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Introduction

If we slide or try to slide a body over a surface, the motion is resisted by a bonding

between the body and the surface. This resistance is represented by a single force and

is called friction force.

The force of friction is parallel to the surface and opposite to the direction of

intended motion.

Types of Friction

A. Static friction: The opposing force that comes into play when one

body tends to move over the surface of another, but the actual

motion has yet not started is called static friction.

R

1. If applied force is P and the body remains at

P

rest then static friction F = P.

F

2. If a body is at rest and no pulling force is acting

mg

on it, force of friction on it is zero.

Fig. 5.1

3. Static friction is a self-adjusting force because it

changes itself in accordance with the applied force and is always

equal to net external force.

B. Limiting friction: If the applied force is increased, the force of static

friction also increases. If the applied force exceeds a certain

(maximum) value, the body starts moving. This maximum value of

static friction up to which body does not move is called limiting

friction.

1. The magnitude of limiting friction between any two bodies in

contact is directly proportional to the normal reaction between

them.

Fl R or Fl s R

2. Direction of the force of limiting friction is always opposite to the

direction in which one body is at the verge of moving over the

other

3. Coefficient of static friction :

3.1 s is called coefficient of static friction and is defined as the

ratio of force of limiting friction and normal reaction

s

F

R

3.2 Dimension : [M 0 L0 T 0 ]

3.3 Unit: It has no unit.

3.4 Value of depends on material and nature of surfaces in

contact that means whether dry or wet ; rough or smooth

polished or non-polished.

3.5 Value of does not depend upon apparent area of contact.

3. sphere or a cylinder rolls over a surface. Its value increases linearly with the applied force 2. 1. At point A the static friction is maximum. Kinetic friction is always lesser than limiting friction Fk Fl k s i. Rolling friction is directly proportional to the normal reaction (R) and inversely proportional to the radius (r) of the rolling cylinder or wheel. It would have r the dimensions of length and would be measured in metre. the force of friction that comes into play is called rolling friction. This is because once the motion starts actually.1. Rolling friction is often quite small as compared to the sliding friction. Kinetic friction depends upon the normal reaction.C.2 . e. Kinetic friction does not depend upon the velocity of the body. 4. This represent limiting friction (Fl ) .1 Sliding friction : The opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually sliding over the surface of the other body is called sliding friction. Value of k depends upon the nature of surface in contact. 5. Also when motion has actually started. Fk R or Fk k R where k is called the coefficient of kinetic friction 2. 4.1. A C B Fs Fl O Fk Applied force Fig. A flat block is moving over a horizontal table.e. The velocity of point of contact with respect to the surface remains zero all the times although the centre of the wheel moves forward. Part OA of the curve represents static friction (Fs ) . Thus we require more force to start a motion than to maintain it against friction. In rolling the surfaces at contact do not rub each other.2 Rolling friction : When objects such as a wheel (disc or ring).g. Force of friction GRAPH BETWEEN APPLIED FORCE AND FORCE OF FRICTION 1. coefficient of kinetic friction is always less than coefficient of static friction. Kinetic or dynamic friction: If the applied force is increased further and sets the body in motion. inertia of rest has been overcome. 4. R Frolling r r is called coefficient of rolling friction. irregularities of one surface have little time to get locked again into the irregularities of the other surface.1 Types of kinetic friction 4. That is why heavy loads are transported by placing them on carts with wheels. the friction opposing the motion is called kinetic friction.

