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SCIENCE (52

)
CHEMISTRY
SCIENCE Paper - 2
3. To acquire skills in proper handling of apparatus
and chemicals.

Aims:
1. To acquire the knowledge of terms, concepts,
processes, techniques and principles related to
the subject.

4. To develop scientific temper, attitude and
problem solving skills.

2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge
of contents and principles of chemistry in
unfamiliar situations.

5. To recognize Chemical Science as having

an important impact on the environment
relating to cycles in nature; natural
resources, pollution.

CLASS IX
There will be one paper of two hours duration of 80
marks and Internal Assessment of practical work
carrying 20 marks.

terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms,
molecules); Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law;
absolute zero; gas equation; simple relevant
calculations.

The paper will be divided into two sections,
Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).

The behaviour of gases under changes of
temperature and pressure; explanation in
terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms,
molecules). Boyle’s Law (statement,
mathematical form, simple calculations).

Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer
questions on the entire syllabus.
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates
will be required to answer any four of these six
questions.

Charles’ Law; (statement, mathematical
form, simple calculations). Absolute zero;
Kelvin scale of temperature. Gas equation
P 1 V 1 / T 1 = P 2 V 2 / T 2 ; simple relevant
calculations based on gas equation.

Note: All chemical reactions should be studied with
reference to the reactants, products, conditions,
observations and the (balanced) equation.
1. Matter and its Composition:
Conservation of mass

Law

(ii) Relationship between Kelvin Scale and
Celsius Scale of temperature; Standard
temperature and pressure.

of

(i) Explanation of change of state of matter
on the basis of Kinetic Theory of Matter.

Conversion of temperature from Celsius
Scale to Kelvin scale and vice versa.
Standard temperature and pressure. (simple
calculations).

Main postulates of Kinetic Theory of Matter
and explanation of change of state on the
basis of. Inter-particle space and Interparticle attraction and collision.

3. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

(ii) Law of Conservation of Mass

(i) General characteristics and differences
between
elements,
compounds
and
mixtures.

Statement and explanation with examples.

2. Study of Gas Laws

Reasons for considering a substance as an
element, compound or mixture may be given
to make the concepts clear.

(i) The behaviour of gases under changes of
temperature and pressure; explanation in
97

(e) simple paper chromatography (limited to separation of colouring matter in ink). More examples of such type may be given. tri and tetra valent elements. (v) Burning: Definition and conditions of burning. burning of magnesium or candle to show that substances gain weight on burning. Radicals – definition of radicals. fractional distillation.g water + carbon tetra chloride). formulae of radicals and formulae of compounds. The following examples should be used to illustrate the principles of separation of mixtures by using following methods between Simple experiments like dissolution of sugar in water.g. mono. (Air is used for combustion) conditions for burning (combustible substance. balancing of equations. Valency . burning of paper should be shown to make the concepts of physical and chemical change clear.g. The language of Chemistry Symbol of an element. comparison of respiration and burning. sodium chloride + sand. valency. benzene + toluene. simple paper chromatography Centrifugation immiscible liquid. (By partial equation method and hit and trial method) (iii) Separation of mixtures involving . (d) fractional distillation involves the difference in boiling points of liquids e. hydrogen combination and number of valence electrons of the metals and 98 . Balancing of simple chemical equations. (iv) Energy changes in a chemical change. (ii) Types of mixtures: of two solids. di. liquid and gas. Definition.g. suspension and colloidal solution to make the concepts clear. two gases. supporter of combustion and ignition temperature). carbon and sulphur (Carbon tetra chloride as solvent) (ii) Conditions for chemical change. double decomposition with examples. heat.g. a solid and a liquid. (iii) Types of chemical change. Exothermic and endothermic reactions with examples – evolution/absorption of heat. Physical and Chemical Changes (i) Definitions and distinction Physical and Chemical changes. formula and valencies of the radicals and formula of compounds. evaporation and distillation. pressure. O 2 and CO 2 Cycle. (f) Centrifugation (involving separation of cream from milk). electricity. Chemical equation – definition and examples of chemical equations with one reactant and two or three products. sodium chloride from its aqueous solution Close contact.non-metals. (g) immiscible liquids (separating funnel e.use of a solvent. decomposition. (water as solvent). displacement. Definition of mixture. (c) distillation e. purification of water containing dissolved solids. Direct combination. students to be made aware of how the balance of O 2 and CO 2 is maintained in nature. catalysts with examples. symbols of the elements used often. each type of mixture should be shown to the students (including both homogeneous and heterogeneous types) – true solution. light. 5. two liquids. two reactants and one product. filtration. light and electricity. two reactants and two products and two reactants and three or four products. Symbol – definition. (a) use of solvent and filtration (e. 4.definition. (b) evaporation e.

