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Writing An Academic Essay 2010

WRITING A CAUSE-EFFECT
ANALYSIS ESSAY

GUIDELINES FOR CONCLUSION
Conclusion:
Causes again

- Restate the thesis:

mention

the

There are normally two formats of cause-effect
analysis essays: Single Cause – Multi Effects and
Single Effect – Multi Causes. The following guidelines
are to be applied for Single Effect – Multi Causes. For
the other format, just make an opposite.

- Final thoughts:
suggestions for solution

GUIDELINES
PARAGRAPH

Transition signals: since, due to, thanks to, because,
because of, so, thus, then, therefore, consequently, for
this reason, as a result, and that is why, as a
consequence, as an effect of, on account of the fact
that, due to the fact that, in view of the fact that, owing
to the fact that, account for.

FOR

THE

INTRODUCTORY

Background information:
- mention the Effect
e.g.
Are you aware that 20 million people in Mexico
live on less than two dollars a day? Sixty million
people, half the Mexican population, live in poverty,
and 20 million of them live in extreme poverty. Most of
the time, garbage is their food, and some days, they
don’t even eat anything.
Hook: say that the situation (effect) is resulted from
several causes.
e.g.
This critical situation in Mexico is caused by
individual, geographic and political factors.
Thesis statement:
-mention the Causes you are to clarify in the essay.
e.g.
The purpose of this essay is to analyze these
three main causes of poverty in Mexico.
___________________________________________

state

LANGUAGE ITEMS:

Sentence patterns for topic sentences:
There are several (causes of, reasons for, effects
of)…….[There are several causes of this type of
culture shock]
There are …main reasons why …….[There are four
main reasons why people in Dalat are tending to own a
land in the suburb of the city]
……..has had (many, several, a few) important effects
on……[My parents’ divorce has had several important
effects on my life].
………….can (occur, happen, appear) for many
reasons, some (the three most prominent ) of which
are………….[Teen drug abuse can occur for many
reasons, some of which are low self-esteem, lack of
parental guidance, and peer pressure.]

THE OUTLINE FORMAT
Introduction
Thesis statement
Body:
Paragraph 1:
Topic sentence 1:
mention the first Cause
Supporting sentences:
say how the cause affects.
say why the cause affects
say how to solve
present examples
Paragraph 2:
Topic sentence 2:
……..
Paragraph 3:
Topic sentence 3:
……..

your

mention the second Cause
mention the third Cause

Conclusion:
___________________________________________

University of Dalat, Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung, M.A.

1

There is no access to jobs for non-educated people. Mexico needs a new political economy designed by Mexican economists and politicians. Paragraph 3: The third and most significant cause of poverty in Mexico is the political economy of the country. governments can’t provide essential services such as potable water. The lack of education is one of the most significant factors that contributes to poverty. Unless the Mexican government works on the causes of the poverty which are the individual condition. CONCLUSION: Are you aware that 20 million people in Mexico live on less than two dollars a day? Sixty million people. The government doesn’t carry out enough policies to encourage successful development. skill. For example. 2. The IMF and World Bank programs are supposed to reduce poverty. health. for these international institutions lend money to Mexico on the condition that the nation open up its economy and cut social expenditures to repay the loans. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. M. BODY: Paragraph 1: The first and immediate cause of poverty in Mexico is the individual condition. garbage is their food. The purpose of this essay is to analyze these three main causes of poverty in Mexico. 1. This is caused by the lack of communication and transportation in remote rural areas. The IMF and World Bank programs are supposed to reduce poverty. 2 . For example. People who live there are totally isolated from the rest of the society. they don’t even eat anything. University of Dalat. Most of the time. the geographic factor. and 20 million of them live in extreme poverty. The lack of education is one of the most significant factors that contributes to poverty. and the political economy of the country. but actually they are increasing it. geographic and political factors. half the Mexican population. and prejudice all have an influence on poverty. The third and most significant cause of poverty in Mexico is the political economy of the country. the problem is going to get worse.A. but actually they are increasing it. and some days. This critical situation in Mexico is caused by individual. people who are committed to Mexico and to the future of its society. Paragraph 2: The second cause of poverty has to do with geography. 1. affordable food. This cause refers to circumstances and characteristics of poor people. people who live in rural areas far away from the cities are poorer. The International Monetary Fund and World Bankprescribed structural adjustment policies have been applied in Mexico because the government doesn’t carry out enough policies to encourage successful development. intelligence. The second cause of poverty has to do with geography. The first and immediate cause of poverty in Mexico is the individual condition. They cannot. Nobody likes to see poor children eating out of garbage cans. Because of this. statistics show that people who live in rural areas far away from the cities are poorer. 1. and education.This cause refers to circumstances and characteristics of poor people. primary health care.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 ILLUSTRATION A: The full essay: The Causes of Poverty in Mexico Topic: The Causes of Poverty in Mexico Outlining INTRODUCTION: Thesis statement The purpose of this essay is to analyze these three main causes of poverty in Mexico. live in poverty. the amount of education. 2.

