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CHESS MASTER
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at any age
by

Rolf Wetzell

Thinkers' Press
1994
Davenport Iowa

Chess Master

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at any age

Copyright© 1994 by Rolf Wetzell

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by
any information storage or retrieval system, except as may
be expressly permitted by the 1 976 Copyright Act, such as
reviews, or in writing from the publisher.

First Printing:
June 1994
ISBN: 0�938650�58�0

Requests for permissions and republication rights (whether
as an article or for a foreign language), or a catalog of our
chess publications, should be addressed in writing to:
Thinkers' Press

Bob Long
P.O. Box 8
Davenport, Iowa 52805�0008 USA

Contents
Acknowledgement

.

..... ..............

.... . . .. .... . . . ...... . .. . . . . . . . .... . ........... . . . . . ... ...... . . . . viii

PART I:
Why Another Book?

. . . 1

................................................. ............................. . . ..

A. Chess for fun or chess for real? ................................................................. 1
B. Origins.
1. The years of confusion ... . .......... . . . . . . ... ... . . .. .... . . . .... .. ...... ....................... 1
2. The years of structuring

........................ ..............................................

2

C. What's in this book? .......... .... . ................ .................... ..................... ......... 3
D. This book: How correct? ............... . .... ............ .. .. .. . ...... .. . . . . . . . . ... ... . . . ........ .. 4
E. How to use this book ................................................ . ... . ..... ........... . .......... 4
PART II:
Components of Chess Capability, and more

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.

.............. ......................... .... ...

7

CHAPTER 1: Components of Chess Capability .. .. . .. .. . ..... ...... .... .. .. . . ...... .. ... 9
A. Images ..................................................................................................... 10
B. Ability to PROject Positions (APROP) ...... ............. . . ........................... 13
The Analysis Horizon .... ....... ................ ....... . ........... ........ .. ............... 18
C. The Move selection Method (MM) .

.....................................................

20

1. MM: a specific move selection by a master. . .. . . .. . . .... .. .... .... .... .... ...... 21
2. MM: a general description . ................................ . ........................ . ..... 23
a. The ideal (or model) method of the MM . . .... ... . . ............ . ... .... ... . 23
b. The structure of the real MM ....... ......... ....... .... .... ............ ........... 25
3. Blunders

···· · · · · ' · · · · · · · · · · · · ··· · · · · ································································

29

4. Should,A,Beens ............................................. ................................... 31
D. Attitude. ...... . .. .. .... .. .. ..... ..... . .......... .............. . . . . ........ . ........................... . . . 32
1. Desire .... . ........ .............. ..... ................................ ............. ......... .. .. ...... 33
2. Objectivity ................... ... .. .... . .... ... ... . ....... ............... .................. . ..... .. 34
3. Time Management .. .......... .... ...... . .. . .. . . . ........ . ... .. . .... . ......... . .............. 34

.... .... . ....... . ... . ... . .. ... . .... . .... . ..... .. .. .. . ... .. . . . . . . ....... . . Physical fitness . 3. .... .. .. . ...... ... .... . . . .... . .. ... . . ..... ... .. . .. .... . .... 53 e... . Relative Time Pressure . ... . ... . . .. .. .. .... . . .... . Attitude factors . . . . . .. . 34 b... .. .. . ..... .. .... . . . .. . . . ....... ... . .... ..... . . ... . .. .... . . . .. . . .. ...... .. . . .. .. .. . ..... . . ..... .... . .... . . .. ..... . . .. 2. .... .. ... . .. The rust factor .. ...... . . . ......... ... . . . . . . ... a. . .. . . 49 . . Introduction .. . The most economical capture ... .. .... . .... . . . ..... . ... . ... ... . .. ... ... ....... .. . . .. . ..... . . .. . . . . .. ... .. (i) . .. .... ... .... 61 .. .... .. . ... 1.... . .. ... ... . .. .. . .. . ..... . 63 .. .... . . ... ... . . . . . ....... ..... .. .. . . .. ... .. . . Filtering chess inputs ... .... . 65 .. . .... . ... . .. . ... . .. . ... . . .. ... ... . ... The Wetzell Queen Paralysis .. .. . . ..... . ... . . . .... .. ... 2... 68 . ... ... . ...... .. .... ... ...... . . . F.. . .. . .... . ....... . .... . ...... . ... .. ...... .. . . .... . . .... .... .... . A... .. .. . .... . .... ... .. .. B. . Playing to a predetermined result . . ... 3 7 . ... ...a.. . .. .... .... .... . . . . . 55 . .. . ..... ... .... .... . .. . ...... .... . ... .. .. .. ... Time Pressure .. .. .. .. .. . ..... ........ .. . .. ..... . . .... .. .. .. ii . .. Time Pressure in fixed-move time controls .. ... ... ...... .. . ... .. . . ... .. 67 .. .. . . .... .... . . . .. .. .. Playing to impress the spectators .. .. .... . .. . . Mental Clock Rate 2. ... .. . .. . . . ....... . .. .. .... . ... . . . ... ... 1.. ... .... ..... .. . 63 .. .. ..... . ... ... .. . . . . . .. ...... .. ... ...... .. . . ... .... .. 61 . . . . . . .. .. .. b. ..... .. ..... ... .. .. . ..... 47 6.. .. .. .. .... ..... .. ... .. ..... . . . .. . . ..... .. ... ....... ... ...... ... . .... . . . . .. .. . .. ...... ... .. .. ..... ..... .. Features of the vase . 51 c.. ....... 48 7.. . ..... ... .. 55 E. .... .. .. .. ... . ..... ... c.. .. . . ..... ... ... .. .... .... . .. ... On-line toughness . .. ... .. ... . . . .. .. .... . . . ... ...... ... . .. . .. . . ... .. .. .. ... . . .. . 65 A. .. ... ... . .. .. ...... .... .. ... .... ... . . ... . ..... . ... . ... . .... ...... . .... ... ...... .... . .. .. . ........ ... . . 69 .. . . .. . ..... .. ...... ..... . ... ... ... .. .. .. ... . . ...... .. . . .. .. ... .. .. .... .. .. ... . . ... The effect of additional games . ... .. 65 .. . . . . .. ... ... . .. .. .... 44 .. . . ... .. . ..... d. ... . .. . ....... .. ...... .. B. . ... . ... .......... .. . ... ...... .. .. . .... Chess inputs . . Studying ....... ... . .. .. .. ...... . . ..... .. ......... ....... . . ... .. .. ..... . . 62 .... Allocating extra time in critical positions .. . .... . .. .. ... . ..... 50 ..... ... . . .... .. 58 59 CHAPTER 2: Chess Inputs and Their Filtering .... .... . . ... . ... . . 63 ... ... .. .... ... . . . . ..... .. .. . . .... .. . . .... . ..... .. ... Discipline . .. . . .... ... .. ..... . ....... ... .... . 1.. ... . . .. ... . . .. .... ... .. .. .. ...... .. ... .... The specific-piece obsession ... 47 5.. .. . ... ..... . ... .. . .. . . . .. . ... .. . . .. . . .... .... .. .......... .. .......... . . . ..... . . . .. . 38 . . 61 ... .... . Other inputs .. ... 44 . .. . ... ...... CHAPTER 3: A Model of Chess Strength .. .. . . .... . . Genetic factors .. ... 52 d. C... . .. Basic structure . . . .. ...... ... .... 64 . . . .... Playing chess . . . .. . . . .. .... The composite evaluation of Strength ....... ... ... . . . .... . .. .. . .. ... ...... 39 .. .. .... ... .. .. .. ..... . ..... . ... .... ... . ... .. . . . . .. . . . . The liquid for the vase .. .. .. . ... 55 ....... . .... 1. .. . ..... . .. ........ .. . . . .. . ...... . Genetic factors . . ... .... .. ... ... . ... . 45 4. .. ... .. . ... (iii) Time Pressure in Blitz Chess . . .. .. . .... .. .... .. 2. . .. .. .. . ... . ... . . .. ... .. . ... .. .. .. .... . ..... ... . ... . . . . ... . . . .... ... Memory .. ... Personality influences ... (ii) Time Pressure in Action Chess .. .. . ..... ... ....

..... ........... (i) Introduction and overview ....... .. ... . ...... Studying your own games ....... ........ 137 . 135 135 .. . ... . . ........ ........... 70 ... ........... ... ..... . .. .D.. . E........ ...... .......... . . .. ..... ... .. Studying other material ........ ......... The right way to study openings A.... 1...... ..... .... .......... .......... ..... .. . .. .. . . ......... ............. .. ..... 92 92 93 96 97 114 ............ . ......... ......... ................... 90 ....... 118 (i) The underutilized Queen . . .. ..... Getting new ideas . .................. .. . . . 89 .... ...... ..... ..... .... . . ..... .. Studying combinations ... a........ ... .. .. Why study your own games? . .... ... . .... 126 .... .... ... ... 76 CHAPTER 4: Increasing the Number of Images ........ .... ..... ...... Flash Card generation ....... .. C........ ...... ... .. . ....... ..... Analysis starting from a "platform" .... . . . ................ ... . ... ... b.. ........... .... .. . ......... . . . c. . ....... . . ........ . .......... The structure of "quality study time" B.. ...... .. . 81 .. Stalking the grand themes ....... .. .. . Effect of a tournament ..... ..... .... Flash Cards .................... ... ... ... .... ........ . d.......... ... . ..... .. .... . .... . .. ..... ... . ... E... .. ... .. .......... .......... ....... ... 81 ... ... ............. .. 140 ..... .... .. .. ....... .......... Visual aids for learning openings ..... .. ... 79 ........... .. .. .. . ..... . .. ......... ...... ... .. .... .... . 84 2.. .... .. .... . . ... . Openings and opening sheets ........ ... . . .... . ... ......... ..... 88 ...... . 136 ................. 3. ... .. .......... ...... .... 91 1.. ..... . .. ..... CHAPTER 5: Improving APROP ....... . ..... . Effect of Additional Studying . ..... .. (ii) The overvalued Bishop .. .... ... ... 127 e........... ... ... . . . . ........ . ... ........ ..... ...... .. .................. . .. ... .. .. .. ... ........ ... .... ...... ..... ..... . ...... .... . Visualizing the first moves in a game ........ .......... Capturing new ideas ....... . ... . . . . . ... . .................. ...... . ...... .... .. . .... . . . .. . ....... ....... ... ........ .... ..... ... .... .. .... .... ...... ... ......... . ... ... The stickiness of the starting position . . 129 129 B..... .... ................... .. ..... ... ... ..... . ............ .. ......... .. .... .... ...... . ....... ... ..... . ... ... ............... ............ . . PART III: Improving Your Chess Strength .... (ii) The layout of a Flash Card ....... . . . . . .... .... ... .. . ...... ... ... . . Optimizing the Analysis Horizon 129 131 ........................ .... . ... ... .. . ... . . ........ .................... .. .. .. .. ..... ..... ... . . Flash Cards must be correct! 2..... ..... ...... ... ................... ...... .... A..... . .. .. ... ..... ......... ..... ...... ..... ..... .. .......... ... .................. 116 ..... .. 72 . . . ......... ...... . .... .. .. Making the commitment to quality study time . 141 iii .......... . ...... .. ...... .. 92 a... ............ Flash Card drill ........ .. . ..... ...... ....... .. . (iii) Development of a typical Flash Card (iv) Additional Flash Cards b....... D... . . . . . . ................ ... .. ... Filing Flash Cards . . .. .... . . ... .

. .... .. ........ 157 4........................... ... 157 B......... . . ....... Study mate ri a ls ........ 163 (ii) The false premise of "Relative Time Pressure" ........... ...... ............... ............... Improving "on�line toughness" .. 205 .. ... ................. 169 (iii) The causes of Time Pressure . ..... .. ......... 161 1......... ........... 203 b. 162 (i) You must believe that Time Pressure wors e ns results ...................... 156 2.. . . ........ 200 2...... ........... The bane of T i m e Pressure .......... Improving allocation of extra time in critical positions ........ . ........................ . . Blunders .......... . ......... ..... .................... ... 149 ............. .......... ...... ...... ...... . ....... ... ....... 175 2......... 194 E. .....CHAPTER 6: Improving the Move selection Method .... ......... Specific limitations of the Move selection Method 1........... ..... .......... Pur ging Time Pressure .. ....... ..... .............. ........ Study time ... B..................... 175 (i) The mechanics of Time Pressure tracking (ii) Reward and punishment ..... ..... Improving objectivity . ................ .................. ....... .. ............ ................ ........ ... ............... ......... . ................ ............. ....... ........ .... ...... ............... ...... ..... 192 D... 146 14 7 14 7 .... .... Improving the Move selection Method (general) ... Be a NON�smoker ....... .......... ................................ 157 3.... .......... ............ ....................................... .. ....... ........... ...................... ............ .... ............. ...... .......... ...... ............................... ...................... ............ .. .............. ... ...... Stay physically lean . ....... .. .... ...................... .... ....... . .... . ........ ............................... ....... ..... ....... 162 a....... .. The obvious dimension of "today's game" physical fitness ........... ... ................... .......................... .... .................. ..... 145 A.. .. ......... . ............... . 205 f............ Analysis Repetition 3.. .. .... Cm desire and discipline be improved? ............................ ....... ... ....... ... Use alcohol modestly or not at all .... iv Learn about stress .... ...... ............... .............. ..... ......... ... 199 b........... 202 a..... Improving Time Man<�gement . ........ ... Study methods ............ ...... Your attitude .. . ............................. . 170 b.... ................................................ ....... . ...... ................ ... . .............. ............ .. Long�term physical fitness ..... . ..... . Improving physical fitness ............ ........ ............... 149 4.... The remedial program .. ... Exercise moderately ..... ShorMerm physical fitness ... ..... ........................... 204 e.................. ..... . .. 203 c........ ....... Stay drug free ......... ............... .. .................. . The subtle dimension of "today's game" physical fitness .................................... . 199 a.............. .... . ......... ........ 153 A............ I 50 CHAPTER 7: Moderating Attitude . ................... .............. ......... .. 187 ........... ....... 1 SR C........... ..... General thoughts ....... .. . 155 1. Analysis Fibrillation 2.. 198 1..... 204 d. ......... ......... ...... ...................................... .. .

..... ... Chess Strength vs........ .. . . ... ...... . . ...... . ... .. . CHAPTER 8: The Long-Range Plan . .. ... .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .... . . ... . .... . ..... . .. 206 . .. 207 . . . ... .. ... ... . .... .... ...... .. .. . . ... . .. . Afterword . . ..... . . . .. .. . .. ...... ... . ... . ... .. .. .... Long-range plan details . . .... . . . ... . ......... . . ... The reference portion of the experiment . . .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... . ... ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... .. . . ...... 226 b..... .. Endings . ... ... .. . .. . . . .. .... ... . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . .... ... . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . .. ... ... . ... . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . A.. . ... .. ... .. 210 . .. . .. . 213 . .. . Other faulty special preferences .. .... . . .. .. .. 214 ... .... ..... . . . . ... .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . overcautious play . 219 ..... . . Middlegame .. .. . . .. .. .. ...... . .. ..... .... . . .. .... 220 c. . . .. ...... . . ........ . . 223 . 225 ...... Personality .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. .... . . .... . APROP .. ... ... 231 .. . ... .. A. . .. . .... .. . ..... . . Images ... ... ... . .. .... .. .. .. . .... . . ... .. .. . 3.. ... .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . .... 224 225 . . . .. .. ... .. . . Platform analysis ... 225 2. .. .. . . . . . .. .... ... ... . .. .... . .. . . . .... . . .. . .... .. ... ........ .... .. .. . The value of subliminal audiocassettes . . .. ...... .. . .. ... APPENDIX I: Ideas for Scientific Study ... . ... . . Openings . .. . . . .... . ... ... . .. .. . . ......... . . . .... Time Pressure influence on chess Strength . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . D. .... ... . . ... . . 220 .. ..... . .. . ... . ... . ... . ... . ..... . .. . . .. . . . ... . . ... . .... . . a.... ... . . . 1. .. . .... . . . . ... .... . .. . . . ... .. .. .. . . .... ... .. .. .. ... . . .. . . 207 ... 225 . .. . . .. Reckless vs.. . ... . .. .. . .... .. . ....... . ...... 216 . . ..... . .. . .. ... . .. .. .. . . .. . .... .. . ... .. .. . . .... . . . ... .. . . . . . . .. ... .. . .. .. .. . General ... .. . .. .. . . . Objectivity . ........ .. . . ... .. . c.... .. .... .. . . . ..... . . . . . .. . .. .. .... .. . . . . . ... . . . .. . . ... . Fitness . ... . ... . ... .. . .......... .. .. . .. . . . . a.. . . ... .. . .. ... .. .. ....... .. . . ... .. . .. . . . ... ..... ... . . .. .. . . ... . .. .... .. . . .. .... .. . . . . . . . . ... 223 . . .. .. . .... .. . .... .. . .. . . . ...... . .. .. ... .. .. 1.. . ...... .. ... .. .. ..... ... ... . APPENDIX II: Computer-generated Move-Search Algorithm ... .. . . b. .. . . . .. . .. . Can Mental Clock Rate be improved? 1. ... . . . . ... ... .. 217 . . .. ... .... ... .. . ... .. . . .. .. 216 ... .. . .. ... . .. .. . . ... . .. . .. . . .... .. . ... ..... .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .... . . .g.... ... .. . . .. . ... ... . . . . . Combinations .. . . ...... . .... Toughness . ... 217 .. ... ...... . . ... . 5. .. .. . . . ... ... . . . .. . . . ... . Genetic Factors . . . .. . b.. .. . 232 v .. .. . .. 218 .... ..... . .. . .. .... . .. 222 . . .. .. ..... .. ... 229 .. . .... . .. 213 .... .......... . .. . . . ... . . .... .... . . . . . ...... . .. .. . . . .. .. . ... ... ... ... . . . .. .. . . . . . .... . .. . . Personality influences .... .. . .. ........ Method of the experiment or test . . .. . . . .. . . .... . . . . . 2. . C. . . . ... . . .. . ..... . . . .. . .. . . . ... . .. . . ... . . . . ... ...... . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . .... . c.. ... . . ... ... . .. a. .. . a.... . ... . . . .... ... .. .. .. ... . ... .... . b. . ... ... . . .... Thesis and Objective ... 220 . The le rning portion of the experiment .. ... . .. .. . . ... ... . .... . . . ..... .. .. . . . . Move Selection Method . .. .. ... .. 4. . Learn and practice good nutrition . . . . . .. . . .. . . ... ... . .. . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. ... 217 . . . ..... . 226 a B.. . . .... ... .. ....... . ... ... . . ........ ... ......... ... . .. . Caution-recklessness . .. . . .. . . F. ... ..... . . . . . 2. . . ... . .. . .. . .... . .. ... .. . 216 ... .. . . . . ... . .. . .. .. . . . . .... B... .. ... .. study time . .. . 221 d. .. .. ... . .. Why a long-range plan? ..... .. . . .. . ...... . 227 . ... . .. .... . ..

.. .. .. . Rating calculations for increasing play ... .. . . . ..... . .... . . . 257 P...... 241 C. . . .. . . ... ....APPENDIX III: Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards . .... . .. . ..... . .... .. .. . .. ... .. .. . .. ..... . 259 APPENDIX IV: Backup Calculations for the Model . . . . . ....... . .. .. . .safe squares? ... .... . . . . .... ....... . . 263 APPENDIX V: Illustrated Games .. .... . 261 A..... .. . . ... .. .. ... . . .. . . ....... ...... ... .. ... . The Block ... ... . ... . ... ... . .. ........... . .. .. . .... .. . . ... .. ... .. . . ... ...... . 272 . .... . . .. . ...... ..... .. .... .. .. ... . .. .. .. . ...... .. .. . ... 243 F. . .. ... . . ......... ........... ... ... . . .. . ... .. .... ...... .... .... Home not always safe! . ..... . .... . . . .. . . .. .. ... . .......... . . .. . . . .... ....... ...... 239 B. ... Redeploy! .. ..... .. . .. .... ... .... . ......... . . ..... .. .. ..... ... . .... . . 247 H.. ... . .... 269 . . ..... ...... ... .. ....... .. . . ..... ... .... . .... . Evaporation rate of light and heavy liquid .. ..... ...... . .... .. ......... .. . .............. ... Transfer of forces . . .. ..... . .. . . . Wetzell. .... . . . ... Rote is NG .... . .... 262 D. ... .. . .. ... .... .... .. .. The binary�results move ... . . ... .. . . .. . ... . .. ...... .. .. . K... ... ..... ................ ...... . . ... . ....... 245 G. ......... ......... .. 239 A... . . .. Don't prepare useless sorties ...... . . ... .. 241 D... ... .. ... .. .... . . . . 253 N... ..... .. .... . .. .. . Rating track for a 1600 player who quits playing ..... . ... .... . . Predefend .... .... .. . . Review relinquished protection! ... ... ........ ... Frog into a prince ... .... . . .. . . . . .. ...... .... . . ...... ... ...... .. Permute! J..... . ... .... .. . . ... . .. . ...... ... ............ . . ....... .. 268 2.... . .. .. ..... ... ... ... .. ... ... .. .. .... . .... .... 242 E. . . .. . .... .... . .. .... ... ... Why is pawn capture automatic? ... . ...... .. ......... . ... .. .. . . . .. .. . .. .. ... .. . ... .. .. ...... .. . . .. .. ... ...... . . .. . .. .. . .... . . . ... .. . ... ... . ... . .... . .. .... 248 252 253 M.. ... . ... There are other ideas besides recapturing .. .. .. . . . .. . ... . .. . ... . .. . . . ..... . Wetzell-Frank Deming 3. . . .. ...... ... ..... .. .. ... .. ..... .. .. .. . .... .. ...... ... ........ . . .. .. 247 I.......... . . . ... .. . . ... ... . . . .... . ... ... ... .... ... . . .. ... ... ....... . ....... .. ... 265 vi 1. Look for the active defense! .. 270 4.... ... ... .. .. ......... ... .... ... .. .. Wetzell-Rigel Capallo .. ..... .... ... 261 B. . Central Knight .. .... . 261 C. .. .. .... ... .. . . .. .... .... ....... . ...... ....... . ... . ... .. . . ... .... . . . . .. . ... .... . . . .... . . .. . .. . ...... .... .. . . .. . .. . . ... . .. .. . ...... ... .. .. ... . .... ....... ......... .... . .... . .... .. ..... ..... . . . .. . . .. .. Calculation for liquid added weekly . .. . .... .. .. . . . . .... .. . . The attack beyond the galaxy! L... John Loyte-Wetzell . . . .. . . . ..... ..Barbara Peskin . .. . ... ....... .... ...... .. .. . .. .. ... 249 .. .... . ... ... .. ... .. ... .. . ... ....... .. 255 0. ... . . .. . . .. ...... .....

...... . .. . Wetzell-Rigel Capallo ... . .... .. .... . ... . ... .. ... ... 278 286 APPENDIX VI: From the Editor's File ... . . . . ..... . ... . . . .. .... .. Nasser Abbasi-Wetzell 13... . Wetzell-Larry Carpentier 9. ... ..... .. . ... . .. .. ..... . . ....... . . . .. .... 281 11.. . .. . .5.. ..... .......... . ..... ......... . .... .... .. .... . 289 15.. 280 10....... . . ... .. .... . . ..... .... . .. . Brad Ryan-Wetzell .. .. ... . ... . .. . ... . ..... .. . . .... .... . ... . . .. . ... .. . ........ .... . .. .. .. 291 16.. . .... ... 275 7.. ... ...... . ..... . . . . Wetzell-Allan Bennett .... . ... .... 301 Colophon . .. .. . .. Wetzell-Allan Bennett ..... ......... . .. . . . .. . ... . ... ... .. .... . . .. ............ .. ..... . . .. .. 296 APPENDIX VII: Glossary .. .. .. .... . . . . ..... .. .. .. . . 288 14.... 301 vii . . ..... ... . . . .... .. .... . ...... ..... .. . ..... . .... .. .. .... .. . .... .. . .. . .. ....... .. ... . . . ..... .. Wetzell-William Aulson . . .. .. .. .... 283 12. .. 299 The Author .... ....... ... ... . .. .. .... . .. .. ... . .. . .. . . ..... Frank Deming-Wetzell .. .... . . .. ...... .. ... .... .. . . . .. .. ..... ......... . ........ . ...... .... . . .. . ............. ... .. ... .. .... . . . ... .. ......... ............ .. ... . .. .. ... .. ..... . ... . .......... . .. ... . ........ 277 8.... ... . . ... .......... .. . ... Wetzell-Roger Capallo .. . . . . .. . .... ..... . . ... . . . .. ..... . . . .. ....... . . . ....... ........ . . .. . ... .. .. ........ .. ....... ... ..... . . . . .. .. .. ..... .. . . . . .. .. ... .. ... . . .. .... ..... . .. . .. . .. ... .... . .... .. Wetzell-George Mirijanian ..... ..... 293 . ........ ..... . ..... ...... ..... ........ ..... . ... . 273 6.. . .... ..... . ... ... ... . . . . ... . George Mirijanian-Wetzell ..... Allan Bennett-Wetzell . .

aged me throughout with my daughter Melinda developing the first set of computerized symbols for my pieces.C. My colleague Robert Stevens read the manuscript and offered ideas.F. but Allan felt that since I initiated most of the ideas I should be the sole author. He also reviewed and critiqued the book in detail. ) viii ---- . (The pieces you see in the games section were designed by Thinkers' Press after the Wetzell idea. During these sessions. reviewing my games with me. for permission to use the splendid drawing which appears on page 14. the seeds developed for many of the ideas in the book. and offering guidance. We had talked about co.authoring the book at one time. critique.Acknowledgments I want to thank my friend NM Allan Bennett for his ideas. since he contributed so much. My family encour.S. and support. NM Mike Hart had been my mentor for years. Thanks also to Bob Warsager and the U .

or improve the efficiency of the studying that I do now? B. in front of a roaring fire in the evening after a hard day of skiing or hiking? When you'd love to win. that you care about the results of the games you play.PART ONE WHY ANOTHE R B OOK? A. you're not a scorekeeper. on and off. But the fact that you're reading this now is a sign that you are a scorekeeper. Origins. you have a great attitude which I admire and wish I had too. ments occasionally. maybe with a friend or someone you love. doing the kinds of things other people do: . come better.those who keep score and those who don't. I divide all people in the world into two groups . I started playing somewhat regularly. Chess for fun or chess for real? Are you the kind of person who enjoys an occa. You're curious: is this book really saying anything new? Will it teach me new ways to study. since I was six. that you want to be. In the early 1 960s. During the decade that followed. and played in touma. The years of confusion. I improved somewhat. If you fit the description above. sional game of chess. but it really isn't important? If so. 1. I've played chess for over half a century. and this book is not for you.

But my scoring seemed to improve only imper. I concluded that I was not applying myself in the most effective manner . which.") I felt that I had to have a better idea of the components making up Strength . even after a year or two. I got crunched all over again because I'd forgotten all that MCO stuff in the meantime.the number of "ply" in the correct solution .moves . and the number of half. I wanted to become a master sometime during my life.my studying was very sub. then later look it up in MCO (Modem Chess Openings) .Chess Master . by the way. What makes up chess strength? (When the term S trength is used in this book.optimal. I constructed elaborate scoring techniques from an A to an F. A year later. . 2. as far as im. I started to realize that my techniques of playing rated games and study methods were making relatively little headway. By the end of the 1 970s I started to assess my desires and approaches and results. learn (or really just memorize) the correct continuation as well as a few related lines. I studied combinations. . Material like Reinfeld's 1 00 1 Winning Chess Sacrifices and Combinations . proving my chess strength.was a factor in the grade I received. I still do.we'll call 2 . I always used a stopwatch. including factors such as the length of time I used. so I would know those lines stone cold. ceptibly. At Any Age I'd lose a game in the opening. The years of structuring. when someone played that line again. it denotes "chess strength. and hope some unsuspecting soul would play this continuation against me again. I had been a "strong B/weak A" player with a rating at the crossover from "B" to "A" for many years.

its ingredients ? 2: How does chess strength typically change ? 3: What are the most effective. that Flash Cards are one of my cornerstones to chess improve-­ ment. You will discover. Appendix III is a compilation of Flash Cards. and there-­ fore offered as an appendix. or method. Appendix IV develops backup calculations for the model of Strength developed in Chapter 3. when conducted. should confirm some of the ideas in this book. They would be useful for organizations like the National Science Foundation in their pursuit of the understanding of the learning process. Once I understood CCC. most efficient means to improve chess strength? Appendix I has suggestions for specific scientific studies that. Appendix II is an algorithm for a computer--gen-­ erated move selection. I reasoned. to improve. Appendix V is a collection of my recent games illustrating points from this book.what are its components. as you go through this book. C. Appendix VII is a Glossary. examples of a subject covered in Part III. Appendix VI is a game by the publisher. but is lengthy.Why Another Book? them CCC (Components of Chess Capability) . What's in this book? We'll answer these questions: 1 : What makes up chess strength . I could devise a plan. I couldn't really find a coherent theory of CCC in any book. 3 . which. I feel I have accomplished this goal to a reasonable degree in the dozen years spanning the late 1 970s and 1 980s. maybe tedious. belongs to Part II. in principle.

