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A REPORT

ON
INDIAN POWER SECTOR
Submitted by,

V.M.GOWTHAMI
SHEELPAM DHAR
RAVI KUMAR
BHUBAN MOHAN SAHU

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
This study deals with the power generation in the country over a period of 10 years. The different sources of
energy is discussed and their proportion to the total energy generation is analysed.
The data is compared over a period of 10 years to find out the growth of the power sector of India.

INTRODUCTION:
Electricity is a crucial input for economic growth and social development. For sustaining the growth of
economy at an accelerated pace, it is necessary to ensure adequate and reliable supply of electricity to all
sectors of the economy.

OBJECTIVE:
To collect all relevant data of the power sector and to analyse the trend of the sector over 10 years. The
different sources of energy and its proportion of contribution to the total production is studied. Also to find
out how the various Government organisations estimate the production of electricity in a particular year.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
The information of year wise power distribution and the contribution of various sources of energy is taken
from Government website of Central Electricity Authority and from the Ministry of Power.

ANALYSIS:
SOURCES OF ENERGY IN INDIA
The various energy resources used in India include fossil fuels providing petroleum and natural gas
and coal mining that cater to the coal energy demands in India.
The sun is the source for solar energy that is converted to electrical energy using solar panels.
The vast water resources in and around India are utilized by conversion of the kinetic energy from
the flowing water as in waterfalls and the dams built on various rivers into electric energy.
The energy of the tides and tidal waves is also utilized for electrical energy harvesting.
The usage of wind energy comes in the form of windmills and huge wind energy farms for
generation of usable energy forms by transformation of the kinetic energy of the wind into energy
units.
Other sources of energy in India include biomass energy by burning bio-fuels available in large
quantities owing to the huge domestic cattle population in India.
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Energy is also derived from the vast timber resources of the country. This forms the wood energy.
Nuclear energy or atomic energy from radioactive materials has been developed into a vast industry
in itself.
Geothermal energy is an unlimited natural energy source that utilizes the steam from hot water
springs that acts as energy boosters to drive turbines of power plants.
The various chemicals are used for chemical energy generation used in batteries.
Even the hydrogen available in large quantities in the environment has been captured and utilized as
an energy source by reacting hydrogen with oxygen.
There are two types of energy.

Renewable energy
Non-renewable energy

Renewable energy is the energy which comes from natural resources and which is available in abundance
such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.
A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be reproduced, grown, generated, or used on
a scale which can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more available for future needs.
Also considered non-renewable are resources that are consumed much faster than nature can create them.
Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas), nuclear power (uranium) and certain aquifers are
examples. Metal ores are prime examples of non-renewable resources.
Power Generation from non-renewable sources:
Thermal power
Nuclear power
Other renewable energy

Solar power
Wind power
Hydro power
Biomass power
Geothermal energy
Tidal wave energy

India concentrates mainly on Thermal, Nuclear and Hydro power. And the power generation from these
constitutes major portion of the total production.

ENERGY COMPANIES IN INDIA


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The major energy companies in India engaging in mass energy development, transformation and generation
include:

Cairn Energy India

Reliance Energy India

Suzlon Energy India

GE Energy India

Focus Energy India

Unitron Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd.

Eri- Tech Limited

Synergy Renewable Energy Pvt. Ltd

Goldwyn Limited

Zenith Birla India Limited

Star Energy Group PLC

YEAR-WISE POWER GENERATION


Power Generation during 2004-05
Generation of power in the utilities stood at about 587.37 billion units during the year 2004-05. This
represents the growth of about 52%over the same period during the previous year 2003-04 as per details
given below:

Category

Actual
(Tentative)
(MU)

Shortfall (-)/
Excess (+)
(MU)

Thermal
486372
486075
Nuclear
15440
16845
Hydro
84000
84495
Captive
600
0
TOTAL
586412
587415
Installed Electricity Generation Capacity:

(-)297
(+)1405
(+)495
(-)600
(+)1003

Type
(MW)
HYDRO

Estimated
(MU)

% of
Estimated

99.9
109.1
100.6
0.0
100.2

Central Sector
(MW)

State Sector
(MW)

Private Sector
(MW)

5892.00

24169.40

909.65

% of last
year
(2003-04)
Generation
104.1
95.0
114.5
0.0
105.2
Total
(MW)
30971.05

