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1, 2010

**A Simple method of designing dual loop controller for cold rolling mill
**

S.Umamaheswari, Dept. of EIE, Mahendra Engg, College, Namakkal(Dt), INDIA V.Palanisamy Principal/ Info Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, INDIA M.Chidambaram Director/ NIT, Trichy, INDIA

Abstract-The mathematical model (Interval Plant) of the web guide in rolling mill is controlled using PID controller. The given interval plant is approximated to first order plus time delay with integrator (FOPTDI) system. The dual loop control (DLC) method proposed by Jacob and chidambaram for design PID controllers is extended for FOPTD+I systems. The performance of the closed loop system is evaluated for both the original and the approximated model. The controllers are also tuned using Internal Model Control (IMC) and the performance is compared by simulation. Index Terms -Interval plant, Double loop control , Direct synthesis method, IMC(Internal Model Control)

II. INTERVAL PLANT The model of the web guide system by using geometrical relations of the guide ignoring the mass and stiffness of the web is given by Sang Min Kim et.al.(2004).

**a3 s 3 + a2 s 2 + a1s1 + a0 G( s) = 5 s + b4 s 4 + b3 s 3 + b2 s 2 + b1s1 + b0
**

Where the coefficients are of interval in nature, which is given by,

I.

INTRODUCTION

a3 = [4.5 24] ; a2 = [5 29] ; a1 = [0.9 5] ; a0 =[0.05 3]

There are many intermediate web guides in cold rolling mills process such as CRM (cold rolling mill), CGL(Continuous galvanizing line) and so on. The main functions of the web guide are to adjust the center line of the strip to the center line of the steel process, so they are called centre position control (CPL). Rapid process speed cause large deviation between the center position of the strip and the process line. So the difference between the center position of the strip and the process line should be compensated. In general, the centre position control (CPC) of the web is obtained by hydraulic driver and electrical controller. The model of the web guide system is obtained from Sang Min Kim et.al( 2004)[1]. For the purpose of designing controllers, the dynamics of many processes can be described by first-order plus time delay with an integrator (FOPTDI) model.

b5 = [0.05 0.3] ; b4 = [ 4 9 ] ; b3 =[ 4 9] ; b2 = [0.7 2] ; b1 = [0.03 0.08]; b0 = [0 0]

This is represented as model1, model2 and model3 by considering only the minimum, maximum and average values of the interval. The mode1, model2 and model3 of the plant are given by,

Model1 =

0.05 + 0.9 s1 + 5s 2 + 4.5s 3 0.03s1 + 0.7 s 2 + 4s 3 + 4s 4 + s 5 0.3 + 5s1 + 29s 2 + 24 s 3 0.08s1 + 2s 2 + 9s 3 + 9s 4 + s 5 0.175 + 2.95s1 + 17 s 2 + 14.25s 3 0.055s1 + 1.35s 2 + 6.5s 3 + 6.5s 4 + s 5

Model2 = Methods for tuning PID controllers for such models are based on stability analysis such as Internal model controller (Rivera et.al.(1986)[5]. The dual loop method is extended for designing PID controller for FOPTD+I systems. The inner loop is of PD controller and the outer loop is of PID controller designed using direct synthesis method proposed by shesagiri Roa[ 6]. PID controllers are also designed by IMC method. The performance of the controller is compared by simulation.

Model3=

These models have been approximated to FOPTD+I system. Approximation is done by taking 1/s from the actual model separately, and applying step input, the time constant τ is calculated. Letting s to zero, the magnitude k is calculated.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 7, No.1, 2010

Hence the FOPTD is obtained in which the 1/s term is again combined to get FOPTD+I model. The approximated system is given by, RModel1 =

=

( ( 2)s) s (1 + ( L ) s ) + k k (1 − ( L ) s ) 2 2

kck p 1 − L

c p

1.667 e −0.3526 s s (0.5584s + 1) 3.75 e −0.793 s s (1.256s + 1) 3.1818 e −0.673 s s (1.0659s + 1)

RModel2

=

( ( 2)s)e = s (1 + ( L ) s ) + k k (1 − ( L ) s ) 2 2

kc k p 1 + L

− Ls c p

RModel3

=

=

kc k p 1 + L

( ( 2) s)e

− Ls

In the present paper dual loop system in which the inner loop is of PD controller and the outer loop is of PID for FOPTD+I system is designed. The performance of the control system is compared with that of the IMC method.