The first is simply to digest the book in order. Part II is my theory of CCC. From there. even among the greats. is that a player "reaches his level" eight years ( give or take a little) after starting to play serious chess. since my "eight--year mark" in 1 972 . Once a sufficient number of tests are conducted to confirm the theory. January 1 986. and had obviously done research to corroborate his claim. Using my own study techniques. This has the clear advantage of giving you a basic understanding of the Components of Chess Capabil-­ ity (CCC ) explained in Part II before you move on 4 . and in tournaments. almost 400 points . but usually preceding the scientific tests validating it. or about five games in an eight-­ game match. titled "You're Never Too Old To Mate.." International Grandmaster Andy Soltis wrote an article in Chess Life . . I had been playing fairly seriously. E.Chess Master . There are two ways to use this book. it becomes a law. A 1 00-­ point rating difference between two players means that the stronger would be expected to win 64 per . improve more than 1 00 rating points. since 1 964 (see Figure 1 ) . I lwve improved almost two full rating classes .relative to what I call "the Soltis curve. At Any Age D. cent of the time. Soltis cites examples. a theory is a concept or speculation.. while Part III is my theory on optimizing "how to get better. simplified. How to use this book. very few. . generally supported by some mathematical proof or development." An important factor lending credibility to my theories is my rating track record . This book: How correct? In science." His thesis.

You accept the material in Part II for the time being. namely. consider this: people who really believe in their cause do much better than those who are lukewarm or operating by rote. You go directly to Part III. If you agree with it. las tics the believer does better. Not every idea presented is a self. then employ it forcefully and - 5 . more quickly: you simply assume this book is accurate in its structure of CCC. or scho. how to improve. and apply the ideas on "how to improve. The other way gets you to the bottom line." Before going directly to Part III. sales. politics.evident truth. Whether it's in religion.Why Another Book? USCF rating 2200 I p I I I 2000 1800 1 964 1 972 1 980 1 988 Figure 1 to improving in Part Ill. And so it goes in chess. and come to a strong conclusion about it. You have to examine each in your mind. thereby making it easier for you to take full advantage of the ideas there.

. come disappointed.Chess Master . Using this alternate method . The technique will not work. but say you'll do it anyway. you'll subconsciously do it badly. At Any Age steadfastly. don't use it. - 6 .starting with Part III you may eventually want to go back and digest Part II. If you don't agree with a suggestion. and you'll eventually be. . If you don't agree with it.

most people. So we'll go through the CCC in detail. In fact. why not get on with it? Why rehash the obvious ? The difficulty is that just knowing what's in the last paragraph will not guide you to the best use of your time in improving your game." So. even though they know these obvious things. these Components of Chess Capability. covery. Our Strength is exposed to new inputs . It also deals with the factors that change it. we said that we must understand the CCC before we can intelligently try to improve our S trength . calculates more accurately and therefore further ahead. In Part I. You might well now be thinking: "What's the big deal? Everyone knows that the better player knows more opening theory. and so on. stop improving. The input of an increased level of study and play . knows more combinations. standing Strength. as a foundation to an improvement program. after playing a few years. AND MO RE What are the factors that make one person a stronger chessplayer than another? We're going to itemize and dissect these CCC. has a better understanding of strategy and the endings. you may ask. This is my interpretation of Grandmaster Andy Soltis' dis. which could have positive or negative effects. Part II deals with CCC as a vehicle to under. or develop it.PART TW O C OMPON ENTS O F C H E S S CAPAB I LITY. We'll call these factors the inputs to Strength.

A person with an excellent memory will reap more benefit from most forms of study than one who has great difficulty remembering a phone num. Our inputs will have greater. . or more meager. At Any Age would have a positive effect. Figure 2 is the rationale in block form. Components of Chess Capability (CCC) Desire/Discipline I + � � z er: w � Playing chess Study Other I t Genetic factors Attitude I + I 1- Images � Abil ity to PROject Positions � Move selection Method Genetic factors � Figure 2 8 . effects on Strength. the player's memory comes to mind. depending on another set of factors .Chess Master .the Filter. ber. . Here. while a negative effect could result from an input such as inactivity.

and represents. and the other is memory. or the blueprint or procedure you use to arrive at a move selection given the Images that you have at your disposal. The fourth component is Attitude. or the ease with which we can remember something." ultimately a measure of speed and accu.CHAPTER ONE C OMPON ENTS O F C H E S S CAPAB I LITY There are five major components of chess capa. one manifestation of it is the objectivity a player displays about his winning chances in any given position. An example that comes to mind is objectivity. of MM. or rapidly accessible facts. Some of these. Third is MM. has two ingredients. or rapidly accessible concepts. One is Mental Clock Rate. the degree to which Strength is modified by this composite. and then describe them in detail. in total. but I - . Attitude is made up of five specific ingredients. a subset. bility. the speed with which we can calculate. in tum. in turn. the Move selection Method. First are Images. or the "Ability to PROj ect Positions. You could think in terms of the "goodness" or pertinence of your Move selection Method the tendency to certain types of blunders is a part. The fifth component is genetic. Next is APROP. in turn. We'll identify them here. incorporate a group of subsidiary features. We'll take up each component in detail. It. and. racy of calculation.

c) A "fork" occurs when a piece can attack two enemy pieces at the same time. that you could recall. d4! = ••• ••• 10 . In chess. by snapping your fingers. and that 2 x 4 8 are all Images .Chess Master . . Your name. e ) On an open board. d) Any specific sequence of moves representing the best defense in an opening (for example. An example is the "fork trick" in Figure 3 . f) Any simple tactical operation. that Images are rapidly recallable. At Any Age would first like to leave you with this thought: Strength is determined more by the weakest of its five major components than by their average. however. literally. but can't recall "on demand. or recallable by snap-­ ping your fingers. the following are examples of Images . e5 ). represents your storehouse of im-mediately usable knowledge. So a friend's name from the distant past that you might recall by concentrating hard for half a minute. know-­ ing that 3 c5 is the best reply to 1. Nxe5 with the idea of recovering the piece after Black's capture 4 Nxe5 by playing 5. A. a) Three pawns typically are worth a minor piece. Here White can play 4. Images . e4 e6 2. the fact that the sun rises in the East. Note. . Images are the sum total of all of the things you currently know. b) A one--pawn advantage in a pure pawn ending is usually decisive. Images." is not an Image . d4 d5 3 . then. a Bishop pair is stronger than a Bishop plus Knight.

This is the polite way of saying that we forget. and if so. and g represent strategi. while h is an endgame Image . and know. as well as the specific motifs making up these Images . ing the technique.c Images . do it. e. turning this fact into an Image .vsAone King ending can be won. 11 . then subside during periods of lesser activity. let's say someone has just told you the name of a state capital.Components of Chess Capability Figure 3-White to move g) A Knight on a central square on the sixth rank is a big advantage. You mentally decide whether you want to remember this. h) Knowing the circumstances when a King and pawn. changes during our chess career. Notice the wavy arrows showing that Images eventually evaporate. b. It is likely to peak during a period of months or years of studying and playing. The total number of Images . c and f represent tactical Images . Examples d and f are opening Images . The above motifs a. In Figure 4. worth a pawn (a former World Champion aptly called a Knight on the sixth a "nail in the knee") .

a4 see Figure 5. An example might be an opening sequence someone showed you last week. •. nale behind the move. 12 . A non. or Figure 4 almost ran. without being well connected with other Images . without going over the moves or reasons for them. Nc3 dxc4 5. because it has been reinforced. •. having . want to or facts . c4 c6 3.known fifth move in the Slav: 1. that rememl>ef1 are loosely. knowing 5. - Figure 5-White to move A "quality" Image is a fact or observation logi. a4 by having repeatedly played this.Chess Master .chess example might be a friend's phone number. A "durable" Image is a fact. is a durable Image. . although not necessarily logi. •. d4 d5 2. At Any Age There are three types of "we forget" •. without knowing the ratio." P«•decidl A "light" whether we Image is a fact. .-' -·-· different "life-P:ltTER spans. or perception. Now. acquired. Images . domly. FACTS E x p E R I E N c E MEMORY [IMAGEJ �·--. peatedly reinforced. re. while an example in chess is White's well. cally connected with other Images. Nf3 Nf6 4.

and under-­ standing that its purpose is to prevent Black from reinforcing his pawn at c4 by playing . but continuing to look at this position. If we were to set up a test to reflect APROP. APROP is a measure of the speed and accuracy . in order to set the stage for Part III how to get better. in Part III we'll introduce a set of symbols for the pieces which are simple to draw. 13 . say eight moves for both sides. The total time it took to do this. An example is the move 5. B. so that it is easier to remember. all other things being equal.with which a player calculates and projects a number of moves . Ability to PROject Positions (APROP). a4 above. the simplest one would be this: take.Components of Chess Capability cally connected with another Image . b5 . Now draw the new position on a chess diagram (you may. adding some "penalty time" for each piece incorrectly placed. of course. would be a good measure of APROP. It's linked with many opening. middlegame. or a variation. in advance . Another example is the way the Knight moves. Incidentally. Images are the basic information we call on and use in our Move selection Method to decide on a move. and endgame Im-­ ages . to maximize the number of Im-­ ages . The more Images . the greater the player's Strength. and then. set up the position on a chess-­ board) . In Chapter 4 we'll model the process of learning and forgetting. without setting up a board. visualize the game continuation for some number of moves. a diagram from a chess book showing some middlegame position you have not seen before. as a starting posi-­ tion.but not the soundness of the selection . instead. . .

check!. ing to do with APROP. K nig ht. tion would have been: "If he bong. several half. W i th o u t d e l i b e r a t e l y making fun of the process. We said: "If he goes here. and I go Queen takes pawn check and I'm better. ing to do with the process of selecting a move among different alternatives.bang . An example would be a capture that your opponent has available as a result of an incorrect mental placement of one of the men that has moved. bing. At Any Age This exercise shows that APROP is not impacted by the validity of the continuation selected. zap. But w e must b e careful with this example.moves into your analysis." and so on. But let's say that a better continua. This inac.curacy. or blunder.Chess Master . and it's mate in three!" __. but only by the mechanical accuracy . he goes Knight.and speed . Figure 6 .______________ 14 . he goes there. Carrying this line of reasoning further. he goes pawn takes Bishop. he goes goes here . I go pawn. then I go Bishop takes Knight. then I go Bishop." And so on.of the look-ahead. we note that certain types of blunders are due to limited APROP. . zoom. That will be covered under the Move selection Method. "Now. If I go Bishop takes Knight. February 1 985 ) . It's important to explain that APROP has noth. The Grandmaster's Innermost Thoughts at the Crucial Moment: APROP reflects how quickly and accurately one can go through the mental exercise "If he goes here. I go Rook takes Queen. " and so on. and I go Rook zoom. . See Figure 6 (Chess Life . bing. then I go Bishop takes Knight. bop. ifl go there. after you have just sacrificed a piece. has noth.

The clarity of that position at that point is an input to the Move selection Method. fix that position in one's mind. For example. The reason it's listed separately is that some. The better a person's APROP.Components of Chess Capability Another way of looking at APROP is how well one can visualize the positions in blindfold chess. Yet another is one's ability to look ahead in a varia. two variations from that position. It includes such features as: • • • the degree of accuracy of visualizing the position several ply ahead. of the final position. the accu. the better he or she can recognize a group of pieces. 15 . in certain endgames a pawn race takes place. To keep things in proper perspective.moves. tion for a few half. APROP. to some extent. ahead. A couple of groups that might come to mind are shown in Figure 7. a subset of the first. racy of evaluation of a position is not part of APROP. is the mechanical aspect of the look. generally. what different skills are involved. the degree of accuracy of keeping track of the material balance. then. but only to reach the correct position at the end. or the clarity. and then project. the lucidity. The last feature is. say. where it is not necessary to visualize the entire position at every ply.

This same mental skill is called on when visualizing a new. . nal position in front of you as a reference. the strong chess. ing related result of the study showed that if the position were set up randomly. in the event of a capture) chess piece(s) with a new one of the same kind at a new square. ahead. gagement a chessplayer pursues during a game.chess) players for a certain period of time . At Any Age Figure 7 Studies have been conducted wherein a chess. utilizes a certain mental skill.moves. tion. the stronger chessplayers could reconstruct the position after a shorter perusal of the given posi. for each half. The first task requires you to replace one (or two. players did no better than the others. As you might expect. This is the normal mental en. trying to visualize what the board looks like in a look. .move you're projecting the position. unfamiliar position that you have looked at for a short time. a very interest. After a number of projected half.Chess Master .and each person was then asked to reconstruct the position. where you're allowed to keep the origi. and more accurately.moves from a chess position in front of you. However. board with pieces and pawns was shown to both strong chessplayers and weak (or non. 16 . Visualizing what a new position would look like after a number of half.

If the variation is totally forced.. The logical steps we have just developed. b7. white Queen at a8. on the first half. If there are 20 pieces on the board. where the chess position has been set up randomly. or disappeared. then a moderately strong player may look ahead more than half a dozen ply.Components of Chess Capability several pieces have moved. together with the fact that the reconstruction of real chess posi-­ tions is much more successful than reconstruction of random positions. four reasonable responses are pos-­ sible. The skills described for the two tasks are really the same. and Black has a normal Kingside castled position with a fianchettoed Bishop. g7 . The second task. ing a new and unfamiliar position that you have looked at for a short time. white Rooks at b2 and g6. it might contain eleven chess pieces as shown in Figure 7 . the look--ahead possible in a given number of seconds ( the number of half--moves by each side proj ected) depends on the number of branches. a player must relate every piece to a square or another "unre-­ lated" piece. each piece on the board to a square or another existing piece. or variations..Black has a "French Defense" type of pawn chain (h7 . is a very strong indication that chessplayers will remember positions by a set of ideas . For a given APROP. When confronted with the second task. 17 . one after another. whereas if.and so on. demands that you men-tally connect. where all one needs to remember for these 1 1 pieces is: White has a normal Kingside castled position. e6. a7 ) . the same player with the same APROP will not be able to look as far ahead on every variation." and so on. this sort of information quickly. In the case of a real chess posi-­ tion. f7 . It's difficult to visualize. c5 . move. visualiz . or memorize. he'll have to say to himself: "white King at e4. d5 . from the position you're studying.

.Chess Master .. To standardize.-per . equivalently.-move. On a parallel idea.. and look four half. and. the distance in half.with the time control. APROP can be limited by quirks in our thinking patterns. Let's expand on the previous statement. If a stone falls on a quiet pond. moves in our chess analogy should be the same in all directions.. to be a realistic Analysis Horizon.. Some of these branches may be truncated because one of the players is being mated or loses material without compensation. . the longer the reflection time. The Analysis Horizon. At Any Age 1. a 90. The longer the time since the stone hit the pond. but this is acceptable for that branch of the analysis. They are: 18 . the larger will be the biggest circle. The Analysis Horizon expands and shrinks with the available time . then. The Analysis Horizon is the "distance" in half. you might be able to see six ply along each one. moves ahead for each. The distance from the splash point of the stone to the edge of the biggest circle is the Horizon. If there were only two candidate moves. There are really three major factors that affect APROP..-second re . We'll discuss an example in Part III. that is. date moves. Let's say you're playing at a time control of 40 moves per hour. along all branches of analysis. On the average. or. you might be able to look at three candi . ever widening circular ripples will develop. . moves (or ply) that one can see ahead in a given period of time with reasonable accuracy. The Analysis Horizon is a reflection of APROP. the greater the Analysis Horizon. hour time control. flection time. we'll use as a reference for the Analysis Horizon the one corresponding to a 40. of a minute and a half per move.

An example of highly developed APROP.Figure 8. b) The extent of idiosyncrasies. Rxe5 24 .•. Kgl Rxg2t 30. or 20 ply. Bxc6 Qxc3 33. Rxe5. 19 . that one has. allowing a sequence where Black can forage on White's second rank. moves. Bd6) 24. etc. Fischer had developed an enviable position .memory. Qxd7 Rads 25. with some branches along the way. Rgl t when White is clearly winning. The analysis had to reach a . . So Fischer had to calculate ahead 20 half. occurred in the first Fischer-Larsen game in their candidates match. holding a person back from his or her true potential.ups. Qxb7 Qe3t 26. Khl Rxc6 32. Fischer played 23. and certain types of study. or hang. based on genetic makeup . not to mention threatening mate. in my view. Qc6t Re6 28. Kfl Rd2 27. c) One's natural capability. Bc5 Rf2t 29.Components of Chess Capability a) The degree of development one has attained by playing. with White to move. Play proceeded 23 Qxe5 (not 23 . Figure 8-White to move where. leading to the Fischer­ Spassky World Chess Championship in 1 972. Kxg2 Qd2t 3 1 . including the move he was about to make (his 23rd move) . .

grammed position. or have had.Chess Master . Kar. World Champions Tal.. with two different examples. able knowledge. we established that one has some Ability to PROj ect Positions (APROP) that allows execution of a par. but only with the correct men.generated move selection example is given in Appendix II. Images . Kasparov. ment about this game does not imply that Fischer has the best APROP. namely. with its superb level of APROP. ticular sequence of thoughts with some speed and accuracy. Fischer had to analyze all the way to Black's 3 2nd move to be sure that he could answer any tactical tricks (double attacks. we'll describe MM in a general way. I t is important here to mention that my state. In Section A. The Move selection Method (MM) is the proce. ample of how a master might handle a particular position. Second. we'll give an ex. and so on) . pov. The Move selection Method (MM). C. struck me. pins. From the dia. should the reader be inter. In Section B. Let's look at MM from two different perspectives. dure one uses to select a move . or possibly Botvinnik may have. it's just that this particular game. A computer. 20 . . better. "Execution" is italicized. At Any Age quiet position to be relatively safe. First. we established that one has a certain storehouse of avail. . while "sequence of thoughts" is not. because it is important to realize that APROP has nothing to do with the particular sequence of thoughts. ested. tal execution of the sequence chosen..

since if the Rook moved. Ba3 . Ba3 . but White must still play good chess to bring home the point. . Figure 9-White to move He considered 3 6 . Standard thinking playing a Rook to the seventh . . In selecting his 36th and 3 7th moves. . . Kf8 . which strategically falls in with White's plans. White would continue with the skewer 3 8 Belt winning Black's Bishop. MM: a specific move selection by a master. we'll describe approximately Allan's Move selection Method. Allan looked at this position and then realized that Black. So Black would have to retreat with his King ( in response to 3 6 . playing this move. Here he immediately considered Black's escape with 36 Kf6 . Rc7t . tate White's game. getting Black's King nearer the center of the board.Components of Chess Capability 1. Rc7t) . August 1 989. Black is in dire straits. because the pin 3 7. Recognizing that this continuation didn't facili. 21 . In looking further. Westford MA. .to drive back Black's King or attack the pawns on the seventh. would have to lose the Exchange to 3 7. he realized that Black couldn't play 3 6 . The position in Figure 9 was reached in Allan Bennett-John Loyte.

g5 since Black might be able to get away with 3 7 . all is not crystal clear with 37. defending against the mating se. Rc7t and Black responded 36 . Allen first looked at 3 7 . . Here Allan stopped. . Bb2 . and the idea would there. hxg6 . Be7. fore win the Exchange for White. . He now noticed the somewhat standard mating position where a protected Rook would mate at f8. 39 . with three passed pawns. To avoid mate. . He played 36. threatening 40 . For his 3 7 th move. Rxa4 . . . . How. White would again win the Exchange with 3 7. . Rb8 . Ba3 . Ba3 . . ever. . . g6 . ized that by playing 37. Rc7t would improve his position. . In his review of the sequence before playing 3 7. since Black would have to retreat. . or stop the mate with 39 . . Ba3 . 38 . But 37 . Black could not move the Rook. Ba3 . g6 .pawn after . 22 . Rc8 mate . since the Rook cannot move to a safe square and still avoid the mate 3 9 . Now Allan saw the potential of a mating net with 3 7. if Black were to play 36 . . Rb8 . Likewise. since if Black moves the Rook. White wins the Bishop. quence and saving himself from further material loss. Rf8 . logical because it attacks the pawn at g7 . if Black were to play 36 . Rc8t Kf7 39 . . and after 38 . fxg6 . after having driven Black's King back to f7 . Ba3 . Rf8 mate .. Allan noticed that Black could retreat his Rook with 3 7. Finally. triggered by the previous analysis with 3 7. But now. he used the standard device of looking at all possible permutations of attacking moves and real. . Rc8t Kf7 he could win the exchange with 38 . intending to continue 38 .Chess Master . . with the conclusion that his intended move 36 . White could capture the pawn at g7 when he would be golden. Ke8 . g5 . At Any Age would win the Exchange. . Bf6 38 . So the logical continuation would be 3 7 . Bxf6 looked unclear because Black will get a passed a. Kg8. Rook moves .

. . For White's 36th move: 1 .Components of Chess Capability Play did continue 3 7. and White won the Exchange and eventually the game. Rc7t Kg8) : 1 . Rc7t suffi. Fortunately for White. see if there is a method of forestalling it. Look for a way of exploiting Black's constricted King position. 2. Figure 1 0 is a diagram of the flow of thoughts in the selection of a move. Examine White's strategically logical Rook move to the seventh. a. For White's 3 7th move (after 36 . ther of these moves. ties. The ideal (or model) method of the Move selec­ tion Method. . conclude that 36 . 3 . Rb8) . with the idea of gaining space by driving Black's King back. 23 . Adjust the plan accordingly (by playing 3 7 . there is. determine if Black has a de. Rc8t Kf7 38. The Move selection Method used here by Allan Bennett is a logical process of examining opportuni. ciently improves White's position and make the move. Ba3. Let's summarize the Move selection Method used by White in the above sequence. Rc8t) . Having found a method utilizing a mate threat starting with 37. Determine whether Black could avoid retreat by either a flight to the center with 36 . 2. 4. fense. Having found this defense (37 . . . MM: a general description. 3 . 2. . Ba3 (driving the black King to f7 and mating with Rf8) . Bel. Kf6 or interposing with 36 . Having established that Black cannot play ei.

1 I I I I .. or neutralizing.Chess Master ." each of these is now carefully evaluated on a tactical basis. Now he might select Figure 10 some candidate moves. To make that deci. ..1 I I I I : : Playing To Win OR Playing To Draw 3 r. the immi. or several moves into the future. The strategic ob. and the relative Running King safety._ _ I I I I I Quick Assessments Material Balance King Safety Initiative Tactical Threats 4 _ _ _ 5 Strategic Objectives Establish Candidate Move(s) Detailed Tactical Evaluation of Candidate Moves Select Move With Best Evaluation To Play 24 . a logical first step is to decide whether he's playing to win or draw. Is Running j ectives are both his own he might be trying to ma. You could START REFLECTION 1 I I I I I I : 2 .and the spoil. . for example . ing. After having de�ided on a "set of candidate moves. and the final position evaluated. At Any Age When a player starts thinking about a move. or several possible continuations after one forced line is pursued several half. After deciding whether a) Achieve Mine b) Neutralize My to play for a win or a draw. two. Your some platform Own tive bridges a number of Clock moves) . one. . Opponent's nent tactical possibilities for Clock Is both sides. neuver a Knight to c5 .moves (ply) into the future (this is a candidate move from a platform) . sion...who might MOVE SELECTION be trying to station a Rook METHOD on his seventh ( on the player's own second rank) . a strategic objec.. The candidate moves may be different choices for the next move. Opponent's he must establish or review the strategic obj ectives While --<:ould be from (usually. he needs to assess the While material balance. of his IDEAL opponent's .

moves. through learn. even when there are just three pieces on the board ( including Kings) . In Figure 1 0. In con. by brute force. or for his opponent. ing every legal move a candidate move) . the flow of Figure 1 0 is not meant to be followed slavishly." like the one in Appendix II. The "count material only" procedure for a "program. ing ahead only three half. therefore requiring a much greater number of steps in the evaluation. in Figure 1 0 . The structure of the real Move selection Method. is very tedious. As a result. to be able to get the maximum value for our thinking time in finding the best move. the player selects the move to play which had the best evaluation above. The capability we humans have. it makes sense to think about the first three steps while one's opponent is thinking about his move. requiring a return to step three. one sees a different strategic objective for himself. Sometimes. is to streamline the process in Figure 1 0. two. As with all general rules. 25 . The program's Move selection Method for its simple position didn't include the complex procedure of Figure 1 0. then did step five by counting material at the end of a three. Finally. a computer program must go through a detailed procedure (here. and three usually change much more slowly from move to move than those of the remaining steps. allowing all of one's own clock time to be devoted to the details of the last four steps. That's the reason for the dotted lines in the figure. trast. the circumstances in steps one.Components of Chess Capability think of this evaluation as having a numeric score. while evaluating a particular candidate move. It went directly to step four (simply. b. and the program was look. consider. it would have to go through every dotted path for every candidate move) . ing or inherited traits.

each of your possible 6 1 st moves. For a particular candidate move. representing your worst result. a framework representing a sensible. each group corresponds to one Black response to your 6 1 st move. Rc7t) . . As I understand it. every legal Black response.which corresponds to all the groups reflecting that candidate move . plained for the position in Figure 9 above (for his 36th move) . for each possible choice of your 6 1 st move. So the flow of thoughts of the Move selection Method of Figure 1 0 is a guide. The program will consider. But the material score for the particular can. with his analysis answering the question: Is this move okay to play ? On the selection of his 36th move. former World Champion Boris Spassky doesn't go through a mental listing of the candidate moves (step four in Figure 1 0 ) . the program will form a number of groups. . Appendix II goes through this idea in detail. it will arrive at a "material score" for each of your candidate moves . you are White reflecting on your 6 1 st move. This sort of search is called a "minimax" search. his answer to the question was "yes. and for each of those. Move selection Method. didate move . Allan Bennett's Move selection Method. but by no means the only. even in a typical situation.is the lowest score among all the groups." 26 . every legal White 62nd move. The material score for one group is the score corresponding to White's "best" 62nd move. did not consider any candidate moves other than the one discussed (36 . taking the highest score evaluation in step five as the final answer in step seven. At Any Age ply search. In this computer example. since Black is going to make his best move. This is logical. It is important to clarify that every grandmaster doesn't use the Move selection Method of Figure 1 0. When it counts material. ex.Chess Master . One clarification is in order.

