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Solution :

l 2 = r2 + h2

or

2

∴ r + h2 = l2

∴ h2 = l2 – r2

∴

h = ± l2 − r 2

h = ± 152 − 9 2

(substituting l = 15, r = 9)

h = ± 225 − 81

h = ± 144

or

∴ h = +12

Example 7 : If B =

3.a 2

Solve for ‘a’ and find the value of ‘a’ if B = 16

4

3.a 2

4

Solution : B =

∴

∴

∴

h = ± 12

h = –12

a2 =

4B

3

a = ±

4B

3

a = ±

4 ×16 3/

3/

a = ± 64

a = + 8

(Substituting B = 16 3 )

, a = ± 8

or

a = – 8

Exercise : 5.1

A.

**Classify the following equations into pure and adfected quadratic equation.
**

1) x2 + 2 = 6

2) a2 + 3 = 2a

3) p (p – 3) = 1

4) 2m2 = 72

5) k2 – k = 0

127

6) 7y =

35

y

3 .

B.

**Solve the equations
**

1) 5x2 = 125

4)

3

1

x2

–

= 7

4

4

2

2) m2 – 1 = 143

3) 4a =

5) (2m – 5)2 = 81

6)

81

a

2

( x − 4) 2

=

9

18

C.

1)

If A = 2 πr 2 Solve for ‘r’ and find the value of ‘r’ if A = 77 and π =

22

7

2

2) If V = πr h Solve for ‘r’ and find the value of ‘r’ if V = 176 and h = 14

**3) If r2 = l2 + d2 Solve for ‘d’ and find the value of ‘d’ if r = 5 and l = 4.
**

4) If c2 = a2 + b2 Solve for ‘b’. If a = 8 and c = 17 and find the value of ‘b’.

5) If K = 1/2mv2 Solve for ‘v’ and find the value of ‘v’ if K = 100 and m = 2

6) If v2 = u2 + 2as. Solve for ‘v’. If u = 0, a = 2 and s = 100, find the value

of v.

2. Solving the adfected quadratic equation by factorization :

Example 1 : Solve the quadratic equation a2 – 3a + 2 = 0

Solution :

a2 – 3a + 2 = 0

i. Resolve the expression

a2 – 2a – 1a + 2 = 0

ii. Factorize

a(a – 2) –1 (a – 2) = 0

If mn = 0, then either

iii. Taking the common factor

(a – 2) (a – 1) = 0

m = 0 or n = 0

iv. Equate each factor to zero

a – 2 = 0 or a – 1 = 0

v. The roots are

a=2

or

a=1

Example 2 : Solve the quadratic equation m2 – m = 6

Solution :

m2 – m = 6

m2 – m – 6 = 0

∴

m2 – 3m + 2m – 6 = 0

m(m – 3) +2 (m – 3) = 0

(m – 3) (m + 2) = 0

Either (m – 3) = 0 or (m + 2) = 0

m = +3 or m = –2

128

**Example 3 : Solve the quadratic equation 2x2 – 3x + 1 = 0
**

Solution :

2x2 – 3x + 1 = 0

2x2 – 2x – 1x + 1 = 0

2x (x – 1) –1 (x – 1) = 0

(x

– 1) (2x – 1) = 0

∴

Either (x – 1) = 0 or (2x – 1) = 0

1

x = 1 or x = 2

Example 4 : Solve the quadratic equation 4k (3k – 1) = 5.

Solution :

4k (3k – 1) = 5

12k2 – 4k – 5 = 0

∴

12k2 – 10k + 6k – 5 = 0

2k (6k – 5) + 1(6k – 5) = 0

(6k – 5) (2k + 1) = 0

∴

Either (6k – 5) = 0 or (2k + 1) = 0

5

k= 6

or

k =

−1

2

Exercise : 5.2

A. Find the roots of the following equations

1) x(x – 3) = 0

2) a (a + 5) = 0

3) m2 – 4m = 0

4) 3k2 + 6k = 0

5) (y + 6) (y + 9) = 0

6) (b – 3) (b – 5) = 0

7) (2n + 1) (3n – 2) = 0 8) (5z – 2) (7z + 3) = 0

B.

**Solve the quadratic equations
**

2) a2 – 5a + 6 = 0

1) x2 + 15x + 50 = 0

5) 30 = b2 – b

4) 6 – p2 = p

7) 6y2 + y – 15 = 0

8) 6a2 + a = 5

10) 0.2t2 – 0.04t = 0.03

3) y2 = y + 2

6) 2x2 + 5x – 12 = 0

9) 13m = 6(m2 + 1)

x2

**Consider the equation x2 + 3x + 1 = 0
**

It cannot be factorised by splitting the middle term.

How do you solve such an equation ?