General idea of Dobereiner’s triads. Atmospheric pollution (a) Acid rain – composition. (ii)The preparation and collection of hydrogen by a standard laboratory method other than electrolysis. its physical and chemical properties. Chemical Properties: The action of cold water on sodium and calcium. Modern Periodic Law. reversibility of reaction between iron and steam. sodium chloride in water). Mendeleev’s periodic law. Modern Periodic Table (groups 1 to 18 and periods 1 to 7). High temperatures in furnaces and internal combustion engines produce oxides of nitrogen. mass number. the impurities in the gas. qualitative effect of temperature on solubility (e. Experiment to show that the water we drink. 6. (i) Hydrogen from water (ii) hydrogen from dilute acids (iii) hydrogen from alkalies. their significance.p. Isotopes and Octet Rule. steam and metals. The Periodic Table Dobereiner’s Triads. 7. potassium nitrate. Octet rule. ion formation applied to the above mentioned element. 10. treatment of industrial waste to yield safe effluents. Application of activity series for the above mentioned preparations. contains dissolved solids and dissolved gases (air).g. sewage. 9. separation of CO 2 and CO from it. industrial waste. atomic number. Newland’s law of Octaves. Students can be shown the action of sodium and calcium on water in the laboratory.p. the reason for using zinc. Water Pollution – Causes – household. offshore and oil drilling. Definition of an element. solutions of calcium sulphate. 99 . b. detergents. Mendeleev’s contributions. Electron distribution in the orbits . (Equations to be included). Acid rain affects soil chemistry and water bodies.Discovery of Atomic Number and its use as a basis for Modern Periodic law. KOH) by Zn. chlorine). Treatment of Water Pollution – Proper collection and disposal of domestic sewage. cause and its impact. the Modern Periodic Table. constituents of an atom . Cold water and metals. Definition and examples of isotopes (hydrogen. Solutions as 'mixtures' of solids in water. Al – unique nature of these elements. Industrial manufacture of hydrogen by Bosch process with main reactions and conditions. carbon. Hydrogen from water.(groups and periods) (b) Global warming: Greenhouse gases – their sources and ways of reducing their presence in the atmosphere. Newland’s law of Octaves. Displacement of hydrogen from dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid by zinc or iron (no reaction with copper). m. their removal and the precautions in the collection of the gas must be mentioned. hot water and metals. the action of hot water on magnesium and steam on iron. Sulphur in fossil fuels giving oxides of sulphur when burnt. Atomic Structure Structure of an Atom mass number and atomic number. Why is water considered a compound? Chief physical properties should include: density. Water Water as a compound and as a universal solvent. definition of an atom. steam and non-metals. In the laboratory preparation. Reason for chemical activity of an atom.2n2 rule.nucleus (protons. burning. neutrons) with associated electrons. saturated solutions. Displacement of hydrogen from alkalis (NaOH. they must be asked to make observations (equations for the above reactions) and form reactivity series based on reactions. Study of the First Element -Hydrogen Position of the non-metal (Hydrogen) in the periodic table and general group characteristics with reference to valency electrons. 8.