Your white Knight must not capture any of the pawns. hl ." We videotaped him so that we'd be sure to be able to 27 . Your objective is to reach each square on the first rank in turn. your Knight must next reach h2. and not looking at these while it's your turn. . and MM . and then head back toward a2 by eventually reaching each square of the second rank (except those controlled by the pawns) . You are White with a Knight at al in Figure 1 1 . After landing on each square on the first rank. is a generalization. c l . An exercise appeared in Chess Life which is some measure of a combination of Images . . nor is it permitted to land on any square where it could be captured by a pawn. namely.Components of Chess Capability Looking at steps one. b l . APROP. As with most generalizations. by making moves of your choosing with the Knight. there are exceptions where a player needs to think about the first three steps while it is his tum to play. Figure 1 1-White to move The objective is to make the snakelike journey from al to a8 in the shortest possible time. . but not necessarily in the least number of moves. One of the players at our club ("C" strength) obliged us by doing at least the "first two rows. and three of Figure 1 0 while it's your opponent's tum. two.

f l .hJ . ers should take around seven minutes to complete the entire Knight journey from a 1 to a8 (all the times mentioned here are for the first trial) .fl . The really sig.Chess Master .a3 . He took 2 minutes and 40 seconds to get this far.eJ .f2. volved. e4. hJ . As a point of reference.gJ . Since only a Knight is in. since we all have rapid men. pleted the exercise in 1 1 minutes and 20 seconds.b l . and that being able to do this journey in under five minutes means you may have the talent to become an inter. and listed only the successive destinations of the Knight's journey for the first couple of rows. he would have com. .a2. or even three or four. includ.h2 . the Chess Life article (December 1 97 1 ) pointed out that strong club play. since the experience of the first two rows would allow him to play somewhat faster in the other six rows.f2 . Knight. Subsequent tests bring in other factors not really 28 .aJ. and there is an employment of look. which is somewhat unfair.c2.ahead of known move patterns.b4.e3 . ing a 1 0. national player.g2 ( illegal ) . g4 . Should you be interested. h 1 . . At Any Age reconstruct his moves.second penalty for the illegal move.h2 . dJ .g4.b4.dJ.g l . tal recall of at least some of the patterns of two.e 1 . If he did all the rows at the same rate. yond the normal bounds of APROP.c2. His true score (for the first two ranks) should be 2 minutes and 50 seconds. APROP is invoked simply because speed is a factor.b4.f2.c2. we've left off the Knight designation.d 1 .f2. eJ . The Move selection Method is a part of this because a studied and deliberate connection between some of these Images is required..a2.g4. The ten grandmasters named in the article did the journey in from five down to two minutes. move sequences. they were: Nal . Images are involved. nificant issue is how well one does on the first trial.eJ .c2.eJ .c l .g4.c2. and this goes be.f2.

moves ahead. pectation of the previous paragraph.ply Analysis Horizon . Some blunders are a result of a fault in the MM. APROP. while others are the result of an error in APROP. A "blunder" is a tactical miscalculation within the player's Analysis Horizon which leads to a seri­ ous worsening of the position. Blunders. he is analyzing 1 ) with uniform accuracy.Components of Chess Capability related directly to our major three components of chess strength (Images . he can capture his opponent's Queen on the second ply. closing off that line for his opponent) . There are some other details on this exercise in Stephan Gerzadowicz' new book Thinkers' Chess . and blundering. and MM). and not in APROP. As might be expected. while working on the selection of his move.moves than his Analysis Horizon when the situation warrants (an example might be that he has a four. and 2 ) all branches of analysis for a similar number of half. If. a player fails to consider a mate his opponent has available on his next move. The miscalculation is caused either by projecting a position incorrectly in the look. however . An incorrect strategic plan.ahead or by using an incorrect method to select a move . he is violating the ex. but along one particular branch. He simply didn't project the position. such as learning speed. This blunder is a failure in MM. is not a blunder. 29 . 3. grandmasters do much better at this exercise than we ordinary players do. since he did not project a position incorrectly. within his Analysis Horizon . He may truncate the analysis of certain branches in fewer half. A reasonable expectation for a chessplayer would be to select moves in such a way that.

since blunders can be rooted out to some extent. It is worthwhile to devote some space here to blunders. Rg8 . which White did by playing 45. At Any Age Here you might think: "Why struggle with all this stuff. A typical blunder. Bxe6 t . Black's Queen is tied to the defense of g7. as will be discussed in Part Ill. Black can move the Rook on f8 to either f7 or e8. Also. . aren't blunders like car accidents . 45.you just hope you don't have one ?" Exactly! Blunders are like car accidents: there are patterns of errors leading to these. Qxe6 leads to mate by 4 7 . . Bg4. 30 . if you prefer. . so that most types of blunders tend to recur. . arose from the position shown in Figure 1 2. threatening to win instantly with 46 . but can be poten� tially overloaded. Rxg7t and 48 . Rxg7 t Kh8 (or 47 . Qxg7 mate) 48 . R7f7 . but White has a beautiful Bishop pair and the initiative. . After White's move from the diagram. Rxg7 48 . . . Figure 1 2-White to move Black has the Exchange and a pawn.Chess Master . since 46 . I however. the one grand theme. and viewed the two threats 46 . failed to connect the themes. White has mate in two with 47. one I made recently in the game Art Nugent-Wetzell. when we still have a chess game. or. Bg4. Rg8 mate . . if 46 .

Components of Chess Capability Rxg7t and 46 . 31 . thinking that Black must advance the d.A. giving White the important eS . I played 1 3 .square. and resigned when White played 46.pawn since he cannot defend it a second time. Figure 1 3-White to move Black has a pawn. . but White has a compensating initiative. A "Should-A-Been" is a tactical miscalculation within the player's Analysis Horizon which does not lead to a serious worsening of the position.Been. as well as the captures and defenses� 4. Bxe6 t separately. For the first time. occurred in the po. An example of a Should. NfS . I reasoned. with White to move. since the pawn at e6 was being defended by the Queen for a good portion of the game. sition of Figure 1 3 . It turns out. since I would capture the Knight and continue with 1 5 . Bxd6 . and I failed to recognize that. one I made recently in Wetzell-John Loyte. I made a move elsewhere on the board. The blunder was not an oversight in APROP. .Beens. Bxe6t. Black's Queen is overloaded. Bf4.. tion. In my haste to obtain a positional plus. Should-A. Black could not play 1 3 . since I saw the correct posi. due to the good fortune of the placement of the pieces.

ality and character . A. But Attitude . still had an okay game. or have you ever wit. . . Beens. But after Black moves his Knight out of danger on his 1 8th move. As we'll see in Part III.A. White was just plain lucky not to be lost with that move. Nxf3 t . White has 1 9 . Qg4 e5 1 6. when in fact they're equal." The reason is that many chessplayers. . Bf4) 1 3 Nf5 1 4 . since Black has the winning fork 1 4 . the Ability to PROject Positions (APROP). blunders and Should. One would expect that Strength would be truly reflected by its three major components covered so far. Here Black could have played 1 7 .has a direct influence on Strength. although j arred and affected by blunders.A.. tend to ignore Should. . in terms of representing shortcomings in the armor of Strength. D. Bxg6t . So. namely Images . Qg3 is met with repeated Knight checks at e2. nessed.• . Beens need to be a point of concentration for our study program. At Any Age of course.and here we mean a composite of various manifestations of the individual's person. Are you personally. instead of being lost after 1 3 .Chess Master . . Ne2 t . due to the fortunate position of the pieces on the board. a really tenacious defender? Not one who's 32 . shattering White's pawns and being two pawns up for the moment. Now why do we go to the trouble of inventing a new word like Should. Qg5 £6 1 5 . Qh4 (the only move. since 1 7. Attitude. winning the Queen) . Bd2 Nxd4 1 7.Been? As you might ex. . White. and it turns out that his game is okay. and the Move selection Method. pect. that White cannot play 1 4 . Play continued (after 1 3 . Bxf5 in this line. Bf4. it's short for "should have been a blunder.

The more desire. We'll take an upbeat view of this phenomenon. APROP. grandmasters will be considerably better than the norm. All people have. and so on down the line. will modify Strength from that comprised only of the "three purely technical" components. We'll identify these attitude factors here. is embodied in the desire one has. It is the driving force behind everything in chess.ups. and other spe. you and all other chessplayers are at this norm. to one degree or another. and several other personality mani. but to a lesser degree than grandmasters. These hang.working defender? You can almost sense how that quality will stand its owner in good stead. They are objectivity. which are part of the human condition. physical fitness. These human factors prevent us from reaching the ideal Strength based only on our three main components. cial prejudices. We'll call this worsening of our playing strength due to personality hang. personality traits. cer. Images . and turning drawish positions into wins. then discuss them in more detail. festations. ment. discipline. The interest one has in chess. They'll have fewer hang. 1. time management. the more likely that a disciplined plan will be in 33 . on.line toughness. Masters will be above the norm too. Desire.ups. Discipline is the direct descendant of desire. but a stubborn." so without any additional knowledge. when averaged for all players.Components of Chess Capability playing long after he or she should have resigned. cally.ups. hard. tain idiosyncrasies. contributing directly to Strength by salvaging draws here and there. and one's improve. Statisti. as the "norm. and MM.

while the World Champion. Time Management. ing this knowledge. but whether one is distort. 3. ment of the clock. Here. ponent of Chess Capability. lowing evaluation without bias or prejudice. how important it is. At Any Age place to improve one's game. Introduction. and the proper handling of the clock a Com. to make the evaluation consistent with some preconceived idea. With the introduction of chess. Or if one should offer a certain sacrifice. became an important part of the game.Chess Master . We may be prejudiced about our opponent's Strength . ceeds at 40 moves per hour. subconsciously. Objectivity is the state of mental receptivity al. and where chess fits into his or her life. with subsequent time limits at the same rate of play. ment whether one should play for a win or a draw. the issue is not whether one has the technical knowledge to make the right decision. a typical club match or tournament pro. the better a chessplayer he is likely to be. I believe that desire is a reflection of what chess means to a player. Objectivity. or the manage. a. making a judg. . all other things being equal. The more objective a person is. usually at 20 moves per half hour. 2.clocks in the 1 9th Century. The US Open is played at 50 moves in two and a half hours. . The manifestation of objectivity that comes to mind is the evaluation of a position. Today. the management of time. or what it takes to win. 34 .

Why the big deal. The average quality of the two moves for the first choice is vastly superior to the second. Whatever the time limit. or you might take two minutes and 50 seconds for the first. a similar but shorter game. so doesn't that pretty much negate time management as a Component of Chess Capability ? The answer is an emphatic no . You might take a minute and a half for each move. the number of moves. This assertion is an important part of my chess theory. and the time allowed. Recent developments in the US are creating in. to the mate. den death . there are two major factors in the proper handling of the clock." Five minutes sudden death. terest in "Action Chess. This is also called "30 smash. Second.Components of Chess Capability ship is played at 40 moves in two and a half hours. you may ask. and let's say it's 40 moves per hour. and ten seconds for the other. and for two major reasons. or "five smash." Figure 1 3A reflects the different types of time control in use today. ance of time pressure. or logarithmic scale. uling of extra time to evaluate critical positions. We'll get back to that later. The circles with x's represent time controls. it is important to spend extra time on certain positions. where the sudden death time controls are shown at 240 moves. let's say you have three minutes to make two moves. are on ratio scale. but you still have the same total. First. is called Blitz. or suffer sudden death. Both scales. The first is the avoid. vide up the time differently. What makes time management such an important issue ? You can di. which is a game forfeit. 35 . fects Strength. in 30 minutes. The other is the proper sched." played at 30 minutes sud.one must play all moves. Allocating this time properly af.

So allowing oneself to get into Time Pressure reduces Strength. move time control. un... 1 ® I I I I I I I I II I I I I II I I I II I // II . 80 M i n 50 U t e s 40 30 20 .. 13A 50 60 1 20 Number of Moves 240 more time in the first group (say 25 moves) of a 40. At Any Age Most chessplayers.® Blitz . over a large number of games ( it may.. in the cool light of day. and ways to combat the Time Pressure problem in Part III. of course.g. Open I .. I '5 I I I U. � -- -- --® Typical Club Game Action Chess -- - -- - _ _ . treme Time Pressure let's say in one. I think that this is untrue..Chess Master . The major dis.. making the remaining moves easier to play.. doubtedly agree with this statement.. f1 1 /& / . . be true in a particular game) .third of the 36 . he can obtain a stronger position than he would otherwise. .. ting into simple Time Pressure routinely. . and ex.§ / / ..·® = = �� : : 30 40 Fig.. We'll return to this topic.I. senting rationale I've heard is that if a player takes Time Controls in Use Today 1 60 I . and to a sufficient degree to offset the relative shortness of time. But how much ? I believe that get.P I I / 0 I I / Jl I I / �I I / � .S...

similar) . average. ·•·· a . · · an. he'll control. over the long run you should obtain better results than if you took longer during the early 37 .. . ._ _____ b..•··· will•..teady rating system ( the World Chess Federation's rating system is p'��' �ll���'14 �f slow.. two draws. we'll briefly review the statistics given earlier: a rating ately. g�pies�. What is Time Pressure? It would appear logical that if you played at a steady pace so that you would not have to rush your last moves. · . e:t<and more lleliber. According to my theory. then. win just over five games. iQ. typically..game match...tti�e .. So the typical score of the match might be five wins and three losses.t •·.• .. . ()��*'... or four wins.. Should you be unfamiliar 1f /fie•· · 11t�v.... >f�rst.. maota!' . .. •..rated player *ia¢ Pre��u�e. . give or Cln llal. time In an eight.. · • J:t'v�•• · '. between five or six games in a 1 6. a gram in Appendix I should J>laver. A rating difference of 200 points means that the higher. atthe will win 64 percent of the time.d difference of 1 00 points means D. v�v ��unger ¢Les� --... on -.f:)(!t� eventually answer this more ter results ( ·•· >be will exactly. The suggested test pro.. his with the US Chess Federation's gJQ���·· ·· ·· ..game match. � / a11 .ly1< or • in that the higher. --. fatter part qf tl'le .t •. ___ .--... and two losses... depending on the severity of his Time Pressure..Components of Chess Capability games.rated player will win an average of 76 percent..lnqe� <then. will reduce Strength by about 1 25 rating points.�piiJ. a player equal in Strength to another in all aspects except for his tendency to Time Pressure would only win. slightly more than three out of four. of his games..... i.. Time Pressure. $.. take 50. A pretty hefty freight to pay for this affliction..

If you had just three minutes left when you made your 30th move. you are in extreme Time Pressure.move time controls." "Game. trols. you should have used not more than 1 5 minutes. utes to make 10 moves. you have seven min. 38 .30. Now it would be nice to quantify this time pres." or "Game. are you in Time Pres­ sure? The time control sets a schedule. or one and a half minutes ( 90 seconds) per move. or one fifth the sched.Chess Master . ( i) Time Pressure in fixed. sure. and so on. You are in simple Time Pressure. to make 10 moves. onds. you would be required to make 10 moves in 1 80 seconds ( 3 x 60) . which is 1 8 seconds per move. because 4 2 seconds is less than half of your allotted 90 seconds per move.S" time con. Normal time controls allocate specific periods of time for a fixed number of moves. If you use your time in such a way that you must make your remaining moves in the time control. after 20 moves not more than 30 minutes. In that case you would be in extreme Time Pressure. which is 42 seconds a move. where all the moves. at twice the original schedule in order to avoid a time forfeit. and you have just made your 30th move and see that you have seven minutes left. At Any Age moves and had to rush your later moves. you are in simple Time Pressure. on average. to the mate. or 420 seconds. After 1 0 moves. uled 90 seconds per move. In this case. . or seven minutes x 60 sec. you have 60 minutes to make 40 moves. . If you have to make your remaining moves at five times the original schedule. need to be made in the allocated time. This contrasts with "Game. In the case just described.60. If you are playing a game at 40 moves per hour.

By comparing Figures 1 3 B and Figure 1 3C (see next page) . Accord. There will 39 . or 1 5 minutes. time metric for the time control. In Action Chess. Fig. his 30th move with 5 minutes left. 1 3 B is a "move. then fell behind schedule during moves 1 1 ." the 30 minutes.track which brings one below the line. He made his 40th move with his flag hanging. or 30 minutes sudden death. ( ii) Time Pressure in Action Chess. then crossed into the extreme time pressure zone about move 34. In each of the first three segments. his 20th with 10 minutes left. Making a move every minute and a half will keep a player on the heavy line. got into simple time pressure at around move 1 8. have been used. At move 3 5 . Sudden. Time Pressure and move schedules will be defined somewhat differently. he's definitely in extreme time pressure. with one minute to play 5 moves. the player is on schedule for the first ten moves. his 1 5 th with 30 minutes left. where here performance relates to the han. we'll divide the entire "clock. and his 35th with 1 minute left.Components of Chess Capability Describing this scenario graphically for a 40 moves in 60 minute time control let's say a player completed his 1 0th move with 45 minutes left. Playing at a quicker pace generates a move.time metric" and displays his clock performance during this time control. into six time segments of five minutes each. dling of the clock. but this time showing performance zones. Figure 1 3C is the same space. one should make 1 5 moves. and playing at a slower pace will bring the player above the line. ments. translating to 45 completed moves when three seg. The heavy line through the middle of the metric is the schedule line. ingly. 1 7 .death time limit chess is different from chess played with normal time controls.

. 13C 40 60 . . . . . .Chess Master .. . 40 remai n i ng n u m ber 30 of moves to be 20 made in the 10 time control 10 20 30 40 50 time (minutes) left in time control Fig. 13B Move-Time Metric for a 40 moves i n 1 hour time contro l . . ' 10 20 30 40 60 50 time {min utes) left in time control Fig.. . . At Any Age Move-Time Metric for a 40 moves in 1 hou r time control 40 remai n i n g n u mber 30 of moves to be 20 made in the 10 time control . ... .- - - - - - - - lo" - · - - - - - . � .. • . - .

Components of Chess Capability

then be 1 5 minutes left. Often the game is decided
by the 45th move. But if the game is not decided, the
pace must be picked up, because 1 50 moves, or even
more, may be necessary to accomplish mate. Even
though most games played with normal time con-­
trols (not of the sudden--death variety) are over at 70
moves, the situation implied at resignation is that
one's opponent will be able to deliver mate eventu-­
ally, since there are few limitations on the number of
moves required ( it might take 1 00 moves to mate) .
I n a sudden--death time limit, it might take many
more moves, because there isn't enough reflection
time to generate the win in an efficient number of
moves.
Getting back to the timetable, you should make
20 moves each in the fourth and fifth time segments,
or four moves per minute.
Keeping this timetable will allow you to play
somewhat sanely for the vast majority of games. Sel-­
dom will you get into a situation where you have a
complicated middlegame position with only five
minutes remaining, since you will have made 85
moves.
With five minutes left, and the game still not
decided, what next? You are no longer required to
keep score. In order to keep track of the number of
moves you've made, you need a counter.
I use a "hand tally counter," stock #190 1 , made
by the W. T. Rogers Company, Madison WI 537 1 1
(you can get this device through a stationery store, or
call or write to the company directly - about $ 1 3 ) .
It's a mechanism the size of a walnut, with a plunger
and a "window counter." You can, of course, also use
one of the plastic counters that people use in a
supermarket, usually available there, to keep track of
their purchases. The counter I recommend costs
more, but is simpler to operate, has only one plunger,
41

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

and so on.
Back to the game. You have kept up with the
recommended schedule for the first 25 minutes, hav,
ing made 85 moves. Now you must play at the rate of
10 moves per minute. If you're exactly on target, you
will have made 1 3 5 moves when your flag drops.
That's OK.
How do you know whether you're keeping up
with your "last five minutes" schedule ? Simple. As
you approach the last five minutes, you must make
two columns on your score sheet, with four lines
each, the left column showing the entries 4/1 0; 3/20;
2/30; 1/40; 0/50. At the time your clock shows five
minutes left, you may stop keeping score. At this
time, you start using your counter - set to zero. The
entry 4/1 0 means that with four minutes left on your
clock, your counter should show 1 0 moves. 3/20
means that with three minutes left, your counter
should show 20 moves, and so on.
It is noteworthy that most players will not be
keeping up with your schedule. The logical exten,
sion of this is that most players mishandle sudden,
death time controls. They will have made too few
moves with half, and with a quarter, of their "clock"
remaining.

¥ou ·wm �im� fp��il: la� feW:ei< gam�s in sudden · ·death
ttlu� �<>#�91� m�� mos� t)���r �l(lyers by·· u$iiig ·a .·moye
co�nler "n� i*ti*iig t(;> aitiere to a schedulei
Again, you are in simple Time Pressure when
you have, for any given number of moves completed,
only half the scheduled time left, and in extreme
Time Pressure when you have only one fifth the
scheduled time left. In the case we're discussing, if
after 45 moves you have only seven and a half min,
utes left, or less, you are in simple Time Pressure; if
42

Components of Chess Capability

you have three or less minutes left, you are in ex,
treme Time Pressure.
The move,time metric is of a different nature for
those time controls where mate must be achieved,
rather than that a certain number of moves need to
be completed. Figure 1 3 0 shows this metric, with its
zones of time,pressure, for a Game in 30 time con,
trol. For example, if a player with 5 minutes left has
completed 1 00 moves, he is above the heavy line and
playing ahead of schedule. If he's completed 85
moves, he's just on schedule. With 70 moves com,
Move-Time M etric for Action Chess (Game-30)

"C
CD
..
CD

Q.
E
0 1 00
()
"'
CD
>

0
E

,.._

0

...
CD
.c

E

::s
c

30
time (minutes) left in time control

11 extreme time pressure
simple time pressure
playing behi nd schedule but not in time pressure

Figure 13D
43

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

pleted he's behind schedule but not in time pressure;
with 40 moves completed he's in simple time pres,
sure; and with 1 5 or fewer moves completed he's in
extreme time pressure.
( iii)
Time Pressure in Blitz Chess.
In principle, time management in Blitz is very
similar to time management in Action Chess.
It simply is not true that Blitz Chess means that
you're in continuous time pressure. Such a statement
would rob us of the ability to differentiate, or cali,
brate, the seriousness of the time pressure.
You need to make 1 5 , 20, 25, 30, and 35 moves,
respectively, for the first, second, third, fourth, and
fifth minutes.
Now, how are you going to know how many
moves you've made up to some point in the game ?
The counter described in the previous section allows
you to keep track of the number of moves without
recording them on the score sheet.
Let's turn to our schedule for time management
for Blitz Chess. Your counter must show 1 5 moves
completed with four minutes to play, 35 with three
minutes to play, 60 with two minutes to play, 90 with
one minute to play, and 1 25 by the time your flag
falls. Again, a lot more moves than most players
make.
Figure 13E shows the move,time metric for Blitz
chess.
c.

Relative Time Pressure.

An important concept, as a possible alternative
to the general yardstick and introduction to the sub,
ject of Time Pressure, is "relative time pressure."
This is the time you have relative to your opponent,
regardless of the time you have left to make each
44

Components of Chess Capability

Move-Time Metric for Blitz (Game-5)

....

0

....

G>
.c

E

::::J
c:

time (minutes) left in time control

Ill extreme time pressure
II simple time pressure
playing behind schedule but not in time pressure

Figure 13E

move, or regardless of how many moves you must
still play. In a "40,in,one,hour" time control, you
may have four minutes left to make the last 1 0 moves,
while your opponent has only one minute. You are
obviously in good shape, timewise, relative to your
opponent. In tournaments, two very strong players
often are in time pressure, by the definition in this
book, where one player often relies on "relative Time
Pressure" as a yardstick.
More about relative Time Pressure in Part Ill.

d. Allocating extra time in critical positions.
The previous discussion should not imply that
each move should be made slavishly in the same
45

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

reflection time. Technically forced moves should be
made within a very short time - maybe a second or
so. On the other hand, more reflection time is needed
when making a move in a critical position.
What constitutes a critical position?
Any position where the next move has a much
greater effect on the outcome of the game than a
normal move is a critical position. Now, one can
debate that any move is critical, because any poorly
executed move can lead to defeat. True. But for
practical purposes, two categories of critical moves
suggest themselves. They are 1 ) moves involving the
making of a plan (as opposed to moves which are
really links in a chain of moves making up a plan ) ,
and 2 ) moves involving sacrifices, either contem,
plating your own, or deciding whether to accept your
opponent's sacrifice.
The plan referred to directly above could be the
transition plan, where one is planning the entry into
the middlegame, or a plan relative to entering an
endgame, or any other plan extending over more
moves than one normally contemplates while select,
ing a move.
The sacrifices referred to include both making a
sacrifice (either of position or material) or contem,
plating accepting a sacrifice from one's opponent
(sometimes a choice is available - you need not
accept the sac). Evaluating the soundness of a sac
typically takes longer than a normal move selection
because it usually needs to be evaluated further into
the future.
Extra time for critical positions should only be

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46

Discipline is one manifestation of personality. before giving in to the pawn move. or whatever the sub. Having time available for critical positions with. during analysis. Discipline also includes the steadfastness of listening with an open mind to a weaker player who has just won a game from us and is offering some thoughts in the postmortem. ject of study happens to be. Discipline is the follow. Here. discipline is the policeman. it turned out that the pawn move was not really necessary . It results in the "sticking to a schedule" for studying endings. Discipline. then.since that 47 . cated above.board game is the avoidance of weakening pawn moves. through for desire. discipline manifests itself by the degree to which you "hang tough. Strength is influenced by whether you "hang tough" during the game. Usually the force behind discipline is the desire to improve one's Strength. During a game.Components of Chess Capability taken when one is ahead of the time schedule advo. One can hang tough during a game. and be very accommodating during a postmortem . out getting into Time Pressure." A specific ex. again. is part of good time management (details in Part III ) . making sure one tries very hard. On-line toughness. 4. ample of good discipline during a cross. but I had just made it because I was exhausted by looking for other ways out of the diffi. cult position. trying every resource. and to what degree you do so. but later. I've found many times that a crisis seemed resolvable by making a pawn move.it was in fact weak. 5.

the less fatigue will compromise his level of play. The first one involves fatigue.profanities just helped him with that. . formerly on the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League. The degree of physical fitness has an effect on determining the onset of fatigue in the later hours of a game.Chess Master . I'm sure the remark rang true. The late Lyle Alzado. therefore. Of course. once re. . or a win in an apparently drawn one." the more likely he is to find an obscure resource to salvage a draw in a diffi. I believe that a more physically fit person will need somewhat less nightly sleep. guage "off the field. Most of us who are not grandmasters tend to play in touma. cult position. the more physically fit the player." Although meant to be entertaining. ments where more than one game is played in one day. The more determined a player is during a game. We'll return to this topic in Part III. Although I have not seen any articles on the subject. On the field. The second aspect involves longer waking hours. Physical fitness. fects on Strength. Physical fitness has two important indirect ef. Alzado recalled how he told that person that he would not tolerate that kind of lan. An increase in waking hours of half an hour (I think it's considerably more) 48 . so we must think of other props to keep hanging tough. he used every prop to bring on the adrenaline . At Any Age doesn't affect Strength. lated a humorous anecdote to Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show . the more he "hangs tough. In a sharp exchange with someone using profanities. we can't use profanities in a chess game. 6. Fatigue increases the likelihood of blunders.

I have discovered several of these abnormal preferences. I share the typical perception of fitness: one is physically fit if one's weight is at the desired level. which we will get to momentarily. is perhaps the most adamant among the world champions in terms of stating and personifying physical fitness. if one does some exercise on a regular basis . but the general level of stress encoun. I'm sure there are others. els directly as part of physical fitness. and therefore greater Strength. These preferences.Components of Chess Capability is possible. increas. The current World Champion.ups. ered. The stress we're talking about here is not the stress of the chess game. 7. Boris Spassky. 49 . a lower stress level allows fewer distractions. or hang. but others do. some of which I simply haven't discov. Gary Kasparov. which. ing Strength . on balance. Former World Champion Botvinnik was a model of fitness. Certain abnormal preferences. Although we'll not include stress lev. Another former World Champion. show up on the chessboard. and may be used for chess study. tered during the day. In studying my own games. better concentration on the game. detract from Strength.and one maintains reasonable eating habits.brisk walking being fine . He was shown playing tennis on the cover of Chess Life . similarly made a point of being fit. Let's look at a few of mine. There are probably some which I'm fortunate not to have. are undoubtedly caused by some personality trait. Personality influences.

