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Part 2: LTE-Advanced relaying
Jyri Hämäläinen, 2015
Department of Communications and Networking

Part 2: LTE-Advanced relaying (Rel.10)
2.1 Relaying principles, need for relaying and use cases
2.2 LTE-Advanced relaying principles
2.3 LTE-Advanced Type 1 relaying: The Backhaul problem

2.1 Relaying principles, need for relaying
and use cases

Word template user guide

Wireless relay: Principle I have a message I listen.16m -  LTE-Advanced include DF relay specifications .Repeaters (amplify and forward relays) are well known and used in 2-3G networks.16j (relay specification) -  DF relays form an integral part of IEEE802.16e admit amendment IEEE802. modify and retell I am only listening Base Station (BS) Relay Station (RS) Mobile Station (MS) Decode and forward relays in mobile communication systems: -  IEEE802.

•  •  •  •  •  Amplify and Forward (AF) Signal is received. AF relay amplifies both desired signal and noise. Conventionally used as gap fillers (to fill coverage holes) Noise limited network scenarios are more favorable for AF relaying.Basic relaying types •  •  •  •  Decode and Forward (DF) Signal is detected and encoded before retransmission. amplified and retransmitted as such. 5 . DF relays are feasible also for interference limited network scenarios. In addition to guide DF and AF relays there are hybrid Word template user 2/19/2010 relay types but they are omitted in this course. DF relay retransmit interference free signal if detection is successful The principle of DF relays have been well known for a long time but DF relays has been accepted to mobile communication standards only recently. AF admit simple structure but antenna implementation maybe costly if full duplex operation is assumed.

Duplexing approaches Half Duplex (HD) •  No simultaneous reception and retransmission of the signals. 1 2 2 1 3 2 Processing delay 3 . RX TX 1 2 1 Processing delay Full Duplex (FD) •  Simultaneous reception and retransmission of the signals.

RN is preferably simpler.Relays in LTE BS signal is not received well but RN signal level is good IP network High capacity wired backbone Link between BS and UE First hop UE RN2 eNB UE RN1 RN above rooftop: Coverage increase RN below rooftop: Local capacity/service boost UE UE UE Direct connection to eNB possible but no high data rates without RN Important: .Relays are used to boost cell coverage/capacity . smaller and cheaper than eNB .RN is wireless => more location opportunities + lower site costs .

.Antennas under the rooftop but in relatively high locations . Pico base station .High capacity backhaul and power backup needed.Indoor/outdoor installation. .LTE-Advanced relay? Micro base station.High transmissions powers .Antennas on towers or over the rooftop .Coverage for a very limited area .LTE-A relays are actually small wireless base stations (Pico. Femto.Coverage over an office area (floor) Femto base station -  Used in homes/offices etc -  User may install .Wall installation possible.Indoor installation . Micro) Macro base station.Few blocks coverage usual on urban areas Wireless relay . . .Antennas can be integrated in the box .

Enable more homogenous user experience. •  •  •  •  •  Expected properties of LTEAdvanced relays Enhanced capacity in hotspots. Enhanced cell coverage.Why relays for LTE? Some key requirements for LTE-Advanced •  1 Gbps on the downlink and 500 Mbps on the uplink. •  More homogeneous distribution of the user experience over the coverage area. Overcome extensive shadowing. Low total cost of operation (TCO). •  Higher peak and average spectral efficiencies than in LTE Rel’8. .

.Proposed benefits from relaying Relay link Access link Direct link UE UE Increase RN throughput in hotspots UE RN UE d-eNB Extend coverage RN Overcome excessive shadowing Is this convincing? We need to dig little bit deeper.

–  Fact: Among small access nodes only relays are wireless (no wired backhaul) and thus flexible to deploy. and more importantly. micro and pico cells. Outband relays (wireless pico base stations exists) . fill coverage holes in macrocells and improve indoor coverage. –  Counter argument: There are other efficient solutions like macrocell antenna diversity and beamforming. –  There seems not to be any inband DF relay products on the market.g. pico eNB’s of the same size is not fair. Therefore direct comparison against e.But are relays really needed? •  Claim is that relays will provide an easy and cost effective way to increase macrocell range.

Use cases for LTE-Advanced relays Fixed Infrastructure Usage Relay use case Temporary Usage Outdoor Relay for Indoor Coverage Enhancement In-Building Relay for Coverage Enhancement Coverage in case of emergency / disaster Coverage in case of events Mobile Usage Coverage in trains.10/11 . busses. ferries This has not realized in Rel.

2 LTE-Advanced relaying principles .2.

temporary network deployment. the cell-edge throughput and/or to provide coverage in new areas.g. •  The relay node is wirelessly connected to the radio-access network via a donor cell. the coverage of high data rates. Donor cell Relay-eNB link Donor eNB Relay Node (RN) . group mobility. –  LTE-A specifications support fixed relaying and nomadic relaying is possible but relay (group) mobility is not yet part of the standards.LTE-Advanced relaying principles •  In 3GPP Technical Report [TR 36.814] the following has been stated: •  Relaying is considered for LTE-Advanced as a tool to improve e.

it shall be possible to operate the eNB-to-relay link on the same carrier frequency as eNB-to-UE links . –  Outband. •  For both inband and outband relaying.Inband operation/outband operation •  In 3GPP terminology the relay node’s usage of spectrum can be classified into: –  Inband. in which case the eNB-relay link does not operate in the same carrier frequency as relay-UE links. in which case the eNB -relay link shares the same carrier frequency with relay-UE links. LTE Rel-8 UEs should be able to connect to the donor cell in this case. LTE Rel-8 UEs should be able to connect to the donor cell also in this case.