1x

**It can be solved by using Formula.
**

129

1x

3.H. 2 b Add to both the sides 2a ax2 + bx + c = 0 x 2 bxx c ax + + =0 a a a x2 + bxx c =− a a 2 bxx b c b + = − + x + a 2a a 2a 2 2 2 b c b2 x + = − + 2 2a a 4a − 4ac + b 2 b x + = 2a 4a 2 2 b b 2 − 4ac x + = 2a 4a 2 2 Simplify Taking square root ∴ Roots are ∴ x= − b + b 2 − 4ac 2a or b 2 − 4 ac 4a 2 x+ b =± 2a x+ b ± b 2 − 4 ac = 2a 2a x = −b ± 2a b 2 − 4 ac 2a x= − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= − b − b 2 − 4ac 2a − b ± b 2 − 4ac Roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 are x = 2a 2 Note : The roots of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 can also be found using Sridhara’s method. 2 130 . Solving quadratic equation by formula method General form of a quadratic equation Divide by ‘a’ Transpose the constant term to R.S.

Example 1 : Solve the equation consider x2 – 7x + 12 = 0 x2 – 7x + 12 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 the coefficients are The roots are given by Substituting the values Simplify Roots are a = 1. b = –7 and c = 12 x = x= − (−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(12) 2 x1 x= 7 ± 49 − 48 2 x = 7± 1 2 x = 7 +1 2 or x = 7 −1 2 x = 8 2 or x = 6 2 x = 4 or x = 3 Example 2 : Solve the equation 2p2 – p = 15 Consider 2p2 – p = 15 2p2 – p – 15 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The coefficients are The roots are given by Substituting the values a = 2. b = –1 and c = –15 x= − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a a = 2. b = –1 and c = –15 − (−1) ± (−1) 2 − 4(2)(−15) p = 2(2) 131 . b = –7 & c = 12 − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a a = 1.

b = –2 and c = –5 x = a = 2. b = –2 and c = –5 k = k = ∴ The roots are − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a − ( −2) ± ( −2) 2 − 4( 2)( −5) 2( 2) 2± 4 + 40 4 k = 2 ± 2 11 4 k = 1+ 11 2 132 = = or 2± ( 44 4 2 1 ± 11 4 k = ) 1− 11 2 .p = + 1 ± 1 + 120 4 p = 1± 121 4 p = 1± 11 4 p = 1+ 11 4 or p = 1− 11 4 p = 12 4 or p = − 10 4 or p = −5 2 p = 3 Example 3 : Solve the equation Consider This is in the form The coefficients are The roots are given by Substituting the values 2k2 – 2k – 5 = 0 2k2 – 2k – 5 = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = 2.

3 Solve the following equations by using formula 1) a2 – 2a – 4 = 0 2) x2 – 8x + 1 = 0 3) m2 – 2m + 2 = 0 5) 2y2 + 6y = 3 6) 8r2 = r + 2 7) p = 5 – 2p2 4) k2 – 6k = 1 8) 2z2 + 7z + 4 = 0 9) 3b2 + 2b = 2 10) a2 = 4a + 6 4. Equations reducible to the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 Example 1 : Solve the equation (x + 6) (x + 2) = x Solution :(x + 6) (x + 2) = x x2 + 6x + 2x + 12 = x x2 + 8x + 12 – x = 0 x2 + 7x + 12 = 0 x2 + 4x + 3x + 12 = 0 x(x + 4) + 3 (x + 4) = 0 (x + 4) (x + 3) = 0 Either (x + 4) = 0 or (x + 3) = 0 x = – 4 or x = – 3 133 .Example 4 : Solve the equation m2 – 2m = 2 Consider m2 – 2m = 2 m2 – 2m – 2 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 Comparing the coefficients a = 1. b = –2 and c = –2 The roots are given by x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a − ( −2) ± ( −2) 2 − 4(1)( −2) m = 2(1) m = +2± 4+8 2 m = 2 ± 12 2 m = 2 1± 3 2 ( m = 1+ 3 ) or m = 1− 3 Exercise : 5.

Example 2 : Solve the equation (a – 3)2 + (a + 1)2 = 16 Solution : (a – 3)2 + (a + 1)2 = 16 Using (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a – b)2 = a – 2ab + b2 [(a)2 – 2(a)(3) + 32] + [a2 + 2 (a) (1) + 12] = 16 a2 – 6a + 9 + a2 + 2a + 1 – 16 = 0 2a2 – 4a – 6 = 0 a2 – 2a – 3 = 0 a2 – 3a + 1a – 3 = 0 a(a – 3) + 1 (a – 3) = 0 (a – 3) (a + 1) = 0 Either (a – 3) = 0 or (a + 1) = 0 ∴ a = 3 or a = – 1 Example 3 : Solve 5(p – 2)2 + 6 = 13 (p – 2) Solution : 5(p – 2)2 + 6 = 13 (p – 2) Let p–2=b then 5b 2 + 6 = 13b 5b2 – 13b + 6 = 0 5b2 – 10b – 3b + 6 = 0 5b (b – 2) –3 (b – 2) = 0 (b – 2) (5b – 3) = 0 Either (b – 2) = 0 or (5b – 3) = 0 b=2 or 3 b= 5 p–2=2 or 3 p–2= 5 p=2+2 or 3 2 p= 5 + 1 p=4 or p= 134 13 5 ∴ ( b = p – 2) .