Although there are many excellent programs for children. in the afternoon. First of all. television sets have become standard pieces of equipment in most homes. If they spend too much time watching television. together with the noise caused by cars and people. many people feel that television may not be good for children. and pollution problems. some youngsters might begin to think that violence is a normal part of life because they see it so often on television. The main purpose of this essay is to discuss the three main effects of overpopulation in Mexico. Natural resources. They may begin to act out the violence they see and hurt themselves or their playmates. there aren't enough sources of jobs in Mexico. they may get behind in their homework. if children watch too much television or watch the wrong programs. there are many police stories on television. Because a great number of people must go by car to their jobs at the same time. so we could live in a better environment and have a better quality of life.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 ILLUSTRATION B: ILLUSTRATION C: The full essay The full essay Over the past forty years. They should also turn off the television so that their children will study. In fact. I think that Mexico needs to generate more sources of jobs. This is a great social and economic problem because people who don't work get frustrated and can't support their families. amazing traffic jams are caused. so there are a lot of diseases. so only the most prepared people get a job. For example. Also. television may be a bad influence on children for three main reasons. Finally. Consequently. and this causes many social. Reading requires skills and brain processes that watching television does not. they can become frightened. they don’t practice the skills they need to learn how to read. For example. First of all. so everybody can work and satisfy their needs. In conclusion. and these diseases can't be attended because of the insufficient hospitals. pollution causes diseases. Therefore. Second. they may fall asleep in class the next day. People are killed with guns. if they stay up to watch a late movie. and even cars. The most significant effect of overpopulation in Mexico is the high level of pollution. so there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the country. and often in the evening as well. the next generations will have a huge problem. economic. and this pollutes both water and ground. causes a great amount of pollution. The second effect of overpopulation in Mexico is the low quality of public services. and they could even fail in school. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung.A. and watching television has become a standard activity for most families. The same happens with health. If we don't stop spending our resources and polluting. Also. aren't enough for so many people. The first major effect of overpopulation in Mexico is unemployment. That's why I think that we must find a way to organize all the people who live in this country. Effects of Overpopulation in Mexico By Luisa Moad ITESM. University of Dalat. Campus Queretaro It's a fact that day by day population in Mexico is increasing. and there are not enough schools or teachers. In addition. We must also learn to take care of the natural resources and think of those who are coming. parents should know what programs their children are watching. television can affect children’s reading ability. Therefore. hospitals aren't capable of giving attention to all the people who need it. Also. All the effects of over population that I have said make a cycle. 3 . television may affect children’s schoolwork in other ways. they will not learn their lessons. Children on our culture grow up watching television in the morning. their personalities can be harmed. the level of education is quite low because there are a lot of children or young people who must study. like water or food. every day people generate a lot of trash. their progress in school can be affected. Finally. Furthermore. some programs are not good for children to see. Some children might think that these things could happen to them at any time. This. M. knives. If children watch television too many hours each day.

reasons why people like singing karaoke. 5-Select a bad habit you have. how has living away from home for the first time affected you? 8-What are some effects of children’s viewing violence on TV? 9-Choose a social problem like alcoholism. such as an earthquake. 4-Give the causes for your particular fear of something. or a severe storm? What were some effects of that disaster? 3-Give the causes for pollution in a particular area or city. Why do you have that bad habit? (Just give the reasons why you have that habit.A. 4 . 10-Discuss the effects of watching TV.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 Given topics for cause-effect essays: 1-What are some effects of drinking caffeine products such as cola and coffee? 2-Have you ever witnessed a disaster. M. For instance. 11-What are the negative effects of cigarettes? 12-What causes marriages to fail in our society? University of Dalat. or divorce. poverty. a hurricane. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung.) 6-What are some effects of smoking cigarettes? 7-Analyze the effects of a change in your life.

