output during
acceleration and also making it possible to
reduce the size of the main propulsion engine
and therefore costs and fuel consumption.
The second feature, generation mode,
recharges the batteries during diesel mode
navigation, enabling an increase in
efficiency since the absorption of energy
needed to recharge the batteries, when
added to the power required for navigation,
increases the load on the diesel engine and
improves fuel consumption. The energy
produced in this phase will then be used
during electric or booster mode operation.


Power management
By way of example, its worth considering
a displacement boat with a 415kW/1iter,
1,800rpm engine. The propeller absorbs
around 70kW of power for propulsion at
1,000rpm and the specific fuel consumption
is 235g/kWh. Navigating for two hours would
consume 32.90kg of fuel.
In generation mode, the power generated
by the electric machine (around 70kW at
1,000rpm) can be added to the power
absorbed by the propeller as described.
The diesel engine load becomes 140kW at
1,000rpm, and the specific fuel consumption
is reduced to 205g/kWh. As a result, were
the boat to navigate for one hour, the fuel
consumed would be 28.70kg.
The electric power generated and stored in
the battery is sufficient to navigate at the same
speed for one hour. Therefore for two hours of
navigation in diesel mode at 1,000rpm,
32.90kg of fuel is consumed; for one hour of
navigation using a diesel engine in generation
mode plus one using an electric motor, at the
same speed and over the same distance, fuel
consumption is 28.70kg. The fuel saving with
this operating profile is therefore around 13%.
The use of high-efficiency accumulators
enables the optimization of onboard energy
management by storing energy from various
sources (such as solar energy, wind power,
dock-supplied energy, hybrid transmission
energy and energy from onboard generators).
It also gives a greater navigation range, reduces
fuel consumption and enhances safety, thanks
to being able to use two types of power.

Throttle engine/e-motor

Oil supply
Power supply
CANbus communication
MPCB input
MPCB output

Main key


Battery 12-24 V DC

LiPo battery
complete with


Electric machine

Revermatic 11 - 700


Diesel engine
Hybrid module with
intergrated multidisc dry

Pressure transducer

Diesel propulsion

Power pack
Necessary only without
revermatic transmission

Transfluid will be at stand 2040 at the

Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo 2015
in Amsterdam from June 23-25, where the
company will be displaying its HTM700
hybrid marine system. During the expo,
Transfluid, together with the SeaTechnologies
marine dockyard, will demonstrate the
SeaTech 30ft Hybrid Limousine, specially
designed by the SeaTechnologies dockyard for
cruising in inland waters. It will enable guests
to cruise the canals of Amsterdam while
experiencing the Transfluid hybrid system.
Transfluid hybrid transmissions are also
installed in a number of other applications:
such as in a 9m Italian limousine passenger

boat equipped with a HTM700-20 hybrid

system, featuring a nominal power of 20kW
at 3,000rpm/100V DC; in France, a HM200075 hybrid system is installed in a 28m
passenger river boat, with a nominal power of
75kW at 3,000rpm/300V DC; an Italian
fishing boat measuring 15m is fitted with two
HM2000-50 hybrid systems for a nominal
power of 50kW at 3,000rpm/300V DC; a 9m
Italian tender vessel is fitted with a HM56020 hybrid system generating nominal power
of 20kW at 3,000rpm/100V DC; and also in
Italy, a 9m pleasure boat uses a HTM700-20
hybrid system with a nominal power of 20kW
at 3,000rpm/100V DC.

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International // April 2015 // 113



magnet propulsion
Combining technology from the marine
and automotive sectors has made a
citywide zero-emissions target feasible

or years, Hydrosta has had an excellent

reputation as a supplier of primarily
hydraulic propulsion systems. Boat
companies in Amsterdam, sometimes referred
to as the Venice of the North, use specific
Hydrosta products extensively including
hydraulic systems, Hy-Prop propulsion
and Navio navigation equipment.
A few years ago, the City of
Amsterdam decreed that tour boats in
the canals should be zero emission by
2025. Hydrosta CEO Leo Stam wasnt sure
that the company should apply to supply
the advanced electronic marine systems this
initiative required. We were worried that we
had no chance, but the reality proved quite
different, says Stam. Because of
disappointing results from various other
projects, the City of Amsterdam asked us a
very specific question: Can you modify your
proven system into an electrical system and
guarantee full retention of ease of steering
and reliable propulsion?

