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# Lectures 21-24

Response Analyzes

Lecture outline
In these lectures you will learn the following:
How to determine stability of a system represented as a transfer function
How to determine stability of a system represented in state-space form
How to design system parameters to yield stability
How to find the steady-state error for a unity feedback system
How to specify a systems steady-state error performance
How to find the steady-state error for nonunity feedback systems
How to find the steady-state error for systems represented in state-space form
How to design system parameters to meet steady-state error performance

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## Stability of control systems

Introduction - - Transient response stability definition - The design of a control system involves three specifications: transient response, stability,
and steady-state error. Stability is the most important system specification since that
transient response and steady-state error are moot points when a system is unstable.
As you might expect, the time response at the output of a control system that is
c(t) = cforced (t) + cnatural (t)
can be controlled through the forced response, which depends on the input poles, only if the
natural response vanishes as time approaches infinity. This helps define stability of linear
time-invariant system as
A linear time-invariant system is stable if the natural response approaches zero as time
approaches infinity.
A linear time-invariant system is unstable if the natural response grows without bound
as time approaches infinity.
A linear time-invariant system is marginally stable if the natural response neither
decays nor grows but remains constant or oscillates as time approaches infinity.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

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## Stability of control systems

Introduction - - Bounded-input bounded-output stability definition - Sometimes, it is difficult to separate the natural response from the forced response in the
time response. Here, stability can have another form of definition (called bounded-input,
bounded-output stability):
A linear time-invariant system is stable if every bounded input yields a bounded output.
A linear time-invariant system is unstable if any bounded input yields an unbounded
output.
The following remarks are in order:
BIBO stability definition is indeed practical to check stability.
Instability by BIBO stability definition includes the marginal stability by transient
response stability definition.
Physically, an unstable system whose natural response grows without bound can cause
damage to the system or to human life. Usually, systems are designed with limit stops
to prevent total runaway.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

317

## Stability of control systems

How do we know if a system is stable?
As you have seen before, system poles in the left half-plane yield either pure exponential
decay or damped sinusoidal natural responses. Thus, stable systems have closed-loop
transfer functions with poles only in the left half-plane.
Poles in the right half-plane yield pure exponentially increasing or exponentially increasing
sinusoidal natural responses. Also, poles of multiplicity greater than one on the imaginary
axis lead to the sum of natural responses of the form At n cos(t + ). Thus, unstable systems
have closed-loop transfer functions with at least one pole in the right half-plane and/or
poles of multiplicity greater than one on the imaginary axis.
Finally, imaginary axis poles and/or poles at zeros of multiplicity one yield pure sinusoidal
oscillations and/or constants as natural responses. Thus, marginally stable systems have
closed-loop transfer functions with only imaginary axis poles and/or poles at zeros of
multiplicity one, and possibly poles in the left half-plane.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

318

## Stability of control systems

How do we know if a system is stable?

319

## Stability of control systems

Stability example

320

## Stability of control systems

Practical testing of stability
It is not a simple matter to determine if a feedback control system is stable. A typical example is
that shown below, for which only the poles of the forward transfer function are known. We do not
know the poles of the equivalent closed-loop transfer function without factoring or otherwise solving
for the roots, which is a tedious task without using a computer program or some handheld
calculators.

There is a method to test for stability without having to solve for the roots of the characteristic
polynomial: The Routh-Hurwitz criterion for stability.

321

## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion
This method tells us how many closed-loop system poles are in the left half-plane, in the right
half-plane, and on the j-axis, without giving their coordinates (exact locations). Method requires
two steps: generate a table, and interpret it to conclude about stability.

Routh-Hurwitz criterion for stability states that the number of roots of the characteristic polynomial
that are in the right half-plane is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

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## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion: Standard Routh-Hurwitz table
Problem: Make the Routh table for the system shown below and draw conclusion about its stability.

Solution: We first form the Routh table as shown below. Note that, a row can be multiplied by a
positive constant without altering the stability conclusion. The system has two sign changes in the
first column. Thus, the system is unstable since two poles exist in the right half-plane. The
remaining third pole is in the left-half plane.