As the portion BC of the curve is parallel to x-axis therefore kinetic friction does not change with the applied force. The portion BC of the curve represents the kinetic friction (Fk ) . . stopped or transferred from one body to the other. the force of friction is the cause of motion of the body along with the vehicle (i. 5. 5. the body will not move along with the vehicle. a person or vehicle pushes the ground backwards (action) and the rough surface of ground reacts and exerts a forward force due to friction which causes the motion. the force exerted by rear wheel on ground makes force of friction act on it in the forward direction (like walking). when pedalling a bicycle. [However.. the rear wheel moves by the force communicated to it by pedalling while front wheel moves by itself.4 c) If a body is placed in a vehicle which is accelerating. While pedalling Pedalling is stoped Fig. Front wheel moving by itself experience force of friction in backward direction (like rolling of a ball). If there had been no friction there will be slipping and no motion. From these examples it is clear that without friction motion cannot be started. Friction is a Cause of Motion It is a general misconception that friction always opposes the motion. 4. whatever be the applied force. If there had been no friction between body and vehicle. the force of friction is seen to decrease slightly. No doubt friction opposes the motion of a moving body but in many cases it is also the cause of motion. if pedalling is stopped both wheels move by themselves and so experience force of friction in backward direction]. For example: a) While moving. it remains constant. So. the body will remain at rest in the accelerating vehicle until ma s mg ). Friction Action Fig.3.e.3 b) During cycling. Beyond A.

Disadvantages of friction I. Angle of Friction Angle of friction may be defined as the angle which the resultant of limiting friction and normal reaction makes with the normal reaction. 5. Advantages of friction I. Writing is not possible without friction. Friction causes wear and tear of the parts of machinery in contact. II. By lubrication. By polishing. V. II.8 ma . This reduces the efficiency of machine. s R S By definition angle is called the angle of friction tan Fl R tan = s [As we know Fl s R F ] P mg Fig. By using ball bearing. VI. II. III. Methods of Changing Friction We can reduce friction I. Walking is possible due to friction. Brake works on the basis of friction. III. V.5 is preferred because its coefficient of friction with the road is larger. In the manufacturing of tyres. C. Therefore extra energy has to be spent in over coming friction. The transfer of motion from one part of a machine to other part through belts is possible by friction. Also we can increase friction by throwing some sand on slippery ground. 5. synthetic rubber Fig. 5. B. Friction always opposes the relative motion between any two bodies in contact. By streamlining the shape of the body.6 Fig. Fig.7 IV. which causes damage to the machinery. By proper selection of material.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FRICTION A. Two body sticks together due to friction. III. Thus their lifetime reduces. Frictional force results in the production of heat. 5. a mg IV.

Resultant Force Exerted by Surface on Block In the above figure resultant force S F 2 R 2 S (mg )2 (mg )2 S mg 2 1 when there is no friction ( 0) S will be minimum i. tan coefficient of friction Then we can calculate required force for different situation in the following manner: (1) Minimum pulling force P at an angle from the horizontal P Fig. Calculation of Required Force in Different Situation If W = weight of the body. 5. angle of repose = angle of friction.9 Thus the coefficient of limiting friction is equal to the tangent of angle of repose.10 By resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in figure) R P sin P cos F W Fig. By definition.e. mg sin In limiting condition F mg sin and R mg cos So F tan R F s tan tan R [As we know F s tan R ] mg mg cos Fig. S = mg Hence the range of S can be given by.11 For the condition of equilibrium F P cos and R W P sin By substituting these value in F R .or tan 1 ( L ) Hence coefficient of static friction is equal to tangent of the angle of friction. mg S mg 2 1 Angle of Repose Angle of repose is defined as the angle of the inclined plane with horizontal such that a body R F placed on it is just begins to slide. 5. As well as i. is called the angle of repose. 5.e. = angle of friction.

5. 5. 5. 5.12 R P cos F P sin W Fig.14 By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure) R + P sin P cos F + W sin W W cos Fig.13 For the condition of equilibrium F P cos and R W P sin By substituting these value in F R P cos (W P sin ) sin (W P sin ) cos W sin P cos ( ) P cos [As tan ] (3) Minimum pulling force P to move the body up on an inclined plane P Fig.15 For the condition of equilibrium .P cos (W P sin ) P cos P sin (W P sin ) cos [As tan ] W sin cos ( ) (2) Minimum pushing force P at an angle from the horizontal P By Resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in the figure) Fig.