Thesis statement: mention the similarities.in the same way as ….Restate the similarities .Give your comments or say what you have learnt from the similarities. + mention the entities you are going to compare. A…is also just as …..g. Some may think that because Brazil and the United States are in different hemisphere. Although my husband and his sister have only known each other for two years. they share many similarities. likewise. who had been a family secret over thirty years. my husband. 5 . they share mannerisms and personalities. e. this can also be found in …. + summarize some of the contrasting points. Paragraph 3: the second similarity Topic sentence 3: …… the third similarity Conclusion: ___________________________________________ (Discussion of the similarities only!) GUIDELINES FOR CONCLUSION GUIDELINES PARAGRAPH FOR THE INTRODUCTORY Conclusion: Background information: .Writing An Academic Essay 2010 WRITING COMPARISON – CONTRAST ESSAYS 1-Comparison Essays 2-Contrast Essays 3-Comparison & Contrast Essays 1-COMPARISON ESSAYS Paragraph 2: Topic sentence 2: …. e.g. like…. (different) e. Recently. ___________________________________________ THE OUTLINE FORMAT Introduction Thesis statement Body: Paragraph 1: Topic sentence 1: the first similarity + mention the first entity (give examples) + use a “comparing” transitional device: similarly..as …B. On the contrary. discovered that he had a half-sister named Jodi. these two nations have nothing in common.A. + mention the second entity (give examples) University of Dalat. was born and raised in Ohio. also. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. Marshall.g. M.

gross-looking can of baked beans on the counter for me to find. After Jodi was introduced to the family. when Jodi speaks or wants to emphasize something. Everyone in the Jones family knows to be aware. CONCLUSION: Outlining the Introductory Paragraph Background information . Furthermore. Many of Marshall’s mannerisms are the same as Jodi’s.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 ILLUSTRATION A: The full essay: Marshall and Jodi: Nature versus Nurture. everyone knows it. 6 . Marshall. + When they speak. + They are both well-known for their wits. is my husband’s half-sister. my husband. Marshall is known for his wit. Jodi can be just as witty as Marshall. they both gain attention by using hands and bodies to help express themselves. “ To bake tonight for diner. BODY Paragraph 1: Many of Marshall’s mannerisms are the same as Jodi’s. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. their similarities are remarkable. they share mannerisms and personalities. when Marshall speaks. He is also known for his pranks. Thesis statement Although my husband and his sister have only known each other for two years. When Marshall and Jodi are together. outgoing and energetic. they share mannerisms and personalities. they share mannerisms and personalities. and I was born and raised in Florida. After observing Marshall and Jodi for the past two years. M. He seems to know somebody everywhere he goes. When I gasped. discovered that he had a half-sister named Jodi. Another of Marshall’s mannerisms is his confidence and control in his movements. there is never a dull moment. he has a certain boldness about him and exudes confidence. Jodi shows these same traits. Recently. she. For example. energetic disposition. Marshall. Topic: Comparisons of two persons of your acquaintance Outlining INTRODUCTION: Thesis statement Although my husband and his sister have only known each other for two years.My husband is Marshall . + Both of them show confidence and ability to control. he gains attention by using his hands and body to express himself. When Marshall enters a room. For example. Paragraph 2: The most obvious comparison between Marshall and Jodi is their personalities. he will call his two sisters and mother on the phone and disguise his voice as an irritating or irrational person. was born and raised in Ohio. he has an outgoing. He can be so funny at times that is great entertainment. University of Dalat. also has certain facial expressions that I catch at a certain moment. In the same way as Marshall.” Jodi is also just as outgoing as her half-brother. has a devilish grin as if she is up to some mischief-the same expression I see on Marshall’s face. Although my husband and his sister have only known each other for two years. My husband is more like his half-sister than his full siblings. The influence of genetics is unmistakable and amazing. When they enter a room.A. Jodi moves with a confident and carefree attitude. One time on a cruise to the Bahamas. “What are these for?” she said.Jodi. One time at a barbecue Jodi left an old. She knows how important cleanliness is to me. The most obvious comparison between Marshall and Jodi is their personalities. In the past two years I have noticed that she has more friends and knows more people than I do. For instance. She also pulls pranks on family and friends. she decided to move with her three children to our hometown so she could get to know her father and half-sister siblings. + They are funny. who had been a family secret over thirty years. I am convinced he could go halfway around the world and see someone he knows. who had been a family secret over thirty years. They would make great politicians or evangelists because they would have no problem gaining millions of followers. he ran into an old friend. their pranks.