L s 2 + s ⎛1 − kc k p L ⎞ s + k k c p ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

**Closed loop transfer function of the inner loop is given by, III. DUAL LOOP PID
**

y y rin

=

kc k p 1 + L

( ( 2)s)e

− Ls

The general transfer function of the process to be

kp

controlled is given by,

⎛L 2 ⎞ ⎛ kc k p L ⎞ s + kc k p ⎟ ⎜ 2 s + s ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

s(τ s + 1)

e− Ls

L

(1) is

where k p is the process gain τ is the time constant and the process lag.

Figure 2. Block diagram of the simplified dual PID after ses Figure 1. Block diagram of the dual loop control The inner loop is of PI controller and the outer loop is of PID controller designed using direct synthesis method proposed by sheshagiri roa for unstable system. In this paper it has been extended for stable system. The closed loop Transfer function of the inner loop is given by, y is approximated to

1 (α s + 1) Gc = kc (1 + + τ d s) τis ( β s + 1)

where

simplification

the

controller

is

obtained

as,

kc =

**η1 k (3λ + 1.5θλ + 0.5θη1 − η 2 )
**

2

yin

=

k c k p e − Ls s + k c k p e − Ls

, the delay

τ 1 = η1 η τd = 2 η1 α = 0.5θ , β =

0.5θλ 3 τ (3λ 2 + 1.5θλ + 0.5θη1 − η 2 )

e − Ls = 1 − L

( 2 )s

1+ L

( 2 )s

in which and

η2 =

(0.5θ − τ )λ 3 + (3τ 2 − 1.5θτ )λ 2 + 3θτ 2λ + 0.5θ 2τ 2 τ (0.5θ + τ )

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Tuning Parameter Selection The tuning parameter λ should be selected in such a way that the resulting controller gains should be positive for positive values of k. Hence, as per the method given by Seshagirirao et. al. [6] to get positive values of controller gain(kc), the constraint to be followed is,

As per Rivera et al., (1986),

τc θ

> 0.8 and

τc

>

0.1 τ , k p exp(−τ d s ) s (τ s + 1) . By simulation it was found that

τ c =4

as per Rivera et. al., gives best result for all three

models. 6. SIMULATION RESULTS Let us consider the Rmodel2 plant with

a way that the resulting controller gives good robust control performances. The initial value of the tuning parameter can be taken as equal to half of the time delay of the process to get good control performances. If not then, the tuning parameter can be increased from this value till good nominal and robust control performances are achieved. For suitable value of λ and β , the controller designed on DS method gives good control performances. However for high value of β , the phase lag imposed by the term

η < 3λ 2 + 1.5θλ − η2 + 0.5θη1 Also, λ should be selected in such

k p =,3.75 τ = 1.256

and τ d = 0.793. The PID controller settings by the dual loop method are kc =0.452

τi

= 0.96 and

τD

=0.366 The PID

settings by IMC method are kc =0.12 and

τ i =0.012 τ D

=

( β s + 1) in the controller is more and thus the designed

controller with this value of β is not able to give robust control performances which results in low gain and phase margins of the open loop system than the required values (gain margin should be >1.7 and phase margin should be >350 for robust control of a process [6]. Based on many simulation studies, it is observed that taking ‘0.1 β ’ instead of β gives good compromise between nominal performances and robust control performances. Thus, in the present work, the value of β obtained is modified as ‘0.1 β ’ for simulation studies. The performances of the closed loop system are evaluated by giving a unit step in the set point. Fig.1-3 shows the comparison of Rmodel 1, 2 & 3 with the controller tuned using double loop MRC method. 5. IMC METHOD The IMC based PID controller settings for FOPTDI system is given by, (Dale, et. al. (2004) and Rivera et.al. (1986)[2&5] respectively.

0.1319. Figure 1, 2 and 3 show the comparison of the servo response of all three models. The robustness of the closed loop is evaluated by using the maximum controller settings on the other two models of the system. Figures 4, 5 and 6 show the regulatory response of the systems. Comparison of ISE and IAE values of the Rmodel1, Rmode2 and Rmodel3 for both the servo problem and the regulator problems using the controller settings for the IMC and the dual loop method are shown in table I.

Fig.1 Servo response of Rmodel1 Solid -> DLC ; dash-dot –> IMC

kc k = (2τ c + τ + θ ) (τ c + θ ) 2 τ I = (2τ c + τ + θ ) τ D = (2τ c + θ )τ (2τ c + τ + θ )

The choice of design parameter τ c is a key decision in both the direct synthesis (DS) and IMC design methods. In general increasing τ c produces a more conservative controller because

kc decreases while τ I increases. Several IMC guidelines for

τc

have been published for FOPTD with an integrator system.

