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Tianyu Tao

December 9, 2014

Problem 1:

p. 154 Exx 2.

**Proof: Suppose towards a contradiction that f (x) is reducible in Z[x], then f (x)
**

factors as (assume j ≤ i)

f (x) = h(x)g(x) = (h0 + h1 x + · · · + hi xi )(g0 + g1 x + · · · + gj xj )

where a(x), b(x) are nonconstant polynomials. We have the relation a0 = h0 g0 , a1 =

h1 g0 + h0 g1 , . . . an = hi gj , since p divides a0 , it must divide either h0 or g0 , but

not both since p2 dose not divide a0 , so assume p divides h0 , since p divides a1 ,

it follows that p divides h1 g0 = a1 − h0 g1 , but we know p does not divides g0 , we

conclude that p divides h1 , continue in this way, we find that p divides hj , but

then p divides an = hi gj , contradiction.

Therefore f is irreducible in Z[x], since Q is the field of fractions of Z, which is

a UFD and f is of content 1, it follows by Gauss’ Lemma that f is irreducible in

Q[x], since if f (x) is reducible in Q[x], we may write f (x) = H(x)G(x) and there

exist m, n ∈ Q such that mH(x), nG(x) ∈ Z[x] and f (x) = a(x)b(x) in Z[x], this

is true because if we multiply the common denominator of the coefficients of H(x)

and G(x), we get

dp(x) = a

˜(x)˜b(x)

where d is some integer and a

˜(x), ˜b(x) ∈ Z[x], if a prime p divides d then it must also

divides some coefficient of a

˜(x) or ˜b(x), so we can cancel d and get p(x) = a(x)b(x)

where a(x), b(x) ∈ Z[x].

1

and (x) is a prime ideal in D[x] since D is a domain. Problem 4: p.Math 8201 Homework 12 Problem 2: Tianyu Tao p.154 Exx 5. if p divides y then (x) = I. +. it follows that there are two distinct real roots in (−2. −. −. then since x is prime we know either x divides r or y. 2 . The polynomial obtained after replacing x by x + 1 is the polynomial p 1X p i p p (x + 1)p − 1 = x = + x + · · · + xp−1 gp (x) = x+1−x x i=1 i 1 2 Note p divides all the coefficients except of xp−1 and p2 does not divide the constant term p. +. indeed.154 Exx 3. Problem 3: p. if I is any ideal that contains (x). −} so V2 = 0. it follows then the cyclotomic polynomial ϕp (x) = gp (x − 1) is irreducible. We showed before if D[x]/(x) is maximal idea then D must be a field. we know I = (y) for some y ∈ D[x] so x = ry for some r ∈ D[x]. 2). if x divides r then r = xs and r = rys so ys = 1 so (y) = (1) = D[x].316 Exx 1. −} and V−2 = 2 and {fj (2)} = {−. Proof: Note D ' D[x]/(x). moreover since D[x] is a PID we can show that (x) is maximal. Proof: The standard sequence is f0 (x) = x3 − 7x − 7 f1 (x) = 3x− 7 14 f2 (x) = − x − 7 3 1 f3 (x) = − 4 So (for simplicity I just display the signs) {fj (−2)} = {−. since any factorization of ϕp (x) = a(x)b(x) gives a factorization of gp via a(x − 1)b(x − 1). thus by Eisenstein gp (x) = ϕp (x + 1) is irreducible. Proof.

+. +. 1/p2 .316 Exx 3. −. 3 . and choose M again we have signs {−. −. +}. +. +. Problem 6: p. Proof: The sequence is almost the standard sequence except that f2 and f3 are differ from the standard f˜2 . then {fj (−M )} = {−. Now. −. there are 2 distinct real roots for f (x) = x4 + 12x2 + 5x − 9 on the whole real line. hence it is a Strum sequence for any a. if p > 0. but the constant are positive so does not affect the sign. −}. f˜3 by a constant 1/3. +. −} the difference of variation is still 1. −. +}. −} and {fj (M )} = {+. +. −}. take a = −b = −M for M sufficiently large so that the sign of the term M 3 . suppose d < 0. M ]. if p < 0. −. there is a single real roots. −} and {fj (M )} = {+. {+. 3M 2 . −. so V (−M ) − V (M ) = 3 = 1 = 2. +. then {fj (−M )} = {+. Proof: The standard sequence is f0 (x) = x4 + 12x2 + 5x − 9 f1 (x) = 4x3 + 24x + 5 15 f2 (x) = −6x2 − x + 9 4 505 5 f3 (x) = − x− 16 4 93228 f4 (x) = − 10201 Let M = 27 = 1 + |1| + |12| + |5| + | − 9|.Math 8201 Homework 12 Problem 5: Tianyu Tao p. +. −. there are 3 distinct real roots. +. b with f (a)f (b) 6= 0. Lastly if d > 0.316 Exx 2. choose M does the same thing and the sign becomes {−. then necessarily p < 0 since d = −4p3 − 26q 2 . −2pM dominates the lower order terms and all zeros are contained in [−M. {+. +. +. −} we have V−M − VM = 2 − 1 = 1.

Of course. Proof: We wish to find the greatest common divisor of 977 and 725 + i in Z[i]. we see 977 = (1)(725 + i) + (252 − i) 725 + i = (3)(252 − i) + (−31 + 4i) 252 − i = (−8 − i)(−31 + 4i) So −31 + 4i is the gcd and we see 977 = 31√2 + 42 . 4 . proceed as the algorithm on page 148.Math 8201 Homework 12 Problem 7: Tianyu Tao Written. use this one stops after 4 steps. one could try the algorithm 977 − i2 starting from i = 1.

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