Writing An Academic Essay 2010 ILLUSTRATION B: Nevertheless. cities like Miami. Asia. Citizens believe that they have the right to do and be whatever they desire as long as they don’t hurt others. Some people tend to believe that their culture and country are without equal. Few Brazilians can say that they have traveled extensively within its borders. and personal values. the identity of the Brazilian people is not solely a product of Western civilization. although Brazil and the United States are unique countries. Because of Brazil’s large size. they share many similarities. However. However. there are remarkable similarities in their size. culture. Brazil was colonies by Europeans. ethnic groups. Both Brazil and the United States are large countries. They are different from one another in location. However. In conclusion. Another similarity between Brazil and the United States is the diversity of ethnic groups. so most Americans have visited only a few of the fifty states. Brazil works hard to defend the concept of freedom of choice. Florida. University of Dalat. and its culture has been greatly influenced by this fact. and South America. many countries share similarities. the Mediterranean. M. Brazil is a “melting pot” of many ethnic groups that immigrated there and mixed with the native people. Like Brazil. the United States takes up a significant portion of its continent (North America). In addition. One important similarity is their size. climate. Individualism and freedom of choice also exits in the United States. The full essay Not As Different As You Think All countries in the world are unique. While the Northeast is experiencing snowstorms. On the contrary. where freedom is perhaps the highest value of the people. size. The United States also has a diversity of ethnic representing the early colonists from northern Europe as well as groups from Africa. Finally. individualism is an important value for both Brazilians and Americans. the United States has a wide range of climates. 7 .A. these two nations have nothing in common. Brazil covers almost half of the South American continent. Some may think that because Brazil and the United States are in different hemisphere. and lifestyles. the ability of people to be whatever they want makes both countries strong. its weather varies greatly from one area to another. government. The Mixture of cultures and customs has worked to form ethnically rich cultures in both countries. Some may believe that the desire for individual expression is divisive and can make a country weak. can have temperatures over 85 degrees Fahrenheit. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. it is important to remember that people as a whole have more in common than they generally think they do.