I chose 1." or the cheapest piece. Qxf6. In studying the combination of Figure 1 4. etc. one takes a game between two strong players. selects one of the players as one's consultation partner. . Bc6 t Qxd4 3 . with the chess� board set up to that position.Chess Master ." Much better is 1 . e7 mate . and 50 . since it represents the smallest investment. I chose the original pawn capture in line with the "cheapest capture. one records and grades the move. exd7t. from The C omp le te B o o k of Chess S tratagems by Reinfeld. winning eventually after 1 . Bxd7t Kd8 2 . . . usually grandmasters.• Figure 14-White to move In Solitaire Chess. Put another way. I apparently have a subconscious preference for capturing with a pawn instead of a piece. This abnormal preference takes the form of cap� turing with the "piece of least value. Kd8 2. The most economical capture. dxc8=Qt Kxc8 3. After comparing the move selected with the move actually made. then covers up the score sheet and tries to determine the move made by his partner in the position. At Any Age a. as well as the opponent's reply. then makes the move on the board that was actually played by his partner in the game.

Nf3 ? ? is met with 2 .known that a Bishop pair on an open board is stronger than a pair of Knights. My "cheapest piece attack" idiosyncracy distracted me from the very simple 1 . considering positions which are some. Bc5 ! leaving Black help. fxe4 3 . also. c5 in accordance with the faulty "attack or capture with the cheapest piece. Here I was playing Solitaire. and. I was playing Solitaire. .Components of Chess Capability repeats the process. 51 . vinnik-Sorokin. Ne4 leads to 2 . guessing White's moves in Figure 1 5 . or a Bishop plus Knight. Bd5 t . USSR Championship. dxe4 Qe6 . Nxf3 ! .piece obsession. Figure 1 5-White to move b. The specific. Now 2 . . It is generally well." which would allow Black to complicate with 1 . that a Bishop is superior to a Knight. But I have the problem of inflating this difference. Moscow 1 93 1 . . and 2 . ." In Figure 1 6. attempting to emulate former World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik in Bot. I selected 1 . . what cluttered as "open board positions. . less.

Here 52 . Soon he finds that this is not sound because his Queen is easily harassed by minor pieces and pawns.Chess Master . . and thereby missing good op. emu. ening lB . namely 1 7. ing the Bishop for the Knight) . threat. . The ensuing caution can be overdone to the point of keeping the Queen out of harm's way to an excessive degree. with the Queen. In Figure 1 7. . I was again playing Solitaire. . Rd6 . Qxc4 . because of its great power and ease of handling. Black did not play 1 7 Nxc4 because of White's big space advantage after 1 8 . practically paralyzing Black. avoiding the exchange of Black's Knight for the white Bishop at c4. Moscow 1 953 ) . I call it the Wetzell Queen Paralysis. lating Botvinnik in Botvinnik-Taimanov ( Match for the USSR Championship. c. . not even looking at the move Botvinnik chose. Bb3. I selected that move in fear of losing the minor exchange ( los. At Any Age Figure 1 6-White to move Here I chose 1 7. Radl . There is a curious abnormal preference which I have. As it turned out. The beginner often uses his Queen in the open. portunities. and am struggling to eliminate. ing as a raiding piece. The Wetzell Queen Paralysis.

moves. So announcing mate is a form of showing off. Nowadays. it was common practice to announce a mate in five. . In the swashbuckling days of the 1 9th Century. Playing to impress the spectators. nent knows the mating procedure ) because it implies that one's opponent doesn't know what's going on." Figure 1 7-White to move d.Components of Chess Capability Botvinnik played 1 7. Let's first clarify what showing off is. is not showing off. so that Black couldn't play . Sacrificing the Queen is the correct 53 . never really looking at the Queen move. On the other hand. thinking erroneously (subconsciously) that "it wasn't time yet to bring the Queen out" and she was "safe at home. Qf3 . sacrificing one's Queen for a clear mate. ment tends to be distracting and somewhat belittling to the opponent (I would resign any position where mate is unavoidable. . and I'm convinced my oppo. Making an incorrect mate announce.side and safeguarding e4. to various degrees. this practice has largely disappeared. Rb l . instead of sacrificing a minor piece for an overwhelming position which one is sure to win. All of us like to show off now and again. concentrating his forces on the K. or even less. Nfe4 . My move choice was 1 7. and is not.

threatening to win the Knight. cxb) would. I thought. In Figure 1 8. Westford MA. . Bxc2 winning. . less flashy. . I'm not sure if I looked at 1 . Rel. This is showing off. . b4 t was a ShouUI. . . but I know I looked at 1 . with� out previously planning for this contingency. . then 2 . Ka4 Ral t and mate next. . Re3 t 3 . b4t 2 . 1 . is also very strong. . . Ka4 . . because after 2 . My overlooking 3 . . A. . . . . Black. . on the move. Rc8 . . when White is lost because if 2 . . allowing 3 . Ra8 t anyway and Black mates on the next move. would be left with two pieces hanging. Rc8 is simple. would be able to mate with 1 . . But sometimes we might select a move or sacri� fice which is flashy. since if 2 . 1 988. Ral t would have been met with 3 . . 54 . Ka5 (or 3 . Kb5) . . 2 . because after 2 . maybe not involving a sacrifice. and 2 . then 2 . which is also forcing and simple. b4 t was bad. .Chess Master . Nxb5 . Kxb4 ( after 1 . 1 . . b4t . Figure 1 8-Black to move I remember being enthralled with the sacrifice 1 . . . when a simpler procedure. also lead to mate after 2 . . Been . . Ka4 . Bb3 t 3 . 1 . . Kxb4 and Black. Ka4 Black luckily had 2 . . cxb . At Any Age move. Re5 t and 4 . Ra8 were it not for the Knight at c7. Ral t . Joel Johnson-Wetzell. Ka4 ( instead of 2 . .

It would appear that feeling that one can win every game should be an asset. mation). Playing to a predetermined result. Take 55 . is that the game usually does not proceed as one would like. ity and speed with which we can absorb new infor. not a liability. or "playing to a predetermined result. trate. and one I have been struggling with for a long time. Mental Clock Rate is the speed at which one can go through a chain of thoughts. 1. Feeling that one should be able to win every game.Components of Chess Capability Ral t) was caused by trying to show off. Example: Calculate 2 + 3. or move schedule) . Genetic factors. That tension is likely to result in a tension headache. Mental Clock Rate. Feeling that one "should be winning by now" produces ten. What tends to happen.affects our chess strength directly (during a game) and indirectly (by the clar.our genes . sion. It would appear fairly obvious that our genetic makeup ." is a common problem. And it all arose from the faulty premise that something should be true which isn't (being able to develop and accrue advantages based on some time schedule. It might be a simple arithmetic chain problem that can be done in one's head. however. e. heel to toe. E. I have simply identified two of the key genetic factors: mental clock rate and memory. which in turn directly influences one's game because it interferes with the ability to concen.

In pondering that. but be terrible at math. or six keystrokes per word. but something much less complex than that. At Any Age the result and multiply by 1 5 . Take the result and subtract 1 2 . For the purpose of explaining Mental Clock Rate. next to my ear. of about ten thoughts per second. ply by 1 3 . I wondered whether we humans can count the strokes. pretend that we're all equally good at math. Take the result and divide by 2. Take the result and multi. would correspond to six times 90. An average of five letters per word plus one space.not even a simple addition problem. surprisingly. either.or applying tricks or shortcuts. An expert typist can type 90 words per minute. there's a big risk of generaliz. It has nothing to do with how resourceful one is. I just happen to have. I've heard that we humans have a biological clock. or one tenth of a second per stroke. counting came to mind. roughly equal to ten per second. Take the result and subtract your age. Using the stopwatch timing mechanism to start and stop the watch.food restaurant during their quiet times. without of course being able to see the watch face. or 540 keystrokes a minute. Take the result and subtract 1 7 . What's the answer? As with all things. a mental clock. resulting in doing poorly in this exercise. ing unfairly. . type mechanical movement stopwatches that I have been using for running. If I started the 56 . I've been composing this material ( in handwritten form) in a fast.Chess Master . they must be the simplest thoughts . It would appear that if we can operate at ten thoughts per second. The stopwatch operates at ten beats per second. Let's clarify what Mental Clock Rate is not. It has nothing to do with how clever one is . A person might have a lightning fast brain. one of the older. .

I wondered.typically. It turned out that my errors were much greater in this experiment. but it indicates that events occurring at intervals of one tenth of a second can be counted by the human brain. started the stopwatch. In pursuing this line of reasoning. I tried a different experiment several times. of a forced tactical sequence.to five--count error in a hundred. and some of us have a higher Mental Clock Rate than others ( those with higher Mental Clock Rates could probably count stopwatch strokes of shorter intervals) . An example would be the analysis. typically. So in the original experiment.to five--stroke error shows that I was at the edge of my Mental Clock Rate. The fact that. I questioned whether I was counting at all. I was obviously counting. and then shut off the stopwatch. This was hardly a scientific test. or calculation. where I couldn't hear it ticking. often as much as ten to 1 5 strokes. or simply trying to guess when ten seconds were up. To make an attempt at being scientific. results came up close to ten seconds each time . So to prove that I was indeed counting. I suspect that if I tried to count 200 strokes of a stopwatch running at 1/20th--of--a--second intervals. it's more or less the same as if you had correspondingly more time and you both had the same Mental Clock Rate. there was a two-. or a three-. counted 1 00 strokes.Components of Chess Capability watch. I held the stopwatch under the table. We're all different. estimated ten sec-­ ands. and then stopped the watch. The impact o n Strength of a higher Mental Clock Rate is very plain. 57 . If you can figure out some-­ thing in ten seconds that your opponent takes 20 seconds to figure out. I would get hopelessly confused. within three to five tenths of a second. in a 40--moves--in--one--hour time control. would it read ten seconds ? I did it ! During several separate trials.

Boris Spassky nevertheless became World Champion. quential in nature. I 58 . Again. If you have a good memory. At Any Age a single string of moves. The time of calculation of this string of moves resembles somewhat the count. This to me is a strong reflection that their Mental Clock Rates are higher than those of the others. tunity to play on the "outside" of various simulta. To put the previous narrative in perspective." 2. including former World Champion Boris Spassky. Mental Clock Rate is important. The advantage of a good memory hardly needs elaboration. than a player with an average memory. masters I've had an opportunity to play. ing of stopwatch strokes. During the 1 960s and 1 970s I've had the oppor. neous exhibitions by grandmasters. On the other side of the coin. For example. and possibly the continuation. . a former World Champion. . but certainly not the "total truth. I would venture that Fischer played ( in a simultaneous) at least one and a half times as fast as the others. I think that Mental Clock Rate is a powerful factor in Strength. with a Mental Clock Rate substantially less than Fischer's ( in my opinion) . I sadly never took the opportunity to see or play against the late Mikhail Tal. You're more likely to remember certain opening motifs. it's impor. so this statement does not have any general significance. and what struck me was that Bobby Fischer and Walter Browne played very much faster than any of the other grand. Memory. because they are both se. tant to say that there were only a few grandmasters that I did play against. as well as specific moves.Chess Master . in a simultaneous exhibition. you're more likely to recall a similar position in a game.

ite Strength. Particularly. We know there is a certain overlap between components. so one simply adds them up and divides by five. of the weakest of the five components. mately equal in impact on Strength. we'll learn how Flash Cards are tied in to this subject. The important upshot is simply this: your overall rating. since I believe they're approxi." for each of the five major components. You would have a rating. and is equal to the lowest level "A" plus one third of the difference between "B" and "A . the average means the same as if one had the scores for five bowling games. age that "the winner is the player who didn't make the last mistake. your overall Strength. Imagine that a set of tests was devised which would allow you to partition your game. " 59 . like the notion that a chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Some ideas are offered in Part III. but that doesn't invalidate the idea to be presented. In Figure 1 9. this concept parallels the ad. "C" is my idea of the composite rating. is more closely linked to the weakest of these components than to the average of them. and "B" is the average. F. one for each of the five components of Strength. vided the horizontal space into five segments. "A" is the level. To a large degree.Components of Chess Capability haven't dealt seriously with memory and its possible improvement. Let's quantify somewhat this concept of compos. The composite evaluation of Strength. or "component strength. We've assigned them identical weighting. or rating. we have arbitrarily di. Here. in the form of horizontal distance." or that chess games are lost and not won.

ing one of the other four Figure 19 components only improves the composite one point for every 1 5 points ( 1 5 points' improvement in one component will improve the average by three points." According to this com.Chess Master .. ) . jected to any rigid scientific tests. and improving the aver. 60 . to.one basis. i. est.. posite "C" is considerably lower than the average "B. it pays handsomely to try to establish which of the 0 five components is our weak. ite by one point based on our model) . or possibly a half ( instead of a third) . and then improve on that. ter. change the compos. while improv. We'll return to this topic in Part III. age by three points will. then. where we'll talk about taking advantage of this phenomenon to improve your game. in turn. and has not been sub. At Any Age The composite Strength shown in Figure 1 9 is my theoretical evaluation. . It is quite possible that the true value of "C" might be closer to a quar. of the difference between "B" and "A" above the floor "A. since that raises the Components of Strength composite on an almost one." but I feel strongly that this com. posite S trength evaluation.

Playing Solitaire. with or without a clock ( at any time limit) . It is one of the key methods advocated by strong players toward better chess. a form of a simulated chess game described earlier. . This section deals with the typical activities pur. 1. the filtering of chess inputs. Playing chess.CHAPTER TWO C H E S S I N PUTS AND TH E I R F I LT E RI N G This chapter and the next shed more light on the three main blocks in Figure 2. namely chess inputs. and a model of chess strength. The effect of playing on Strength will be taken up in Chapter 4. A. It will therefore impact Strength. Chess inputs. We'll consider any "direct contact" chess as play.Images . where we'll model Strength. against a human opponent or a program (some call this playing against a computer) . studying. ing. Playing chess will almost certainly impact posi. We'll group chess experience into three categories: play. So playing can be rated or unrated. and Move selection Method. APROP. ing. I do consider as playing. and other experience. tively the first three components of chess capability . sued by chessplayers to improve their game.

Chess Master . the most efficient or optimal study. and so on. A discussion of the game just completed . more specifically. 62 . Generally. all other things being equal. opening pam. Getting lessons from a stronger player is very effective. you may increase the number of your Images and thereby become stronger. . a certain level of study. ing middlegame texts. No one would quarrel with the assertion that. While you're reading this. reading and working through a text is study. Let us define study as all focused chess activity other than playing a game. Reviewing one's own recent game is studying. tions and improve your APROP and Move selection Method. We'll establish in Part III that study. measured in hours per week. you may be wondering if studying can result in various levels of improve. the person who studies more will become the stronger chessplayer. phlets. will deal with this question. To me. By studying.is studying. Or you may learn to improve your Move selection Method by other techniques. methods of defense. the Informant. even discussing some philosophical points with another chessplayer is a form of study. . if you can afford these lessons. such as study. Going leisurely over a grandmaster game is study. Of course. will result in an improvement in Strength of some amount. Studying. ing. on modeling chess strength. ing. ment depending on how it is directed. At Any Age 2. So studying can take various forms. is a key factor in improving or maintaining Strength. as long as it's focused. The next chapter.a postmortem . or. or you may study combina.

that re. And so it is in chess. quire organization. at least slightly. or even writing a letter or drafting a presentation. When we do things that require thought. these other inputs have a far less intense. ate. As we'll discuss in our model in the next chapter. In the event that you don't intend to remember it. Attitude is a factor in this filtering process. line toughness. Filtering chess inputs.to. or immedi. time management and on. The other attitude fac. you may choose to try to remember this fact. we see that chess inputs are filtered before they are incorporated into our body of chess Strength. tors. Other inputs. physical fitness. impact than the direct inputs playing and studying. hance. as well as being indirect Compo. whether we are trying to solve a problem in day. which will en. Many mental activities that we engage in do indirectly affect our chess Strength.Chess Inputs and Their Filtering 3. 1. Attitude factors. j ectivity. you probably will not.day affairs. the Move selection Method. When we bal. particularly if we do it without a calculator. that require logic. are not really pertinent as filters to chess inputs . very similar considerations are in effect as were in the previous chapter on chess Strength . Qb. If someone mentions the capital of a state that you had forgotten. and personality influences operate as filters. Referring again to Figure 2. nents of Chess Capability. ance our checkbook. - B. 63 . we are sharpening our mental processes. we are sharpening our mental faculties. Here.

please refer to the previous chapter. . At Any Age 2.Chess Master . factors that facilitate or hinder the rapid acquisition of knowledge from chess inputs . again. 64 . . Mental clock rate and memory are. Genetic factors. For a description of these.

Model for Chess Strength Fig. with a scale on one side. There is a relatively simple model which should help us gain a perspective as to how some of the Components of Chess Capability interact. 20 Let's say you're playing a chess game at 40 moves per hour. See Figure 20.CHAPTERTHREE A MO D E L O F C H E S S STRE NGTH A. 1. up to some level but not full. Visualize a large vase made of glass. widening more rapidly than an ice cream cone. as you'd find on a measuring cup. You are entitled to pour a unit of this . narrow at the bottom. The liquid for the vase. Basic structure. The vase has liquid in it. You've probably already guessed that the level of the liquid in the vase is a measure of Strength . that gets wider as you go up.

of it evaporates in a week. For the heavy liquid. rated 1 600. . The assertion above reflects the view that. whereas one hour of dili. entitling you to add one and a half units of liquid into the vase. except that it takes ten years for half of it to evaporate. gent study is worth two units . only half of a half. Our typical player. after four months. should you be interested. hour for hour. . as long as some serious playing is kept as part of the player's regimen. One hour of serious play at 40 moves per hour is worth one unit of liquid. and that more than half of the water is going to evaporate in ten years. we can pretend that these liquids evaporate the way we just described. where the two ingredients of the mixture always stay mixed. or one quarter. some of which is a heavy liquid.Chess Master . At Any Age special liquid (think of it as the amount in a coffee "creamer" served in a restaurant) into the vase for every hour your game lasts. what is the liquid ? Imagine that the liquid is a prepared mixture. will play one game 66 . The light liquid has the property that approximately half of it evaporates within two months. We'll base things on a 1 600 rating. Now. of this liquid would be left. 8 percent of whatever amount of it exists at the moment evaporates in a week. It might be helpful to think of the light liquid as alcohol and the heavy liquid as water. if no new liquid were added. where. pendix IV. and the rest a light liquid. For the light liquid. typically. a game with this type of time limit will last an hour and a half. one 750th. studying does more to improve our chess than playing. Even though we know that more than half the alcohol is going to evaporate within two months. So. or 1/750. The heavy liquid behaves similarly. Calculations are given in Ap.

Features of the vase. He will also study half an hour a week. 7 5 units of liquid to his vase every week. This typical player. perhaps. In the previous segment. Now.A Model of Chess Strength at 40 moves/hour every other week. and a level of liquid corresponding to Strength . We'll see that.for this keeps his logical and arithmetic abilities exercised by exposure and interaction with other people. even by balancing his check� book . and so on. namely 98 percent. is light liquid. then. gets to add 2. Changes in attitude. But a person is not necessarily stuck with a par� ticular vase all his life. through one method or another. even though everyone's vase possesses the feature of the previous paragraph. A gifted player would have a vase thinner than the average. It is worth noting that almost all of the liquid earned for the week. so that a given amount of liquid would correspond to a higher rating than his neighbor has. we introduced the con� cept of a vase with a scale on its side. The development of this number is also given in Appendix IV. and he will absorb. The vase is always flanged in such a way that an amount of liquid equal to the liquid already in the vase must be added to increase Strength by 1 00 rating points. 2. for any given vase. the equivalent of another half hour of study just by exposure to the world . and. some of the suggestions in this book may help change the shape of the vase. progress significantly beyond 1 00 rating points is difficult to accomplish. an interesting feature about the vase is that every chessplayer's vase is slightly different.by thinking about chess. We are stuck with the "vase we're born with" unless we explore 67 .

and. forced every game you play. e6 is to support the planned contest in the center . So they stick to the ribs. you would remember how the pieces move 350 years from now. examples of durable Images might be "how the pieces move" . . The rust factor. as a matter of fact.pawn vs. In chess. Another might be the winning procedure of King. He's lost some Images . which will cor. Examples of durable Images in your everyday life are such things as the year of your birth. you have seen this. it's reinforced with every thought about any chess position. in chess (as in day. Again. ages .day life ) . . Let's review two types of Images . e4 e6 2 . he has forgotten some knowledge. where you have repeatedly seen this or explained it to someone.to. every move you make. and so forth.this one is rein. 68 . repeatedly. B. lone King. where some of these ways are pointed out in Part III. d4 . . the move 2 d5 is probably a quality Image for you because you know that a major reason behind 1 . Should you live to be 400 years old without ever seeing another chessboard. . forking King and Rook (where King is at e8 and Rook at a8) . They are durable because they have been repeatedly reinforced. and thought of it. There is another important category. An. the fact that 6 x 7 is 42. There are durable Images and light Images .Chess Master . . but new ways of looking at the game. quality Im. other might be the idea Nc7t . . where a fact or procedure is linked logically to other things you know. When someone hasn't played for a while and feels rusty. relate to the two different evaporation rates already discussed. after 1 . In the French Defense. At Any Age not just new openings and tactical tricks. for example.

Eventually. or knowledge. after many years ( a quarter. reached a certain Strength plateau (and therewith a certain rating) . . Each time he plays. unless they are reinforced. The moves you memorize in an opening manual (without going back over them occasionally) . Accomplishing this is as useful for Strength as adding a certain number of units of liquid. Appendix IV develops this rating. It is. as well as constructing a "rating track" for this player. tween everything learned and everything forgotten. ing. since total knowledge is the difference be.century) . . Unfortunately. He's played a number of years. For the reader interested in the details. and stops studying. one unit of liquid is 69 . he will stabilize at a rating strength in the vicinity of 1 4 1 5 . into the vase every week. to a half. What happens if the player with the 1 600 Strength just stops his chess activity? He stops play.A Model of Chess Strength with 2 dS . forgetting things is part of the human condition. are likely examples of light Images things you are likely to forget. - C. and plays one serious game every other week in a club. Let's say the game is at 40 moves per hour. there is liquid to a certain level in the vase. Let's use the typical player from the last section for our discussion. In Part III we'll see that there are ways to slow this process down. neuver that someone executed and is now showing you. in my view. . the evaporation of the two differ. ent liquids reflects this process. In our model. The effect of additional games. Now for light Images . According to our model of Figure 20. unimportant whether that game is rated or not. or a complicated endgame ma. corresponding to his Strength .

or equilibrium. Now let's say he gets more interested and starts to play in two different clubs.rating. It is important to note that. As far as our model is concerned. The pieces and board become clearer.Chess Master . D. ened. Effect of a tournament. the steady.earned as described in Section B . The player rated 1 600. The only way it can rise further is if we can add more than 2 . increasing his chess expo. technically speaking. 7 5 units is added weekly. the level of the liquid will eventually stabilize.state. If you play in a tournament . Here again.5 hours/game x 1 unit/hour) . day evening at a different club. .say it's the four. and we've learned that a total of 2. the calculations are provided in Appendix IV for the interested reader. We have reached. sure from half a game a week to one and a half games a week. 7 5 units of liquid each week to the vase.your chess awareness increases. The liquid is evaporating (both the light and the heavy liquid) at such a rate that the 2. player is adding 2. crease.point in. the sluggishness in analyzing a variation disappears. will eventually obtain a 63 . 7 5 units of liquid each week . . and your senses become sharp. you can see combinations better. one game every other Tuesday evening (his original schedule of a game every other week) and one game each week on Fri. At Any Age added into the vase for each hour of play (for this player rated 1 600 ) . This improvement is best described by the 70 . even if our chess.just replenishes the amount of evaporated liquid for that week. day World Open .game tournament in one day. 75 units per week. he is entitled to add six units of liquid to the vase (4 games x 1 . If a player rated at 1 600 plays a four. a tournament is equivalent to several individual games.

5 x . You can now un-­ derstand the model with the two types of liquids. some "heavy stuff' sticks to the ribs. half is gone in two months. on the other hand. one-­ of liquid. evaporat-­ ing quickly.33 per-­ cent. and all but about one sixty--fourth ( . day tournament with an average --������-' 71 . is light liquid . This fingerspitzengefuehl is the "Chinese din-­ ner" part of the tournament. you may lose that game. Strength increases about two rating points per hour of play in a serious tournament (one hour of play is one unit on a base of 7 5 units of liquid.9-­ e tn e vase point rat ing increase in corresponds to 7 5 units Strength) .5 x . in a postmortem. find out that you succumbed unneces-­ sarily to some weakening pawn moves. Most of the value of the game." On the dark side. regardless of whether it's part of a tournament.5 x . vary from person to person and are my own esti-­ mates. If you make it a point to remember this.our model uses 98 percent. or an increase of liquid of 1 . corresponding to a 1 .5 x . I n a four--game. three quarters within four months. of course. and. At the 1 600--rating level. In each game. or the crossover from class C to class B.5 ) has evaporated within a year. or tournament. translated somewhat clumsily into "awareness at the fingertips. then this newly acquired knowledge becomes the new "heavy liquid" portion of the unit of liquid added to the vase.A Model of Chess Strength German fingerspitzengefuehl . nothing new really strikes you. you will probably agree that this chess awareness recedes again in the weeks and months following the tournament. Of this major portion. the part that doesn't stick to the ribs.5 x . If you're unfortunate. These figures.

tion that no one activity. At Any Age participation of one and a half hours per game (for a 40.per. prove APROP. this B/C player's Strength will increase by about 1 1 points. or a total of six hours of play. new motifs. ents. corresponding to the heavy liquid in our model. But after the tournament. During a tournament. while a small percentage of the Images becomes long.hour time control) . but there is always a limit. j ust as a rising tide raises the level of all boats in the harbor. say the following week. or method. It will im. corresponding to the light liquid in our model.Chess Master . on average. for a player rated 1 600) will result eventually in about a 63 point rating improvement.moves. A player who has plateaued at a Strength of 1 600 72 . we can determine that increas. because we normally absorb at least some of the analysis given in the chess material we're looking at. tion Images . Any one of these things can generate a rating im. . All will have increased chess awareness and strength. Studying will increase various Strength ingredi. work to any player's advantage. during the tournament. So this increased strength will not. all players benefit from the heavy chess engagement. Most studying develops short.dura. Effect of additional studying. as far as rating points are concerned. can result in an annual improvement. E. One final point. It should not escape our atten. year after year. provement. . the player who participated in the tournament will have a benefit relative to his club members. because we'll assimilate new ideas. ing play by one game a week (again. From our model.duration Images . It will increase the number of Images . or idea.

It is important to note that these allega. His Strength. to be sure. plus a slight improvement in APROP each week. then. will eventually reach a Strength of 1 700.point increase. or "forgetting process" in one week. and then starts to study diligently an additional hour and a half per week while maintaining his playing sched. tions are for typical players. ule. For a 200. comparable to an increase of 1 00 rat. therefore roughly doubling the total chess input for this 1 600. His Strength is always trying to settle back to 1 600. 7 5 with the difference of 8. ing the total weekly chess input into the vase from 2. from 2.approximately doubling it would eventually represent an approximate doubling in knowledge.2. He must therefore study four additional hours ( 1 1 . this additional studying of an hour and a half per week represents an additional three units of liquid. lated to such a degree that the total evaporation of the liquid. the increase in Images and APROP will have accumu. the total weekly chess input has to be 44 units.rated player. There are exceptions. Eventually." and a half hour of study a week. say a year or two later. By our model. he has to study three times as much.75 . ing points) . For him to eventually reach 2000. 7 5 to 1 1 units a week.A Model of Chess Strength after some years of playing and studying. rating. corresponding approximately to 2 1 hours of study a week.25 divided by two units per hour of study) to achieve this goal. For this same player to reach 1 800 by studying. in addition to the normal regimen of playing "half a game a week. The studying will develop a certain number of new Images . the total weekly input has to quadruple.75 units to 5 . will equal the new material gained by study during each week. will level off at the new level of 1 700 (we have explained earlier that chang. If you think of our model as having 75 units of 73 .