323

## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion - - Special cases: zero in first column - Problem and its solution: Make the Routh table for the closed-loop transfer function shown below and
T (s) =

1
2s5 + 3s4 + 2s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 1

A zero appears in the first column at the s3 row. We simply replace the zero with a small quantity
(supposed to be positive) and continue the table. There are two sign changes in the first column and
the system is unstable with two poles exist in the right half-plane. The remaining 3 poles are in the
left half-plane.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

324

## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion - - Special cases: row of zeros - Problem: Find the number of poles in the left half-plane, in the right half-plane, and on the j-axis
for the system shown below. Draw conclusion about its stability.

## Solution: The closed-loop transfer function of the system is

T (s) =

128
s8 + 3s7 + 10s6 + 24s5 + 48s4 + 96s3 + 128s2 + 192s + 128

Using the characteristic polynomial at the denominator, we form the Routh table as shown next.

325

## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion - - Special cases: row of zeros - A row of zeros appears in the s5 row. Thus, the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop transfer
function must have an even polynomial as a factor. Return to the s6 row to form the even
polynomial as P(s) = s6 + 8s4 + 32s2 + 64. Differentiate this polynomial with respect to s to form the
coefficients that will replace the zero terms at the s5 row: dP(s)/s = 6s5 + 32s3 + 64s + 0. Then
complete the table.

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## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion - - Special cases: row of zeros - There are two sign changes from the even polynomial at the s6 row down to the bottom of the table.
Then, the even polynomial has two right half-plane poles. Because of symmetry about the origin,
the even polynomial must have an equal number of left half-plane poles. The two remaining poles
for the even polynomial must be on the j-axis. There are no sign changes from the beginning of
the table down to the even polynomial at the s6 row. Therefore, the rest of the system characteristic
polynomial has no right half-plane poles. The two poles are in the left half-plane. Table below
summarizes the findings.

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## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion: Some important remarks
The following remarks are in order:
A sufficient condition for instability is that coefficients of the characteristic polynomial do not
have the same sign.
If powers of s are missing, the system is either unstable, or at best marginally stable. Il all the
coefficients are positive (or negative) and not missing, we do not have definitive information
A row of zeros in the Routh table means that the system characteristic polynomial has an even
polynomial (or odd polynomial, thus even) as a factor.
Only j-axis poles are possible when a row of zeros is present in the Routh table.
A row of zeros means that the system is at best marginally stable.
In case of Routh table with row of zeros, we can always check the j-axis poles (if any) by
looking at the even polynomial.

328

## Stability of control systems

Stability design via Routh-Hurwitz
Problem Find the range of K that will cause the system shown below to be stable, unstable, and
marginally stable. Assume K > 0.

Solution First we find the closed-loop transfer function as T (s) = K/(s3 + 18s2 + 77s + K). Next we
form the Routh table, as shown below

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## Stability of control systems

Stability design via Routh-Hurwitz
Solution (Contd) Since K > 0, we see that all terms in the first column are always positive except the
s1 row. This term can be positive, negative, or zero depending upon the value of K:
If K < 1386, all terms will be positive, and since there are no sign changes, the system will have
3 poles in LHP and be stable.
If K > 1386, the s1 term is negative. There are two sign changes, indicating that the system has
2 RHP poles and one LHP pole, which makes the system unstable.
If K = 1386, we have an entire row of zeros. We form the even polynomial as P(s) = 18s2 + 1386.
Differentiating it with respect to time, we have dP(s)/ds = 36s + 0. Replacing the row of zeros
with the coefficients of the last polynomial, we obtain the following Routh table. Since there
are no sign changes from the even polynomial (s2 row) down to the bottom of the table, the
even polynomial has its two roots on the j-axis, which are purely imaginary. Sine there is no
sign change above the even polynomial, the remaining root is in the LHP. Therefore, the
system is marginally stable.