identify the product and make deductions. Simple experiments on: 5. 6g salt). 3. (c) zinc nitrate. Hydrogen chloride. Nitrogen dioxide. It may be counted out as taking too much time. Carbon dioxide. 1. Chlorine. zinc carbonate (b) washing soda. also by choosing sand of such grain size that filtering or decanting will not be slow and yet not so large that separation of salt and sand cannot be done simply by sorting out mechanically the sand from the salt. (a) a sodium salt INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK (b) a potassium salt (c) a calcium compound Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to them. Find out the sources of pollution of water bodies in the locality and determine the quality of water. Heat the given (unknown) substance. Apply the flame test to identify the metal in the unknown substance. (a) copper carbonate.(water vapour. using washing soda and advantage of using detergents over soap in hard water. (c) Ozone depletion Formation of ozone – relevant equations (a) a sulphide Function in the atmosphere. ammonium dichromate 100 . Simple experiments based on hard water and soft water – identification of hardness – simple softening – by heating the temporary hard water. methane and oxides of nitrogen) 2. The experiment should take about 20 minutes using 10g mixture (4g sand. Oxygen. warm if necessary. Add dilute sulphuric acid to the unknown substance. copper sulphate crystals 6. The exercises will be simple and may include the recognition and identification of certain gases listed below. lead nitrate (d) ammonium chloride. The percentage composition of a mixture of powdered salt and water-washed sand. make observation. Water vapour. carbon dioxide. iodine. Ammonia. washing and weighing. Hydrogen sulphide. Sulphur dioxide. The weakness could be met by supplying a given weight of the mixture. copper nitrate. Candidates are expected to have completed the following minimum practical work. make observations. filtering or decanting. The experiment would test techniques in dissolving. identify any products and make deductions where possible. 4. (b) a carbonate (c) a metal Destruction of the ozone layer – chemicals responsible for this to be named but reactions not required. Gases: Hydrogen.

Note: All chemical process/reactions should be studied with reference to the reactants. Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks). ionisation in solution. Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids. the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with help of electron dot diagrams. the (balanced) equation and diagram. covalent and co-ordinate bonding. Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds. ionisation in solution.CLASS X 2. Definition of Coordinate Bond: The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H 3 O+ and OH. Structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl. nitrogen. carbon tetrachloride. The paper will be divided into two sections. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions. use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity. MgCl 2 . Definitions of following periodic properties and trends in these properties in groups and periods should be studied:  atomic size.  metallic character  non-metallic character  ionisation potential  electron affinity  electronegativity (ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements. CaO.ions in water and NH 4 + ion. structures of various compounds – orbit structure and electron dot structure. Definition of Electrovalent Bond. Relation between atomic number for light elements (proton number) and atomic mass for light elements. Electrovalent. Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus. observation. products. ammonia. 1. Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence. 3. Self-explanatory. Section II will contain six questions. water. dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis. Bases and Salts (i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules and their characteristic properties. chlorine. the modern periodic table up to period 3 (students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 3 – Argon). methane. Covalent Bond – definition and examples. structure of Covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example : hydrogen. Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence. Chemical Bonding There will be one paper of two hours duration of 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks. Study of Acids.) of (i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods. melting and boiling points. The meaning of lone pair. melting and boiling points. special reference to the alkali metals and halogen groups. conditions. periodicity and other related properties to be described in terms of shells (not orbitals). (ii) Ions present in mineral acids. Periodic Properties and variations Properties – Physical and Chemical. conductivity (heat and electricity). alkalis and salts and their solutions. bases and salts: acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus 101 . conductivity (heat and electricity).