Paragraph 2: There is a great disparity in the educational goals of Taiwanese and American schools. Unlike A. similarities are discussed. Taiwanese culture puts a strong emphasis on university admission because getting into the right university can guarantee future success. American teachers give their students the freedom to think and solve problems on their own. the goals of the American educational system include teaching students how to learn and helping them reach their maximum potential. They are taught that asking teachers a question is seen as a challenge to the teacher’s authority. The last obvious difference between the two countries’ educational systems is the role of extracurricular activities such as sports programs University of Dalat. Education in the East and the West American have often asked me why I came from Taiwan to study in the united States. in a contrast essay. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. students are encouraged to ask questions. there is a great disparity in the educational goals of Taiwanese and American schools. However. in the United States the curriculum emphasizes individual thinking. to me. and think for themselves. and self-expression. BODY Paragraph 1: Students’ expectation in the classroom in Taiwan are different from those in the United States. and think of themselves. Generally speaking. + In Taiwan. Otherwise. M. 8 . Unlike their Taiwan counterparts. social.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 II-CONTRAST ESSAYS (Discussion of the differences only!) Just make an opposite of the comparison’s format! While in a comparison essay. CONCLUSION: The whole essay: [Transitional devices: On the contrary. Because I have studied in both countries. Students are expected to memorize everything they are assigned. Taiwanese students have to pass an entrance exam in order to get into a university.A. Students’ expectations in the classroom in Taiwan are different from those in the United States. + The real focus of every Taiwanese school is passing the university admission exam. the better the university they can enter. American students are encouraged to ask questions. they do not merely prepare students to answer questions for an entrance exam. Taiwanese students are quieter and participate less in class. After twelve years of compulsory education. There is little emphasis on developing student creative and thinking skills. and physical education. I have seen several areas in which education in Taiwan and education in the United States are different. students are quieter and participate less in class. group discussion. differences are to be talked about. + In the United States. To an opposite extent. They expect me to say something like “to learn English”. However. + The goals of the American educational system include teaching students how to learn and helping them reach their maximum potential. They are not encouraged to express their ideas unless asked. In addition. As a result. Nevertheless. + Taiwanese culture puts a strong emphasis on university admission because getting into the right university can guarantee future success. It involves an opportunity to experience a completely different educational system. However. Outlining INTRODUCTION: Thesis statement Because I have studied in both The USA and Taiwan. The higher students score on this test. Paragraph 3: The last obvious difference between the two countries’ educational systems is the role of extracurricular activities such as sports programs and special interest clubs. I have seen several areas in which education in Taiwan and education in the United States are different. schools often “teach to the test” instead of providing more moral. coming here to study involves more than just learning English. + American educational institutions consider the development of social and interpersonal skills as important as the development of intellectual skills. On the other hand. In contrast. etc] ILLUSTRATION: Topic: Education in the East and the West. In contrast. express their own opinions. express their own opinions.

level of maturity. University of Dalat. M. and physical education. intellectual. both countries have the same ultimate goal: to educate their citizens as well as they can. It is believed that by participating in these outside activities. grow and become a better person. Even though every Taiwanese school claims that it pays equal attention to moral.A. 9 . This goal can be reached only if people take advantage of all the educational opportunities given to them. a sound educational system may take twice as long as to take root. Little emphasis is placed on activities outside of the classroom. students can demonstrate their special talents. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. While it may take ten years to grow a tree.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 and special interest clubs. Teachers can even borrow time from extracurricular activities to give students more practice in the areas where they have weaknesses. In conclusion. the real focus is on passing the university admission exam. and leadership qualities. education is vital to everyone’s future success. That is why I came to the United States to study. Although Taiwan and the United States have different educational systems. On the other hand. American educational institutions consider the development of social and interpersonal skills as important as the development of intellectual skills .

so for the D-S-S format. (similarities – differences – differences) The following guidelines are to be applied for the S-DD format. Although there are several similarities between the traditional and the modern family. : On the contrary. just take an opposite. ] Topic sentence: the first difference e. / However.…. we can see a lot of differences ….differ from each other in ….] ___________________________________________ THE OUTLINE FORMAT INTRODUCTION Thesis statement BODY: Paragraph 1: Topic sentence 1: mention the similarities. there are some great differences between the traditional family and the modern family The first important difference is in the man’s role. they differ in size and topography. While Myakka River and Hillsborough River State Parks have much in common... (not always necessary!) Background information: + mention the two entities + mention both similarities and differences.. Paragraph 3: Topic sentence: the second difference. 10 . the two …. .Say clearly that the differences are more important. University of Dalat. M. .Mention again both similarities and differences. / On the other hand.Give your own remarks.g. ********************************* GUIDELINES PARAGRAPH FOR THE INTRODUCTORY e. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung.… . On the other hand.g.. It is easy to recognize that these two …differ from each other in several aspects.g. (differences – similarity – similarity) If you get more differences than similarities. apply the D-S-S format. opinions. Thesis statement: declare clearly that you are to focus on the differences. there are also some very important differences. [One way to do is to use a subordinate clause to summarize the similarities followed by an independent clause in which you present the differences. (List several similarities in this paragraph!) Paragraph 2: Transitional sentence [Begin the transitional sentence with a transitional device. CONCLUSION: ___________________________________________ GUIDELINES FOR CONCLUSION . e.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 III-COMPARISON & COMPARISON ESSAYS (Discussion of both the similarities and the differences!) ********************************* There are two formats of this type: If you get more similarities than differences.A. apply the S-D-D format.