C. c = –7 x= The roots of the equation − b + (− b) 2 − 4ac 2a − (−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(1)(−7) ∴ k = 2 x1 ∴ k = + 8 ± 64 + 28 2 k = 8 ± 92 2 k = 8 ± 2 23 2 k = 4 ± 23 Example 5 : Solve the equation Consider Taking L. b = –8. By cross multiplication y 3 − =1 4 2y y 3 − =1 4 2y y2 − 6 =1 4y y2 – 6 = 4y y2 – 4y – 6 = 0 135 = ( 2 4 ± 23 2 ) .M.3k + 2 k + 1 = 2k + 5 k − 1 Example 4 : Solve the equation Consider Cross multiplying On simplification This is in form of The co-efficients are 3k + 2 k + 1 = 2k + 5 k − 1 (3k + 2) (k – 1) = (2k + 5) (k + 1) 3k2 + 2k – 3k – 2 = 2k2 + 5k + 2k + 5 3k2 – 1k – 2 – 2k2 – 7k – 5 = 0 3k2 – 1k – 2 – 2k2 – 7k – 5 = 0 k2 – 8k – 7 = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = 1.

This is in the Standard form Either 4m2 + 20m + 24 = 6m2 + 20m + 3m + 10 4m2 + 20m + 24 – 6m2 – 23m – 10 = 0 –2m2 – 3m + 14 = 0 2m2 + 3m – 14 = 0 2m2 + 7m – 4m – 14 = 0 m(2m + 7) –2 (2m + 7) = 0 (2m + 7) (m – 2) = 0 (2m + 7) = 0 or (m – 2) = 0 m= 136 −7 2 or m=2 .this is in the form comparing coefficients ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = 1. c = –6 − (−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−6) y = 2(1) the roots of the equation are = y = y = 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4± 40 2 4 ± 2 10 2 y = 2 + 10 Example 6 : Solve = or ( 2 2 ± 10 2 ) y = 2 − 10 4 1 4 − = m + 2 m + 3 2m + 1 4(m + 3) − 1(m + 2) 4 = (m + 2)(m + 3) 2m + 1 4m + 12 − m − 2 4 = 2 m + 2m + 3m + 6 2m + 1 3m + 10 4 = m + 5m + 6 2 m + 1 2 On Cross multiplying. b = –4.

To solve the problems based on Quadratic Equation Example 1 : If the square of a number is added to 3 times the number. Solve the following equations 1) (x + 4) (x – 4) = 6x 2) 2(a2 – 1) = a (1 – a) 3) 3(b – 5) (b – 7) = 4 (b + 3) 4) 8(s – 1) (s + 1) + 2 (s + 3) = 1 5) (n – 3)2 + n (n + 1)2 = 16 6) 11(m + 1) (m + 2) = 38 (m + 1) + 9m Solve 1) 3x − 8 5x − 2 = x−2 x+5 4) ( y − 1)(5y + 6) ( y − 4)(5y + 6) = y−2 y−3 6) 3 2 8 + = 5−b 4−b b+2 9) 2 5 6 + = m + 2 2(m + 4) m + 6 2) 5a + 1 3a + 1 = 7 a + 5 7a + 1 7) 5) 3) 1 2 2 + = x − 2 x −1 x y y + 1 25 + = y +1 y 12 10) 11m + 3 12m + 1 = 9m + 13 10m + 11 8) n + 1 n + 2 2n + 13 = + n −1 n − 2 n +1 2(3y − 1) 5y = −2 4y − 3 y+2 5. Find the number.4 A. B.Exercise : 5. the sum is 28. Solution : Let the number be = x Square of the number = x2 3 times the number = 3x Square of a number + 3 times the number = 28 x2 + 3x = 28 ∴ x2 + 3x – 28 = 0 x2 + 7x – 4x – 28 = 0 x(x + 7) –4 (x + 7) = 0 (x + 7) (x – 4) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x – 4 = 0 x = –7 or x = 4 ∴ The required number is 4 or –7 137 .