Inband operation/outband operation Donor cell Inband operation UE-eNB link Donor eNB UE Relay-eNB link Relay Node (RN) Donor cell Outband operation UE-eNB link UE UE Donor eNB Relay-eNB link Relay Node (RN) UE Note: In outband operation RN-UE link do not need to be LTE Rel’8 compatible if Rel’8 terminals are not operating on this frequency carrier. .

3GPP relays control their own resources •  Relay control cells of its own Donor eNB control resources in eNB – relay link Donor eNB Relay Node (RN) UE Relay control cell of its own: protocol terminations done mostly in RN .

•  Backward compatibility: The cells controlled by the relay should support also LTE Rel-8 UEs. and “Type 1b relay nodes” use this type of relaying (defined later).Relay control its own cell •  Cell ID: A unique physical-layer cell identity (PCI) is assigned for each of the cells controlled by the relay. . Thus. “Type 1a relay nodes”. •  Radio Resource Management: The same RRM mechanisms as in eNodeB are used in relays and from a UE perspective there is no difference in accessing cells controlled by a relay and cells controlled by a “normal” eNodeB. •  Self-backhauling: “Type 1 relay nodes”. relay may control multiple sectors like eNodeB.

reference symbols. . each of which appears to a UE as a separate cell distinct from the donor cell –  The cells shall have their own Physical Cell ID (defined in LTE Rel-8) and the relay node shall transmit its own synchronization channels. it is possible for a relay node to appear differently than Rel-8 eNodeB to allow for further performance enhancement. etc –  Relay shall appear as a Rel-8 eNodeB to Rel-8 UEs (i.e. be backwards compatible) –  To LTE-Advanced UEs.Relaying types: Type 1 •  “Type 1” relay node is an inband relaying node characterized by the following: –  It control it own cells.

except –  “Type 1a” operates outband and “Type 1b” operates inband with adequate antenna isolation.Relaying types: Type 1a and Type 1b •  “Type 1a” and “Type 1b” relays are defined as follows: –  Type 1a and Type 1b relay nodes are characterised by the same set of features as the “Type 1” relay node. . –  “Type 1a” relay node is expected to have little or no impact on LTE physical layer specifications.

–  Type 1b: Similar inband operation is assumed for Type 1b like for Type 1 but the difference between Type 1 and Type 1b is that Type 1b assumes adequate antenna isolation between RN receive and transmit antennas => •  Type 1 RN is preferably a half duplex relay. . Then both links can be implemented according to existing Rel’8 specifications since no time division between links is needed.Relaying types: Type 1a and Type 1b •  Notes: –  Type 1a: outband operation means that RN-donor eNodeB link is operated on different carrier frequency than link RN-UE. •  Type 1a RN is preferably a full duplex relay •  Type 1b RN is preferably a full duplex relay –  It is important to note that Type 1b requires antenna design that can be expensive due to assumed antenna isolation.

a Rel-8 UE is not aware of the presence of a Type 2 relay node. –  It is transparent to Rel-8 UEs.814] A “Type 2” relay node was defined to be an inband relaying node characterized by the following: –  It does not have a separate Physical Cell ID and thus would not create any new cells. •  Yet. up to date such relay type has not been standardized for LTE.Type 2 relay •  In 3GPP Technical Report [TR 36. Word template user guide 2/19/2010 22 .

3 LTE-Advanced Type 1 relaying: The Backhaul problem .2.

Inband Type 1 relaying: the resource sharing needed between links •  In order to allow inband relaying. Un Donor eNB Uu Relay Node (RN) UE Resource sharing should be compatible with LTE Rel’8 . 8). resources in the LTE time-frequency space needs to be shared between backhaul and access links –  Backhaul link between RN and Donor eNodeB: The name of this logical interface is Un (defined in LTE Rel. The name of this logical interface is Uu (as in LTE Rel.10) –  Backhaul resources cannot be used for the access link.

Resource sharing: General principle •  General principle for resource partitioning at the LTEAdvanced Type 1 relay: –  eNB → RN and RN → UE links are time division multiplexed in a single carrier frequency –  RN → eNB and UE → RN links are time division multiplexed in a single carrier frequency DL (Donor) eNodeB → RN RN → UE UL UE → RN RN → (Donor) eNodeB Sounds simple but is it really straightforward? .

Resource sharing: FDD and TDD principles •  Multiplexing of backhaul links in FDD: –  eNB → RN transmissions are done in the DL frequency band –  RN → eNB transmissions are done in the UL frequency band •  Multiplexing of backhaul links in TDD: –  eNB → RN transmissions are done in the DL subframes of the eNB and RN –  RN → eNB transmissions are done in the UL subframes of the eNB and RN This is still simple and straightforward .