(v) Preparation: laboratory preparation of salts (normal and acid salts) – relevant laboratory work is essential (no apparatus details are required).T. The metals must include zinc and aluminium. Laboratory preparation of salts (normal and acid salts): Direct combination. “the mass of 22.statement and explanation. respectively should be taught. NH 3 . Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes. KOH). (iii) Definition of salt. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry (i) Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes. double decomposition. basic salt. their oxides and their hydroxides. Idea of mole – a number just as dozen. displacement. Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts. carbonates. Action of dilute acids on carbonates. Equations of formation of Acid rain.   Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates. showing the amphoteric nature of these substances. Action on addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to solution of Ca. (Sulphuric acid) on chlorides and nitrates. This will assist the students in their practical work. Cu. definition and examples. hydrogen carbonates and action of concentrated acid. (ii) On certain metals and their oxides (relevant laboratory work is essential). Zn. neutralization. Analytical Chemistry – Use of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide (i) On solution of salts: colour of salt and its solution. Zn and Pb. (iii) Relative atomic masses (atomic weight) and relative molecular masses (molecular 102 . neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator. Avogadro’s Law. oxygen. 5. red. a gross. (Questions will not be set on formal proof but may be taught for clear understanding) – simple calculations based on the molar volume.P. Cu. Fe. and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. is equal to its molar mass”.4 litres of any gas at S. 4. Fe. special action of ammonium The explanation can be given using equations for the formation of HCl. formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca. Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal should be explained with suitable examples. Fe. Avogadro’s Law . Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations. acid salt. Zn. types of salts. Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity. water of crystallization. which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH. with the help of equations.  Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide to solution of Ca. Types of salts: normal salts. efflorescence. chlorides and nitrates by appropriate acids with heating if necessary. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted. and NO. Definition and example of each of the above.  (iv) General properties of salts:  Deliquescence. to obtain carbon dioxide. (ii) Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen. (relevant laboratory work must be done). On solution of salts:  Colour of salt and its solution.hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts. alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue. – statement and explanation. and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. hydrogen chloride and nitric acid. nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required). decomposition. Cu.

Fe. Relating mole and atomic mass. simple calculations based on chemical equations.. Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from the percentage composition of a compound.simple calculations based on the formula. lustre. non-metal. arriving at gram atomic mass and then gram atom.T. density. many metals liberate hydrogen from dilute HCl and Definition and explanation of electrolysis. cation. Idea of relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass – standard H atom or 1/12th of carbon 12 atom. (iv) Applications of electrolysis: electroplating with nickel and silver. cathode. both reacting weight and volumes. illustrated by the electrolysis of: molten lead bromide. relating their composition with their behaviour as electrolyte (strong and weak). malleability. Molecular mass = 2×vapour density (questions will not be set on formal proof but may be taught for clear understanding). discharge of metallic ions at the cathode from fused metallic chlorides (link with bonding and ion formation). (iii) Comparison of Metals and Non-metals. ions only. 6. Self-explanatory. mercury). . brittleness. General properties with special reference to physical properties: state. refining of copper. chemical properties: a metal forms at least one basic oxide. 103 . Reasons and conditions for electroplating. conduction of electricity (exceptions to be specifically noted . anode. Mg. Relating mole and molecular mass arriving at gram molecular mass and gram molecule – molecular mass is a number dealing with a molecule. Metallurgy (i) Definition of Metals and Non-metals. (ii) Position of the metals (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals) in the Periodic table and general characteristics applied to these elements with reference to the following – occurrence. with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions. molecular mass = 2×vapour density (formal proof not required). The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used. purification of copper. the molar volume of a gas at S.g. ductility. (ii) Substances containing molecules only. gram molecular mass is the mass of one mole of molecules. Electrolysis (i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. graphite. electrode. Substances containing molecules only. non-electrolyte. Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from the percentage composition of a compound. action of water. 7. (iii) An elementary study of the migration of ions. Cu. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating. action of acids. an acidic or neutral oxide. Examples.weights): either H=1 or 12C=12 will be accepted. e.. ionization reaction. electron transfer at the electrodes. to form ions. gram atomic mass is the mass of one mole of atoms.e. action of air. atomic mass is a number dealing with one atom. cathode reaction. choice of electrolyte for electroplating. names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. anode reaction. Definitions and examples. (v) Acids. ions only. electrolyte. Self-explanatory. electrodes used. both molecules and ions.P. use of selective discharge theory wherever applicable. nature. anion.g. bases and salts as electrolytes: reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals. melting point. oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons). bonding. both molecules and ions. Na. acidified water with platinum electrodes and aqueous copper (II) sulphate with copper electrodes.