Fig.2 Regulator response of Rmodel1; Legend as in Fig.1

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Fig.3 Servo response of Rmodel 2. Legend as in fig.1

Fig.6 Regulator response of Rmodel 3 Legend as in fig.1 The servo and regulatory response of the dual loop control method gives a better response than that of IMC method. Table I and II gives the comparison of ISE and IAE values for both regulator and servo response. The performance of the controller designed by the dual loop method gives the best. Here the controller setting for the Rmodel2 is chosen and robustness is evaluated for other models.

TABLE I ISE, IAE VALUE COMPARISON FOR REGULATOR RESPONSE MODELS METHOD CONTROLLER SETTINGS KC KC KC* REGULATOR RESPONSE ISE IAE

**Fig.4 Regulator response of Rmodel 2 Legend as in fig.1
**

MODEL 1 DUAL PID IMC MODEL 2 DUAL PID IMC MODEL 3

/τ I

τD

3.79 4.92 0.452 0.12 0.96 0.012 0.366 0.131 4.99 6.78

498.6 509.3

487.6 500.9

Fig.5 Servo response of Rmodel 3 Legend as in fig.1

DUAL PID IMC

4.98 5.03

501.2 504.1

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**

TABLE II ISE, IAE VALUE COMPARISON FOR SERVO RESPONSE

MODELS

METHOD

CONTROLLER SETTINGS KC KC KC* τ D

SERVO RESPONSE ISE IAE

system is verified by simulation. The controller has been designed using dual loop control and IMC. Among this, robustness of the dual loop method is seems to be better when compared to IMC method. Referring to the Table I and II, the ISE and IAE values are comparatively less for dual loop method than that of the IMC method. REFERENCES

/τ I

MODEL 1 DUAL PID IMC MODEL 2 DUAL PID IMC MODEL 3 DUAL PID IMC 0.14 0.34 0.17 19.81 0.452 0.12 0.96 0.012 0.366 0.131 0.116 0.416 9.62 14.9

[1] Sang Min Kim, Byoung joon Ahn, et.al., “The modeling and control of web guide process in cold rolling mill”, IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Korea, Nov2-6,(2004) [2] E.Dale, Seborg, Jhomas F.Edgar, “Duncan A.Mellichamp, “PID controller design, tuning and troubleshooting”, 2nd ed., pp. 304-309, John Wiley & sons(Asia) Pte.Ltd., (2004) [3] M.Chidambaram and JacobE.F. “Control of unstable delay plus first order systems”, Computer& Chemical Engineering, Vol.20, pp.579 -584, (1996) [4] M.Chidambaram and JacobE.F. “Robust Control of an unstable bioreactor”, process control & Quali., Vol.8, pp.167 - 175, (1996) [5]Rivera,D.E.,Morari,M.&Skogestad.S,“IMC-PID controller design. Industrial Engineering and Chemical Process, Design and Development”, 25, 252 (1986). [6] Seshagirirao, A., V.S.R Rao, and M.Chidambaram, “Direct synthesis – based controller design for integrating processes with time delay,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, 2008.

0.166 0.33

0.07 120.92

Also the same controller parameters are checked for their corresponding original model. The response shows that the dual loop method seems to be better compared to the other two models. The ISE and IAE values for regulator response are Reported in Table I. The dual loop method has got least ISE and IAE values.

7. CONCLUSION

The mathematical model of the web guide system is tuned using IMC and dual loop control method. The controller designed for FOPTD +Integrator system works well for even the corresponding original model. Also the robustness of the

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UsefulNot usefulThe mathematical model (Interval Plant) of the web guide in rolling mill is controlled using PID controller. The given interval plant is approximated to first order plus time delay with integrator ...

The mathematical model (Interval Plant) of the web guide in rolling mill is controlled using PID controller. The given interval plant is approximated to first order plus time delay with integrator (FOPTDI) system. The dual loop control (DLC) method proposed by Jacob and chidambaram for design PID controllers is extended for FOPTD+I systems. The performance of the closed loop system is evaluated for both the original and the approximated model. The controllers are also tuned using Internal Model Control (IMC) and the performance is compared by simulation.

Index Terms -Interval plant, Double loop control , Direct synthesis method, IMC(Internal Model Control)

Index Terms -Interval plant, Double loop control , Direct synthesis method, IMC(Internal Model Control)

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