17 For the condition of equilibrium R P sin W cos R W cos P sin and F P cos W sin By substituting these values in F R and solving we get P W sin( ) cos ( ) (5) Minimum force to avoid sliding of a body down on an inclined plane P Fig.19 .R P sin W cos R W cos P sin and F W sin P cos F P cos W sin By substituting these values in F R and solving we get P W sin ( ) cos ( ) (4) Minimum force to move a body in downward direction along the surface of inclined plane P Fig.16 By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure) R + P sin F P cos + W cos W Fig. 5.18 By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure) R + P sin W sin F + P cos W W cos Fig. 5. 5. 5.

sin 2 1 .21 For vertical equilibrium R P sin mg R mg P sin and for horizontal motion …(i) P cos F i. 5. For minimum value of P its angle from the horizontal should be equal to angle of friction As tan so from the figure. sin cos 0 1 tan 1 Fig.e.e. P cos R …(ii) Substituting value of R from (i) in (ii) P cos (mg P sin ) P mg cos sin For the force P to be minimum …(iii) (cos sin ) d [cos sin ] 0 d must be maximum i.20 Let the force P be applied at an angle with the horizontal. By resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in figure) R + P sin F P cos mg Fig.22 or tan ( ) angle of friction i. 5.e.For the condition of equilibrium R P sin W cos R W cos P sin and P cos F W sin F W sin P cos By substituting these values in F R and solving we get sin ( ) P W cos ( ) (6) Minimum force for motion along horizontal surface and its direction P Fig. 5.

then for the upward motion ma R ma mg sin F ma mg sin mg cos mg sin + F mg mg cos Fig. Fig.25 Retardation Note : a g [sin cos ] For frictionless inclined plane 0 a g sin Work done against friction (1) Work done over a rough inclined surface If a body of mass m is moved up slowly on a rough inclined plane through distance s. 5.24 (3) Retardation of a block sliding up over a rough inclined plane When angle of inclined plane is less than angle of repose.23 (2) Acceleration of a block sliding down over a rough inclined plane When angle of inclined plane is more than angle of repose. R F From the figure ma mg sin F ma ma mg sin R mg cos mg sin mg Acceleration a g [sin cos ] Note : For frictionless inclined plane 0 a g sin . the body placed on the inclined plane slides down with an acceleration a. 5. then .and 1 cos 1 2 By substituting these value in equation (iii) mg P 1 1 2 Pmin 2 mg 1 2 1 2 mg 1 2 Acceleration of a Block Against Friction (1) Acceleration of a block on horizontal surface When body is moving under application of force P. then kinetic friction opposes R its motion. 5. ma Let a is the net acceleration of the body F P From the figure k ma P Fk a P Fk m mg Fig.

(iii) Distance moved. (ii) Material and nature of surface in contact. (2) A force F is applied to the lower body m F A M B L Fig. 5.27 (i) Weight of the body.28 We will discuss above two cases one by one in the following manner : (1) A force F is applied to the upper body. 5. 5.26 R P F mg s Fig. Motion of Two Bodies one Resting on the Other When a body A of mass m is resting on a body B of mass M then two conditions are possible (1) A force F is applied to the upper body.Work done = force distance = ma s = mg [sin + cos ]s mg s [sin cos ] R ma s mg sin + F (2) Work done over a horizontal surface In the above expression if we put = 0 then Work done = force distance = F s = mg s It is clear that work done depends upon mg mg cos Fig. A will fall from B after time t t 2L a 2mL F 1 2 As s 2 a t and a F/m (ii) If friction is present between A and B only and applied force is less than limiting friction (F < Fl) . aA F / m (b) The body B will remain at rest aB 0 (c) If L is the length of B as shown in figure. then following four situations are possible (i) When there is no friction (a) The body A will move on body B with acceleration (F/m).

