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Local Area Networks

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Introduction
• Each day computer users use their computer for
sending and retrieving email, scheduling
meetings, sharing files, preparing reports,
exchanging images, and maybe checking the
current price of an auction item on the Internet.
• All of this requires computers to access multiple
networks and share their resources.
• The multiple networks required to accomplish
this are the local area network (LAN), the
campus area network (CAN), the metropolitan
area network (MAN), and the wide area network
(WAN).
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scientific computation. colleges. have led to an explosion in their usage. • Organizations such as corporations. and government agencies have acquired large numbers of single-user computer systems. or may be general-purpose computers that perform many tasks. process control. which is a network of users that share computer resources in a limited area. • This has generated a need to interconnect these locally distributed computer networks. • The network commonly used to accomplish this interconnection is called a local area network (LAN). • These systems may be dedicated to word processing.Introduction • The ease of connecting to the Internet and the dramatic decrease in computer systems’ cost. 4/21/2015 3 .

shared printers. • They were originally designed as shared media (layer 2 or datalink communications media) and are ideally suited for relatively short distance. computer printer. high speed data transport and have thus become the foundation for modern ‘electronic offices’—interconnecting workstations. office building.electronic mail server. email systems. or small campus. etc.Local Area Networks (LANs) • LANs emerged in the late 1980s as the most important means of conveying data between different computers and computer peripheral devices (printer. 4/21/2015 4 . web servers and so on. scanner. host gateway. fax gateway. file servers. word processors.)within a single office. file server.

Alternative LAN topologies 5 . 4/21/2015 Figur 1. ring and bus topologies.LAN topologies and standards • The three most common LAN topologies are the star.

hence the name token-ring. a “token” (shown as a T) is placed in the data channel and circulates around the ring. the computer waits until it has control of the token.Token Ring Topology • In this topology. • This technique is called token passing and is based on the IEEE 802.5 Token-Ring Network standard 4/21/2015 6 . • If a user wants to transmit.

• The token-ring path must be temporarily broken (path interrupted) if a computer or any device connected to the network is to be removed or added to the network. it can cause the token to stop circulating. • A fix to this is to attach all the computers to a central token-ring hub. which improves the reliability of the network.Disadvantage of the token-ring system • If an error changes the token pattern. • Such a device manages the passing of the token rather than relying on individual computers to pass it. • A failed station can cause data traffic to cease. 4/21/2015 7 .

Bus topology • The computers share the media (coaxial cable) for data transmission. • The use of a shared coaxial cable in a bus topology prevents 4/21/2015 8 data transmission from being very bandwidth-efficient. all networking devices will see computer 1’s data traffic to the printer. and the other devices must wait for pauses in transmission or until it is complete before they can initiate their own transmission. . • However. In this topology. a coaxial cable (called ThinNet) is looped through each networking device to facilitate data transfer. in a bus system.

Star topology • The most common networking topology in today’s LANs. • At the center of a star network is either a switch or a hub. 4/21/2015 9 . This connects the network devices and facilitates the transfer of data.

• The storage of the address enables the switch to directly connect two communicating devices without broadcasting the data to all devices connected to its ports. 4/21/2015 10 . • To minimize unnecessary data traffic and isolate sections of the network. a switch can be used at the center of a star network.Star Topology • Similar to the bus topology in that all data traffic on the LAN is being seen by all computers. slower-speed LANs. • A switch stores the hardware or physical address for each device connected to its ports. but hubs are sometimes still used in small. • The fact that the hub broadcasts all data traffic to the devices connected to its network ports makes these devices of limited use in large networks.

• This provides for full redundancy in the network data paths but at a cost. 4/21/2015 11 .mesh topology • All networking devices are directly connected to each other. • This topology can be suitable for high-reliability applications but can be too costly for general networking applications.

and the trailer.” • There is a chance that two or more computers will attempt to broadcast a message at the same time. • The packet provides grouping of the information for transmission that includes the header. therefore.The Ethernet LAN • The networking protocol used in most modern computer networks is Ethernet. 4/21/2015 12 . the data. • CSMA/CD stands for “carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. Ethernet systems must have the capability to detect data collisions (collision detection). • The information in an Ethernet network is exchanged in a packet format. a CSMA/CD protocol for local area networks.