x cms.Example 2 : Sum of a number and its reciprocal is 5 Solution : 1 . If the area of Find the base and altitude. 5 Let the number be = y Reciprocal of the number = 1 y (Number) + (its reciprocal) = 5 y + 1 y = 1 5 26 5 y2 + 1 26 = y 5 Either 5(y2 + 1) = 26y 5y2 + 5 = 26y 5y2 – 26y + 5 = 0 5y2 – 25y – 1y + 5 = 0 5y (y – 5) –1 (y – 5) = 0 (y – 5) (5y – 1) = 0 (y – 5) = 0 or (5y – 1) = 0 y=5 1 y= 5 or ∴ The required number is 5 or Example 3 : The base of a triangle is 4 the traingle is 48 sq cms. (x + 4) cms. 1 2 (base) (height) 1 2 (x + 4)x 138 . Find the number. Solution : Let the altitude = Base of the triangle = Area of the triangle = 48 = 1 5 cms longer than its altitude.

= 60 x If number of books is (x + 5) Then the cost of each book = Rs. Find the number of books bought by Rashmi and price of each book. [ Cost of each book if number of books is (x) ] – [ cost of each book if number of books is (x+5) ] 60 – x 60 = x+5 60( x + 5) − 60 x x ( x + 5) 139 = Difference amount 1 = 1 .48 x 2 = 96 = x2 + 4x – 96 = 0 x2 + 12x – 8x – 96 = 0 x(x + 12) – 8 (x + 12) = 0 (x + 12) (x – 8) = 0 (x + 12) = 0 or (x – 8) = 0 x = –12 or x = 8 Either ∴ (x + 4)x x 2 + 4x x = –12 cannot be considered. 60 Cost of each book Rs. 60 ( x + 50) Difference in cost = 1 Re. Base = x + 4 = 8+4 = 12 cms Example 4 : Rashmi bought some books for Rs. Had she bought 5 more books to the same amount each book would have cost her 1 rupee less. because the length is always positive Altitude = x = 8 cms. 60. Solution : Let the number of books = x Total cost of the books = Rs.

4 x 15 Cost of each book = Example 5 : The speed of a motor boat in still water is 15 km/hr. Solution : Speed in Still water is = 15 km/hr Total distance travelled = 30 km Let the speed of the stream = x km/hr Speed up the stream = (15 – x) km/hr Speed down the stream = (15 + x) km/hr Total time taken = 4hrs and 30 minutes Time taken to row down the stream = 30 15 + x 30 15 − x time taken to row = 4 hours 30 minutes up the stream Time taken to row up the stream = [ Time taken to row Down the stream 30 15 + x ] [ + + ] 30 15 − x 140 = 4 1 2 .60 x + 300 − 60 x = x2 + 5x 1 300 1 = x + 5x 1 2 ∴ x2 + 5x = 300 ∴ x2 + 5x – 300 = 0 x2 + 20x – 15x – 300 = 0 x(x + 20) – 15 (x + 20) = 0 x = –20 cannot be considered because number of books is always positive (x + 20) (x – 15) = 0 Either (x + 20) = 0 or (x – 15) = 0 ∴ x = – 20 or x = 15 ∴ Number of books = x = 15 60 60 = = Rs. If it goes down the stream 30 kms and again returns to the starting point in total time of 4 hrs and 30 minutes. find the speed of the stream.

If its speed is increased by 60 km/hr from its initial speed find the initial speed of the plane. Find the measures of the sides. Find the integers. Find the integers.5 1) The sum of a number and twice its square is 105. less for a journey of 1200 km. 7) Some students planned a picnic. If the difference between the lengths of other two sides is 4 mts. As eight of them failed to join the party the cost of the food for each member increased by Rs. 10. 3) The sum of the squares of three consecutive natural numbers is 194. Find the number. 480. 2) Product of two consecutive integers is 182. 4) The length of rectangular field is 3 times its breadth. 6) An Aero-plane takes 1 hr. Find the length of the field. 141 . 5) Hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is 20 mts.30(15 − x) + 30(15 + x) 9 = (15 + x) (15 − x) 2 450 − 30 x + 450 + 30 x 9 = 225 − x 2 2 900 9 = 2 225 − x 2 ∴ 900 (2) = 225− x2 9 200 = 225 – x2 x2 = 225 – 200 ∴ x2 = 25 x = ±5 x = + 5 or x = – 5 ∴ Speed of the stream = x = 5km/hr Exercise : 5. If the area of the field is 147 sq mts. The budget for the food was Rs. How many students participated in the picnic? 8) Sailor Raju covered a distance of 8 km in 1 hr 40 minutes down stream and returns to the starting point. If the speed of the stream is 2 km/hr. find the speed of the boat in still water.