330

## Stability of control systems

Routh-Hurwitz criterion: Stability in state space
Problem Given the system in the following state-space form

10
0
3
1

x
+
x =
8
1
0 u
2
0
10 5 2
y

[1 0 0]x

find out how many poles are in the LHP, in the RHP, and on the j-axis.
Solution The system poles are the eigenvalues of the system matrix A, which are
polynomial det(sI A). First, we form (sI A):

s 0 0
0
3
1
s
3
1

sI A =
8
1
1
= 2 s 8
0 s 0 2
0 0 s
10 5 2
10
5
s+2

## Using this polynomial, we form the Routh table as shown

besides. Since there is one sign change in the first column,
the system has 1 RHP pole and 2 LHP poles. It is therefore
unstable.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

331

## Stability of control systems

Problem Find out how many poles are in the LHP, in the RHP, and on the j-axis for the system
shown below:

Solution First the closed-loop transfer function is T (s) = 200/(s4 + 6s3 + 11s2 + 6s + 200). We then form
the Routh table,

There are two sign changes in the first column. Thus, the system is unstable, since it has two RHP
poles, and two LHP poles. The system cannot have j-axis poles since a row of zeros did not appear
in the Routh table.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

332

## Stability of control systems

Problem Factor the polynomial s4 + 3s3 + 30s2 + 30s + 200.
Solution We form the Routh table, and find that the s1 row is a row of zeros. Now form the even
polynomial at the s2 row, P(s) = s2 + 10. This polynomial is differentiated with respect to s in order
to complete the table. Since this polynomial is a factor of the original polynomial, then by diving
the last polynomial by the even polynomial we find the other factor as
s4 + 3s3 + 30s2 + 30s + 200

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## Stability of control systems

Problem For the transfer function
T (s) =

20
s8 + s7 + 12s6 + 22s5 + 39s4 + 59s3 + 48s2 + 38s + 20

tell how many poles are in the right half-plane, in the left half-plane, on the j-axis.
Solution We use the denominator of the transfer function to form the Routh table as shown below.

334

## Stability of control systems

Solution (Contd) We have a row of zeros at s3 row. Moving back one row to extract the even
polynomial as P(s) = s4 + 3s2 + 2. Taking the derivative with respect to s, that is
dP(s)/ds = 4s3 + 6s + 0, to obtain the coefficients that replace the row of zeros in the s3 row. Finally,
continue filling the table to the s0 row, as doing in the standard procedure. There are no sign
changes from the even polynomial (at s4 row) to the bottom of the table. Thus, the even polynomial
does not have right half-plane poles, and therefore left half-plane poles because of the requirement
of symmetry. Hence, the even polynomial must have all the 4 poles on the j-axis. By looking
above the even polynomial, we observe two sign changes, thus the other polynomial has 2 poles in
the right half-plane and the 2 remaining poles are in the left half-plane. The following table
summarizes the findings. The system is unstable because of the 2 poles in the right half-plane.

335

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Introduction
Steady-state error is the difference between the input and the output as time approaches infinity.
Test inputs, as given below, are used to determine steady-state errors.

336

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Introduction

Step inputs represent constant-position inputs to a position control system. These waveforms
can be used to test the systems ability to track a constant position target such as an antenna
tracking a satellite in geostationary orbit.
Ramp inputs represent constant-velocity inputs to a position control system by their linearly
increasing amplitude. These waveforms can be used to test the systems ability to track a
constant velocity target such as an antenna that tracks a satellite moving in the sky at a
constant angular velocity.
Parabolas, whose second derivatives are constant, represent constant-acceleration inputs to
position control systems and can be used to represent accelerating targets, such as the missile
in figure above, to determine the steady-state error performance.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

337

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Introduction

In a number of important control applications, the reference input will not be one of the test
inputs but can be approximated by one of them for time span long enough for the system to
reach steady state. For example, when an antenna is tracking the elevation angle to a satellite ,
the time history as the satellite approaches overhead is the S-shaped curve shown in figure
above. This signal may be approximated by a ramp function for a large portion of the signal
and a step function for the remaining of the signal.
The general method to deal with reference input, which is not one of the test inputs is to
approximate the input as a polynomial in time and then consider the steady-state tracking
errors that result for polynomial of different degrees.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

338

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Introduction
Figures below show steady-state errors to step and ramp input waveforms. Note that, steady-state
errors may be zero, constant (finite nonzero), or infinite. Note also that, discussion about
steady-state error is limited to stable systems only.