The data structure for the Ethernet frame • How are the destination and source addresses for the data determined within a LAN? • MAC stands for “media access control. 4/21/2015 13 . and the last 6 numbers form a unique value for each NIC assigned by the vendor. • The address is displayed in 12 hexadecimal digits.” The MAC address is 6 bytes. also called the organizationally unique identifier (OUI). or 48 bits. in length. The first 6 digits are used to indicate the vendor of the network interface.

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4/21/2015 15 . There are just over 4 billion IPv4 addresses. • IP addresses are classified as either IPv4 or IPv6.IP (Internet Protocol) Addressing • IP addressing provides a solution to worldwide addressing through incorporating a unique address that identifies the computer’s local network. there are over 16 billion-billion IPv6 addresses. • The major difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is the number of IP addresses. In contrast. • IP network numbers are assigned by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).

Basic comparison between IPv4 and IPv6 4/21/2015 16 .

Hal 41 17 .The Classes of IPv4 Networks The Address Range for Each Class of Network 4/21/2015 Cat.

4/21/2015 18 . The following are disadvantages of the wired network: • The cable connections typically require the use of specialized tools. • The network is not susceptible to outside interference. • The cable installation can be labor-intensive and expensive. • Relatively inexpensive to setup.Assembling a home network • “Do I want to set up a wired or wireless home network?” The following are advantages of a wired network: • Faster network data transfer speeds (within the LAN).

• The data transfer speed within the LAN can be slower than wired networks.Assembling a home network Cont. The advantages of a wireless network are many including the following: • User mobility • Simple installations • No cables Disadvantages of a wireless network can include : • Security issues. 4/21/2015 19 .

11g speeds (200+Mbps). It operates at 2.4 GHz. • 802. It operates at 5GHz.11g (Wireless-G)—This standard can provide data transfer rates up to 54 Mbps up to 150 feet. 4/21/2015 20 .11a (Wireless-A)—This standard can provide data transfer rates up to 54 Mbps and an operating range up to 75 feet. • 802. It operates at 2.11n (Wireless-N)—This is the next generation of high-speed wireless connectivity promising data transfer rates up to 4 × 802.4 GHz. It operates at 2.Wireless (Wi Fi) The most common wireless standards include : • 802. • 802.11b (Wireless-B)—This standard can provide data transfer rates up to 11 Mbps with ranges of 100 to 150 feet.4 GHz.

An example of a (a) wired and (b) wireless WiFi home network 4/21/2015 21 .

The components of a home network can include the following: • Hub—This is used to interconnect networking devices. your LAN and the Internet) using a single connection to your ISP. • Network Adapter—Wired and wireless network adapters are available. The type of network adapter used in desktop computers is called the Network Interface Card (NIC). • Router—A networking device used to connect two or more networks (for example. • Access Point—Used to interconnect wireless devices and provide a connection to the wired LAN. 4/21/2015 22 . • Switch—This is the best choice for interconnecting networking devices.

• Broadband Modem/Gateway—This describes the device used to provide high-speed data access via your cable connection or via a telephone company’s DSL connection. A wireless router typically contains a router. 4/21/2015 23 . switch. and a wireless access point and is probably the most common way to interconnect wireless LANs to the ISP’s access device. • Cable Modem—This device is used to make a broadband network connection from your home network to the ISP using your cable connection.The components of a home network can include the following: • Wireless router—This device uses RF to connect to the networking devices.

• Cost—Implementing a high-speed wired network can be quite expensive.Several issues should be considered when planning for a home network. • Appearance 4/21/2015 24 . • Ease of implementation—A wireless home network is probably the easiest to implement if the cabling and connectors for a wired network are not already installed. including the following: • Data speed—This will be determined by whether you chose to implement a wired or wireless home network.

Prentice Hall. 4/21/2015 25 . 2008. Beasley.Reference : • Jeffrey S. “Networking”. Second Edition.