c = –3 x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x = − ( −2) ± 16 2 x1 x = +2±4 2 142 2−0 2 roots are equal . In how many days will Bhagya complete the work? 6. If both Sowmya and Bhagya together can complete the same work in 4 days. Find the Cost price of the article. x2 – 2x + 1 = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = 1.1x1 2 x1 x = 2± 4−4 2 x = 2+0 2 x = 2+0 2 or x = 1 or x = 1 x = → 2) Consider the equation x2 – 2x – 3 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 the coefficients are a = 1. 10) Sowmya takes 6 days less than the number of days taken by Bhagya to complete a piece of work. b = –2.9) A dealer sells an article for Rs. Nature of the roots of 1) Consider the equation This is in the form The coefficients are a quadratic equation. b = –2. c = 1 x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x = − (−2) + (−2) 2 − 4. 24 and gains as much percent as the cost price of the article.

c = 3 → roots are distinct − b ± b 2 − 4ac x = 2a − (−2) 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(3) x = 2 x1 x = 2 ± 4 − 12 2 x = 2 ± −8 2 x = 2±2 −2 2 x = 2 1± − 2 2 ( x = 1+ − 2 ) = 1± − 2 or 1 − − 2 → roots are imaginary From the above examples it is clear that.x = 2+4 2 or x = 2−4 2 x = 6 2 or x = −2 2 x = 3 or x = –1 3) Consider the equation x2 – 2x + 3 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The coefficients are a = 1. 3) In the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 the expression (b2 – 4ac) is called the discriminant. 143 . 1) Nature of the roots of quadratic equation depends upon the value of (b2 – 4ac) 2) The Expression (b2 – 4ac) is denoted by ∆ (delta) which determines the nature of the roots. b = –2.

b = –5. b = m.Discriminant (b2 – 4ac) Nature of the roots ∆ = 0 Roots are real and equal ∆ > 0 (Positive) Roots are real and distinct ∆ < 0 (negative) Roots are imaginary Example 1 : Determine the nature of the roots of the equation 2x2 – 5x – 1 = 0. c = 4 ∆ = b2 – 4ac ∆ = m2 – 4(1) (4) ∆ = m2 – 16 1) If roots are equal ∆ = 0 ∴ m2 – 16 = 0 m2 = 16 ∴ m = 16 144 ∴ m = ±4 . Consider the equation 2x2 – 5x – 1 = 0 This is in form of ax2 + bx + c = 0 The co-efficient are a = 2. c = –1 ∆ = b2 – 4ac ∆ = (–5)2 –4(2) (–1) ∆ = 25 + 8 ∆ = 33 ∆ > 0 ∴ Roots are real and distinct the roots of the equation 4x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 4x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = 4. c = 1 ∆ = b2 – 4ac ∆ = (–4)2 –4 (4) (1) ∆ = 16 – 16 ∴ ∆ = 0 Roots are real and equal Example 2 : Determine the nature of Consider the equation This is in the form of The co-efficient are Example 3 : For what values of ‘m’ roots of the equation x2 + mx + 4 = 0 are (i) equal (ii) distinct Consider the equation x2 + mx + 4 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 the co-efficients are a = 1. b = –4.

2) If roots are distinct ∆ > 0 ∴ m2 – 16 > 0 ∴ m2 > 16 m2 > 16 m > ±4 Example 4 : Determine the value of ‘k’ for which the equation kx2 + 6x + 1 = 0 has equal roots. ∴ ( ∆ = 0) 36 = 9 4 ∴ k=9 k = Example 5 : Find the value of ‘p’ for which the equation x2 – (p + 2) x + 4 = 0 has equal roots. c = 1 Consider the equation This is in the form the co-efficients are ∆ = b2 – 4ac b2 – 4ac = 0 (6)2 – 4(k)(1) = 0 36 – 4k = 0 4k = 36 since the roots are equal. x2 – (p + 2) x + 4 = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = 1. b = 6. kx2 + 6x + 1 = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0 a = k. c = 4 Consider the equation This is in the form Coefficients are ∆ =0 b2 – 4ac = 0 [–(p + 2)]2 – 4(1)(4) = 0 (p + 2)2 – 16 = 0 since the roots are equal p + 2 = ± 16 p+2= ±4 p + 2 = + 4 or ∴ p = 4 – 2 or or ∴ p=2 145 p + 2 = –4 p = –4 – 2 p = –6 . b = –(p + 2).