Extraction of Aluminium: the constituents in the charge. some can be reduced by hydrogen. (vii)Metals and their alloys: common ores of iron. Prevention by painting and galvanization. aluminium and zinc and their alloys. decomposition of carbonates. acidic and neutral oxides. Study of Compounds Equations with conditions and observations should be given. inference) – method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water. procedure. electrode reaction. Al 2 O 3 .  (v) Extraction of metals based on the activity series. their oxides.  Ammonia (i) Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and 104 . Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride. suitable examples must be given for basic.mineral and ore. Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment). collection of the gas and identification).(reaction with metals. Common ores of iron. refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment). aluminium and zinc. H 2 SO 4 . method of electrolytic extraction (flow chart to be used). formation and discharge of ions at the cathode (metallic) and anode (non-metallic) should be explained with examples. froth flotation method. electrolytic reduction. sodium. copper oxide.Description of the changes occurring. aluminium and zinc and their alloys. procedure. iron (II) oxide) and some cannot (e. purpose of the substances used and the main reactions with their equations. hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides. Composition of their alloys – steel. chemical method by using chemical . brass. diagram or setting of the apparatus. aluminum (reference only).g. Reaction of corrosion. sulphides. Metals and their alloys: Occurrence of metals in nature . structure of electrolytic cell and reason for using cryolite. (the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants. reaction with ammonia. atomicity and valence electrons should also be included. Uses of iron. Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride. Experiment to illustrate that moisture and oxygen in air are responsible for the corrosion. lead oxide. Extraction of metals: principle of extraction of metal from its compounds by reduction – carbon reduction. fuse metal and solder. Reaction with ammonia Acidic properties of its solution . Simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than air. equation. duralumin.refer to activity series).g. thiosulphates and nitrates). aluminium and zinc. (vi) Corrosion of iron and its prevention. observation. electrodes.g.NaOH for purifying bauxite – Baeyer’s Process.the special arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt. magnetic separation. (b) Other important alloys – bronze. MgO) . (iv) Reduction of metallic oxides. sulphites. hydrogen carbonates. Active metals by electrolysis e. acidic properties of its solution. Extraction of Aluminium. product. precaution. observation. electrolyte. (a) Uses of iron. 8. carbon and carbon monoxide (e. condition. Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic method. Uses only.In the physical properties of metals and non-metals. (setting of the apparatus..

ammonia from nitrides like Mg 3 N 2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Detail of the process to be avoided. metal hydroxide. procedure. identification. all these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants. Ammonia from nitrides like Mg 3 N 2 and AlN and ammonium salts. sulphur. setting. as an oxidizing agent when concentrated . the reactions can be studied in terms of reactant. Its reaction with: hydrogen chloride.  Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment). refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – and its suitable alternatives which are non-ozone depleting). products. hot copper (II) oxide. procedure and observation and inference.reference should be made to Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia. equation. Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent. Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid: its behaviour as an acid when dilute. hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride. burning of ammonia in oxygen. uses of ammonia. carbon. explosives. observation. product. condition. Its behaviour as an acid when dilute reaction with metal. nitric acid.(ii) The catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent . reference should be made to preparation of nitrogen from air and from ammonium nitrite. its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine. 105 . condition.reaction with sulphuric acid. aqueous solution of ammonia. source of hydrogen. cleansing agents. equation and observation. nitric acid. equation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent. as a dehydrating agent dehydration of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals. metal bicarbonate. Manufacture of ammonia on a large scale . Manufacture by Haber’s Process.oxidation of carbon and sulphur. precaution. its non-volatile nature. collection and identification). with chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess. the laboratory method can be studied in terms of reactant. as the source of nitric acid. Nitric Acid Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate.the oxidation of carbon and sulphur. metal carbonate. lead nitrate. Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate. condition.(a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper(II) sulphate crystals. setting of the apparatus and diagram. collection. Aqueous solution of ammonia . diagram.manufacture of fertilizers. Nitric Acid: Laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. collection. As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper. iron(II) sulphate. Self-explanatory.  Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection (the preparation can be studied in terms of. metal sulphide. Manufacture by Contact process (reference only). density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment). zinc nitrate and copper sulphate. metal sulphite. metal oxide. product. the burning of ammonia in oxygen. (refer to Ostwald process) simple diagram for a catalytic oxidation of ammonia in the laboratory (with conditions and reactions only). the property can be learnt in terms of setting of the apparatus. Uses of ammonia .