F Fk aA m (F k mg ) aA m A F Free body diagram of Ma B Fk M a B i. A will fall from B after time t 2L a 2 m ML MF k mg (m M ) (iv) If there is friction between B and floor (where Fl (M m ) g = limiting friction between B and floor. (2) A force F is applied to the lower body.e. Acceleration of body A relative to B will be a a A aB MF k mg (m M ) mM So. of applied force) but with different acceleration. friction force = applied force (= Fk) not Fl . F s mg (b) Combined system (m + M) will move together with common acceleration a A aB F M m (iii) If friction is present between A and B only and applied force is greater than limiting friction (F > Fl) In this condition the two bodies will move in the same direction (i.e. then following four situations are possible (i) When there is no friction . Fl = limiting friction between A and B. Fk = kinetic friction between A and B) B will move only if Fk Fl and then Fk Fl M a B MaB FK B Fl Fig.e.e.e. Free body diagram of ma A F Fk m a A i. aB aB F A k Fk M B FK k mg B M Note : As both the bodies are moving in the same direction. 5. Fk = Kinetic friction between A and B) (a) The body A will not slide on body B till F Fl i.(F = Applied force on the upper body.29 However if B does not move then static friction will work (not limiting friction) between body B and the floor i. Here force of kinetic friction k mg will oppose the motion of A while cause the motion of B.

A will move backwards and will fall it after time t 2L a 2 ML F k g(m M ) (iv) If there is friction between B and floor and F > Fl : (where Fl = s(m+M)g = limiting friction between body B and surface) The system will move only if F Fl' ' then replacing F by F Fl . The entire case (iii) will be valid. However if F F1 the system will not move and friction between B and floor will be F while between A and B is zero. F aB M and aA 0 (b) As relative to B. A M t 2L a L m F B 2 ML Fig.30 F (ii) If friction is present between A and B only and F < Fl (where F = Pseudo force on body A and Fl = limiting friction between body A and B) (a) Both the body will move together with common acceleration a F M m (b) Pseudo force on the body A. A will move backwards with acceleration (F/M) and so will (c) fall from it in time t. mF F ma and Fl s mg mM (c) F Fl mF s mg mM F s (m M ) g So both bodies will move together with acceleration a A aB F mM if F s [m M ] g (iii) If friction is present between A and B only and F > Fl (where Fl = s mg = limiting friction between body A and B) Both the body will move with different acceleration. .(a) B will move with acceleration (F/M) while A will remain at rest (relative to ground) as there is no pulling force on A. 5. Note : As both the bodies are moving in the same direction Acceleration of body A relative to B will be F k g(m M ) a a A aB M Negative sign implies that relative to B. Here force of kinetic friction k mg will oppose the motion of B while will cause the motion of A.

r = radius of the bowl. = coefficient of friction for limiting condition at point A R mg cos .Motion of an Insect in the Rough Bowl The insect crawl up the bowl.. the tension (T) produced in string will try to start the motion of mass m 1 .. 1 h r 1 1 2 Minimum Mass Hung from the String to Just Start the Motion (1) When a mass m1 placed on a rough horizontal plane Another mass m 2 hung from the string connected by frictionless pulley. O r Fl R y A h mg sin mg cos mg Fig.. T R T m1 m2 ....(i) and Fl mg sin . 5. the tension (T) produced in string will try to start the motion of mass m 1 . up to a certain height h only till the component of its weight along the bowl is balanced by limiting frictional force. R Fl T m1 T m1g m2 Fig.. 5.31 Let m = mass of the insect.. Note : In the above condition Coefficient of friction m2 m1 (2) When a mass m1 placed on a rough inclined plane Another mass m 2 hung from the string connected by frictionless pulley.32 m2g At limiting condition T Fl m 2 g R m 2 g m 1 g m 2 m1 this is the minimum value of m2 to start the motion...(ii) Dividing (ii) by (i) F tan l As Fl R R So 2 r y2 y or y r 1 2 1 h r y r 1 1 2 .

36 If the same wedge made rough then time taken by it to come down becomes n times more (i.34 Coefficient of Friction Between a Body and Wedge A body slides on a smooth wedge of angle and its time of descent is t. Since the chain have uniform linear density therefore the ratio of mass and ratio of length for any part of the chain will be equal. S S Smooth wedge Rough wedge Fig. nt) The length of path in both the cases are same. .35 Fig. 5. 5. 5.e.At limiting condition For m 2 T m 2 g …(i) For m1 T m1 g sin F T m1 g sin R T m1 g sin m1 g cos …(ii) From equation (i) and (ii) m 2 m1[sin cos ] this is the minimum value of m 2 to start the motion Note : In the above condition Coefficient of friction m2 tan m1 cos Maximum Length of Hung Chain A uniform chain of length l is placed on the table in such a manner that its l' part is hanging over the edge of table without sliding. m mass hanging from the table We know 2 m1 mass lying on the table For this case we can rewrite above expression in the following manner length hanging from the table [As chain have uniform linear density] ( l – l ) by length lying on the table l l l solving l l ( 1) l Fig.