THERMAL

29466.49

41957.11

9190.84

80614.44

NUCLEAR

2770.00

0.00

0.00

2770.00

0.00

3495.68

2662.64

6158.32

38128.49

69622.19

12763.13

120513.81

RES
TOTAL

Power Generation during 2005-06

Category

Estimated

Actual (MU)

Shortfall(-)/ex
cess(+)

% of
estimated

Hydro

91480

101293

9813 110.7

119.9

Nuclear

16800

17239

439 102.6

102.3

Thermal

511620

497214

Bhutan import

1600

1764

Total all India

621500

617510

(-)14406 97.2
164 110.3
(-)3990 99.4

% of last yr
generation

102.3
0.00
105.1

Installed Electricity Generation Capacity:

Type

Central Sector

State Sector

Private Sector

Total

HYDRO

6172.00

25247.62

906.15

32325.77

THERMAL

30391.49

42409.33

9609.72

82410.54

NUCLEAR

3360.00

0.00

0.00

3360.00

RES*

0.00

2567.53

3623.33

6190.86

TOTAL

39923.49

70224.48

14139.20

124287.17

Power Generation during 2007-08

Category
Hydro

Estimated
(MU)
109450

Actual
(MU)
123570

Shortfall/
% of last year
excess
estimated
14120 112.9

% of last year
generation
9.0

Nuclear

22713

16776

(-)5937 73.9

-9.8

Thermal

572194

558815

(-)13379 97.8

5.9

Bhutan
Import
Total/All
India

5643

5290

710000

704451

(-)353 93.8

75.8

(-)5549 99.2

6.3

Installed Electricity Generation Capacity:


All India aggregate installed capacity of electric power generating stations under various utilities as on
March 31st, 2008 was as follows:
Type

Central Sector

State Sector

Private Sector

Total

Hydro

8592.00

26086.76

1230.00

35908.76

Thermal

35648.99

46486.33

9771.52

91906.84

Nuclear

4120.00

0.00

0.00

4120.00

RES

0.00

2116.27

9009.14

11125.41

Total

48360.99

700224.48

74689.36

143061.01

*RES- Renewable Sources of energy

Power Generation during 2008-09


Category

Estimated
(MU)

Actual
(MU)

Shortfall/
Excess

% of
estimated

Hydro

118450

113081.16

(-)5369

93.48

Growth % w.r.t
previous year
actual generation
105.57

Nuclear

19000

14712.59

(-)4288

77.43

87.7

Thermal

631270

590100.77

(-)41169

95.47

91.62

Bhutan
import
Total all
India

5624

5899.10

(+)275

104.89

111.77

774344

723793.62

(-)50551

93.47

102.74

Installed Electricity Generation Capacity:


Type

Central Sector
(MU)

State sector
(MU)

Private Sector
(MU)

Total (MU)

Hydro

8592.00

27055.76

1230.00

36877.76

Thermal

36258.99

46812.23

10654.02

93725.24

Nuclear

4120.00

0.00

0.00

4120.00

RES

0.00

2247.68

10994.73

13242.41

Total

48970.99

76115.67

22870.75

147965.41

Power Generation during 2009-10


Category

Estimated(MU) Actual(MU)

Hydro
nuclear
Thermal
Bhutan
import
Total (all
India)

115468
19000
648479
6564

106656
18654
640522
5341

789511

771173

Shortfall(-)/e
xcess(+)

(-)8812
(-)346
(-)7957
(-)1223

% of
estimated

Growth w.r.t
previous yr
actual
generation
(-)5.7
26.8
8.5
(-)9.5

92.4
98.2
98.8
81.4

(-)18338 97.7

6.6

Installed Electricity Generation Capacity:


Type

Central
sector(MW)

State
sector(MW)

Private
sector(MW)

Total (MW)

Hydro

8565.40

27065.00

1233.00

36863.40

Thermal

37867.23

49625.73

14961.02

102453.98

Nuclear

4560.00

0.00

0.00

4560.00

Res

0.00

2701.12

12819.99

15521.11

Total

50992.63

79391.85

29014.01

159398.49

The growth of installed generating capacity in the country is shown in the table as follows:(Capacity in MW)

Year

Thermal

Nuclear

Hydro

Wind*

Total

(at the end of)