6 A. Discuss the nature of roots of the following equations 2) x2 – 2x + 3 = 0 3) 2n2 + 5n – 1 = 0 1) y2 – 7y + 2 = 0 4) a2 + 4a + 4 = 0 5) x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 6) 3d2 – 2d + 1 = 0 B.Exercise : 5. If ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 then − b + b2 − 4ac m = . For what positive values of ‘m’ roots of the following equations are 1) equal 2) distinct 3) imaginary 2) x2 – mx + 9 = 0 1) a2 – ma + 1 = 0 3) r2 – (m + 1) r + 4 = 0 4) mk2 – 3k + 1 = 0 C. Find the value of ‘p’ for which the quadratic equations have equal roots. 1) x2 – px + 9 = 0 2) 2a2 + 3a + p = 0 3) pk2 – 12k + 9 = 0 5) (p + 1) n2 + 2(p + 3) n + (p + 8) = 0 4) 2y2 – py + 1 = 0 6) (3p + 1)c2 + 2 (p + 1) c + p = 0 7. Relationship between the roots and co-efficient of the terms of the quadratic equation. 2a − b + b2 − 4ac + 2a ∴ m+n = m + n = − b − b2 − 4ac 2a − b + b 2 − 4ac − b − b 2 − 4ac 2a ∴ m + n = m + n = − 2b 2a ( − b) 2 − If m and n are the roots of the quadratic equation -b a ax2 + bx + c = 0 − b + b2 − 4ac mn = 2 a mn = − b − b2 − 4ac n = 2a − b − b2 − 4ac 2 a ( b − 4ac ) 2 2 4a 2 146 Sum of the roots = Product of roots = −b a +c a .

c = 1 Let the roots be m and n i) Sum of the roots m + n = −b −2 = a 1 ∴ m + n = –2 ii) Product of the roots mn = c 1 = a 1 ∴ mn = 1 Example 2 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 3x2 + 5 = 0 3x2 + 0x + 5 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The coefficients are a = 3. c = 5 Let the roots are p and q i) Sum of the roots p + q = −b 0 = a 3 ∴ p+q = 0 ii) Product of the roots pq = 147 c 5 = a 3 ∴ pq = 5 3 . b = 0.∴ ( ) mn = b 2 − b 2 − 4ac 4a 2 mn = b 2 − b 2 + 4ac 4a 2 mn = c 4ac 2 = a 4a ∴ mn = c a Example 1 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation x2 + 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x + 1 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The coefficients are a = 1. b = 2.

x – n = 0 (x – m) (x – n) = 0 ∴ x2 – mx – nx + mn = 0 x2 – (m + n) x + mn = 0 148 .7 Find the sum and product of the roots of the quadratic equation : 1) x2 + 5x + 8 = 0 2) 3a2 – 10a – 5 = 0 3) 8m2 – m = 2 4) 6k2 – 3 = 0 8. b = –(p + q). c = 0 Let the roots be α and β −b a α+β = i) Sum of the roots ii) Product of the roots αβ = = − (−8) = 4 2 c 0 = = 0 a 2 Example 4 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation x2 – (p+q)x + pq = 0 x2 – (p + q) x + pq = 0 The coefficients are a = 1.Example 3 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 2m2 – 8m = 0 2m2 – 8m + 0 = 0 The coefficients are a = 2.. b = –8. c = pq i) Sum of the roots m + n = m + n = −b a − [− (p + q )] 1 ∴ m + n = (p + q) ii) Product of the roots mn = c pq = a 1 ∴ mn = pq Exercise : 5. 5) pr2 = r – 5 6) x2 + (ab) x + (a + b) = 0 To form an equation for the given roots Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of the equation ∴ x = ‘m’ or x = ‘n’ i.e. x – m = 0.

n = 3 Sum of the roots =m+n = 2+3 ∴ m+n = 5 Product of the roots = mn = (2) (3) ∴ mn = 6 2 Standard form x – (m + n) x + mn = 0 x2 – (5)x + (6) = 0 ∴ x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 Example 2 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 2 5 and 5 2 Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots ∴ m = 2 5 and n = 5 2 ∴ Sum of the roots = m + n = ∴ m+n = Product of the roots = mn = Standard form x2 – (m + n) x + mn = 0 ∴ x2 – 29 x+1=0 10 ∴ 10x2 – 29x + 10 = 0 149 2 5 x 5 2 4 + 25 10 2 5 + = 5 2 29 10 ∴ mn = 1 .If ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots then the Standard form of the equation is x2 – (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0 x2 – (m + n) x + mn = 0 Example 1 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 2 and 3 Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots ∴ m = 2.

b = –3.Example 3 : Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 3 + 2 5 and 3 – 2 5 Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots ∴ m = 3 + 2 5 and n = 3 – 2 5 Sum of the roots = m+n = 3+2 5 +3–2 5 ∴ m+n = 6 Product of the roots = mn = (3 + 2 5 ) (3 – 2 5 ) = (3)2 –(2 5 )2 = 9 – 20 ∴ mn = – 11 2 x – (m + n) x + mn = 0 ∴ x2 – 6x – 11 = 0 Example 4 : If ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of equation x2 – 3x + 1 = 0 find the value 1 1 + m n Consider the equation x2 – 3x + 1 = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The coefficients are a = 1. c = 1 Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of (i) m2n + mn2 (ii) −b = a ∴ m + n = 3 i) Sum of the roots ii) Product of the roots mn = c a mn = 1 1 ∴ (i) m2n + mn2 −(−3) = 3 1 m + n = ∴ mn = 1 = mn (m + n) = 1(3) = 3 (ii) ∴ 1 1 + m n = n+m m+n = = mn mn 1 1 + = 3 m n 150 3 1 .