339

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Many steady-state errors in control systems arise from nonlinear sources, such as backlash in gears
or a motor that will not move unless the input exceeds a threshold. Steady-state errors can also be
attributed to changes in the reference input and imperfection in the system components due for
example to aging and deterioration. Study of these kinds of errors are beyond the scope of this
course.
The steady-state errors we study here are errors arise from:
1. The system configuration (or system type).
2. The waveform of the applied input.

340

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Introduction
Control system for studying steady-state error comes into two configurations: A general system with
a closed-loop transfer function (figure on the left) and a negative unity feedback system (figure on
the right).

Here, E(s) = L[e(t)] is the difference between the input R(s) = L[r(t)] and the output C(s) = L[c(t)].
Steady-state error is the error e(t) as time approaches infinity, that is
e() = lim e(t).
t

In the case of negative unity feedback system, E(s) giving the steady-state error is also the so-called
the actuating signal. Because determination of system type is easiest, this configuration is used to
specify steady-state error characteristics of control systems. A system which is not in such a
configuration can always be transformed into it, provided that output and input have the same unit.

341

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for a systems closed loop transfer function

We have,
E(s) = R(s) C(s)
But,
C(s) = R(s)T (s)
Then,
E(s) = R(s)[1 T (s)]
Applying the final value theorem to the relationship above, we get the steady-state error as
e() = lim e(t) = lim sE(s) = lim sR(s)[1 T (s)]
t

s0

s0

Here, the final-value theorem is valid only if (1) E(s) has poles only in the left half-plane and at the
origin, and (2) the system is stable.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

342

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for a systems closed loop transfer function: Remarks on FVT
For finite steady-state errors, the final-value theorem is valid only if E(s) has poles only in the left
half-plane and, at most, one pole at the origin. However, correct results that yield steady-state
errors that are infinite, can be obtained if E(s) has more than one pole at the origin. If E(s) has
poles in the right half-plane or poles on the imaginary axis other than at the origin, the final-value
theorem is invalid.
Since poles of the closed-loop transfer function T (s) are also poles of E(s), the final theorem value is
valid only if the system is at least marginally stable. But steady-state error is meaningless with
marginally stable systems, thus the system should be stable.
To summarize, the final-value theorem for the steady-state error is valid if
E(s) has poles only in the left half-plane and at the origin (could be more than one pole at the
origin).
The system, or the closed-loop transfer function T (s), is stable.
Practically, since the poles of E(s) are the poles of T (s) and those introduced by the input R(s),
which are at origin for the test inputs, system stability is sufficient for the final-value theorem to be
applied.

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## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for a systems closed loop transfer function
Now let us assume that the reference input is a polynomial of order k, that is
tk
r(t) = 1(t)
k!
whose Laplace transform is
R(s) =

sk+1
If k = 0, the input is a step function of unit amplitude; if k = 1, the input is a ramp function with a
unit slope; if k = 2, the input is a parabola with a unit second derivative, and so on.
With the polynomial reference input, the steady-state error is
e() = lim sR(s)[1 T (s)] = lim s
s0

s0

1 T (s)
s0
sk

[1 T (s)] = lim
k+1

Before continuing evaluation of the steady-state error, let us define the system type. For this,
assume the closed-loop transfer function given as
bm sm + bm1 sm1 + . . . + b2 s2 + b1 s + b0
T (s) =
,
sn + an1 sn1 + . . . + a2 s2 + a1 s + a0

mn

where denominator parameters ai s are to be all nonzero and of the same sign. Those are necessary
conditions for the system to be stable.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