Dec.1947

854

508

1362

Dec.,1955

1755

940

2695

March, 1961

2736

1917

4653

March, 1966

4903

March, 1974

9059

March, 1980

4124

9027

640

6905

16604

16424

640

11384

28448

March, 1985

27030

1095

14460

42585

March, 1990

43417

1565

18308

63290

March, 1991

45748

1565

18753

66066

March, 1992

48096

1785

19189

69070

March, 1996

60087

2225

20976

83288

March, 1997

61149

2225

21645

900

85919

March, 1998

64005

2225

21891

968

89089

March, 1999

67561

2225

22443

1024

93253

March, 2000

70186

2680

23816

1154

97836

March, 2001

72359

2860

25142

1269

101630

March, 2002

74429

2720

26261

1507

104917

March, 2003

76607

2720

26910

1736

107973

March, 2004

77969

2720

29507

2488

112684

March, 2005

80902

2770

30942

3812

118426

March, 2006

82410

3360

32326

6191

124287

March, 2007

86015

3900

34654

7760

132329

March, 2008

91907

4120

35909

11125

143061

March, 2009

93725

4120

36878

13242

147965

March, 2010

102454

4560

36863

15521

159398

*R.E.S. Renewable Energy Sources for details see Annexure 11B

The Total capacity installed in the country over the years can be depicted by using a bar chart as
follows:

Chart Title
180000
160000
140000
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0

It can be found that since Dec 1947 till March 2010, the capacity by the power generators in the country has
been growing.

The generation of HYDRO POWER over the years is shown below:


Year

ACTUAL
10

% of the total

PRODUCTION
84495

2004-05

Production
14.384
21

2005-06
2007-08

101293
123570

2008-09
2009-10

118450
106656

16.40346
17.541
32
16.36516
13.83036

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2004-05

2005-06

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

It had increased steadily and had reached a peak at 2007-08 and after which there is a decrease in the
production.

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The generation of THERMAL POWER over the years is shown below:


Year

ACTUAL PRODUCTION

% of total production

2004-05

486075

82.74814

2005-06

497214

80.51918

2007-08

558815

79.32631

2008-09

590100.77

81.52887

2009-10

640522

83.05815

84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
2004-05

2005-06

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

There has been a steady growth in the production of thermal power and there is much scope of
improvement.

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The generation of NUCLEAR POWER over the years is shown below:

Year

ACTUAL PRODUCTION

2004-05

16845

2.867649

2005-06

17239

2.791696

2007-08

16776

2.381429

2008-09

14712.59

2.032705

2009-10

18654

2.418912

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2004-05

2005-06

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

Initially nuclear energy's contribution to the total power production was static or may be reducing, but it is
found that with developing technology and greater utilization of resources , fast growth of economy, the
government has invested in nuclear power and hence the greater production.

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The production of IMPORTED POWER from Bhutan over the years is shown below:

Y
e
a
r

A
C
T
U
A
L
P
R
O
D
U
C
T
I
O
N

%
o
f
t
o
t
a
l
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

2
0
0
4
0
5
2
0
0
5
0
6

0 0

2
0
0
7
0
8

5
2
9
0

1
7
6
4

0
.
2
8
5
6
6
3
0
.
7
5
0
9
3
9
14

2
0
0
8
0
9

5
8
9
9
.
1
0

2
0
0
9
1
0

5
3
4
1

0
.
8
1
5
0
2
5
0
.
6
9
2
5
8
1

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
2004-05

2005-06

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

It shows that although India had been importing power from Bhutan since 2004, the rate has started to
decline since 2009 which implies that our country has reduced its dependency over external procurement.

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The total POWER generated over a period of 6 years is as follows:

YEAR
2004-05
2005-06
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10

ELECTRICITY GENERATED CAPACITY INSTALLED


587415
118426
617510
124287
704451
143061
723793.62
147965
771173
159398

The correlation between The Electricity generation and the capacity installed is calculated and found out
using SPSS.

Correlations
Electricity
Electricity

Pearson Correlation

Capacity

Sig. (2-tailed)

Capacity

.999**
.000

Pearson Correlation

**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.999

.000

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The two variables are 99.9% correlated.

CONCLUSION:
Thus the individual energy source's contribution is studied for a period of 6 years and the dependency of the
electricity produced and the capacity installed is analysed.
It is also found that the government uses a test of HYPOTHESIS where at the beginning of the year, the
Production is estimated and it is compared with the actual generation.
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