of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond. double and triple bonds. methane (green house gas) and ethane . Hydrogen sulphide. Chemical properties – action with litmus. ethyne as an example of alkyne. Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1. (v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes. Water vapour. Alkane. however. Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond). aldehydic. Oxidation of methane and ethane in presence of oxygen under suitable conditions. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to them. The examiners will not. position) (iii) Homologous series – characteristics with examples. glacial acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to produce ice like crystals).Cl. Ammonia. 106 . alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula. alkenes. formation of single. Oxygen. double and triple bonds. Only main properties. ethene as an example. The exercises will be simple and may include the recognition and identification of certain gases and ions listed below. properties and uses of acetic acid. Preparation of acetic acid from Ethyl alcohol. alkene. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction and dehydration reactions. (vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic . Sulphur dioxide. alkene (C 2 H 4 ). Oxidation with acidified Potassium dichromate. alcoholic. Chemical: Combustion. Boiling Points. structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Solubility. Chlorine. • Denatured alcohol: • Important uses of Ethanol. Preparation of ethanol: • hydration of ethene. Uses of methane. • by hydrolysis of alkyl halide. ethane. ester formation with acetic acid. carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names. • Properties – Physical: Nature.general formula. action with sodium. particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Gases: Hydrogen. Uses of acetic acid. catenation. Simple nomenclature . acetylene. alkynes (C 2 H 2 ). dehydration with conc. Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency. from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Density. straight chain. ether. Br and I. Structure of compounds with single. be restricted in their choice to substances containing the listed ions. ethene. Carbon dioxide. Nitrogen dioxide.methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate). triple bond. sodium propanoate (sodium propionate). (ii) Structure and Isomerism. (iv) Simple nomenclature. branched chain and cyclic compounds. Alkanes . alkynes. Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical properties – odour (vinegar). Organic Chemistry (i) Introduction to Organic compounds. Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond). Hydrogen chloride.2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide).mono carboxylic acid): Acetic acid – preparation. (vi) Alcohols: ethanol – preparation. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes (up to butane). keto. Isomerism – structural (chain. 8. Sulphuric acid with reference to Ethanol. properties and uses. reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution. alkalis and alcohol (idea of esterification).

NOTE: According to the recommendation of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). However. Award of marks (20 Marks) 2. a teacher of Chemistry of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X Chemistry projects.. For example. Warming the mixture may be needed. Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) External Examiner 3. Make a solution of the unknown substance: add sodium hydroxide solution or ammonium hydroxide solution. water analysis. Sulphide. but not teaching the subject in the section/class. Old IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 0 notation New 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 notation 107 . (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school. Add concentrated hydrochloric acid to each of the given substances. Choose from substances containing Ca2+. Nitrate. Fe3+. Lead. EVALUATION The assignments/project work are to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. VIII. 4. Chloride. for the examination both notations will be accepted. Zinc and Ammonium. Pb2+. who could be from the faculty. warm. Use of pH in soil analysis.) Candidates are expected to have completed the following minimum practical work: 1. Zn2+. identify any product and make deductions: (a) copper oxide (b) manganese dioxide. Fe2+. 10 marks 10 marks The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the Council by the Head of the school. Determine which is acidic and which is basic. VIIA.Ions: Calcium. The Head of the school will be responsible for the entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the Council. Copper. make observations and give your deduction. The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently. make observations. Iron. medical field – simple identification with universal indicator. Carbonate. IB …… VIIB and 0. Knowledge of a formal scheme of analysis is not required. Supply a solution of a dilute acid and alkali. Sulphite and Sulphate. the groups are numbered from 1 to 18 replacing the older notation of groups IA …. Semi-micro techniques are acceptable but candidates using such techniques may need to adapt the instructions given to suit the size of the apparatus being used. NH 4 +. giving two tests for each. Cu2+.