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## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for a systems closed loop transfer function
System type is defined via the closed-loop transfer function T (s) as
The system is Type 1 if b0 = a0 .
The system is Type 2 if b0 = a0 and b1 = a1 .
The system is Type 3 if b0 = a0 , b1 = a1 , and b2 = a2 .
And so on.
Based on the above definitions of system type and the steady-state error expression calculated, we
get the following:
Type 0 system has constant steady-state error due to a step input, and infinite steady-state
errors due to ramp and parabola inputs.
Type 1 system has zero steady-state error due to a step input, constant steady-state error due
to a ramp input, and infinite steady-state error due to a parabola input.
Type 2 system has zero steady-state errors due to step and ramp inputs, and constant
steady-state error due to a parabola input.
And so on.
In a system that is Type 1 or higher, the transfer function T (s) will have a DC gain of unity; that
is T (0) = 1.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)
Principles of Control Systems Academic year 2013-2014 345

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for unity-feedback control systems

We have,
E(s) = R(s) C(s)
But,
C(s) = E(s)G(s)
Then,
E(s) =

R(s)
1 + G(s)

Applying the final value theorem to the relationship above, we get the steady-state error as
sR(s)
s0 1 + G(s)

e() = lim

Now, let us use test signals to establish specifications for a control systems steady-state error
characteristics.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

346

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for unity-feedback control systems
Steady state error is given by:
sR(s)
s0 1 + G(s)

e() = lim
Step input: Using R(s) = 1/s, we find that
e() = estep () =

1
1 + lims0 G(s)

1
1 + Kp

## where K p = lims0 G(s) is the position constant.

Ramp input: Using R(s) = 1/s2 , we find that
e() = eramp () =

1
lims0 sG(s)

1
Kv

## where Kv = lims0 sG(s) is the velocity constant.

Parabolic input: Using R(s) = 1/s3 , we find that
e() = e parabola () =

1
1
=
lims0 s2 G(s)
Ka

## where Ka = lims0 s2 G(s) is the acceleration constant.

K p , Kv , and Ka are the static error constants of the control system. Like settling time, peak time, and
percent overshoot for transient response characteristics, these parameters can be used to
specify the steady-state error characteristics of control systems.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

347

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for unity-feedback control systems
Suppose that the forward transfer function G(s) has the following form:
G(s) =

K(s + z1 )(s + z2 )
where n = 0, 1, 2,
sn (s + p1 )(s + p2 )

n is the number of pure integrations in G(s). Similarly, the value of n determines the so-called system
type. For example, a system with n = 0 is Type 0 system, with n = 1 is Type 1 system, and so on.
Step input:
estep () =

1
1 + lims0 G(s)

1
1 + Kp

In order to have zero steady-state error for the step input, K p = lims0 G(s) = . Thus, G(s) should
have at least one pure integration (i.e., n 1 or at least Type 1 system).
Ramp input:
1

1
lims0 sG(s)
Kv
In order to have zero steady-state error for the ramp input, Kv = lims0 sG(s) = . Thus, G(s) should
have at least two pure integrations (i.e., n 2 or at least Type 2 system).
eramp () =

Parabolic input:
e parabola () =

1
1
=
lims0 s2 G(s)
Ka

In order to have zero steady-state error for the parabola input, Ka = lims0 s2 G(s) = . Thus, G(s)
should have at least three pure integrations (i.e., n 3 or at least Type 3 system).
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

348

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for unity-feedback control systems
Let us summarize our findings through the following table. The table shows that steady-state errors
are functions of input waveform and system type.

As the type number is increased, accuracy is improved; however, increasing the type number
(by adding integrators to the feedforward path) aggravates the relative stability problem. A
compromise between steady-state accuracy and relative stability is always necessary.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

349

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Gain design to meet a steady-state error specification
Problem Given the control system shown below, find the value of K so that there is 10% error in the

Solution Since the system is Type 1, the error stated in the problem must apply to a ramp input;
only a ramp yields a finite nonzero error in a Type 1 system. Thus,
e() =

1
= 0.1
Kv

Therefore,
Kv = 10 = lim sG(s) =
s0

which yields

K 5
678

K = 672
Applying the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we see that the system is stable at this gain.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

350

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for nonunity feedback systems
Control systems often do not have unity feedback because of feedback compensation used to
improve the performance or because of the physical model of the system. Actually, the feedback
path can be a pure gain other than unity or have some dynamic compensation.
Next we see that the derived parameters used to characterize the steady-state error of unity
feedback systems can be expanded to nonunity feedback systems, by simply converting the nonunity
feedback system into a unity feedback system.