38 . it comes to rest after covering a distance S. S v=0 u Fig. S S ut 1 2 at 2 1 g (sin cos ) (nt )2 2 …(ii) [As u 0 and a g (sin cos )] From equation (i) and (ii) 1 1 (g sin ) t 2 = g (sin cos ) (nt )2 2 2 sin (sin cos ) n 2 tan 1 1 n 2 Stopping of Block Due to Friction (1) On horizontal road (i) Distance travelled before coming to rest : A block of mass m is moving initially with velocity u on a rough surface and due to friction. We know that retardation a g [sin cos ] By substituting the value of v and a in the following equation v=0 S u Fig.37 Retarding force F ma R ma mg a g From v 2 u 2 2 aS 0 u 2 2 g S [As v 0 .For smooth wedge. a g] t u g (2) On inclined road : When block starts with velocity u its kinetic energy will be converted into potential energy and some part of it goes against friction and after travelling distance S it comes to rest i.e. 5. v = 0. 5. S S ut 1 2 at 2 1 (g sin ) t 2 2 …(i) [As u 0 and a g sin ] For rough wedge. a g ] S u2 2 g or S P2 2 m 2 g [As momentum P = mu] (ii) Time taken to come to rest From equation v u a t 0 u g t [As v 0.

40 By the law of conservation of energy i.e. 5. F × S = E [Where F = Friction. So.e. Loss of energy due to friction = FL (Work against friction) PE at point A = mgh u=0 L A m h m B KE at point B = 1 mu 2 2 v Fig. 5.39 P2 FS 2m mg S S m2 [Where P = momentum of block] P2 2m [As F = mg] P2 2 m 2 g In the given condition P and are same for both the blocks. E = Initial kinetic energy of the block] m1 A B m1 m2 S2 S1 Fig.v 2 u 2 2a S 0 u 2 2 g [sin cos ] S S u2 2 g (sin cos ) Stopping of Two Blocks Due to Friction When two masses compressed towards each other and suddenly released then energy acquired by each block will be dissipated against friction and finally block comes to rest i. S1 m 2 S 2 m1 2 Velocity at the Bottom of Rough Wedge A body of mass m which is placed at the top of the wedge (of height h) starts moving downward on a rough inclined plane. S = Distance covered by block. . S 1 m2 . 1 mv 2 mgh FL 2 v 2 (mgh FL) m Sticking of a Block With Accelerated Cart When a cart moves with some acceleration toward right then a pseudo force (ma) acts on block toward left..

If friction force ma mg [As R ma ] a R mg g amin g This is the minimum acceleration of the cart so that block does not fall. Force of friction always acts in a direction opposite to that of the relative motion between the surfaces. the person stuck to the wall even the floor is removed.41 Now block will remain static w. Friction force (F) = weight of person (mg) F R = mg Fc mg R F [Here. Fc= mg centrifugal force] 2 Fig. The atomic and molecular forces of attraction between the two surfaces at . then person thrown away from the centre due to centrifugal force at a particular speed . when the surfaces are made highly smooth. a F m ma R F M m CART mg Fig.r. This knowledge was used by man to invent the wheels.This force (ma) is action force by a block on cart. The friction between two surfaces increases (rather than to decrease). From the figure. because friction force balances its weight in this condition.t. cart. The coefficient of friction between the wall and the clothing is . 5. and the minimum force to hold the block together Fmin (M m ) amin Fmin (M m ) g Sticking of a Person with the Wall of Rotor A person with a mass m stands in contact against the wall of a cylindrical drum (rotor).42 m min r mg C min g r IMPORTANT POINTS Force of friction is non-conservative force. 5. If Rotor starts rotating about its axis. Rolling friction is much less than the sliding friction.

.the point of contact give rise to friction between the surfaces.

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