b = –3. c = 4 Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots i) Sum of the roots = m + n = −b − (−3) = a 1 ∴ m + n = 3 ii) Product of the roots = mn = c 4 = a 1 ∴ mn = 4 If the roots are ‘m2’ and ‘n2’ = (m + n)2 – 2mn Sum of the roots m2 + n2 = (3)2 – 2(4) = 9 – 8 2 ∴ m + n2 = 1 Product of the roots m2n2 = (mn)2 = 42 ∴ m2n2 = 16 x2 – (m2 + n2) x + m2n2 = 0 ∴ x2 – (1)x + (16) = 0 ∴ x2 – x + 16 = 0 Example 6 : If one root of the equation x2 – 6x + q = 0 is twice the other. c = q Let the ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots −b − (−6) = a 1 ∴ m+n=6 i) Sum of the roots m+n = 151 . find the value of ‘q’ Consider the equation x2 – 6x + q = 0 This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The coefficients are a = 1. x2 – 3x + 4 = 0 Consider the equation The coefficients are a = 1. b = –6.Example 5 : If ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of equation x2 – 3x + 4 = 0 form the equation whose roots are m2 and n2.

c = k + 3 Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots Product of the roots = mn ∴ mn = mn = c a k +3 1 ∴ mn = k + 3 Since ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots. Consider the equation x2 – 2x + (k + 3) = 0 The coefficients are a = 1. and one root is zero then m = m and n = 0 mn = k + 3 ∴ m(0) = k + 3 ∴ 0 = k + 3 ∴ k = –3 152 . b = –2.c q = a 1 ∴ mn = q ii) Product of the roots mn = If one root is (m) then twice the root is (2m) ∴ m = m and n = 2m m+n = 6 m + 2m = 6 3m = 6 ∴ m = We know that q q q q q = = = = = 6 3 mn m(2m) 2m2 2(2)2 8 ∴ m = 2 ∴ q = 8 Example 7 : Find the value of k so that the equation x2 – 2x + (k + 3) = 0 has one root equal to zero.

Form the equation whose roots are 1) 3 and 5 2) 6 and –5 3) –2 and 5) 2 + 3 and 2 – 3 3 2 4) 2 3 and 3 2 6) –3 + 2 5 and –3 – 2 5 B. 8) If one root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 is 3 times the other prove that 3p2 = 16q Graphical method of solving a Quadratic Equation Let us solve the equation x2 – 4 = 0 graphically.Exercise : 5. 1) If ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of the equation x2 – 6x + 2 = 0 find the value of i) (m + n) mn ii) 1 1 + m n 2) If ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the roots of the equation 3m2 = 6m + 5 find the value of i) a b + b a ii) (a + 2b) (2a + b) 3) If ‘p’ and ‘q’ are the roots of the equation 2a2 – 4a + 1 = 0 Find the value of i) (p + q)2 + 4pq ii) p3 + q3 4) Form a quadratic equation whose roots are p q and q p 5) Find the value of ‘k’ so that the equation x2 + 4x + (k + 2) = 0 has one root equal to zero. x2 – 4 = 0 ∴ x2 = 4 let y = x2 = 4 y = x2 ∴ and y = 4 153 . 6) Find the value of ‘q’ so that the equation 2x2 – 3qx + 5q = 0 has one root which is twice the other. 7) Find the value of ‘p’ so that the equation 4x2 – 8px + 9 = 0 has roots whose difference is 4.8 A.

Step 5: Draw the straight line y = 4 Parallel to x-axis Step 6: From the intersecting points of the curve and the line y = 4. 4) and (–2. 2) (–1. 2) (–1. 1 cm = 1 unit y axis. 8) on graph sheet. (1. y = 02 y = 12 y = 22 y = (–1)2 y = (–2)2 y=0 y=1 y=4 y=1 y=4 Step 3: Plot the points (0. 154 . 2). 8) ( 3 . 1). 2) (2. draw perpendiculars to the x axis Step 7: Roots of the equations are x = +2 or x = –2 The graph of a quadratic polynomial is a curve called ‘parabola’ Example 1 : Draw a graph of y = 2x2 and find the value of 3 . Step 1: Form the table of corresponding values of x and y satisfying the equation y = 2x2 x 0 1 –1 2 –2 3 Step 2: Choose the scale on x y 0 2 2 8 8 6 axis. (1.Step 1: Form table of corresponding values of x and y y = x2 x=0 x=1 x=2 x = –1 x = –2 Satisfying the equation y = x2 Step 2: Choose the scale on x axis. (–1. 0) (1. 0). 8) and (–2. using the graph. (2. 8) (–2. 0). 1). y) (0. 4) on graph sheet. 1 cm = 1 unit and (x. Step 4: Join the points by a smooth curve. 1 cm = 1 unit. (2.6) y axis. 1 cm = 1 unit Step 3: Plot the points (0.