It is my idea of the median improvement of a large number of players. and so on. The table below shows the impact of studying on Strength. 3 hou rs 1 2 hours 26 hou rs 1 . and plays on and off for some number of years at some level of study. Second. it would have 1 50 units for a Strength of 1 700. There are several important features about the table. ter Andy Soltis refers to as your final plateau after about eight years of serious play in his article in Chess Life . 600 units for a Strength of 1 900. The actual improvement in Strength that a player will achieve depends on the type of material he is studying. For every 1 00 points. At Any Age liquid at 1 600." points +200 points +300 points +400 points + 1 00 IMPACT OF STUDYING ON STRENGTH The table is not a rigid. infallible evaluation of studying. the seriousness of the study. hou rs 5 . We'll return to this in Part III. and many other factors. notice in the table that the typical player must increase his study time geometrically for each increment in rating strength. Additional study time beyond "normal study during baseline period" for player with 1 600 Strength. First.Chess Master . 300 units for a Strength of 1 800. 75 per week per week per week per week Eventual Strength relative to "baseline Strength. the typical player must 74 . It is this plateau that is meant as a reference in the table. January 1 986. imagine that a player starts playing chess. or plateau. . . He typically reaches a level. This is also the plateau that Grandmas.

tional 1 00 points for every additional three hours of study per week. the correct number might be one and three. This is the "law of diminishing returns" at work.A Model of Chess Strength increase his study time by about a factor of two. ingly. Here again. And here is the essence of this book. or even five hours per week. and your Strength has increased accord. you must continue studying. As a typical player. But if you absorb and put into practice the ideas in this book. you will do better than the table! The third point is that once you are studying at some level. The average player simply will not improve an addi. or possibly two and a half times as much. your Strength will eventually drift back near the original plateau. to maintain your new Strength. If you stop studying. but at a level less than you were studying to reach your elevated Strength. But the geo. metric increase is the rule rather than the exception. you very likely will be held to the table above . although that may take some number of years. quarter times as much study for each 1 00 points. 75 .

so that this framework became the true distilled wisdom . The biggest bang for the buck. Thousands of games are of no avail if we don't distill this experience.the Abil. We'll establish the most fertile ground for du.but without the distillation . .PART T H RE E IMP ROVIN G YOUR C H E S S STRENGTH If experience were the true road to wisdom. and the stones at Piccadilly Circus. We'll learn about Images .thus making them the oracles of the modern world.and we'll learn about becoming aware of APROP. rable Images . Gandhi. Lincoln. and hammered it into a coherent framework.have really no wisdom. and others. is what Part III is all about. of course . even if they "could talk.Shakespeare. and that there are struc.have sorted out their experience. having the greatest experience by having been trod upon for centuries . English quotation The quote above tells us that people who have really had something to say . Any. the biggest boost to your Strength per hour of study or play. one can have experience. ity to PROject Positions . sifted the wheat from the chaff. then the stones at Piccadilly Circus would be the oracles of the modern world. We'll learn how to improve APROP . Showing you how to get the most benefit." And so it is with chess.

To me. By the way. then he's going to improve. I can't visualize anyone disagreeing with the gen� eral statement that play� ing more will improve one's game. The real issue. how should we employ it to most improve our Strength? One thing learned in Chapter 1 is that an im� 77 . and the endgame. is: If we're going to spend any Botvinnik time on the game. ten. the middle game. be it one. We'll learn about the considerable influence that Attitude has on S trength . I have heard senior masters advise people that if they want to become better. as explained in Part II. is part of Attitude . and what to do about them. which is a heavy contributor to Strength. there is no information and no value in that statement. you are really in luck if you give the method in this book a fair shake. We'll learn how to improve using these concepts rather than some specific process dealing with the openings. I believe this method is the only one that really works. Proper time management. or even 50 hours a week. We'll learn about improving our Move selection Method. and therefore the avoidance of time pressure. If one learns the least little bit from playing. they must play more. and how to recognize these influences. and one we'll address. who advocate different approaches.Improving Your Chess Strength tured ways of improving it. If you are among the chessplayers with a time pressure problem. with all due respect to former World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik. as well as others.

. nents of chess Strength carries a far greater value in improving our composite Strength than improving any of the others. with getting to the heart of improving your game. you would be well advised to work on that component. Let's get on with it. even though it probably is the least palatable. .Chess Master . At Any Age provement in the weakest of the five major compo. 78 . If you are fortunate enough to know which is your weakest.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge Have you ever lost two games the same way? For a period of about 1 5 years I played Blitz Chess with a talented but relatively untrained player. which shines only on the waves behind us . Now. occasionally chose other. he could learn only from his cross.the two Rooks connected on the seventh. Since my opponent very rarely took time to ana. he never caught on. can elude an intel.board exposure. The method to be described is designed to find . and the light which experience gives is a lantern on the stern . lyze these short games." Over the years.maybe only about one percent of all the games I won. ligent person for decades. ten games a week for over 7 . less strong continuations when he should have pressed to get "wild pigs. but the point is that with all the additional games he lost. the rank of the opponent's pawns.CHAPTER FOUR I N C REAS ING THE NUMB E R O F IMAGE S If we could learn from history .000 games. and he. It turned out he undervalued "wild pigs" on the seventh rank . I must have won many games in this manner . he recognized that wild pigs were strong. even when repeated. We averaged. A subtle point. on the other side. what lessons it might teach us! But passion and party blind our eyes . I would obtain "wild pigs" more often than I deserved. but insufficiently so. during our lunch hours and after work.

the objective is to turn as many of the Images learned into durable Images as possible. " which are Images linked logically to something else. We'll describe the "conversion process" of turning light images into durable Images shortly. .pawn vs. by doing both things. liquid gets mentally added. or slowing. Then. In this chapter we'll establish that the best source of Images is our own games. and we can work at retarding. Each time you play a game. where the level of the liquid is your Strength. while the process of forgetting manifests itself as the evaporation of liquid. We talked about a model. We can learn new motifs. minus all the ones forgotten . or the test method of Solitaire. and better yet. with the remainder now rapidly acces . with as high a fraction of these being quality Images as pos. An example is the procedure for winning King. In Part II. thing. be they cross. or learn some.Chess Master . At Any Age and capture new ideas such as this. postal games. so that years. 80 . the process of forgetting the things we already know. sible. a vase with a mixture of liquid in it. It's a quality Image because it is logical and consistent.board games. Let's recall the notion of "quality Images . sible . do not have to go by before one stumbles on them. lone King when you have the opposition.and. we established that Images is short for "the group of all rapidly accessible mental chess pie. A logical extension of this description is the idea that Images are actually the remainder of a subtraction process. . We can maximize our increase in Images in the long run by learning as many new Images as possible. tures" that one possesses. We can increase Images in one of two ways. "Images" is the group of all useful chess concepts and pictures learned since birth . raising the level. or possibly decades.

and become convinced that he is right. and finding a new motif is like finding a j ewel in this hidden treasure. based of course on your knowledge of opening theory. We'll talk about Flash Cards. perhaps a master1 looks at the game with you. We'll talk about the periodic review of these cards as our method for slowing the rate of evaporation.I didn't realize that! " It almost has to jar you. in club games. Let's explore where we would get some new ideas. You stop and analyze the position. Getting new ideas. in Solitaire Chess. slowing the process of forgetting. how they are constructed. in postal games. We'll assume you recently played a tournament game at a relatively slow time limit.in tournament games. You say to your. A.when you examine them critically afterwards . Studying your own games. and in your study of problems . but each of your games is a hidden treasure. 1. You will also discover new ideas when you go through tutorial material such as an endgame book. lections under test . a stronger player. "Wow .Increasing the Number of Images It may be hard to believe. forever. or better yet. 81 . and finds one where he feels you should have made a totally different move based on an entirely different idea. A chess buddy. and so on. Presumably you made move selections thoughtfully during the game. or an opening book. A new idea is one you run across where you say to yourself. You will discover new ideas from your move se. you analyze the game. what they are. and questions some of your moves. Later. these j ewels. and that they are vehicles for capturing these motifs.

a master and higher. but that you convince yourself of it. Qb4 R8c8 35. No one is suggesting that you j ust cave in to the stronger player's suggestion. •. and rapidly got into trouble after some weak moves: 2 7 Rhf8 28. I hadn't thought of that.• Figure 2 1-White to move I played 2 7. or off.rated player than I. and no way was I going to let my attack be broken with the exchange of Queens. Wetzell-Allan Bennett. I should have con. 1 98 7 . and I resigned shortly. Rd2 Qe3 t. at home. In our postmortem.in real time. ab ch 32. My attack had forced him on the defensive. Allan Bennett. my opponent. At Any Age self "I never thought of that!" That is an example of a new idea. Westford MA. maybe right there . Ra2 Qd3 36. Qc3 Rc7 34. reaching the diagrammed position. pressing on with the attack. a5 R7f7 30. . ••• 82 .Chess Master . I reasoned that I was on the attack. pointed out that I should have considered exchanging Queens on my 27th move because of my very considerable endgame advantage. b5 Rd7 29. and upon his offering the exchange of Queens.-h5 . offering the exchange of Queens. Ra3 g5 3 1. . An example of this is Figure 2 1 . £3 . White had been on the attack when Black played 26 Qg6.line. Qd3 Qh7 33.

So now I had a new Image . bS ._ example . So this new Image is a quality Image because its essence. and Kg3 . but less clear a winning plan than we thought during the postmortem.. .· lookout ·• to> <!onvert a · the lookout to convert a dynan. 27. . the real issue here is not whether 27.mu$� 9�D. Recent further analysis by another master con. is a good move. I did. We have already introduced the idea of quality Images being logically linked with something else you already know.. The new idea was that One .__ 83 . White will eventually play f3 (with the idea of Kf2 .. nent advantage. ing. f3 . cS . play might have contin....up. Rae l Kb7 29 . rior to 27.w�rMan¢nt: . I never looked at 2 7. Here the superior pawn structure becomes more important in the endgame than it was in the middlegame with Queens still on the board. Did I know that before the game ? Yes.pawn) . and probably infe. However. Qxh5 ! After 27.to a perma. forestalling Black's .__.Increasing the Number of Images sidered this exchange. . pawn. g4 .tag¢ • •• ••• to a dynamic advantage . eludes that White's exchange of Queens. White will probably win the h. Qxh5 Rxh5 . since that thought did not rise to a conscious level as a useful resource during the game. artificially isolating. ued 28 .$�£itly b� C>n one must constantly be on the · . for . and then attack..the a���itijge• initiative of the attack.. Qxh5 . Was it an Image ? Apparently not. with the idea of taking a different tack of infiltration with the Rooks. Black's h. when this pawn move is used with the correct follow. when accurate play will give him good winning chances.k ��vaD. __________________________ .. but the fact that I didn't even consider it.. Qxh5 is the best move. namely that one should always be on the lookout to convert a dynamic advantage into a per.

The postal game. and has nothing intrinsic to do with being ei. Quality Image refers to a logical context. the study of the combination positions in each Informant . A new quality Image a•. as well as Solitaire Chess. ther durable or light (short. worth several typical Images that you pick up by studying a text or opening manual." with the intention of finding key flaws. . with repeated application. tion for the critical review of any chess activity in which we are under test. Why study your own games ? I feel strongly that studying your own games is the most worthwhile way to spend "the first half of your study time. They need "less revisiting" to stay as Images . ------ a. or a personality quirk. durable llll�ge wi�lj r�­ becomes a durable Image peated applic•tion. ages are logical ideas. the nine. less likely to be forgotten. We'll address shortly the notion of converting the new quality Image into a durable Image . One more thing about quality Images .�� . Rated cross. At Any Age manent advantage. Here's why: a flaw in reasoning. they are easier to retain. -----.board games or tournament games immediately come to mind.Normally. all fall under this category.all descrip. any quiz such as Larry Evans's What's the Best Move? (currently out of print) . Piti�s lived) . qualitv·· •Iroage. since quality Im. diagram quiz near the beginning of each Chess Life magazine. is a quality Image . •. is a logical idea. Studying our own games is a catch. Think of it this way: if two players are alike in all 84 . or the reason behind a blunder in a game. .Chess Master . A . when properly identified and assimilated.

I don't know how to win King. I know that being a pawn up in a King. eS t Ke6 5 . realizing the fruits of the last two points made. Let's examine this claim. So I play 1 . and knew how to play the King and pawn. Kd4 Kd6 4 . I would realize •• 85 . But after 1 . Play might continue 2 . Black draws. where one plays only rated games and does no studying. e7t Ke8 and White must either abandon the pawn or stalemate Black with Ke6 . Kf5 Kf7 7 . ciple of the opposition.vsAone King ending.and. because White doesn't have the opposition. Ke4 Ke7 6 . while the other plays a similar number of rated games each month but studies his games. lone King. Figure 22-White to move Say I'm White on the move in Figure 22. and I also know that with a pair of Rooks on the board. e4 (White cannot improve his position with any King moves) Ke6 3 . the first player would take about five to seven times as long to improve the same increment in Strength. Ke5 Ke8 9 . For the sake of discussion. and. Kd6 Kd8 1 0 .pawn vs. and I'm not familiar with the opposition. Rxe5 . Let's now imagine that I understood the prin. the game can become very complicated. e6t Ke7 8 . and particularly with pawns on only one side.Increasing the Number of Images respects.pawn ending is a big advantage. Kxe5.

cal match should be a win for me based on this won King. Kxe4 secures the opposition for White. Now 2. but most of all. would now give me a score of 25. . if I won. Ke5 Kd7 5 .pawn ending without prior knowledge is very difficult to develop over the board. the lack of knowledge resulted in a draw where a win was possible . I might now reply: "Big deal! If I don't recognize this. This lack of knowledge will cost me half a point maybe once each 50 games. in this case.Chess Master . which will be exploited against me time and again.5. Kd7. e4 Ke8 8. and he can win. I draw this 50th game for a total score of 24. I would presumably repeat this performance match after match. e5 Kd8 9. Kd4. I would probably find 1 . This arithmetic comes about most sim. it costs me seven rating points. or 49 percent. even without study. ing 49 percent instead of 50 percent. The 50th game of a hypotheti. Ke6 Kd8 7.and. Kf7 and Black queens the pawn and wins. j ust matching my equal.pawn ending. At Any Age that the game would be drawn if I played 1 . before giving up the draw. So. ••• •. Play might continue 2 Kd6 3 . Kf6) 4. The points are these: the determination of the result of a King. each time scor. corresponding to seven rating points.therefore giving up half a point unnecessarily. which. since I don't understand this endgame. then 4 . But.• . Rxe5 . . I should search for a continuation that might result in a win." 86 . strength opponent. I will eventually learn it after it happens half a dozen times. since any other move would lose the Rook. this lack of knowledge is like a soft underbelly. Kf5 Ke 7 ( if 3 . Kf6 Ke8 6. an Achilles heel. .and. after which Black must play 1 Rxe4. which will ultimately give me a rating seven points below my opponent's. ply with an example.

will g�lll�. and should be done only if you are also spending time studying your own games.. is 76 ) .-----. You might now ask the games critically. ing other material. than if you Just picked pected winning percentage up your pieces. how will you know which Images will be the high. if you master.i: improve your strength by 30 .. but less produc.__ Images times seven rating points each. But without carefully studying your own games.to. class is 200 points... or the youJ: ap. but probably more than seven.Increasing the Number of Images Think about this: where else can I earn seven permanent rating points as easily as learning a King and pawn.versus.lone King ending? Yes.ent in · Strength will sistently about three out of be ·several times greater four games (the actual ex. ''lookit'lg'' at the down 3 0 quality Images . such as this hole in my . which.. after being exposed to it a number of times.." which is good... m. with. . . for a total of about 200 rating points ? The difficulty with this plan is that you need to find 30 Images . knowledge about King and B y s tudyi ng yo ur pawn.nual improve­ equivalent of winning con. I will pick this up by osmosis.. _ .___.. Therefore I need to play about half a dozen games. which.vsAone King. with� question: since one rating out any other studying.. or convert a draw into a win once every 50 games.. will each save you half a point once every 50 games.quality ones.. the ones converting a draw to a win every 50 games ? But studying a text to absorb some number of Images which would be the equivalent of 30 quality Images is exactly the activity described under "study. when mastered. tive than studying your own games. why not j ust write out.one for a player who studies his games and finds the flaws.. ________ 87 .

own .. and so on. At Any Age 2. Hooper's Practical nio s. or some study ti. ga. Some people wouldn't even remember reading the article. .mes. ..me analyzing pamphlet. such as Kotov's Identify a'. In Think Like a Grandmaster. citing at one point the immense importance of controlling a ·... Studying other material. . The exclusion of any other work or book from this list is not meant negatively .. These texts represent excellent resources for the area of their individual concentrations. The Ideas Behind the Openings . 88 _. f p rOdl._. say about a flood somewhere.. ing line in Modern Chess Open-­ ings .. The character of this type of studying is that one gets exposed to new material at a much higher rate than can be assimilated in a way that is recallable it's hard to turn into durable Images . few people would remember the details about the flood . or the Informant's Encyclo-Spend haJf yojit pedia of Chess Openings ...Chess Master .. ·.. In a way it is like reading a newspaper article. or Fine's ..rather that this list is a subset of books to which I have been exposed that I feel have ben-­ efited me most. the level of water above normal. But in chess it is precisely this level of detail that is important. a tutorial text.. Kotov goes through a portion of a Botvinnik game.nd corre¢t Think Like a Grandmaster. or the newspaper it was in... Capablanca's fotfu of c}tes� sfudy� Chess Fundamentals .. Most common among these is studying an open------------. A year later.. ______________. N im-­ ·· the . . . YOU may be looking at your·· ._ . They're really light Images .. .t c�ty� Chess Endgames .. We'll now discuss all other chess activities.where it occurred.. faults. the extent of damage it caused.. . S te an's Simple Chess . It's the zo vi ch' s My S y s tem ..

r����-��m��-�m 89 ��r. either working by yourself or with the help of another. it doesn't stick to the ribs. someone else is doing this to help you. There's no magic advice on how to improve the results from the kind of studying we're talking about here. other than the usual: try to sift the important information. that's probably right. You may say to yourself "Okay. more effectively. preferably stronger. player.Increasing the Number of Images file. Incidentally. Making the commitment to quality study time. Then you lose it by forget� ting it. since even a beginner would recog� nize the importance of an open file. The new information transforms into light Images for a few weeks after your exposure. and I'll try to remember that and spend a little more time analyzing my games. of your own games. If you should be fortunate enough to have a stronger player review your games with you. The shortcoming of the study method we're talk� ing about in this section is that it tends to be like a Chinese dinner. The problem is that quality study is painful. you could be receptive. Quality study time is the critical review.�l�>�1ql4�\ you are exposing your l•• • • ·• '�jir�i·· ����f�l��1�!����g�1�. because I I ��-����i [!.�:I I . 3.�ff ��1�•· · �!�1��. Earlier in the chapter. I would interpret Kotov's advice this way: an open file or diagonal is much more valuable than it would appear. or." That's a good step. we developed the ratio� nale for the high value of quality study time.t \••· • •· ) own shortcomings. but it's only a step. taking notes. and look with him for the weak� nesses in your logic and your Move selection Method.

It's a little like getting paid five times as much per hour. I'll commit to some real quality studying." ---- a. that's a start. I know people like that. maybe a quarter of an hour. You can really only do it at first for a limited time. en¢e th�t y()\( did. often into the endgame. His Don'r ·· tesist· every . So say to yourself: all right. or 90 . is not really doing quality studying. Eventually you will get the discipline to critically analyze each serious game you play for one hour. the 'bare my soul' type. mind simply isn't open to search for his weaknesses. . It's not even enough for one game (one serious. where almost every assertion by the player reviewing his game for him has to be proven by a gut-wrenching demonstration over the board. in a defensive manner. The structure of "quality study time. So you have to say to yourself: "Okay. But it's not enough. and you'll be able to stand more criti­ cism from a well-intentioned friend or teacher. study time should come from its very high value when compared with other forms of studying. I promise myself I'll study this game again. I don't think there's much question which job you'd take." We've said that quality study time will probably be painful. You eventually can take more well-directed self-criticism. At Any Age You could also resist every inference that you did something poorly and contest virtually every state­ ment.stat�tnf!nt.:o1itesi eve�Y .infer. open-minded search for my weaknesses. rated or unrated game) . .Chess Master . A player reacting this way. with the higher-paying job maybe twice as hard. maybe tomorrow evening. �qme� But the real impetus to thing poorly�ri4 4q11't concentrate first on quality c. You'll find that your tolerance will build up slowly. .

.. doing the chess column for the New York Times . The reason we're going through this concept step by step is that most chessplayers don't do any signifi...------.-.•high�quality candidates match be.------.. during the beginning of his match with Spassky. Robert Byrne . .. . He stopped before the match was over.Increasing the Number of Images better yet. . sttl. You can be proud of yourself if you eventually settle on one hour of quality study time per serious game you play.playing crop. and.. it appears logical that grandmasters are more capable of quality study time than we com.--.. . To shed a little light --------. .quality studying. And if Grandmaster Byrne had difficulty in continuing these gut.wrenching analy._. since grandmasters are the cream of the chess. ____ . lived.. then you can be proud of your efforts along these lines.. In our model from Part II we learned about durable Images .. pression on us. On balance.. . It requires a careful plan to prevail.--. on just how difficult it Mn�t �bess players don't do is... __._ _ _ .. two.. however. and light Images . since Spassky was so strongly dominating it. Every new piece of information makes some im. the major reason being its mental painfulness. ses of his own games. reporting his own analyses of these games in the Times on the following day or so.. which are short.. at that time. similar to the way he covered the 1 992 Fischer-Spassky match.. let's look back at the signUicalit·•· . .. Capturing new ideas.. It's a big turn.. We talked about durable Images usually being 91 .off.dv�g 6e9atl$e �fits men......__ B. Byrne was already .. mon folk.r t w e e n S p a s s ky and til liaiilfu1tiess.. cant high.

even though the specific ex. �'1�1 ••�� ·�� . Think of the notes one takes in class that get re. amples chosen are mostly from my own experience. It is important for us to have the understanding that the concepts identified are applicable to virtu.not necessarily on chess . Flash Cards. viewed at home so that they stick to the "mental ribs" for the final exam.Chess Master . on anything . Light Images are pieces of information that have not been repeatedly reviewed. eral seconds . making it less likely to be forgotten. 1. and should be only that .����� �£ do ity Image . At Any Age the result of an Image which has been repeatedly reviewed. or revisited.so that it can be glanced at in sev. hopefully a quality Image . ally all chessplayers. a. That is the reason for a Flash Card. five.examples . When people take notes. A Flash Card is a learning aid. a tool. We'll talk next about its construction.and rekindle the Image in your mind.to you. (i) Introduction and overview .•t11at:•lria¥e· n01 such a way that it is very &eeJl. to record an Image.·• t'���'411�•·• r�\Jiewea� easily reviewable . Adopting my specific examples into your repertoire of knowledge runs at cross. It is a three.purposes to your best 92 .inch card with certain information on it that we will get to promptly. Flash Card generation. by. and set it up in m£�tmaac511.it's really intended to convert a light Image into a durable Image by reinforcing it. . . What we really want to is take notes from a qual.

The bottom right. It must be organized in such a way that you can refresh your memory with its contents in a very short time.Increasing the Number of Images interest. (ii) The layout of a Flash Card. hopefully within. Since you will only use one side of the card. we'll identify the specific layout of the card. In the bottom left corner belongs the occasion. The card can be ruled or unruled. Directly below is a neatly written "grabber" phrase. just to give you a better feel for these. In Section iv we'll go through the development of several representative Flash Cards. I nformation on securing pre­ made blanks is available in the cata­ log at the end of this book. In the next section. and to help propel you to do your own. You can use the back sides of ruled cards. On it you stamp a chess diagram. such as the game.inch index card. Beneath that may be some specific analysis.hand corner has the current month and year. tour. which are available anywhere. nament. A Flash Card utilizes as raw stock the blank side of a 3x5 . Appendix III has some additional Flash Card developments. a few seconds. Now. inch index card. As mentioned. or Solitaire game which was the source of this information. this is simply a 3x5. how do we put a Flash Card together? The card. and then enter a specific position. 93 . literally. you This author shows you how to make the special cards mentioned in this book. maybe with a border around it.

I find the variety in colors of the Flash Cards I've created uplifting... the triangle is filled in. so it would fit on the 3x5 card. New Windsor NY 1 2550.. . Again. The US Chess Federation. sells a rubber--stamp chess diagram (stock num-­ ber US--40) for about $5 . since it breaks up the monotony of a "single--color" collection. For a black pawn. Q Knight: =i7 . � Queen: ¥ -I' � • Pawn: L King: CJ Rook: . You would need. Several years ago. you simply 94 . At Any Age might as well buy ruled cards (they're more avail-­ able) and use the back side. with a single color pen (or pencil). FREEHAND SYMBOLS FOR CHESSMEN L'. . Bishop: 0 Figure 23 � � � Jr ___. Packages of assorted colors are also available. ( 9 1 4) 562-3555.r:u y I 1. Figure 23 shows you how to construct any of the chess pieces. for the black King.:) . I developed a freehand way of constructing the different chess fig-­ ures. at 1 86 Route 9W. an ink pad. you simply draw a box and put a cross above it. • For a King.Chess Master . and the second stroke simply closing the triangle. separately. the first stroke being the same one most people use to start the number four. The diagram is two and a half inches square. which has evolved somewhat since then. white or black. making a triangle. You can draw a pawn. You need to construct chess-­ men on the cards. The diagram. The chess pieces .

and a Knight. ing position is very clear to me at a glance. It is the simplest. A similar font for the PC will be made available.-effective method for me. The left and right sides are slanted. There are two minor drawbacks. Making up a chess diagram has become so natural to me that I can now con. this should be only a few words. you simply fill in the figure as shown. most time.­ struct an entire position. An alternative is to use computer. for a black Queen. Inc. If you don't like the forms of the chessmen pre . 95 .Increasing the Number of Images blacken the box.-color pens to simulate the white and black pieces.-color pens with you. a Bishop. in a minute and a half. The same figure also shows you how to make a Rook. Again. You'll be able to construct these figures after a few minutes of training. feel free to invent your own. with all 3 2 chessmen. To facilitate quick review. You would not have to "fill in" the black pieces if you use a different color for Black.. I wanted you to be aware of this opportunity should you want to pursue it. The grabber phrase . Start by constructing a letter similar to an M . You may prefer round chess figures instead of square ones. should you need to photocopy your masterpieces.. First. Then you add a letter V so as to enclose the figure. you must carry two different. Even though I'm not familiar with this method. Thinkers' Press. You can make the diagram more efficient by using two different. and the middle point goes a little lower than that for a normal M . Second.­ grams. you may not get the contrast (between the white and black pieces) that you want.-generated dia. but you'll be able to construct a Queen your mother would be proud of after only a few tries. sells a chess font for use on the Macintosh. And the result. without rushing. The Queen is somewhat tricky. sented here.

stantaneously trigger the recall of this scenario. At Any Age The analysis . ning of each issue of Chess Life .Chess Master .-game analysis. The typical raw material going onto a Flash Card might be the study scenario we did under "own. vantage is Black's backward c..." There (Figure 2 1 ) we established a fixation with the attack. . perhaps one of the nine diagrams in the quiz near the begin . Now.. Let's think of a couple. The left--hand bottom comer. manent advantage ! " Here.-pawn. . The analysis is put on the card only for reference which you may occasionally want to review. 96 .. when I should have considered trading Queens.your opponent. It is good if you keep a chess notebook of your games so that you can recover an older game if you'd like to. the month and the year. usually of the game . The information in this corner is simply a locator. as well as the artificially isolated h. (iii) Development of a typical Flash Card. There may be a specific analysis that relates to the diagram. I feel that the second grabber phrase is more appropriate.-pawn becomes hard to defend) . how to turn this Image into a Flash Card? We need a phrase or expression which will in .-pawn after White plays g4 ( Black's h. One might be: "Why not go into an endgame?" Another might be: "Convert to per . You may like to go back someday to the position in the diagram. White's permanent ad . Sometimes you generate a Flash Card as a result of your incorrect solution to a chess quiz. You can then simply refer to that diagram in the particular issue of Chess Life .