–  RN should be able to receive backhaul (Un) transmissions on the same frequency. due to above problem there was a threat in the beginning of the LTEAdvanced standardization that relaying will be dropped out.8 creates a problem: –  Rel. .BH backward compatibility: A problem •  Backward compatibility requirement with LTE Rel. this is costly solution. •  This problem does not occur in uplink. Yet.8 UE expects continuous pilot/control transmission in DL from eNodeB. RN represents the eNodeB for Rel. Yet. –  Problem: Reception and transmission on the same frequency carrier is possible only for Type 1b relay that admit physical separation between RX and TX antennas. Type 1 relaying is the most attractive relaying option. In case of Type 1 relay.8 terminal.

BH backward compatibility: The solution •  Recall: LTE Frame consists of 10 subframes of 1 ms each. •  Part of the LTE DL subframes can be configured as MBSFN subframes What this means? .

MBSFN … what? •  MBSFN refers to term ’Multi-Media Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network’. . MBMS service area typically covers multiple cells.8 MBSFN subframes are designed to carry MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System) information. •  Before LTE MBMS was introduced for WCDMA/HSPA Rel. •  Example application is Mobile TV.6 and it supports multicast/broadcast services over a single frequency network. •  In LTE Rel.

–  LTE Rel. 2. Thus. 7. and 8 [*].8 terminals in RN cell will have reception gap during MBSFN subframe but RN will be able to listen backhaul transmission from Donor eNodeB. •  The set of MBSFN subframes is semi-statically assigned. backward compatibility problem is solved. a maximum of 6 subframes can be configured out of the subframes 1. 6.8 terminals in Donor eNodeB cell can be informed regarding the set of applied MBSFN subframes. . 3.MBSFN subframe assignment •  LTE Rel.

then RN cells enjoy of good data rates but in cost of reduced rates among users that are directly connected to Donor eNodeB. –  If there are too many MBSFN subframes. . •  Number of MBSFN subframes defines the backhaul resources for relays in the Donor eNodeB cell. –  If there are too few MBSFN subframes. then RN cell capacity will be limited (backhaul becomes bottleneck).MBSFN subframe assignment •  It is important to note that UEs that are directly connected to eNodeB and RNs can both be coscheduled on MBSFN subframes.

The R-PDCCH may assign uplink resources in one or more later subframes.216 . for the downlink backhaul data (corresponding to the “R-PDSCH” physical channel). 3GPP TS 36. More information: ‘Physical layer for relaying operation (Release 10)’. within the semi-statically assigned sub-frames.Some details •  A new physical control channel (referred as the “R-PDCCH”) is used to dynamically or “semi-persistently” assign resources. •  The “R-PDCCH” is also used to dynamically or “semi-persistently” assign resources for the uplink backhaul data (the “R-PUSCH” physical channel). The R-PDCCH may assign downlink resources in the same and/or in one or more later subframes.

4 Relay deployments and performance Word template user guide 2/19/2010 33 .2.

Target area is covered .Interference is minimized .g.Link to donor eNodeB is good . 5m Donor eNodeB 200m 600m 1000m Height: 25 m RN Feasible indoor Internet service range without RN RN is outdoors => 20dB better link budget than for indoor terminals 200 m 30 m Important: Relay should be placed in location where .Outdoor to indoor coverage provision Relay height e.

RLB example on use of relaying •  •  Assume the (previous CA example) 10MHz band. Macro indoor coverage for 800MHz carrier Macro eNodeB Macro indoor coverage for 2GHz carrier Relay coverage on 2GHz carrier BH link to relay (on 2GHz carrier) Word template user guide 2/19/2010 35 . 800MHz/2GHz component carriers. Compute the relay link rate (on 2GHz carrier) when eNodeB allocates 60% of the 1 MBSFN subframe for the relay backhaul.5 meter UE height and 5 meter relay height (lamp post relay). Relay is placed outdoors. 1. distance from eNodeB is 600 meters. 35 meter base station antenna height.

2*38Mbit/s = 7.28bit/s/Hz) the BH rate is quite good. •  Remarks: –  In this example only very few resources are allocated to relay but since it operates close to maximum efficiency (7. applies 2 antennas and consumes 1 MBSFN subframe (10% of eNodeB resources) in backhaul link –  Relay applies 2x2 MIMO.RLB example on use of relaying •  According to previous CA example. on 5 meter height. admit no receive antenna gain and NF = 5dB •  Relay BH rate: –  If relay link uses 29PRBs on one subframe it reaches 38 Mbit/s instantaneous rate and in average 0. the 800MHz component carrier defines the cell range: –  Indoor user maximum distance from eNodeB = 730 meters = cell range –  Relay is located 600 meters from eNodeB •  Relay backhaul link assumptions: –  Relay is outdoors.6 Mbit/s rate which is available for users connected to the relay. –  In general outdoor relays operate close to maximum efficiency and take only small amount of BH resources Word template user guide 2/19/2010 36 .