Automotive meets maritime

Using compact PM motors,

Hydrosta transformed its
existing Hy-Prop propulsion
system, creating the new
electric PM-Prop system

That challenge took Hydrosta to Germany and

brought the company into contact with AMK
an important player in the automotive market.
AMKs range of extremely compact permanent
magnet (PM) motors enabled Hydrosta to
transform its Hy-Prop into an electric PM-Prop.
With AMKs extremely advanced compact
liquid-cooled frequency inverters and associated
operating systems, the puzzle was complete.
The combination of Hydrosta and AMK
products proved to be unique in the market.
As the sole Dutch supplier, Hydrosta is
now capable of delivering a complete
system using parts from only two suppliers.
The company shoulders all responsibility
for the project and guarantees perfectly
integrated functioning of electronic and
hydraulic propulsion and steering. Early in
2013, Hydrosta employees supervised the
refitting of the first tour boat with a hybrid
system. Other projects then followed.

114 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International

Right: AMK controllers

were combined with
Hydrosta technology
in a propulsion system
suitable for use in
Amsterdams tour boats
Below: The Amsterdam
tour boat project took
Hydrosta to Germany,
where the company
sought out a provider
of compact PM motors

Refitting the entire Amsterdam fleet is a

multiyear, capital-intensive operation.
Hydrosta has demonstrated its ability to relieve
shipping companies concerns, and to provide
the guarantee of a complete, working system.
The company is confident about its ability to
refit a substantial portion of the Amsterdam
tour boat fleet in the coming years.
In the meantime, similar projects have been
started and successfully completed not only
in the canals of Amsterdam, but in further
applications in the professional and leisure
boating sector. Various driveline solutions
have been used, such as direct propeller
drives and shaft drives. The remarkably
efficient PM-Prop is Hydrostas trump card in
the market and is available in both a 2 x 90
steering solution and a 360 swivel version for
applications in commercial shipping. Since
the propeller swivels along with the PM-Prop,
the energy required to optimally maneuver
vessels is minimal compared with
conventional drive shaft solutions. Hydrosta
supplies these systems in four basic models,
varying in capacity from 25-225kW.


Passenger. Commercial. Off-highway.



0+ A


Co-located with


Marine propulsion chat with Christoph

Ballin, CEO and founder of Torqeedo
Did you always want a career in the
marine industry?
I got into this industry by coincidence. I had
moved from Hamburg to Munich, and by
chance I ended up with a small house that
had access to Lake Starnberg. I wanted to
get into boating and realized, because Lake
Starnberg is electric-only, that you needed to
run electric. What I realized, back in 2004,
was that the offerings for electric mobility on
the water were extremely underdeveloped. It
was the perception of an extraordinary
market opportunity that brought me into the
industry. We had the rare chance as industry
outsiders to make something we considered
to be the best product for a certain segment.
Usually if you think that, youve overlooked
something it doesnt make sense, or
somebody has done it already. But the deeper
we looked into it, we thought it might be true.

What has been your career highlight?

We have created a company that now has
around 80 employees. We have created a
globally leading brand that is recognized
within the industry and with consumers
around the world, we have managed to attract
great people into the company, and were
trying to change the industry and make
mobility more sustainable. It would be
difficult to top all of that together.
What do the next five years hold
for you?
We are just at the beginning of developing
Torqeedo, so we will try to grow the company
and to drive electric and hybrid mobility on
the water. That means broadening the
product range, taking advantage of new
technological developments, growing our
organization and serving the market. Building
up Torqeedo to a much larger entity than it is
now. That is our objective.

Do legislators help or hinder you?

There are two types of legislation that are
relevant. The first is legislation banning or
restricting the use of combustion engines.
This already exists in many countries around
the world, and is helping companies like us
working in electric propulsion. And then
there are norms and standards with regard
to how we should build electric and hybrid
propulsion systems. The first problem is that
many companies dont adhere to these, and
this is a problem within our industry. That
leads to the creation of products that dont
live up to existing norms and standards, and
makes the development of electric and hybrid
propulsion more difficult for everybody.
It is a technically dynamic industry, and its
very difficult for norms and standards to
stay ahead of what being developed. So we
need to adhere to existing norms and
standards, but they also need to be expanded
and expanded in a way that is proper.