A general feedback system is typically as shown in the figure above, in which G1 (s) is the input
transducer, G2 (s) is the controller with the plant, and H1 (s) is the feedback. It can be converted into
a unity feedback system either by an analytic method or geometrically by moving some of the
system blocks past the summing junction and pickoff points.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

351

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for nonunity feedback systems
The system block diagram can be shown to be converted to the unity feedback below through
simple block displacements. This procedure requires that the input and output units be the same.

352

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for nonunity feedback systems

Ge (s) =

## Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

G(s)
1 + G(s)H(s) G(s)

353

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for nonunity feedback systems: An example
Problem For the system shown below, find the system type, the appropriate error constant associated
with the system type, and the steady-state error. Assume input and output units are the same.

Solution First we convert to unity feedback system. The equivalent forward transfer function is
Ge (s) =

100(s + 5)
G(s)
= 3
1 + G(s)H(s) G(s)
s + 15s2 50s 400

Since the system is Type 0, the appropriate static error constant is K p whose value is given as
K p = lim s 0Ge (s) =
The steady-state error e() is then
e() =

5
100 5
=
400
4

1
1
=
= 4
1 + Kp
1 5/4

The negative value for steady-state error implies that the output step is larger than the input step.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

354

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for systems in state-space form
Next we see how to determine the steady-state error for systems given in state-space form. Two
methods can be used: (1) analysis via final value theorem and (2) analysis via input substitution.
For the sake of time constraint, we focus only on the first method.
Analysis via final value theorem Suppose that the closed-loop system is given by the following
state-space form:
x

Ax + Br

Cx

We know that E(s) = R(s) Y (s) = R(s)[1 T (s)], where T (s) is the closed-loop transfer function.
Using the relationship between T (s) and the elements of the state-space form, we have
E(s) = R(s)[1 C(sI A)1 B]
Applying the final value theorem, we have
e() = lim sE(s) = lim sR(s)[1 C(sI A)1 B]
s0

s0

355

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Steady-state error for systems in state-space form: An example
Problem Evaluate the steady-state error for the system given below, for unit-step and unit-ramp
inputs. Use the final value theorem.

0
5
1
0

;
B
=
A=
2 1
0 ; C = [1 1 0]
0
1
20 10 1
Solution The steady-state error is given as
e()

=
=


lim sR(s) 1

s+4
s0
s3 + 6s2 + 13s + 20

 3
s + 6s2 + 12s + 16
lim sR(s) 3
s0
s + 6s2 + 13s + 20

For a unit step, R(s) = 1/s, and e() = 4/5. For a unit ramp, R(s) = 1/s2 , and e() = . Notice that
the system behaves like a Type 0 system.

356

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Problem A unity feedback system has the following transfer function:
G(s) =

1000(s + 8)
(s + 7)(s + 9)

## a. Evaluate system type, K p , Kv , and Ka .

b. Find the steady-state errors for the standard step, ramp, and parabolic inputs.
Solution
a. The system is stable, since
T (s) =

G(s)
1000(s + 8)
1000(s + 8)
=
= 2
1 + G(s)
(s + 9)(s + 7) + 1000(s + 8) s + 1016s + 8063

## and is of type 0. Therefore,

K p = lim G(s) =
s0

b.