Qxh5 ! Game Allan Bennett Aug. within a few of seconds of looking at this card. assum. 1�1 27. for 97 . For the rest of my life. ing that I look at this card occasionally. say at least twice a year. (iv) Additional Flash Cards . constructing the Flash Card by adding an appropri. Let's develop some additional Flash Cards. and the fact that I should have considered exchanging Queens. 88 Figure 24 So we have taken the output of one of our own game analyses as the raw material for a Flash Card. I will recall this game. ate grabber phrase and chess position.Increasing the Number of Images The Flash Card might look like Figure 24.

ning Chess Sacrifices and Combinations after a reasonable time. You may want to look at it briefly just for fun.rank mate. and will therefore win one of them. . At Any Age added familiarity. . . From now on. every time I look at this diagram I'll be reminded that once in a •• 98 . Why was it so hard for me to see this ? Clearly. But here the Rook is chained to the first rank. Again. because 2 . . I came up with the idea that the Rook is crippled: it can't leave the first rank. after studying particular positions where I had made some blunder or error in judgment. I had not found the correct con. Figure 25-Black to move Did you get it? The correct move for Black is 1 . But White cannot play 2 . Kh2 Rhl mate . Re l t 3 . Rxd6 looks like it would simply capture Black's Queen.Chess Master . So there's an idea for the grabber phrase. After thinking about this for a while. defending against the back. and then look at some others in Appendix Ill. See Figure 26. tinuation to Problem #3 1 6 in Reinfeld's 1 00 1 Win. Rxd6 because of the mating combination 2 . In Figure 25. the Flash Cards we are going to discuss now are cards that I developed some time ago. Black is forking Rook and Knight with the Queen. Qd6! The Queen attacks both Rook and Knight.

and that I should be aware of its weakness. I finally settled . After some deliberation. . August 1 989. I suppose that the standard descrip-­ tion of the Rook's plight is "overloaded. either one's own or one's opponent's. Problem 3 1 6.Increasing the Number of Images while one comes across a crippled piece. 99 . June 1 985 is the month in which I did this exercise. . but I saw no worthwhile follow--up. Jun 85 1 00 1 #3 1 6 Figure 26 The " 1 00 1 #3 1 6" at the bottom left of Figure 26 is simply shorthand for 1 00 1 Winning Chess Sacri-­ fices and Combinations . Qd6 2 ." B 1 . . BbS 2 . Kh2 Rhl # . Rxd6? Re l t 3 . QxbS . I saw that Black could deflect White's Queen with the skewer 1 . In pondering this. Figure 2 7 comes from the nine--diagram chess quiz in Chess Life .

or maybe cover the forking square. we think of the opportunity as fleeting. Bb5 with a prepara� tory move. Re2 Bb5 3 . Bb5 and 3 . . Qa6 loses the Queen to 2 . .Chess Master . . For example. 2 . . . Qc3 ( 2 . . which still requires precise chess for Black to bring home the win. Now White must either move the King or the Queen or play 2 . your opponent can move one of the pieces out of the way. . Qgl t . I had this thought: normally. Bb5 t 3 . and 2 .•• 1 00 . when we see a potential skewer. So why didn't I see the preparatory pawn move to c6 ? After deliberating about it for a while. Re2 Bxe2 t . At Any Age Figure 2 7-Black to move on 1 Rc6 . . As a result. . Qxc6 Bxc6 3 . S o 1 c 6 i s the move which unravels White's game. Bb5 t) allows Black to win at least a Rook after 2 . Re2 to stop the threatened skewer 2 . . . . Bb5 . . . But it never occurred to me that after Black makes possible 2 . . Rxc6 . . stopping your Knight from executing the fork. we may (or at least I know I did) condition ourselves to not get our hopes up too much when we see a "fork in the future" or a . . snaring White's Queen for Rook and Bishop with the forced follow�up 2 . Qc2 Bxe2 t and Black wins the Exchange. White cannot save his game with either a King or Queen move (needed to stop Black's pin ) . or maybe a fork. Ke l loses to 2 . 2 . if it takes you two moves to get the Knight to a position for a fork.

The correct plan sets up the skewer.Increasing the Number of Images "skewer in the future. annotated in Capablanca's excellent book Chess Fundamentals . New York 1 9 1 8. I was emulating former World Champion Capablanca in the game Capablanca­ Chajes. Ke l Qgl t (OR) 2 . So the grabber phrase: "Skewer in the future. I'll remember the idea. Even though I was "playing" the white pieces. Qc3 Bb5 t 3 . Again. but more important. whenever I see this Flash Card. Chess Quiz 8/89 Jul 89 Figure 28 In Figure 29. c6 2 . B ls� Ut � �I 1 . This was a case in point. I was thinking about Black's moves too ! 1 01 . I'll think of this position." We don't pursue it. Re2 Bb5 . or we don't pursue it sufficiently." See Figure 28. .

I automatically expected Black to play 1 1 g6 to defend the mate. Lasker once said: "Distrust a pawn move . why not Lasker's im. g6 . ing the Kingside. and convince yourself that White has good attacking prospects .or expect them from my opponent? Of course I was. The note "Capa p226" simply means that the game in question is on page 226 in Capablanca's Chess Fundamentals . This will ••• . Capablanca pointed out that the correct move was 1 1 . . But I didn't take it seriously enough. however.or review the game in Capablanca's Chess Fundamentals . . what else? This move.Chess Master .examine care. which he did . even from a former world champion. . You may want to analyze with a friend the position of Figure 29 after 1 1 . A word of caution." What was my problem? Wasn't I aware that I shouldn't make weakening pawn moves . We don't want to take advice mindlessly. . mortal advice about distrusting a pawn move ? See Figure 30. Qe4 ( arriving at the position of Figure 29 ) . 1 02 . fully its balance sheet. I didn't look hard enough at alternatives to the pawn move. At Any Age Figure 29-Black to move After 1 1 . Re8 . is a pawn move weaken. protecting against the mate without the debilitating pawn move. So for the grabber phrase. .after all.

played over a 35. round tournament. I reached the position of Figure 3 1 . 226 Figure 30 better fix the idea in your mind. October 1 984 (an annual 1 2. . Playing the black pieces against Mike Johnson during one of the later rounds in the 7th Monadnock Marathon.Increasing the Number of Images B '[)� a. 1 03 . . Re8! Capa p.hour period with rounds every three hours at 30 moves in 45 minutes) . � �1 s� � eu � Jeea. Jaffrey NH. 1 .

. . ture with the Rook. I thought I could drive the Knight away from d4 by 1 . Bxf8 wrecking my plan.between move") 2. ber 1984 issue of Chess Life . Rxf8 (2 . since I couldn't play 1 . . BdS) . and. Be6 and contesting the diagonal. Ng7 5 .Chess Master . . " I just chose "zwischenzug. of which we'll concentrate on one. cxd4 3 . The grabber phrase could be: "Watch out for the zwischenzug. Bxd6 just loses a pawn for Black) 3 . The idea has at least two faults. Be6 immediately. since 2 . Ne6 Bxe6 4 . •• The position of Figure 33 occurred in the Octa. c5. The worst thing is that I totally overlooked the zwischenzug (German for "in. " since that would imply the entire phrase to me. Bxf8 forced Black to recap. . . .b8 diagonal is useful to White. . removing Black's control of e6 and allowed White to occupy the square with advan. . See Figure 3 2 . The zwischenzug 2 . . . . Bxe6 leaves White with an iron grip on the diagonal that I just sought to neutralize (4 . in "What's the best move ?" I correctly realized that the h2. At Any Age Figure 3 1-Black to move I wanted to neutralize White's beautiful Bishop controlling the a2. following up with 2 . and that he therefore should protect the Bishop from being exchanged by the black 1 04 . tage.g8 diagonal.

Increasing the Number of Images

I
1 . . . c5? 2 . BxfB RxfB 3 . Ne6
Bxe6 4. Bxe6

Oct 84

Game Mike Johnson

Figure 32

Knight.
I chose 1 . £3, so that if 1 . Nh5 , I would be able to
continue 2 . BgS t f6 3 . Bh4 gS 4 . Bf2 . I had preserved
my Bishop, but had turned a "bad" but active Bishop
at f4 into a plain "bad" Bishop at f2 (the Bishop
would be staring at his own pawns) .
. .

1 05

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

Figure 33-White to move

So what's wrong? The thing of value was the
control of the diagonal h2.-b8, and, therefore, the
Bishop must be preserved - what is the meaning of
the Bishop without the diagonal ? The correct move
was 1 . h3 , guaranteeing both objectives. My problem
was that I vacillated on following through on some ..
thing I knew was important.
So now for our grabber phrase.
It occurred to me that Manfred
L��i•· ···>•· ·• I von Richthofen, the G erman
World War I fighter ace, knew ex ...
actly what he wanted, and then
did it. He is attributed to having
said, after translation, "Find the
enemy and shoot him down. Everything else is rub ..
bish." To me, that means: establish what your prob ..
lem is, and then solve it. The grabber phrase "Von
Richthofen" conjures up the decisiveness necessary
to deal with this position. See Figure 34. For short ..
hand, a square not "blackened in" represents White,
while one "blackened in" represents Black. So the
second sentence in the notes of this Flash Card
reads: "White to keep Bishop on the diagonal."
Former World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik, in
New York in 1984, said, "Chess is a game for strong
·

[1;�111rrrr1il

1 06

Increasing the Number of Images

Select objective, then do it.
OBJECT: To keep Bishop on diagonal. 1 .

h3 !
1 . f3 ? NhS 2 . Bg5t f6 3 . Bh4 g5 4 . Bf2

WTBM

Oct 84
Figure 34

people with strong character." I reflected on that. I
liked it. I thought it would be an uplifting reminder
whenever I really get slaughtered at the board. So a
Flash Card. Figure 3 5 . Not every Flash Card needs to
be a pearl of technical wisdom. Anything .that can
help improve your game, either technically or psy,
chologically, is fit for a Flash Card. It's perfectly okay
for you to have a picture of your significant other as a
Flash Card, if it boosts your spirits.

1 07

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

Botvinnik (NY, 1 984)

Feb 84

Figure 35

Figure 36-White to move

Figure 36 is one of the problems appearing in
Winning Chess Tactics Illustrated by Al Horowitz. I
1 08

Increasing the Number of Images

had properly deduced the first four half--moves,
namely 1 . Bb5 t Bd7 2. e6 fxe6, leading to Figure 3 7 .

Figure 3 7-White to move

Conducting the white pieces, I came up with 3 .
Qh5t, figuring on general mayhem and Queen--for-­
aging after 3 . . . g6 (3 . . . Ke7 4 . Bg5 t snares Black's
Queen) 4 . Qe5 , threatening 5 . Qxh8 as well as 5 .
Qxe6 t .
I n this line, after 3. Qh5 t g6 4 . Qe5 Black is at
least in the game, since he can forsake his R/h8 with
4 . . . Bxb5 , since if 5 . Qxh8 ( 5 . Bg5 is answered by
. . . QdS) Qh4t probably wins for Black (Ed. Note . ) .
I was s o enthralled with the Queen check and
apparently strong White position that I never even
considered the devastating quiet move 3 . 0-0! leav-­
ing Black helpless. White threatens 4 . Qf7 mate , and
if 3 . . . Qc8 , then 4 . Qf7t Kd8 5 . QxfB t Rxf8 6 . RxfB t ,
winning. If 3 . . . Qf6 , 4 . Bxd7t Kxd7 5 . Qxb7t and 6 .
Rxf6 , winning the Queen. If Black plays 3 . . . Qe7, 4 .
Bg5 wins the Queen, since 4 . . . Qxg5 5 . Qf7 t and 6 .
Qxd7 mate . Finally, 3 . . . Ke7 doesn't save Black be-­
cause 4 . Ba3 t and mate next.
We are not really concerned with whether 3 .
Qh5 t is a good move. The real question is: Why
didn't I see 3 . 0--0 ? It's hardly a difficult move to find.
I contemplated this situation for a while. I con-1 09

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

sidered what I would have played if Black's g,pawn
were at g6 instead of g7 (where White doesn't have
the check) . I concluded that I would have seen the
castling move, and its strength.
The lure of the check was the snake in the gar,
den of Eden. My Flash Card grabber phrase: "Why
always check?" Whenever I see this card, I will tell
myself that even when a check is available (not j ust
for me, but for my opponent when it's his tum), I
must consider other moves. See Figure 38.

1 . QhS t Better

1. o O ! !

WCTI #27

..

1 984

Figure 38

There is another lure of the check, when one is
available: a check allows one's opponent fewer
choices, typically, than he would have if one selected
1 10

. dxc4 . ably more significant in stopping me from consider. . But it is a choice spawned by laziness. was that the h l . and the "resultant quiet position" is strong or winning. and 1 0 . better moves are often available. Bbl.Increasing the Number of Images a move that is not a check. I thought about this. . But in the great majority of cases. since other. and one must always be on guard against that.a8 diagonal was . . 9 b6 . playing Solitaire. I was conducting the black pieces. . and prob. . Why not ? Again. A final point regarding this position. also annotated in Chess Fundamentals . one continuation. Figure 39-Black to move In Figure 39. Match. This idea never dawned on me. 1 909. . . . I chose some move other than 8 dxc4 . I did not seriously think of playing 8 dxc4 why weaken my center? Second. - 111 . and that is appealing. The correct plan was for Black to get control of the hl .a8 diagonal by playing 8 . Two factors conspired to keep me from thinking about it. of course. ing the theme. this is not the case. There is nothing wrong with looking at only one move. is practical. First. and therefore more than one move should be considered. The tree of analysis is simplified. . . . emulating former World Champion Capablanca in Marshall-Capablanca. That. as long as it is a forcing one.

. Comeau Me� morial. At Any Age littered with my pawns. . b6 . 1 12 . .Chess Master . . . . . . So my grabber phrase was: "Project lines of con� trol. . August 1 985. at b7 and d5 . Bb7 Capa p. . . 1 60 Figure 40 In the game John Loyte-Wetzell." See Figure 40 . it was Black to play in Figure 41 . Imagining the diagonal without these pawns didn't occur to me. de . Danvers MA.

my opponent saw 2. . But vacating f6 would also allow 2 .Increasing the Number of Images Figure 4 1-Black to move I played 1 . Qxf8 ." But here. So what happened there ? At times I make the mistake of forgetting about a "vacated square. the vacated square was part of the plan. Kxf8 3 . •• 1 13 ." mean. I forget about that square being vacated. this phrase (along with the diagram) will be a sufficient tickler for me to remem. Of course. Bxd8 Nxf2 or 2 . whenever a pawn or piece is moved. but the mis. Bxe4 Qxg5 . take I made was that I thought this strongest move corresponded to capturing the piece of highest value. and that other pieces can "travel through that square. I could have constructed another Flash Card from the same position with the grabber phrase: "Beware the Vacated Square. Qxf8t. ing that during my look. f6. I didn't consider his taking a piece of lesser value. naturally.capture. Qxf8 t ."' See Figure 42. thinking I could snare a pawn with either 2 . The square vacated. I expected him to make the strongest move. Bxd8) . . and this idea. So the grabber phrase: "Beware the 'Under. as I just mentioned." This.ahead. would allow 2 . Again. Bxd8 . ber this game. be. Nxe4. winning a piece and the game (2 . cause I never saw the possibility of 2 . for the rest of my life.

BUT 2. . Filing Flash Cards. .Chess Master . QxfBt! winning Game: Loyte.. The 1 14 . . 1 . When I first started with Flash Cards. Nxe4? ? expecting 2 . and that we need to be able to flip through them quickly. . We'll learn in the next section on drill that we will refer to our Flash Cards often. The drawbacks quickly became evident. and d) adaptable to making changes (rearranging cards. BxdB Nxf2 . A filing system for Flash Cards should be: a) durable. . . and used a three�hole punch to punch a hole in one corner of each card.. c) easily accessible. b) portable or compact. Danvers 30/30 Aug 85 Figure 42 b. Bxe4 Qxg5 or 2 . adding or deleting cards) . a ring held them together. I devel� oped a stack of 50 or so. At Any Age 1� 1 .

Mart and other stores.sheet type. some. "Tack a note" is available in most stationery stores for less than $2. this seems to be a workable system. then inserted into the sheet protector.have hard.Increasing the Number of Images cards get dirty with repeated use. It's durable. or at a fast food restaurant. Photograph albums .Stock #065 1 1 . Each page holds four Flash Cards. but if you want to conduct your drills at an off. A more compact system. If. this system is fine. a library. site" . The sheets are manufactured by Joshua Meier . The next system was much better.ring binder. sufficient to hold 800 Flash Cards. or tacking the Flash Cards onto paper and then inserting these into protector sheets. and are available at K.inch binder can hold 1 00 protector sheets.in your car before going into a club. ent paper over them. what more time. They're less than three dollars for the ten. and.sheet types .type sheets with transpar. is some. They did not meet a) and c) above. To allow for the later removal of the cards. cardboard. on the other hand. allows easy access. sheet photo books ).sheet book holds 80 Flash Cards. Filing. If you intend to do your Flash Card reviews at home. Although somewhat bulky ( I accumulated eight of these ten. it is difficult to flip through the cards rapidly.they come in ten. the Flash Cards are glued on both sides of a sheet of paper with a Dennison "Tack a note. more impor.sheet and 50.consuming than simply installing them into photo albums. you like to do this review on the fly . one I'm currently creating." an adhesive stick working similarly to lipstick. uses durable protector sheets with three holes for insertion into a three. so a ten. and is easily revised. instead 1 15 .these photo albums become very cumber.and are thin enough so that a three. or anyplace "off. tantly.site location. this last method allows you to carry around only one binder.

The Flash Cards you're putting together are. Just want to make you aware of this resource. Another company. becomes durable on re. age called "Chess Reader" for under $ 70. The sheets will not tear or wear out. ing it into a durable Image . CA 9 1 03 1 has a software pack. peated revisiting or review.Chess Master ." using photocopies of the pages in the photo albums. This is true for both the light and the heavy liquids. but it will slow it down. and without "hole reinforcers. or Flash Card drill. Box 354 1 . (publisher of this book) has a chess font for use with standard word processing programs. which might only "stick with you" for a few weeks without review. Reviewing Flash Cards. The Flash Card. It will not halt the process of forgetting.literate. . or have a computer print out the equivalent of these cards. c. If you're computer. Chess Laboratories. would stay with you maybe a couple of months with a 116 . if you remember from our model in Part II. Flash Card drill. provided that you don't put too many sheets in the notebook.computer literate. but want to make you aware that Thinkers' Press. using word processing primarily. I am not recommending that you buy it. Since I have not personally seen or used this software. Preserving this type of Image on a Flash Card has the potential of convert. Pasadena. At Any Age of a raft of the photo albums. quality Images . . hopefully. without the transparent plastic page protectors. You could use a loose. Inc. leaf notebook. will have the same effect as increasing the evaporation time of the liquid. and that you turn the pages carefully. I'm only semi. I'm sure there are ways to translate this information to a computer. the potential durable Image . A light Image .

and would probably stay with you for the rest of your days if you review it periodically. you will be able to go through all your Flash Cards in two months or less. it takes a little time for a thought to settle. Now let's see what that means in numbers. Then you can review 300 cards in 25 minutes (5 seconds per card x 300 cards 1 . I feel that reviewing 300 cards at one sitting (we'll show in a minute that this would require not more than thirty minutes) preferably in the hours before your most serious game of the week. I t is important to point out that you shouldn't attempt to review the Flash Cards too fast. why not review every card once a week? When you've accumulated more than 300 but less than 600 cards. you would like to review each Flash Card at least once every two months. you will be able to review a card in five seconds. As you become accustomed to the review pro. cess. I've no. As you start out.500 seconds) . As long as you have less than 2400 cards (a very likely situation since I've developed only 800 Flash Cards in eight years-about two cards a week). is ad. or disappears alto. for me anyway. you will have fewer than 300 Flash Cards. and allow you to review 2 . and review the sets alternately each week. the reinforce.400 cards at least once every other = 1 17 . you should break them up into two sets. So 25 minutes of drill each week will support about 300 Flash Cards for that sitting. or even a little less. at sufficiently frequent intervals. ticed that. As an obj ective. If it is too fleeting. During that time. equate to keep you sharp.Increasing the Number of Images couple of revisits. ment becomes compromised. gether. So we want to review the Flash Cards from time to time. and possibly for several years.

and you develop Flash Cards. I'd like to go through the development of one particular grand theme that. almost out of the blue. Then.Chess Master . I'm sure very few Flash Cards of mine would be of real use to a grandmaster. Stalking the grand themes. d. showing various sides of a common theme. After all. suming that the white Knight at d6 was safe from capture because it was protected by the pawn at e5 . all relating to the same topic. The Flash Card is for you. very good idea which you would like to capture permanently. you'll see the bigger connecting concept to several Flash Cards. without being aware of it. Westford MA. or in some test in which you were involved. a Flash Card has on it an Image that you missed in a game. or a new. with White to move.. when Black naturally 1 18 . particularly with quality study. At Any Age month. 1 984. I believe this material will be more interesting if we identify my grand theme after we've touched on the six cards. In the game Wetzell-Carl Stutz. and that the black pawn at b5 was unprotected. We will now discuss briefly the circumstances giving rise to the Flash Cards illustrated in Figures 43 through 48. over a period of time. . Sometimes. . Let's call that a grand theme. you'll develop more than one Flash Card relating to a certain idea. I developed these cards over several years. finally hit me. Qxb5 . As you work at chess. not for anyone else. already in some time pressure. each Flash Card should be a jewel. we reached the position in Figure 43 . no matter how trite it may seem to another chessplayer. As . I blundered by playing 1 . after a number of Flash Cards.

Qxb5? ? Rxd6 winning." here 1 .. since White's Queen is under attack. . then the Rook recap.with the thought that the "take. . getting out of harm's way. I had not considered the discovered attack on my Queen with Black's move. 1 19 . Rxd6 . and if 2 . Qxd7. Game: Stutz 1 984 Figure 43 played 1 Rxd6. tures. "Discovered Protectake" . winning.Increasing the Number of Images 1 . and constructed the grabber phrase . protects the Queen. .. The Rook is itself indirectly protected.

ine. . The grabber phrase on the Flash Card was "The Crossbow. because I thought Black would simply lose Knight for pawn. . Black has temporarily won a pawn. but the existence of the combination is. seem. Bxh4 1 924 Game 85 Figure 44 1 20 Oct 85 . I never considered 1 5 . trying to find Black's moves. . B 1. annotated by Alexander Alekh. The Book of the New York International Chess in Tournament 1 9 24 . I was playing Solitaire. .Chess Master . At Any Age In the game J anowski-Maroczy. Figure 44 was reached after White's 1 5th move. Nxe4 with the idea 2 . . Nxe4 . . New York. After 1 6 . Whether Black really wins a pawn here is not the issue. Qxe4 Bxh4 . ." because the Bishop moving along the diagonal is very fast. . ingly simultaneous with the preparatory move. 1 924.

I should have looked at 22 . opening the long diagonal for the Bishop and preparing 23 . . . played by Maroczy." for the same reason as the preceding example. Be4 . It is important to note that Maroczy should have played 22 . Nd7. . . . . I never looked at the pseudo. Be4 .Increasing the Number of Images In the same game. . Again the grabber phrase "The Crossbow. I was still playing Solitaire. B 1 . but that is not the issue here. c5 . avoiding the loss of the exchange (Maroczy's move allows White to play 23 . with an eventual Nxf8) . Rxe6 . c5 with the idea 2 . 1 924 Game 85 Oct 85 Figure 45 In the game Emanuel Lasker-Alexander Ale. . 121 . the position of Figure 45 was reached after White's 22nd move. . .sacrifice 22 c5 . which he did. . .

but that I didn't see the "discovered Queen recap. f4 . . play would continue 22 . 1 22 . gxhS . 1 924. and if 22 . from The Book of the New York International Chess Tournament 1 924 . . . h5 . gxhS . Bxf3 . the specific analysis here is not the issue. trying to predict Lasker's moves. QxhS . then 22 . Figure 46 was reached after 20 moves. Here again I was playing Solitaire. . I never looked at 2 1 . Ne 1 followed by 23 . e4 and 24 . Ne 1 1 924 Game 86 Oct 85 Figure 46 Again. anno. probably because the pawn appeared to become en prise.Chess Master . . gxhS . h5 If 2 1 . gxf3 . B 2 1 . White will recover his pawn later with QxhS after 23 . . White could continue 22 . At Any Age khine. tated by Alekhine. . Should Black then respond with 2 1 . . . New York. Even if 2 1 . .

Here I was playing Solitaire. 1 2 . at least not from the point of view of its real threat. . Bbl with the idea of clearing Black's first rank in order to defend the coming double attack on c7 by 1 2 . When Botvinnik followed up tactically and weak. the pawn at a7 becomes undefended." I called the grabber phrase on the Flash Card "Use a discovered cover! " Figure 4 7 -White to move In Botvinnik-Alatortsev. It is important to recognize that attacking a 7 is not a meaningless issue: should Black consider the natural developing move 1 1 . So the grabber phrase I chose was "Better than a double attack. Qc2 . Here Black answered 1 1 . 1 933 . as an Image . Leningrad. trying to find the correct moves for the white pieces. a6 . I didn't look at 1 1 . NbS in looking for White's 1 1 th move ? I didn't have as a working motif. tack the c7. Why didn't I see 1 1 . Master Tournament. It's a discovered attack (the Knight screens the Queen from c 7 ) . 1 23 . It suddenly would at. NbS . . ened Black's Queenside pawns. . Figure 47 was reached after ten moves. .Increasing the Number of Images ture." I constructed the Flash Card shown in Figure 48 with the position that would have arisen . The Knight also attacks a 7 . 1 932. the fact that NbS is really a double attack. Qc2 and 1 2 .square twice (Knight and Queen) . . Rc8 .