Today preschool children may go to a child care center or to a babysitter regularly because the mother works. Thesis statement Although there are several similarities between the traditional and the modern family. in which the father was boss. . .) The first important difference is in the man’s role. the modern family. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 ILLUSTRATION: Topic: Outlining the Introductory Paragraph The Changing American Family Outlining Background information A generation or two ago. the traditional family.A. . there are also some very important differences. The final difference is in the role of the .The traditional husband did not help his wife with the housework or meal preparation.In modern family. . both husband and wife share the role of head of household. 11 . M.In many families today. too. was customary.The role of the father in both the traditional and modern families was to provide for his family. . CONCLUSION: University of Dalat. the children were taken care of by the mother because she did not work outside the home.The traditional family was a nuclear family.In the traditional family. . INTRODUCTION: Thesis statement Although there are several similarities between the traditional and the modern family. the modern woman works outside the home even after she has children. there are some great differences between the traditional family and the modern family. .The mother in the traditional family took care of the children’s physical and emotional needs just as the modern mother does. in which both the father and the mother are equal partners. there are also some very important differences. and the modern family is. BODY: Paragraph 1: The traditional family of yesterday and the modern family of today have several similarities. Now. the woman may have worked for pay during her first years of marriage. Paragraph 2: (On the other hand. .The modern husband helps in working wife at home. .The traditional husband was the head of the household.In the traditional family. is more common. Paragraph 4: children. . Paragraph 3: The second difference is in the woman’s role.

both husband and wife work for pay. the roles of the father. mother.A. M. University of Dalat. Dinner was ready when he came home. the modern wife does not have to because the family has two incomes. the woman may have worked for pay during her first years of marriage. in many families today. The first important difference is in the man’s role. and the modern family is. The mother in the traditional family took care of the children’s physical and emotional needs just as the modern mother does. Now. and children have changed as more and more women work outside the home. is more common. she would usually quit her job. In many families today. Therefore. It should be interesting to see. She is doing two jobs instead of one. However. However. the modern woman works outside the home even after she has children. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. the traditional husband usually made the big decision about spending money. too. He may do some of the household jobs. On the other hand. was customary. the modern husband shares these decisions with his working wife. The traditional wife learned to live within her husband’s income. today preschool children may go to a child care center or to a babysitter regularly because the mother works.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 The full essay The Changing American Family The family is important to people all over the world although the structure of the family is quite different from one country to another. In addition. The second difference is in the woman’s role. modern children are more independent. Similarly. they share the role of head of household. The school-age children of a traditional family were more dependent. In conclusion. However. In the United States. Also. In contrast. In the traditional family. Their mother was there to help them to get ready for school and to make their breakfast. The next century may bring more important changes to the American family structure. the children were taken care of by the mother because she did not work outside the home. the traditional husband did not help his wife with the housework or meal preparation. The traditional husband was the head of the household because he was the only one who worked outside the home. so they may even have to make their own breakfast. In the traditional family. The traditional family was a nuclear family. Her primary role was to take care of her family and home. the father in the modern family is expected to do so. the American family of today is different from the family of fifty years ago. On the other hand. Their mother is busy getting ready for work. The traditional family of yesterday and the modern family of today have several similarities. and it is not unusual for him to cook. as in many countries in the world. after she became pregnant. 12 . A generation or two ago. In contrast. the modern husband helps in working wife at home. the traditional family. the modern family. In contrast. If the wife worked for pay. then the husband was not considered a good provider. so she is busier than the traditional mother was. also. in which both the father and the mother are equal partners. the family is changing. there are also some very important differences. there are some great differences between the traditional family and the modern family. In the modern family. They have to get up early in the morning and get ready for school. Although there are several similarities between the traditional and the modern family. in which the father was boss. The final difference is in the role of the children. The role of the father in the traditional family was to provide for his family.