Is hybrid and electric propulsion the

answer to a sustainable marine
I think its part of the answer. If were talking
about making the marine industry sustainable,
propulsion is only one aspect of that. Within
propulsion, there are a lot of segments some
of them we can make a lot cleaner and more
sustainable, some we can make a little cleaner,
and some we cannot do anything about at
the moment. I think its important to select
the segments in which you want to make
a difference because there are some lowhanging fruits; segments where we really
can make a difference and be competitive.

How will marine propulsion

technology have changed by 2030?
I would love to see that sustainable
propulsion systems have taken over the
market. In the past, propulsions systems were
either gasoline or diesel internal combustion
engines. We are now seeing and I believe we
will continue to see for a while a mobility
mix of competing technologies for various
segments of marine propulsion. So we will
see pure electric, various hybrid technologies
in serial and parallel, gas propulsion,
traditional combustion engines, and we will
see fuel cells. Were in a transition phase
where the market will try out various forms
of propulsion. And, depending on how the
various technologies develop, how fuel cells
develop, and how the development of lithium
battery energy densities and costs goes, we
will see technologies emerging and taking
over larger market shares. The hope is that we
will see technologies that are gentler on the
water and the atmosphere than the mobility
solutions we have chosen in the past, and that
maintain our boating lifestyle just in a
cleaner and more sustainable way.

ABB Ltd .....................................................................................Inside Front Cover

Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology Expo 2015 ..................................... 115

OSWALD Elektromotoren GmbH .................................................................... 73

Akasol GmbH ......................................................................................................... 71

Electric Power Conversion BV .........................................................................40

REINTJES GmbH .................................................................................................59

Baumller Holding GmbH & Co KG.................................................................59

Enersys Ltd ........................................................................................................... 76

Renk AG ........................................................................................................... 71, 73

Becker Marine Systems GmbH ........................................................................ 87

Hybrid Ship Propulsion ......................................................................................56

Saft Specialty Battery Group............................................................................56

Bel Power Solutions BV ...................................................................................... 17

Hydrosta BV.......................................................................................................... 75

Semikron International GmbH ..........................................................................31

Cavotec International ......................................................................................... 37

INPOWER AS........................................................................................................43

SKF Marine Industry Service Centre .............................................................. 79

Corvus Energy ....................................................................................................... 14

Kolektor Group d.o.o ........................................................................................... 76

Stadt AS .................................................................................................................83

DEWESoft GmbH.................................................................................................69

Liebherr - Components Biberach GmbH.......................................................... 11

Steyr Motors GmbH ............................................................................................ 34

Echandia Marine Sweden AB ...........................................................................66

Lynch Motor Company Ltd ................................................................................54

Super B............................................................................................................ 37, 69

Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International Online Reader

Microturbine Marine Energy ............................................. Outside Back Cover

TEMA ...................................................................................................................... 75

Inquiry Service ...............................................................................45, 47, 83, 97

Microvast Inc............................................................................ Inside Back Cover

Torqeedo GmbH ......................................................................................................3

Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo 2015 ............................. 21, 23, 24, 64

Nilar ........................................................................................................................66

Transfluid srl .........................................................................................................54

Electric & Hybrid Marine World Expo Florida 2016 .....................87, 93, 95

Norwegian Electric Systems ...............................................................................7

Xalt Energy LLC ......................................................................................................8

As CEO, what are the best and worst

aspects of your job?
Earlier in my career, I worked in management
consultancy, because I wanted to work on the
most important problems a company faces. It
quickly became clear that an even better role
in which to do that is CEO. That motivation is
still the best aspect of the job. You have the
freedom to build a company and freedom to
attend to the most relevant matters. However,
if you start a company from scratch, you are
responsible for everything that happens the
good and the bad. The emotional attachment to
success and the lack of success is stronger
if you are the person who built the company.
That is positive if it is a success story, but I
cannot say that there is never a negative side.

116 // April 2015 // Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International



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14.04.15 11:02