Nxc7. 1/2 Cent Game 1 6 Mar 86 Figure 48 after 1 1 . Qc2 Bb7. At Any Age 1 2 . there was a piece arrangement 1 24 . Qxc7) . The reason I chose that configura� tion in the "middle of an analysis" for the Flash Card.Chess Master . is that it brings home the point of the discovered at� tack more quickly." I named the grand theme "DISCOVER AMERICA. You may have guessed by now at the connecting theme among all these nine Flash Cards. rather than the actual position after ten moves. From no attack to three attacks (Nxa7. Nb5 is threatened. ." after some joking around once in a postmortem. Botvinnik identified this possibil� ity in his annotations of this game in his book Half a Century of Chess . They all have a feature we could call "discovered mobility. In each case. .

has some distorted assessments of certain tactical and positional motifs. ered mobility." or. The Flash Cards of Figures 43 to 48 do not have it." On the Flash Cards I use personally. whether a beginner or a world champion. or a diagonal inaccessible to it prior to the "discovering move. I love discovered checks. Every player. fortunately. a pawn. I have writ. tial for a "free move. or undervalued. I also knew about discovered attacks." namely. But even at the world level. if discovered and entered on Flash Cards. since we were trying to preserve a slight amount of suspense. The power of the maneuver is. and even for the World Champion. Let's step back and look at this example in a larger perspective." This one is. developed over several years. so obvious that almost everyone quickly learns through experience to modify the perspective on it. My "DISCOVER AMERICA" theme doesn't mean I was blind to discovered checks.the most obvious being a huge over. "discov. of course. are needed to bring home such a trite message. if you prefer. ously. ten the grabber "DISCOVER AMERICA" conspicu. For a beginner. there can be flawed perspectives. and I know I've played hundreds upon hun. 1 25 . dreds of discovered checks in thousands of Blitz games. they may be blatant . which. a file.assessment of the value of an "early lone Queen raid. ity of the screened piece was not at its maximum. or a square along a rank. the poten." You might be wondering why three Flash Cards. so that the mobil.Increasing the Number of Images where one piece screens another. the screening piece attacks a piece or a pawn or a desired square while the screened piece attacks a piece. I knew about discovered checks. a "double attack. But I underappreciated.

a grandmaster moves his pawns. At Any Age may be corrected by the repeated reminder in these Flash Cards. tion for his sac than is really necessary. Then Queen+pawn= two Rooks. In a given game. pieces. So why do I underutilize my Queen? Is it because a) I'm afraid of getting her trapped? or b) I don't realize how powerful she is as a tool in the attack? 1 26 . ing to duplicate this grandmaster's moves. Let's assume that. All this means is that the percentage of his cross.5 . Also. he needs more assurance that he has full compensa . for me. Of course. He may be too reluctant to sacrifice material. or 1 0. or two times 5 . rather than that I apply an incorrect value.. ( i) The underutilized Queen. voted to analyzing potential sacrifices is less than it should be.5. and is willing to exchange each of his pieces for certain others in a typical position. on average. B ishop = 3 . the values of the pieces are pawn = l . three minor pieces (three x 3. Queen= l O . that even after the analysis.5 points) are slightly stronger than the Queen. Rook= 5 . without walking through every Flash Card generated on the subject until I caught on. 5 . or. I have on the average used my Queen less often than he does. This underutilization of the Queen.5.. There are two other grand themes I discovered through Flash Cards that I want to touch upon. re .. in attempt . possibly. fleets more the idea that I have an underappreciation of the Queen's mobility and safety. 5 . and King with a certain frequency.Chess Master . . In Solitaire.. his problem could be the reverse: he may spend too much time on these potential sacrifices. to the Queen relative to the other pieces.-board reflection time (his own clock time) de . . Knight = 3 . or point count.

the concept of Flash Cards made it possible to find this problem . relating to my earlier years.I have established that I overvalue the Bishop relative to the Knight. It is more the result of a "defensive mental. (ii) The overvalued Bishop . The crucial point.for an opponent's Bishop than he did in his actual games. is this: for me. We have already discussed the beginner's penchant for the "lone Queen raid. I will more often exercise the opportunity to exchange one of my Knights ." Ironically. The related shortcoming is that I will go to more trouble to avoid giving my opponent 1 27 .most of which in recent years have had the goal of duplicating former World Champion Botvinnik's moves in his games collected in Half a Century of Chess . however. In my Solitaire games . and we are not going to dwell on Sigmund Freud here." This book is not meant to be a psychological manual. Here a) is somewhat simplistic: I feel it isn't so much that I'm afraid of getting my Queen trapped. ity. but I am absolutely convinced that my "Queen problem" is psychological in origin.one of Botvinnik's Knights .Increasing the Number of Images I feel it is a little of both. since I believe the problem is psychological in origin. As a result. forcing me to lose time by making retreating moves. my Queen problem is the reverse of a rank beginner's Queen problem.my Queen problem. even though I have known about it for a year or more now. And I'm sure we can all agree that you must first identify a problem before it can be solved. its correction may take me a long time to root out. maybe a little more a) than b). as it is that I feel my opponent will harass her too easily.

75 .Knight or two Knights. I have been aware of this problem. used the Flash Card tech.25. It is as if I think.here Botvinnik's opponent . as you would expect. because the lack of a score sheet makes them harder to analyze. that Bishop=3 .plus. Again. The Flash Cards. The distillation resulting from disciplined analysis of our games . view of these Cards would then eventually eliminate these distorted perspectives . In all fairness to him. During the several years of constructing Flash Cards. tarted perspectives in chess that could elude us all our lives . and so as to not mislead the reader. ation of "wild pigs" and corrected it. piled up with this theme and drove the lesson home. nique. I've made up few Flash Cards based on five. I overvalue the Bishop pair relative to Bishop. The periodic re. could uncover these through the recurring theme concept . and am working on rooting it out. and incorrectly. We probably have subtle but pervasive dis. I developed a number of them reflecting this theme. Had the talented player whom I mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. .minute sudden death games. This distorted perspective extends to other things. with whom I played thousands of Blitz games. he probably would have found his false evalu. but my perception of an open board is cluttered w i th more p ie ces than a grandmaster's open board. Knight=3 . over a period of time.Chess Master . 1 28 . A Bishop pair is stronger than two other minor pieces on an open board. entered on Flash Cards . At Any Age . .the opportunity to exchange one of his Knights for one of my Bishops.

" For Moves 6 through 1 2. there is a pretty good chance on each move that you will not find the best move. particu-­ larly the sharp ones. Knowledge of the opening is critical to Strength. you're likely to make the best move only 1 29 . it is extremely difficult to figure out. For most players. a. The right way to study openings. have a stronger player review your Flash Cards and approve them. Openings and opening sheets. 2. Let's examine why. you should. Let's assume that you happen to know the correct first five moves of your opening just from repeated exposure. if at all possible. or impertinent ideas repeatedly reinforced through the Flash Card vehicle. you are "on your own.Increasing the Number of Images e. the Petroff. wrong ideas. or any early move in a complex opening. sixth. If you are trying to develop these moves over the board. Starting on the sixth move. over the board. a natural fact or idea that will stay with you always. the correct fifth. In this segment we'll develop two basic ideas: a) the right way to study openings. it should be no surprise that a Flash Card with an incorrect idea will also be reinforced. such as the Ruy Lopez. and b) a visual aid for learning openings. or for seven moves. then. or almost any opening. damaging your chess capability. As a result. it should be clear that the major idea of each Flash Card will become second nature. To safeguard from having poor ideas. Flash Cards must be correct! From all the emphasis presented so far on Flash Cards.

is that opening knowledge is too large a piece of the Strength pie. Now a player "booked up. rization of move sequences. One of the drawbacks of chess at the highest rating levels.Chess Master . At Any Age about half the time. chess" will be adopted. alas. before any "moves" are made. just from your incorrect moves during Moves 6 through 1 2. where each player starts with only the pawns on the second rank. one piece on any remaining vacant square on his first rank until all his chess pieces have been placed. In any event. The problem is that developing opening knowledge properly seems to take such an enormous amount of time that many players resort to some amount of memorization. Eventually. in turn. I have been taking this "chess quiz" fairly diligently for a 1 30 . This concept of chess would so proliferate opening variations that piece placement memorization. So. would still be important. for most people." knowing the lines and refutations. I believe "pre. has a good chance of obtaining a lasting advantage. gree of move sequence memorization to stay alive. . will impart a limited knowledge of the openings. often a winning advantage. when properly studied. Many good chess books devote some portion of their contents to proper development of an opening repertoire. where. . but less so than in the game with the current rules. plus move sequence variation. In avoiding memorization. or to survive the openings.defense. in self. Larry Evans's book What's the Best Move . and none that I know of advocates memo. and the two players make their first eight moves each by placing. because I don't believe it will hap. they feel they must resort to some de. pen before the middle of the 2 1 st Century. you need to know at least reasonable lines for some number of moves. in my view. we don't have to concern ourselves with this deeply.

to learning opening lines through a memorization or familiarization process." above. and Images obtained by understanding ideas are quality Images . I nevertheless succumb.old advice of getting any number of good opening texts with the qualities described above. b. Normally. ages gained through memorization most likely will be light Images . rable Image is better than a light Image . but my opening sheet considers all reasonable replies to my moves.Increasing the Number of Images while now. So here. ing with twelve blank diagrams) for each opening sheet. duced form as Figure 49. and therefore more likely to be durable Images . we have only the age. em Chess Openings . I will always play only one move. in a format similar to Mod. For Figure 49. and learn the openings with the idea of developing quality Images . I simply use a hand drawn sheet. I have a supporting diagram sheet (always start. when White continues with the Albin Chatard Attack. but as much with the purpose of improv. ing APROP and the Move selection Method as for opening knowledge. From our model in Part II. Figure 49 shows the lines I play as Black against 1 . then. we know that a du. These are tailor. Im. I file these in a special notebook ( Duo Tang presentation binders available at Staples or Office Max) so that both the opening sheet and its supporting diagram sheet can 131 . Visual aids for learning openings. or ECO (Encyclopedia of Chess Openings) . the supporting diagram sheet is shown in reduced form as Figure 50.made for the particular openings that I play. shown in re. Having explained the right way to do things in "a. for any move of my opponent's. to a degree. e4 .

. you need to find the appropriate page . when you want to refresh your memory on a line you first have to remember the source . or Reuben Fine's The Ideas Behind the Chess Openings . 1 32 . At Any Age be viewed at the same time.Chess Master . or ECO (Encyclopedia of Chess Open. or some pamphlet . Without these opening sheets. .a real hassle. The opening sheet has all that information.was it MCO (Modern Chess Openings) .then. ings) . of course.

.:s ("') -t (i:> � �- s(i:> z � 0(i:> -t � - � (i:> Vl . Nxd4 ........Q + Bd7 Nf3 Bd7 Euwe 1 923 1 52th 1 52th 1 51 th ......... Nc6 I and on to Black's 1 7th move in some cases.... f4 . .... .... cxd4 cxd4 1 0...Q Qb6 NxeS NxeS Bh6 NxeS Nf4 Kdl Nxe58 h6 Qd2 Nc6 Reti..... Nh3 cxd4 Ndxe57 axbS 1 1 ...... ..... Qxd4 ...... Qg4 co Nxb6 dxcS Qxc5 6 Q........ ......... Qg3 Nc6 dxeS gxh6 Nxd4 Qb6 Bxe7 Kxe7 + Rf3 c44 + + 1 2......... Bg5 Be7 5 ....... Nb5 2 Nc65 Qxb2 Nc6 Na4 Qc6 Qxd4 Nc63 NxcS NxcS Bxc6 bxc6 dxcS Rh3 .... ...Q hS 1 3 ............ Qxb6 ..... Nf3 .............. NbS Bd79 1 52th w w 1 51 th NbS f6 1 52th Q.......... d4 d5 3 ........ th = Tim's Harding's Classical French Figure 49 A typical opening sheet 1 51 th 1 Kf8 1 1 48th 1 48th QaSt 1 49th ...... h4 c5 1 7............ Rh3 .............. Nc3 Nf6 4.....Q.. ..... Qg4 cxd4 Nc6 ! Kf8 Qb6 Nf3 ............Q................. 8. ....... Bxe7 Kxe7 1 0 .... Q.... e5 Nfd7 6..... .. BbS .. e4 e6 2.. Nf3 .Q.........Black: French Albin Chatard: 1 ....... Qg4 Kf8 Bd3 a6 Nf3 Nc6 QhSt Qf4 cxd4 Nb5 1 2 9..............

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. I still frequently use Reinfeld's 1 00 1 Winning Chess Sacrifices and Combinations ." or "Black to move and win. It would seem natural that studying a diagram titled "White to move and win. Studying combinations. We'll now take up some specific ideas that one might employ to improve APR OP. the Move selection Method. is a problems chess quiz. The Chess Infor. Kotov. gives exercises specifically directed to this end. on one of the first few pages. In Chess Life each month. A. published three times a year. has a section on combinations. For it is APROP that allows you to visualize the position several half. moves hence. mant. in his book Think Like a Grandmaster. Studying combinations ( without moving the pieces) involves Images ." must help your APROP. There are various books which have only combinations. tally .CHAPTER F IVE IMPROVIN G AP RO P We described the Ability to PROject Positions (APROP) in Part IL APROP is the depth of the look--ahead (in the number of half-moves) and the accuracy with which that position is projected men. where you can explore some moves for an advantage.

and. make the actual moves through Move 1 36 . not just APROP alone. close the book in which the game appears. In the normal mode of analysis. I then tum on a stopwatch. not moving any of the chess-­ men on the board. I then turn off the stopwatch and. one looks ahead one. or more half--moves. S tudying the positions without moving the pieces forces you to visualize the future posi-­ tion. and so on. any game . of course. At Any Age and APROP. just set up the pieces on a board instead of drawing the position. then visualizes the position and assesses it as being equal. APROP. As you improve. In fact. moving the pieces waters down APROP improve-­ ment . or favoring one player or the other. referring to the book. An excellent exercise for APROP is to look at a game. covering any diagrams pertaining to the game.maybe one from an Informant. and proceed to look at the first ten moves of a game score between grand-­ masters. you may try for 1 2 moves. You could. Visualizing the first moves in a game. taking account of the mate-­ rial imbalance. then. using the symbols given in the section on generating Flash Cards. . I have been doing this drill by setting up a chess-­ board with the chessmen set up at the start of a game. if any. say. and rapidly construct the position on a chess diagram. to project the position. three. or any number of sources. serves as the "forward landscape" from which to make the assess-­ ment. You just look at. the first ten moves by each side. two. After drawing the position that I believe they've reached after ten moves on a chess diagram. . of course. B.Chess Master .

say. I add one minute for every incorrectly placed piece. ten moves. it's on both squares. has already im. As a yardstick of competence for APROP. C. The stickiness of the starting position. and then 23 through 28. I believe this exercise. in my mind. But I believe there are certain modes of error we all share to some degree and these may be correct. one of these is "the stickiness of the glue.corresponding to the total stopwatch time plus the appropriate one. Mentally. has been decreasing steadily. fix these in our minds. including the penalties. and therefore my Strength. my total time. and repeat the process. lead. I sometimes find that my variation is wrong because. and so have a total score . I find I occasionally forget to mentally vacate the square that a piece moves from. For me. which I have been doing regularly. To proceed. and write the position down. I kept a piece on its origjnal square as well as on its new square (the square it moved to) . able. On the bright side. I then do the same for Moves 1 7 through 22." In moving the pieces around mentally. and record the number of pieces and pawns that I have incorrectly placed on my diagram. proved my APROP. There is a limitation that we have. surely differ. more often than forgetting to occupy the square the piece has moved to. ing to wrong analytic conclusions.up board position as my platform to project Moves 1 1 through 1 6. then. After studying the position (either in an actual game or in analysis) . on how quickly and accurately we can mentally run through. I then compare the board position with my diagram position.minute penalties.Improving APROP 1 0 on the chessboard. 1 37 . I then use the set. ent for each of us.

Let's examine why. . Visualize a chessboard with 24 occupied squares and 40 unoccupied squares. at least for me.see Figure 5 2 and remove the Knight - 1 38 . Figure 5 1 The other half of the projection of this move is the eradication of the Knight from f3 .let's say it's a Knight. If you're thinking of a move that is not a capture. as in Figure 5 1 (the occupied squares are shown pitch black) . and the Knight (the one that moved from f3 ) on gS . As you analyze.Chess Master . one has to mentally maintain all the other pieces on the board . Of these two mental tasks. For the first part of this projection. you mentally erase the Knight from the ini� tial position. and for the second. you now mentally move a piece . There are therefore 40 vacant squares before considering this move. Here. and the majority of the pieces are still on the board. you probably visualize the Knight on the contemplated new square. . you can dissect it mentally this way: let's say there are 24 pieces left on the board. So the first part of the projection places a Knight onto one of these 40 squares. the chance for error on the second is much greater than the first. At Any Age Let's say you're looking at the board in front of you during a game.

. .t:i�g more likely error in... in reality. _. Another way this problem shows up during men.for that would be a disaster.. The glue resists the removal of the Knight at f3.Improving APROP from f3 . clusion that Black cannot play Nxd4 later in the combination because the white Knight at f3 protects that square.... tal analysis is when the pieces move to different squares.. not remov." For me... Figure 5 2-White to move So what's the big deal ? Why is that hard ? Our mind has a built...... We mentally cannot afford to have the glue "not sticky..in preference to keep all the pieces already there. .. the Knight is not at f3 anymore...... or. _. .. ... _.... ... _.. since most of them will probably not move during this mental analysis.." or else we'll wind up with only half a dozen men on the board ( in our mind) at the end of the analysis.... up. . . . ing this move..0 ... . ---------ing the Knight from f3 is the 13he gl't.. . the glue is "fighting the program. .. . then.. It could show . when. .. ..... c!J:te pregmtn. The stickiness safeguards all the chessmen against inadvertent evaporation ...te is ��figl:J.. 1 39 . There is a certain stickiness for each piece in the mind. .. for example..... Sometimes they move to a vacant square. . _.. in my con. visualiz....

so that it becomes a reference. 1 40 . and then various branches would occur. because I may not have men. this book has no special suggestions . we may contemplate a move.since I have not seriously dealt with this task yet . . as f3 in this example.other than to alert you to the fact that this sort of situation occurs frequently. Figure 53-White to move Figure 53 is an exercise that Kotov gave in Think Like a Grandmaster with the question "Can White play 1 . tally "erased" the Knight from f3 . Rxd6? " Here Black has various choices for his second move.Chess Master . Nxc7 Rxc7 2 . Analysis starting from a "platform." On many occasions. tion after several half. and that it would be very useful if you can make a mental snapshot of a posi.moves as a point of reference. . often a sacrifice. where several halrmoves would be forced. and the APROP issue is this: can you clearly visualize the position after White's second move. I am much more likely to overlook the possibility of moving a piece to f3 than to some other square. D. which you can return to again and again as you evaluate various possible second moves by Black? Here. or a platform. At Any Age they may move to a square which has been vacated.

After you've missed something you feel you should have seen. Good luck with this phase of your improvement. or something else which can be identified and eventually cor. improving APROP is not a simple thing. or was it some pattern problem maybe the glue we talked about earlier. 1 41 . mainly in s tudying and projecting positions without moving pieces . Figure 54 is an example of an Analysis Horizon . with the solid spokes repre. and the dashed spokes representing all moves not being considered con. Optimizing the Analysis Horizon. The smallest circle is the set of all possible positions that can be reached by making my move. was it beyond my Analysis Horizon. though it doesn't involve Flash Cards. We can number the moves. The spokes represent specific moves. too complicated for me to see for this type of time control ? In other words.Improving APROP Thus. as shown in Figure 54. playing the black pieces. tion. all positions that can be reached after one move is made by each side. examine this oversight by first asking: was it just too far ahead. E. rected? If the reason is the latter. senting moves and responses that are actually being considered. the next circle. with me to move. or contemplated. The center of the circles represents the current posi. or spokes. sciously. and so on. then this discovery is worthwhile material from which to develop a Flash Card. al. It takes practice . say. This is the chief suggestion in this book on improving APROP.

Reliability of an evaluation: at any circle. moves. to have a benchmark for discussion.Chess Master . with the greater chance of at least one flawed evaluation.. the less reliable the evaluation. we must decide either to evaluate the posi . Evaluation at a circle: the least accurate evalua . .. Two factors contribute: first. that the position being visualized is more moves into the future. it is the least reli .. bly several move choices. moves hence. and.... able evaluation of all the points. or to project one more move... 1 42 . the less reliable the evaluation. second. Now. tion then. move from the next smaller circle. that there are a greater number of different positions to be considered. It would appear logical that the farther away from the center of the present position.. let's introduce a couple of definitions. tion of all positions that can be reached in a half. and therefore more likely to be visualized with error(s ) . Let us continue now from the assertion that the farther away from the center. .. of all positions. with possi .. or at any number of half. reached in that number of half.. at any position reached.. At Any Age Figure 54 At any point in an analysis..

are two of White's responses. All dashed moves in Figure 54. a move I never considered. and so on.namely Moves 1 1 1 . shown solid.by the results of the games we play . Since no one.already discussed earlier. 1 Nxe4? Moves 1 1 and 1 2 in Figure 54. specifically the ones that can be made by our opponent (here the move marked 13 is an example) . 2 . ation at the next larger circle .again. A real example from my own games is the posi. is the dashed Move 13 in Figure 54.moves . We are held accountable . but also for those we don't consider. In fact. Move 1 in Figure 54 was my move in the position. shows the subtlety of chess Strength. My evaluation at the second circle was much worse than my evaluation at the next circle ( I had looked at continuations to the moves marked 1 1 and 1 2 in Figure 54 . and a move losing a piece for Black.or circles further out . or how skilled. and 1 1 3 ) . ered. ter how quick. Bxe4 .Improving APROP This rationale leads us to the conclusion that we should strive to have the most reliable evaluation at the first circle. tion of Figure 41 . or at least reasonable. the next most reliable evaluation at the second circle. Qxf8+ . . iillillllllill 1 43 . because the defi. represent potential sources of blunders.even the ones I never consid.for not only the ideas and moves we consider. 1 1 2 . that I considered. with the example above. 2 . no mat. nition of the evaluation includes all possible replies by my opponent . tion at one circle is seriously flawed while the evalu. My evaluation at the second circle was flawed .is okay. Bxd8 and 2 . can consciously consider all possible moves for even two half. this infers that a blunder results from an analysis where the evalua. Figure 54. . a blunder.

the evaluation at the next smaller circle is better. particularly. At Any Age ahead in a typical position.•oeBe•e. I believe that this natural tendency is a sub-­ optimal application of our analytical power. I believe it is human nature to analyze further into the future for forced continuations . our opponent is left with no choices in his moves further than the cases where there are more options for both players.Chess Master . The key point of this section follows. 1. we must all quickly learn to rely on a very hard--to--define ability to "sort the wheat from the chaff' when considering moves and responses.where the "trees" in Figure 54 don't branch out.•1�·· ••• ••mau·•·rmttire t � •·} '�ii1��·•• ·• 01�. We would be better off making sure that. .�·�e�•·•· · •· · �•·w*•+ x1mttadiii� �i �i� ��¢lq$*�tt of unforced variations. and where. particularly for our opponent. at each circle. 1 44 . .

conclude he doesn't like that move either. the mental check.CHAPTER S IX IMP ROVI NG TH E MOVE S E LECTION METHO D I n Chapter 1 w e developed the Move selection Method as the general framework. he described in the first chapter how a typical club player organizes his thought process. as you might suspect. or candidate move. return to the first. how to improve on that process ? . sider one choice. so he goes to the first move again. You may decide to spend very little time on this move selection. list. since only one choice is being considered. This process is the Move selection Method. is part of the Move selection Method. The analysis method directs "how the move se. although. The club player may look at a move for a while. go to a different "candidate move. as we've discussed. this has nothing to do with Images or APROP. to structure our thinking to select a move. ticularly good one. However. You may con." evaluate that one for a while. and ultimately jumps to a different move which he actually makes after very little reflection. that doesn't work. then conclude: No. go to another. This style of move selection. and impacts Strength. In Kotov's book. not a par. lection process is organized. then look at three branches each for three ply. this jumping around from move to move. interestingly enough. you may look at one continuation for two ply. and so on." For a given move selection. Now. Think Like a Grandmaster.

lowed by a critical review of it. One responds to the question generally. As much as possible. At Any Age I have only two related answers. Since the example given there was for a master. any move. preferably with a stronger player. You can select any move. as you recall it. and the entire thought process . and record. ing of your particular Move selection Method. or isn't in the mood to review the game with you immediately afterwards. don't be discouraged if your recorded Move selection Method is less deep or otherwise less adequate . This record is simply a "stream of consciousness. The idea would be this: normally. . or moves. you will want to write down every detail. how do you go about understanding your particular Move selection Method? The key is for you to try to remember. particularly if you repeated any thinking of any part of the analysis. immediately after a game. ter 1 . the details of how you thought about a particular move. and write it down. on a broad front. So. Improving the Move selection Method (general). Basically. while the other is specific only to a particular fault in the Move selection Method. you want to take advantage of the pres. if you get an opportunity. maybe an hour after you actually made the move. you should spend a few minutes just remembering a particular move.Chess Master . This set of notes may be similar to the ideas presented in Section C of Chap. This has several advantages that have already been identified.I'm 1 46 ." unedited. . But every time your opponent either is unavailable. fol. A. the entire Move selection Method that you used to select the move. this method calls for the understand. ence of your opponent for some postmortem analysis.

possibly a kind of near panic.Improving the Move selection Method assuming here that you're not a master . utes if the situation isn't somehow corrected." Normally. The most obvious way of noticing this effect is when a player looks at his clock very frequently. the heart suddenly beats uncontrolla. With certain types of heart attacks. contracting slowly and forcing a cer. bly. possibly despera. They are somewhat related. the nature of things is that no blood gets pumped through the body at all. Analysis Fibrillation. Specific limitations of the Move selection Method. or 1 47 . 1. You're probably familiar with the term "heart fibrillation. usually during Time Pressure. or discussing it with another. what's Fibrillation? I simply borrowed this term from the field of medicine. player. Now. with each heartbeat. You might find some of its shortcomings by thinking about it yourself later. tain volume of blood through the body with each stroke. Analysis Fibrillation and Analysis Repetition are the most common and serious faults in the Move selection Method. maybe every ten seconds. preferably stronger." possibly disenchantment. maybe three times a second. the heart beats roughly once a second. ers. irregularly. When this occurs. The patient dies within min. tion. or possi.since that is precisely why you're going through this exercise. bly faster. or sometimes when the player is dealing with a very difficult position. Everything is spastic. A parallel situation occurs in chess for some play. even though that player may have as much as two. B. The common denominator here is a state of "lack of focus.

click.. presents a good example of what I would call Analysis Fibrilla-­ tion near the beginning of the book.. one branch of one b¢gurt. click. or maybe panic.. etc. At Any Age even three.just as a fibrillating heart pumps very little blood. it could take place at other times. King goes here.I'll play 1 2 . or hopeless-­ ness. leading to confusion and indecision. th��•. minutes left. clack.. this five seconds is only three percent of the time left on the clock. click. with only a two-.. Clearly. clack. So the total depths of these two mini--analyses that the player is vacillat-­ ing between have a low total "analysis value" . .·•·· ·��i�� analysis.•. line. What happens during this Analysis Fibrillation is that the player goes back and forth over the same analysis repeatedly. He may say: Let's see I'll go QeB t . is nevertheless concrete. .·a··•·•·· il��. If I'm checking my clock every five seconds while I still have three minutes left. he goes here. click etc. our analysis. 1 48 . But this analysis is usually very short. QeB t and Titne pr¢ss�e p��9··• ��··• �• then repeats the identical sign• •. while the player is not in Time Pressure. whether it's correct or flawed. ()f tliinf¢j1lg has analysis. weird mode of thinking has started. The com-­ mon denominator seems to be anxiety. usually alternating between two particular candidate moves. a mini-­ mooe . this is not in keeping with the normal description of the Move selection Method given in Part IL Kotov.or three-­ ply depth. No. It is a sign that a new.oh. -------------. . in Think Like a Grandmaster. Normally. should you care to pursue it beyond the simple example given here.Chess Master . I better go back to Nxd5 . Although Analysis Fibrillation is most likely to take place in Time Pressure while the player is also in a difficult position. . Something like: Let's see if the Bishop sac works here .

A. As with drugs. however. This is similar in principle to Analysis Fibrilla. 2. he's going to kill me ! He's going to get his Queen down here and then what am I going to do?" And so on. at least partially. ting new ideas. . is our subconscious defense. Emotion has crept into the picture. We all know we shouldn't become emotionally panicked. It usually stems from a lack of sureness. Blunders. Qh5 threatening mate at h 7. Earlier in Part III. point. or paralyze my thinking. It is much more prevalent.Improving the Move selection Method Bxh7t Kxh7 1 3 . not really demanding of the brain. I feel it is diffcult to break out of the panic mode described here. and Should. . Analysis Repetition. masking the panic. whether they result from a breakdown in APROP or 1 49 . including the follow. It's happened to me. the easiest way to avoid having to deal with the result of drug use is not to start using them. camouflaging our emotional panic.through of these with Flash Cards. 3. but ah . and therefore the player feels he has to "double check" every analysis.he has 1 4 . . Beens. we discussed methods of get. . Blunders. tion. making an escape path for his King. and can follow with Rfe8 . so a shallow analysis. so the only defense I know is to pre. Ndf6 protecting the h 7. One need not be a grandmaster to see that this sort of thinking isn't really thinking. and started to immobilize me. program myself not to get into that mode in the first place. Ng5 t Kg8 1 4 . . Have you ever said to yourself in a game: "Oh my God. The Analysis Fibrillation is really a reflection of our mental evolution of millions of years.