M. Try to formulate a controlling idea about the change. singers. two mobiles.Have you ever visited a place you had left a long time ago and found it had changed considerably? Write an essay comparing and contrasting the “way it was” with the “way it is now”. (Don’t write about two of your teachers at the University of Dalat!) 3. 6-Write an essay comparing or contrasting two famous persons (film stars. scientists. University of Dalat. etc. two stereo systems. Have things changed for the better? The worse? 4.Write an essay comparing-contrasting two products.A.) 7.Write an essay comparing-contrasting your parents’ attitude toward something with your attitude toward it. 13 . two motorcycles. sports players. etc.Choose two people of your acquaintance. politicians. write an essay about their similarities and differences. 5-Write an essay comparing or contrasting two cities.Write an essay comparing and contrasting the city dwellers and the country dwellers 2.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 Given topics for your own essays 1. You may choose two cars. two cameras. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung.

. or should students be required to wear a uniform? School uniforms are the better choice for three reasons.: Opponents of gun ownership would say that…. 14 .] then. it has a right to put criminals to death. However. . e. it should be abolished because the tax money could be better spent elsewhere than in setting up the expensive draft and maintaining a peace-time army. [ e. the drinking age should remain twentyone because of the dangers of alcohol-related accidents and the lack of alcohol education programs. including the government. e. can. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. ___________________________________________ THE OUTLINE FORMAT Introduction Thesis statement Body: Paragraph 1: Topic sentence 1: The first argument (the first reasons why you say should or should not) -say WHY and HOW -give at least an example to illustrate.A. school is a place to learn.g. The opponents of capital punishment might say that…. This point has some merit on the surface. Despite the fact that) many people would argue that the military draft should be required for all 18-year-olds in order to toughen our young people’s bodies and minds as well as to make for a strong defense. it is deciding the fate of those soldiers who will die. opposed) to a drinking age of twenty-one may cite that… My opponents may argue that…. + summarize the opposing arguments (pros) ..Thesis statement: + say clearly that you are for or against. opponents’ ideas: you mention your +say that the opponent’s ideas are not completely correct. (opposing. g.Restate the importance of the issue you are discussing. could. [Use the modals: may.: This issue of school uniforms is coming under fire in the public school classroom as more and more people believe that students have the right to express their individuality through the clothes they wear.Confirm your choice again (For or Against) University of Dalat. and die for their country are old enough to drive responsibly. mention your opponents’ Conclusion: ___________________________________________ GUIDELINES FOR PARAGRAPH 4 [REFUTING STEP] In the topic sentence.g. . However. Should public school students be allowed to make individual decisions about clothing. might. when the government sends soldiers to war. Nevertheless …to prove that your opponents are not persuasive.] GUIDELINES FOR CONCLUSION Conclusion: . fight. Opponents of mandatory school uniforms say that students who wear school uniforms cannot express their individuality. use: However. would to weaken the opponent’s idea. e. Although many young people would argue that those who are old enough to vote. M.: Although (Even though. As long as the government has a right to send its citizens to a battlefield. as stated previously. g: The opponents of capital punishment might say that no one has the right to decide who should die. Those who are against …. Paragraph 2: Topic sentence 2: The second argument (the second reason) Paragraph 3: Topic sentence 3: The third argument (the third reason) Paragraph 4: (The step of acknowledging and opposing point and refuting it!) Topic sentence 4: ideas. One way to do is to use a subordinate clause to summarize the opposing arguments (pros) followed by an independent clause in which you assert your position (cons) e.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 WRITING AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY GUIDELINES PARAGRAPH FOR THE INTRODUCTORY + mention the issue you are going to defend. not to flaunt wealth and fashion. The pros and cons may also be stated in two or more separate sentences.g. Opponents of mandatory school uniforms may say that….Restate the arguments.