Step 5: Join the points by a smooth curve. Step 6: Plot the points (0. 1) (2. 4) and (–2. (1. (–1. 1 cm = 1 unit. 1). 4) on graph sheet 155 . 0) (–2. (2.7 x = –1. 4) on the graph sheet. (1. 3) (2. draw perpendiculars to the x-axis. 0). 4) Step 2: Form the table of corresponding values of x and y satisfying the equation y = 2 – x. y) (x. (–1.7 Example 2 : Draw a graph of y = x2 and y = 2-x and hence solve the equation x2 + x – 2 = 0 Step 1: Form the table of corresponding values of x and y satisfying the equation y = x2 x 0 1 –1 2 –2 y 0 1 1 4 4 (0. 1). y) Step 3: Choose the scale on x axis 1 cm = 1 unit and y axis. 0) (1. 3). 2) . Step 7: Value of 3 = ± 1. 1) (–1.7 or x = + 1. 4) (x. Step 4: Plot the points (0. 2) (1. (2. 1) (–1. 4) (–2. Step 6: From the intersecting points of the curve and the line y = 6.Step 4: Join the points by a smooth curve Step 5: Draw the straight line y = 6 Parallel to x-axis. x 0 1 –1 2 –2 y 2 1 3 0 4 (0. 1). 0) and (–2.

3) (2. 3) (2. 1) (–1. Step 9: Roots of the equation are x = –2 x 0 1 –1 2 –2 y 2 1 1 4 4 (0. 4). 4) x 0 1 2 –1 –2 y 2 3 4 1 0 (0. 4) and (–2. y) x = –1 156 or or (–1. 4) (–2. 1). 0) (1. 1). 0) x = 2 . 1 cm = 1 unit y axis. 1 cm = 1 unit Step 4: Plot the points (0. (2. (1.Step 7: Join the points to get a line. 2) (1. 1) (–2. 1) (2. Step 8: From the intersecting Curve and the line. 0). draw perpendiculars to the x-axis Step 9: Roots of the equation are ∴ x = 1 Example 3 : Solve the equation Method I : x2 – x – 2 = 0 Split the equation y = x2 and y = 2 + x Step 1: Form the table of corresponding values x and y satisfying the equation y = x2 Step 2: Form the table of corresponding values x and y satisfying the equation y = 2 + x Step 3: Choose the scale on x axis. 4) on the graph sheet. Step 7: Join the points to get a straight line Step 8: From the intersecting points of Curve and the line. 0) on the graph sheet. 1) and (–2. y) (x. 4) (x. draw the perpendiculars to the x-axis. 2). (–1. (–1. (1. Step 5: Join the points by a smooth curve Step 6: Plot the points (0.

y –2 –2 0 0 4 (x. Step 3: Plot the points (0. –2) (–1. –2). 4) Step 2: Choose the scale on x axis 1 cm = 1 unit and y axis 1 cm = 1 unit. 0). 0) (–2. y) (0. 1) Draw the graph of y = x2 and find the value of 2) Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and find the value of 3) Draw the graph of y = 1) Draw the graph of y = x2 and y = 2x + 3 and hence solve the equation x2 – 2x – 3 = 0 Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 – x and hence solve the equation 2x2 + x – 3 = 0 Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 + x and hence solve the equation 2x2 – x – 3 = 0 2) 3) C. (1 –2).9 A. Step 6: Roots of the equations are x = –1 or x = 2 Exercise : 5. 0) (2.Method II : x 0 1 –1 2 –2 Step 1: Form the table of corresponding values of x and y satisfying equation y = x2 – x – 2. (2. (–1. –2) (1. 0) and (–2. 4) on the graph sheet. Solve graphically 1) x2 + x – 12 = 0 4) x2 + x – 6 = 0 7 3 1 2 x and find the value of 10 2 2) x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 5) 2x2 – 3x – 5 = 0 157 3) x2 + 2x – 8 = 0 6) 2x2 + 3x – 5 = 0 . B. Step 4: Join the points to form a smooth curve Step 5: Mark the intersecting points of the curve and the x – axis.

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