1000 8
= 127, Kv = lim sG(s) = 0, Ka = lim s2 G(s) = 0
s0
s0
79

estep ()

eramp ()

eparabola ()

1
= 7.8e 03
1 + 127

1 + lims0 G(s)
1
1
= =
lims0 sG(s)
0
1
1
=
=
lims0 s2 G(s)
0

357

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Problem What information is contained in the specification K p = 1000?
Solution The system is stable. The system is Type 0, since only a Type 0 system has a finite K p .
Type 1 and Type 2 systems have K p = . The input test signal is a step, since K p is specified.
Finally, the error per unit is
1
1
1
=
=
e() =
1 + Kp
1 + 1000
1001

358

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Problem Find the steady-state actuating signal for the system of figure below for a unit step input.

## Solution The steady-state actuating signal is given by

sR(s)
s0 1 + G(s)H(s)

ea () = lim
where G(s) = 100/(s(s + 10)) and H(s) = 1/(s + 5).

For a unit step input, R(s) = 1/s and the corresponding steady-state actuating signal is
ea () = lim

s0

s( 1s )
100
1
1 + ( s(s+10)
)( s+5
)

=0

Note that steady-state actuating signal is used rather than the steady-state error in case when input
and output units are not the same.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

359

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Problem The unity feedback system with a forward transfer function
G(s) =

K(s + )
s(s + )

is to be designed to meet the following requirements: The steady-state error for a unit ramp input
equals 1/10; the closed-loop poles will be located at 1 j1. Find K, , and in order to meet the
specifications.
Solution The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =

K(s + )
G(s)
= 2
1 + G(s)
s + (K + )s + K

Hence, K + = 2, K = 2n = (12 + 12 ) = 2.
Also,
e() =

= 0.1
=
Kv
K

## Therefore, = 0.1K = 0.2, K = 1.8, and = 1.111.

Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

360

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Problem Given the unity feedback system with a forward transfer function
G(s) =

K
sn (s + a)

find the value of n, K, and a in order to meet specifications of 10% overshoot and Kv = 100.

Solution Kv is constant means that system type is n = 1. The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =

K
G(s)
= 2
1 + G(s)
s + as + K

## From G(s), Kv = K/a = 100.

On the other hand, for 10% overshoot, = 0.6. Therefore, 2n = a, and

2n

= K. Hence, a = 1.2 K.

But a = K/100. Solving simultaneously gives K = 1.44 104 and a = 1.44 102 .

361

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Problem For each of the systems shown below, find the following:
a. The system type
b. The appropriate static error constant
c. The input waveform to yield a constant error
d. The steady-state error for a unit input of the waveform found in (c)
e. The steady-state value of the actuating signal

Solution
System 1: Forming a unity feedback system, the equivalent forward transfer function is
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

362

## Steady-state error characteristics of control systems

Solution
Ge (s) =

10(s+10)
s(s+2)
10(s+10)(s+3)
s(s+2)

1+

10(s + 10)
11s2 + 132s + 300

a. Type 0 system; b. K p = lims0 Ge (s) = 1/3; c. step input; d. e() = 1/(1 + K p ) = 3/4. e.
s( 1s )
sR(s)
=0
eastep () = lim
= lim
s0 1 + G(s)H(s)
s0 1 + 10(s+10)(s+4)
s(s+2)

System 2: Forming a unity feedback system, the equivalent forward transfer function is
Ge (s) =

10(s+10)
s(s+2)
1 + 10(s+10)s
s(s+2)

10(s + 10)
s(11s + 102)

a. Type 1 system; b. Kv = lims0 sGe (s) = 0.98; c. ramp input; d. e() = 1/Kv = 1.02. e.
s( s12 )
sR(s)
1
= lim
=
eastep () = lim
s0 1 + G(s)H(s)
s0 1 + 10(s+10)(s+1)
50
s(s+2)

## Principles of Control Systems Academic year 2013-2014

363

Suggested problems
Students are suggested to solve the following problems of the textbook:

E 4.3, E 4.4, E 4.12, P 4.10, E 6.1, E 6.6, E 6.15, E 6.17, E 6.22, E 6.24,
P 6.10, P 6.11
Students are encouraged to solve the assigned problems in hand before seeking help
from classmates or the teacher. Subsequently, the accompanying solutions can be
checked for confirmation.

364