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Vianzon, Reynaldo Jr.

, M
BSN
Logic

Inference - is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises
known or assumed to be true. The conclusion drawn is also called an idiomatic.
The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic.
Kinds of Inference
1.
Immediate Inference – springs directly from a single premise to a
conclusion without the mediation of any other premise. A conclusion is drawn
from a single premise. The given proposition is called the premise and the
proposition deduced or inferred from it is called the conclusion.
2.
Mediate Inference – the inferential thinking process passes from one
proposition to another through a medium. It is called the middle term or another
proposition. There is not only a new proposition, but also a new truth, which is
drawn by the mind from the first proposition through a medium.
Syllogism - is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to
arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or
assumed to be true.
Kinds of Syllogism
1.
Categorical Syllogism – a deductive argument consisting of three
categorical propositions that contain exactly three terms, each of which occurs in
exactly two of the propositions. This process of reasoning is grounded on selfevident logical axioms, deduced from the metaphysical principles of identity and
contradiction.
2.
Hypothetical Syllogism – it is a kind wherein at least one proposition is a
hypothetical proposition. It does not involve a direct assertion of agreement or
disagreement between the subject and the predicate. They express the
dependence of the truth or falsity of one statement upon the truth or falsity of
another statement.
Varieties of Categorical Syllogism
1.
The Enthymeme - is an abbreviated or shortened type of categorical
syllogism in that one of its premises or its conclusion is left unexpressed.
Enthymemes are of three categories, distinguished on the basis of the missing
[art of an argument.
2.
The Epichireme - is a type of categorical syllogism whose premise or
premise are provided with proofs. The proof is often joined with the premise with
a causal connective such as “for,” because,” “since,” “due to,” and so on.

The major premise consists of two or more additional propositions. The minor premise is a disjunction proposition that their affirms the antecedents or denies the consequents of each of the simple conditional propositions. The word “polysyllogism” is derived from the Greek word poly which means “many”. For the syllogism to be valid each individual syllogism must be valid by observing the rules of simple syllogism.3. Just one invalid individual syllogism in the series will render the whole chain of syllogism invalid.is a chain of syllogisms which are constructed in a manner that the conclusion of the first syllogism serves as the premise of the next. The dilemma is either constructive or destructive in form.is a type of syllogism which combines the conditional and the disjunctive propositions. 4. The Dilemma . and so on. The Polysyllogism . Reference : Fundamentals of Logic by Ma. Imelda Nabor-Nery (Pages 52-28) .