) Outlining the Introductory Paragraph Background information The issue of school uniforms is under fire in public school classrooms. People sometimes forgets that school is a place to get an education. as stated previously. Opponents of mandatory uniforms may say that students who wear school uniforms cannot express their individuality. This value. All Americans believe in the right to express their own opinion without fear of punishment. 15 . The issue is about school uniform. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. attendance and test scores improved. Second. not to flaunt wealth and fashion. 1. when students do something as a group. S. 3. For example. School is a place to learn. Finally. Should public school students be allowed to make individual decisions about clothing. However. and student suspensions declined approximately 30 percent after school uniforms were introduced. People’s standards of living differ greatly. Society must decide if individual expression through clothing is more valuable than improved educational performance. the fact that they all wear the same uniform would create a sense of community. 1. 1. BODY: Paragraph 1: Wearing school uniforms certainly make students live simpler. Paragraph 4: Opponents of mandatory uniforms may say that students who wear school uniforms cannot express their individuality. incidents of school violence dropped by 50 percent. Florida. school uniforms influence students to act responsibly in groups and as individuals. Uniforms eliminate the stress of choosing clothes. First. In addition. is coming under fire in an unlikely place – the public school classroom. wearing school uniforms would help make students lives simpler. According to a recent survey in Hillsborough County. Students can express their individuality in the way they dress outside of the classroom. or should all students be required to wear a uniform? School uniforms are the better choice for three reasons. Paragraph 3: School uniforms make all the students feel equal. Transitional Hook Should public school students be uniforms or not? required to wear Thesis Statement School uniforms are better choice for three reasons. 2. statistics show the possible effects that school uniforms have on violence and truancy.U helps students understand that school is a special place for learning. 2. sometimes trying on outfit after outfit in an effort to chose. University of Dalat. Uniforms would not only save time but also would eliminate the stress often associated with this chore.SU have positive effects on violence and truancy. School uniforms would promote pride and help to raise the self-esteem of students who cannot afford to wear stylish clothing. The School Uniform Question Individualism is a fundamental value in the United States. Implementing mandatory school uniforms would make all the students look the same regardless of their financial status. Even more important.SU creates a feeling of being in a group. Students of weak financial situation can gain self-esteem. Uniforms give students he message that school is a special place for learning. All students will look the same. M. Paragraph 2: School uniforms influence students to act responsibly in groups and as individuals. not to promote a “fashion show”.They would not waste time to choose what to wear every morning. such as attend meetings in the auditorium or eat lunch in the cafeteria.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 ILLUSTRATION: Topic: Narrowing: The full essay: School Uniform School uniforms should be or should not be mandatory? Should! Outlining INTRODUCTION: School uniforms are better choice for three reasons. 2. CONCLUSION: (There are many benefits of implementing mandatory school uniforms. school is a place to learn. 2. and some people are well-off while others are not. however. This point has some merit on the surface.A. They would no longer have to decide what to wear every morning. school uniforms would help make all the students feel equal. 1. It’s important to remember that school uniforms would be worn only during school hours. uniforms create a feeling of unity among students.

4-Some people work better during the day. 5-Some people live for today.A. there are many well-documented benefits to implementing mandatory school uniforms for students. while other people live for the future. M. Department of Foreign Languages | Tran Thanh Hung. Public schools should require uniforms in order to benefit both the students and society as well. while others prefer to wait until they are older to marry.Some people prefer large weddings with lots of people. Indicate which you prefer and why. Which point of view do you agree with? University of Dalat. Indicate which you prefer and why. 16 . while others prefer small weddings with only very close friends and family.Writing An Academic Essay 2010 Students can express their individuality in the way they dress outside of the classroom. Which type of person are you? Support your response with reasons and examples. 6-Some people like to visit new and different places. Others believe that sports have a part in preparing students for future careers. 3-Some students prefer to study alone. Given topics for your own essays: 1. while others prefer to remain in places they know. Time spent playing sport is time wasted. while other students prefer to study with others. while other people work better at night. Studies show that students learn better and act more responsibly when they wear uniforms. Which kind of persons are you. Indicate which you think is better and why. In conclusion. 7-Some people prefer to marry when they are young. 8-Some people believe that students should study hard at college. Which type of person are you? Use reasons and examples to support your response. 2– What type of novel do you enjoy reading most? Use reasons and examples to support your response. and why? Use reasons and examples to support your response.