General thoughts. So a blunder. even a gross blunder such as a master leaving a piece en prise while not in Time Pressure. and so on. our Move selection Method gets right to the core of chess thinking. A.the idea of orderliness in one's think. to borrow a hackneyed phrase. that person doesn't think it's necessary to unearth the connection to other thoughts. the very difficult feature of the trade. or thinking in general . The move itself results from following one's best intentions. It is here that many chess books have attempted to impart some wisdom. and. leaving a piece en prise. Beens is embodied in the "New ideas/Flash Cards" exercise. tion. but a blunder is simply a specific move with a bad outcome. since this was a random event that shouldn't repeat itself. we have to find the snake so that we will not be lured in the same way again. . To a certain degree. ders and Should. it seemed to be a good idea at the time. At Any Age the Move selection Method. to avoid its repeti. or even a grandmaster. The harm caused by chastising oneself for making a blunder is that it leads to the false belief that blunders can simply be "willed away. Many players chastise themselves for making blunders. are the key targets of this "new ideas search. yet flexible. 1 50 .off between being methodical.Chess Master . It is important to reflect philosophically on blun." So the rooting out of blun. should be carefully contemplated to search for the cause. I think of a blunder as the result of partaking of the forbidden fruit. 4." that they are a momentary aberration of thinking. I have no magic way to reduce that to a formula. ders. . I'm including here blunders such as a master. With this attitude about blunders. ing.

Here. A rank beginner.Improving the Move selection Method Some players become devas. losing other pawns. a pawn but a Rook as well. one will other pawns. so that one w ill not be surprised by one of these pawn captures. Then. losing not just a pawn. Allowing Bxb7 or Bxg7 is capturing one or more of these especially nasty. unlike the thoughts on Flash Cards. Again. playing the black p ie ces in the opening. compared to prise . You will probably not find text material under the name Move selection Method. this kind of blunder by repeated one has to be more care. Again. but the severe shake up suffered by the perpetrator of the blunder can be harnessed into a desire to understand the blunder via the Flash Card method. 1 . review. even if they cannot immediately capture at b7 or g7 (or at b2 or g2 or Bxg7. although this is the first of the subtle topics. or making a similar blunder. but you will be able to recognize similar topics. sooner or capture of its own. . ing that A few ideas might be worth passing along. allows his opponent to play Bxb7 ' 2.. The but a whole Rook besides. which might evacuate enraged he should come to the that diagonal with a threat or a following conclusions. leaving the later: door open to Bxb7 or Bxg7. 3 . mean. on a of the presence of enemy Bishops on the move--after move b asis. ei. then. it is important to look at some chess texts that cover this material. disheartened. then this fact would be a difficult thing to unearth indeed (without a mentor. . if playing the white pieces) . without help ) . long diagonals. In re Bishop may be s cre e ne d by a viewing this after the game.. although by no 151 . . One needs to be aware. and you were not aware of the need for a plan. Kotov's book Think Like a Grand� master comes to mind. as one book. ful in forestalling the loss of these tated upon leaving a piece en pawns to a Bishop. I have no magic bullet to stop this problem. as we ve been say ing all along. one can lose not j ust slowly eliminate the frequency of . One more s imp le example might be helpful. studying your games should eventually bear fruit in this area. If you have been playing without a plan. or Rook ) . Knight (sometimes a pawn or a ther despondent. One must be acutely aware of the presence of the opponent's Bishops on the long diagonals. since.

To the degree that we "reintroduce" procedure into our chess think. particularly if you lost the game. more than make up for the time lost in the procedure . a word of caution.oriented. . . employing BLUMENFELD'S RULE (doing a quick review for checks. we weaken our total capacity through inflexibil. ently structured is that the chess programs are very procedure. do it . it would be useful to have a long. even if it were legal . etc.since weaknesses in your Move selec­ tion Method may surface. in Figure 10. well worth one or two seconds a move. For rated cross. Here. or correct procedures found. sion of one item or deletion of another. If you have an opportunity to analyze after a game with your opponent. the mental list .there's not enough time to follow instructions on a written list. Specifically. forks. while we humans can cut through unnecessary procedures in order to make up for our much slower rate of analysis. ing. .so that the blunders caught. At Any Age means the only book.has to be kept reasonably short for practical reasons.Chess Master . Improvements in your Move selection Method will most likely take the form of a change in empha. If you had hours to ponder every move.board chess. ity. So each procedural idea must be carefully weighed so that it generates a net improvement in Strength . The main advantage we humans have over chess programs as they're pres. sis of the different constituents. with some sections on this general topic. such as the expan. and may save you a serious blunder once every two games. 1 52 . just prior to actually making the move) could be considered as part of the Move selec­ tion Method. detailed procedure that you've memorized for the Move selection Method.

are part of our character or personality. time management.reaching. objectivity. yet far. Then evaluate and take action. industrious or lazy. such as whether we tend to be punctual or tardy. APROP. The factors taken up in this chapter are desire. Some characteristics of our behavior. and even just the maintenance. physical fitness. The fogged. spending.line toughness. discipline. His various abilities will determine how quickly and how well he learns. of the basic Components of Chess Capability. You can liken it to a young man wanting to become a great race. Look hard. and the Move selection Method. and frugal or free. . Probably. namely Images . the character and personality of most people.·' and various personality influences. in that they interfere with the improve.CHAPTER SEVEN MOD E RATING ATTITUDE The effects of personality on your chess are subtle . on.up glasses are the racing counterpart of some negative personality quirks. study . elusive . decisive or vacillating. These will reduce the acuity of his vision and limit his rise among the other drivers. The author The effects of personality have an indirect effect on Strength.car driver. and ask to discover them. Now imagine that he has to wear fogged. change only slightly during their remaining lives. ment. once they reach their teens.up glasses all the time.

and find one or more of these quirks.Chess Master . Usually it's much easier to work around it. The reason for the "durability of personality quirks" is straightforward: without making a special effort to look for the quirks in our personality and character which influence our Strength. then. and others more subtle. for the "Soltis curve" . not enough information. namely Time Pressure. by asking other players and friends. It is one major reason. not enough feedback. This - - 1 54 . for the example of tardi-­ ness ) . . you must seek to identify these personality and character quirks. left to our own devices. or even a quarter of a century to convincingly force us to correct these flaws. and by analyzing your games. I believe. you can minimize their effect on your Strength either by purging this quirk or by working around it. To improve. decisiveness (often tied to procrastination) . This is caused by various different possible factors. .which states that the great majority of players do not become significantly stronger after their period of development of about eight years. and not enough home analysis will take place in a year. for example) before we start to correct it (becoming more punctual. At Any Age We've seen in Part II that some aspects of our character and personality influence Strength such as procrastination (Time Pressure) and objectivity. objectivity. such as fear of failure. We'll deal shortly with what I consider the most serious effect of personality and character on chess. not enough post-­ mortem analysis. The purpose of this chapter is to alert you that. we need overwhelming evi-­ dence showing the bad effects of a personality flaw (tardiness. I'd like to heighten your sensitivity to the features of our character and personality which influence Strength procrastination. caution/ recklessness. And so with other features of our character and personality. If you're fortunate. a decade.

A. ing you over into a new person. not mak. how you study . and is relatively stable. A Strength plateau means a Strength that has been reached. the direct result of 1 55 . after some months or years of play. It's just that this book has the objective of improving your chess. within a reasonable timeframe. which.game match against a player whose Strength is equal to your current Strength . your attitude at the board. Incidentally. This discussion has a premise that you will not improve 1 00 points from a Strength plateau without some study commitment.point improvement would mean that you would eventually win an aver. But discipline is the direct result of what your chess means to you. Can desire and discipline be improved? It's the stuff that dreams are made of It's the slow and steady fire Carly Simon Do you really want to improve your game ? Is your ultimate goal in chess to have a Strength more than 1 00 points stronger than your Strength today? As a refresher. if successful. what you study . Discipline is the engine that galvanizes these four activities. we'll restate that a 1 OO. Four specifics come to mind: a) b) c) d) How much and how steadily you study .Moderating Attitude book recommends working around it rather than trying to root it out directly. working on rooting out the personality quirk is a good idea. age of about five games in an eight. would take considerable time.

and you don't fatigue easily. So desire can't be improved. Let's discuss the four specifics.the marathon sessions have the advantage of efficiency. one's desire. Although Carly Simon's quote was written about the romantic state of a relationship. and discipline to do the studying. To me. I've accomplished more by rising earlier in the morning 1 56 . If you're serious about becoming a better player.Chess Master . that desire can be directly measured by the discipline you marshal over the four items just mentioned. If your study regimen calls for the study of endings every Sunday for two hours. But if you can intensify the seriousness with which you take your game. . the true source of discipline is one's "glo� bal view" of the game. At Any Age your desire to be a better player. of the player's training program. then do it . this will increase the discipline over your game. Discipline makes itself felt in major ways. Study time. The down side of the long sessions is that they're harder to schedule. 1. then discipline is the policeman that makes it happen. . I'm sure she'll allow me to quote those words for excellence in an endeavor as well. and make breakthroughs. and therefore you're less likely to get them in. Desire translates to discipline. It's really just a mirror of the seriousness with which you take the game. One of these is the steadiness. the reliability. It takes study to improve your Strength . it is easier to get on a "roll" in a marathon session. Once at a task. If you can really get these marathon study sessions scheduled. It seems easier to me to schedule and study 45 minutes a day to get in 20 hours a month than to plan two ten�hour sessions in a month.

dedicating that time to this book. If you are not will-1 57 . but you elect to "study games" rather than concentrate on the endgame. looking for new ideas. 2. At the board: It's how hard you try. If you're going to study. your openness in accepting analysis input from other players. or the second sign. how well you hang tough and don't start "pushing wood" at the first sign. and your keenness in leam-­ ing and studying new ideas. If you know that your endgame is weak. 4. par-­ ticularly weaker players. you're operating in an undisciplined manner. even though this may not be as much fun. Discipline keeps you studying with an open mind. Your attitude.let's say 1 00 rating points or more recognize that this will not happen without disci-­ plined attendance to your game. Summarizing. Discipline keeps the television or radio off while you study. Off the board: it's your resolve to study when you'd rather be doing something else. of adversity.Moderating Attitude most days. or any sign. if you really want to improve sub-­ stantially . than by the big chunks of time I've scheduled to accomplish big tasks. then study without dis-­ tractions. Study methods. Study materials. This comprises both your "at the board" and "off the board" intensity. You know by now that you should concen-­ trate your study on the weakest part of your game. 3. Discipline is also linked to objectiv-­ ity.

others just get wet . The choice is yours. Roger Miller In Part II. Some people feel the rain. An article in the April 1 988 issue of Chess Life by Dr. because if he perceived he were not. of Strength.22. There really is a very simple reason for this. There is plenty of bias or lack of objectivity to go around. This correct assessment stems from your own critical review and critiques by others. It requires objectivity to assess your weaknesses correctly." Everyone thinks he's ob. . you must have a correct assessment of the weaknesses of your game. jective. we talked about the importance of objectivity in chess. tivity by attributing losses much more to blunders than to superior play by the opponent. while wins were attributed much more to superior play than to a blunder by the opponent. he would set out to correct this problem. or level. . B. The answers showed that chessplayers displayed a considerable lack of objec. form Strength . At Any Age ing to study. and it also takes obj e c t iv ity to accept c r i t i c i s m fro m fe llow chessplayers at face value. like your op. To improve in chess. ponent in a postmortem. a 111g1111111 1 58 . At any stage. Don Ifill summarized the results of a survey of chessplayers ( taken at the 1 987 World Open) about reasons for winning and losing. Improving objectivity.Chess Master . So please take this section seriously. in order to improve. There is a "Catch. then you must admit to yourself that you will not improve substantially beyond your plat.

a club player for example . but hopefully will not happen again. he's implying that making blunders is either a natural condition such as breathing. I just lost a couple of games I should have won. derail. plying that he was ahead in material (or positionally superior). yeah. Have you ever heard anyone . and l•· • ·?•· · . he's implying that it's okay to disagree with a grand. he's im. Bias will distort this as. I just made one stupid blunder.Moderating Attitude player needs to know what's wrong with his game ­ in the general sense . master. the player is imply. but some freak of nature intervened on his 1 59 . lk•• •· •· ·1xt t�irl��i t�r ttllf�\1!1!��·· •· � }·• ment.such as incorrect assessments of a position.up. sessment and slow down . because sometimes I don't agree with his answers. without a careful and thorough analysis as back. In 1 ) above. 4) I guess I was satisfied with that tourna. In 2 ) . ing that it's okay to get into Time Pressure. or an event you can't do anything about . occur. ring involuntarily from time to time.it happened this time. yeah. I should have won that game. I got into time pressure and then lost a pawn. 3 ) Oh. In 4 ) . Let's try some thoughts out. ment. 2 ) I don't like Larry Evans's What's the Best Move . the · r · · · ··· •• > process of improvement. These kinds of statements show limitations which influence the rate of progress of the player making any of them.wlla1'. r77""7T""JT""JTT"'77""7T7""71�7""717""717""71 � one needs an unbiased assess. and so on. In 3 ) .�$\WJ�ijill •:W�iWlllii$ > possibly worse yet.)I i t( · · · • ) 1 ) Oh. To establish what's wrong.make statements of the following nature: I �=����&.

particularly if you lost or drew? 2 ) Do you have trouble listening to a loweMated player? 3 ) Do you explain your losses by "one. tive. or that you'd never seen that variation of the opening before. the more new pertinent information we gather during each encounter. The more objective we are. First. when they ask you about how you played in a game. Do you often have trouble admitting that you're wrong in a personal. and b) correcting this lack of objectivity if you determine that you're not. objectivity is akin to the size of the window. self. You may be fortunate to know a stronger player whom you can ask.of. Testing Your Objectivity 1 ) Do you give vague and lame explanations to your. on hearing the answer. . .related discussion? Possibly by now you're questioning your objec. you are tempted to argue. To determine whether you are objective.chess. There are two related points. or 4) that you had made a silly oversight. Second. At Any Age opponent's behalf.kind" un. 1 60 . you must ask the question in such a way that the player is comfort. and others.a. able with giving you either answer. stop yourself and admit to yourself that you're not objec.Chess Master . Improving objectivity encompasses two tasks: a) establishing whether you really are objective. non. usual situations which account for this result? You might offer that you were extremely tired after some party or other event the previous day. if. ask another chessplayer who knows you well. If you think of new information as coming through a window.

the allocation of extra time to certain positions. you may ask him to keep an eye on you. then at least to yourself. now and again. Becoming more objective starts with admitting to yourself that you don't have all the answers. that there's nothing wrong with admitting that you made a mistake or blunder .if not to everybody else. Just admitting to yourself that you're not really objective is the hard part. priately "yes" or "no" for these questions. the rapid dispatch of moves which are more or less forced. In Part II. the avoidance of Time Pressure. must be mastered before any real thought of number ( 2 ) . as will be seen shortly. or analyze a game with him. 1 61 . and he can try to remember your level of objectivity. and who sees your games now and then. which could contain the questions above. Improving Time Management. you are opening up new vistas of improvement. we identified Time Management as the handling of the clock.Moderating Attitude tivity. and gets you halfway there. The two major components of Time Manage. ment are ( 1 ) the avoidance of Time Pressure. Kibitz with him. and "take your own pulse" maybe once a year by checking off appro. To avoid Time Pressure. By admitting these things. I strongly advise that number ( 1 ) . comes in. If you have a friend who plays chess. C. while hopefully you agree that clearheaded objectivity is a must. and ( 2 ) the allocation of extra time to positions with special demands on them. more or less equal segments of thinking time. must be given to each move. Allow. It's how one allocates time. or reflection time. and its counterpart. You can make up a checklist of questions.

fire way to get rid of this problem. Purging Time Pressure." and your progress out of it. Over the long haul . I couldn't agree more. as an ex.Chess Master . You've undoubtedly heard many times the im. allowing yourself to get into Time Pressure will get you worse results than those y ou would obtain by avoiding Time Pressure. if you're among the unfortunates who have it. 1. a. This section will show you a sure. Most people with a Time Pressure problem never get rid of it. . der certain circumstances only fuels the potential for Time Pressure. I remember particularly the space Kotov devotes to it in his book Think Like a Grandmaster . The late Sammy Reshevsky. If you get one thing out of this book. At the risk of belaboring what might appear to be an obvious asser. ample. A corollary statement to the one above is this: If farced to choose between playing with a 1 62 . tion. portance of playing with a plan. Almost every strong player I know believes that Time Pressure is a bane. it's covered well in many texts. I'd like it to be your understanding of the "bane of Time Pres­ sure. a real scourge. The bane of Time Pressure. I feel even more strongly about keeping out of Time Pressure. never did. . At Any Age ing oneself the luxury of taking additional time un. as strongly as I feel about playing with a plan. let me state it in italics. However.

It is akin to the boxer who is hurt. and so on. and must now try to survive to the bell in the hope that his one. this may result in a further deterioration of the position. or at least hold. the position. This. you can skip to the next section. one must downsize one's ambitions.minute rest will change things. I would like to convince you through logic that getting into Time Pressure is detrimental to your results and. a plan bridges a number of moves. with various possible objectives. your playing strength. however. when Time Pressure is upon you. such as securing a good square for a Knight. therefore. Now you know how serious I am! The statement above is so bold. but getting into Time Pressure. from deeply thought. do the latter . or even if it's only looming. ens results . If you already clearly believe that getting into Time Pressure worsens results. gives us a better prospect to stay in the game. in my view. ( i) You must believe that Time Pressure wars.out ones to simpler ones (avoiding loss of material. making any move which appears to im. and so on) . one's plans. that it deserves an explanation. and can strengthen his advantage. Usually. to get to the time control alive. and being faced later with severe Time Pressure. What the italicized sentence proclaims is that. please digest this section carefully. than to grind up more of the clock. prove. This 1 63 . since your opponent probably has more time. so shocking.Moderating Attitude plan . If there is any doubt. and playing planlessly . but keeping out of Time Pressure. Again.

time control" more favorable than if you played "on schedule. say.time control. and are much more prone to blunder. you play markedly less well. But statement b ) is starkly true. averaged. Let's review a popular line of reasoning claiming that Time Pressure is not detrimental to one's game. You play only slightly better by taking 50 percent more time.Chess Master . I feel statement a) is only modestly true.reaching a better position at "half. a ) Playing slower than "schedule" for the first half of the moves ( let's say) will produce a position at "half. This line of reasoning hinges on two clearly true assertions. I think statement c) is clearly false.time. As a result. . Statements a) and b) are true. with the conclusion c) asserting that what's gained in a) is greater than what's lost in b ) . At Any Age concept is so important for you to believe that three different rationales are presented next to support it." c) The position reached at the time control will be better by playing more slowly during the first half . The rationale based on statistics. By taking only a quarter of the time per move. but not statement c ) . over a number of games. a) and b) where a) gains and b) loses. . as always in these sorts of considerations." even though you're rushing your moves during the second half." b) Playing in Time Pressure during the second half will yield a position at time control inferior to the one you would reach if you had "normal time." assuming that you start from the same position at "half. 1 64 .

this probability.Moderating Attitude The killer combo/blunder argument. because the point is so important. too" argument. But in fact. rowing time from later moves. must be realistically assessed: the chances are much greater that you will not find the "killer combo" (because it probably doesn't exist) . So this borrowing process is extremely unwise.imposed Time Pressure.a blunder . 1 65 . his "rationale" being that you would be deprived of the benefit of his thinking time. The "your opponent will play faster. position. bor. more accurately. On average. he is now more likely to blunder because of his self. Some players believe that when you get into Time Pressure your opponent will play fast himself. it is possible that thinking about any particular move an additional 30 seconds may pro. and eventually have to make moves at an accelerated rate. mediately clarifies the game and makes the remaining moves simple. use up time that is earmarked for later moves. with serious consequences. Some players believe it's better to take more time earlier in the time control to get to a winning. In any given game. or. The nature of the game makes an omission . This possibility. would increase his advantage even more. or at least a superior. your opponent would presume. This.a winning combination . duce a flash . after which it is easier to play out the remaining moves in the time control. Let's be more precise.that im. The likelihood that you will then overlook something. which you may not have overlooked if you had that extra frac. tion of a minute each move must be weighed against that "fishing expedition" you went on earlier.leading to a loss much more likely than a good idea leading to a win. this simply isn't true.

making moves at the rate of four per minute. If he moves after a minute.Chess Master . the idea of suckering your opponent into playing quickly. We could look at the equivalent reflection time another way. typically. Since. but I do not know any good players who endorse that strategy.to get an equivalent reflec. So this argument. you benefit from that. say.the "pure reflection time" . If you are in Time Pressure. Let's look at the logic of this. 1 66 . per. but not the equivalent of a whole minute. is also bad. . but trappy.hour time control. your opponent selects his move from. Your equivalent reflection time is 1 5 seconds (you are moving at four moves a minute) plus one third of his 90 seconds. . If your opponent maintained a normal playing schedule . three reason. If your opponent is reflecting on his move for a minute. Your opponent is playing on schedule to a 40. tion time. The trappy move may land your prey. but it is the same kind of idea as playing an inferior. we can develop an equivalent reflection time ratio. His equivalent reflection time is 90 seconds (he is mov.move.keeping a steady reflection time per move ( maybe a minute and a half) . At Any Age This scenario may come true now and again.while you are in extreme Time Pres­ sure. and are preparing your next reply while it's your opponent's move. You are in extreme Time Pres­ sure. let's define "pure reflection time" as the time when your own clock is running. able choices. you have spent 20 seconds in advance on his particular move. or 90 seconds a move. We are now ready to develop numerically the reflection time ratio. we could divide his reflection time by three and add that to your own reflection time . you might spend 20 seconds preparing your response to each of his reasonable expected moves. So it's 1 5 plus 30 for a total of 45 . move. For the sake of quantifying this.

Moderating Attitude

ing at 40 moves per hour) plus one third of your
reflection time, one third of 1 5 seconds, for a total of
95 seconds. The reflection time ratio is 95/45 , or
slightly better than two,to,one. If he speeds up and
moves in 30 seconds, your equivalent reflection time
would be 1 5 seconds plus one third of 30 seconds, for
a total of 25 seconds, while his becomes 30 seconds
plus one third of your 1 5 for a total of 35 seconds.
This development shows that it makes no sense for
your opponent to rush his moves, since he is dimin,
ishing the reflection time ratio.
There is no foundation in logic, all other things
being equal, for him to take this approach, and there,
fore you should not expect it, just as you don't select
your moves with the idea that your opponent is
going to make an inferior move.
Do you think Time Pressure is bad ? This is a very
important question. Your prospects for curing your
Time Pressure problem depend on your recognition
that it is indeed a problem. There is nothing pro,
found about this. From what I understand about
alcohol rehabilitation, for example, the first step
toward a cure is to admit to oneself that there's a
problem.
Get ready to go through the flow chart in Figure
5 5 , slowly and seriously. If you get to a place marked
YES AGAIN , come back to this place in the text. If
you exit anywhere, then you're not ready to proceed
with a remedial program to get rid of your Time
Pressure.
If you reached YES AGAIN , you are ready to go
to the next section.

1 67

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

CURING TIME PRESSURE






Are m y results more
important than the
quality of my games?

..

NO

. . . . . . .

. . .

YES •:
By getting into time
pressure, do I feel my
results are more inferior
than if I didn't get into time
pressure?

NO
• • • • •

.

YES :
By playing more quickly,
will the quality of my
moves, on average,
deteriorate?

NO
· · · · ·

YES


By playing more quickly,
am I willing to accept, on
average, somewhat worse
moves for the first three
quartersof the moves
during each time control?

NO
• • • •

..

YES :
AGAIN :
Remedial program, with
suitable penalties (author uses
schedule, tears up currrency
for slipped schedule-''the
hangover effect")

FIGURE 55

1 68

Moderating Attitude

(ii)

The false premise of "Relative Time Pressure . "

Relative Time Pressure was defined in Chapter 1 ,
Section D.
There is an allure to embrace Relative Time
Pressure as a method of managing one's time, since it
would often be a softer, an easier, time management
than the standard "linear scheduling" we've been
talking about. For example, you start out intending
to keep pace with the "linear schedule," but if you
should fall behind, you start using Relative Time
Pressure as a yardstick, by saying to yourself it's okay
to get into Time Pressure as long as your opponent is
more short of time than you are .
I strongly advise against using Relative Time
Pressure as a measure instead of "absolute Time Pres­
sure," the one we've been talking about. You would
be relying on the idea that "you can make as many
reasonable moves in one minute as your specific
opponent for that game." You would be allowing the
outcome of the game to be very strongly influenced
by "who plays better in Time Pressure."
Although there is a correlation between playing
strength at, say, two minutes a move and strength at
six seconds a move, there are many cases, many
players, where this is not true. Again, we have to be
careful to define our terms. At 30 moves an hour, you
may be among the best two percent of the players,
reflecting a certain rating. At five seconds a move,
you may stand only among the best ten percent of
the rated players, considerably weaker as measured
on the Blitz level.
By allowing Relative Time Pressure to rule your
time allocation, you have suddenly agreed to be
scored by a different yardstick. It's as if, when time
gets short, you've agreed to put away the chessboard
and replace it with a "GO" board, or maybe a
1 69

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

"PENTE" board, and play one of these games - with
an advantage comparable to the one you have in the
chess game at the time - to determine the outcome
of the original chess game. Unless your ability in
"GO" or " PENTE" is as good as it is in chess, you've
made a bad deal !
So don' t even consider Rdative Time Pressure as
a working tool.

(iii)

The causes of Time Pressure.

Some chess authorities have tried to deal with
this subject. They principally feel that there is a
mechanical reason for it, such as thinking too slowly,
and, therefore, deal with the problem from that base.
Former World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik, for
example, recommends playing practice games at
quicker time limits, undoubtedly because he feels
that being forced to think faster, or to prune your
thinking, will eliminate, or at least reduce, the prob,
lem. There is, of course, some element of validity in
this rationale.
I feel, however, that Time Pressure problems are
mainly psychological in origin. Four major causes of
Time Pressure are described next, three of which are
psychological in origin, and the fourth one techni,
cal.
Weak move compulsion.

When we're playing a rated game involving a
clock, and are making moves at a rate slower than
the schedule, we eventually become sensitive to
Time Pressure approaching, and start to pull our,
selves together, speeding up our moves to avoid the
blunders that go with Time Pressure, and also to
avoid an outright time forfeit. The onset of this
1 70

Moderating Attitude

feeling, which NM Allan Bennett calls "move com,
pulsion," is a personal thing, and varies from player
to player. Let's call "strong move compulsion" the
timely reaction to the problem, while "weak move
compulsion" allows the time situation to become
more critical before the player tries to rectify it.
The degree of move compulsion a player experi,
ences is really a part of his personality. My guess is
that a player with weak move compulsion is also not
as easily intimidated in other facets of life. He is
likely to start preparing his tax return much closer to
the deadline than the person with strong move com,
pulsion, or experience a more severe symptom of
disease (such as pain or a lump) before deciding to
seek medical attention.
So the degree of move compulsion is really a
reference point from which one must work to com,
bat Time Pressure.
Weak move compulsion is probably the most
important, the most prevalent, cause of Time Pres­
sure.
But you might now obj ect to this exposition,
claiming I'm just playing with words, since you might
consider weak move compulsion not as a cause, but a
definition , of Time Pressure.
I don't want to debate this hypothetical objec,
tion. I want to declare that weak move compulsion
exists either because the player does not appreciate
the serious consequences of Time Pressure or be,
cause it's part of his personality.
The cop-out/fear offailure.

No one who plays chess competitively likes to
lose. We learn, most of us not easily, that losing is
going to happen, and that we must come to terms
with that. Each time we lose, we explain to ourselves
1 71

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

what happened. Our ego demands it. "I tried a new
line, and I wasn't familiar with it but my opponent
was, so I got into time trouble and lost." Or, "I tried a
pawn sacrifice, but it wasn't sound." Or, "My oppo ...
nent played a really good game! " (Why is it so hard
for most of us to admit that as a reason sometimes ?)
And there are various other reasons we sometimes
have.
Imagine that halfway through the first time con ...
trol, you get a severe stomachache that diverts your
attention so you can't concentrate, and you lose as a
result. I wouldn't use that as an excuse with my
opponent, but I would certainly feel that it was the
explanation for my loss, and legitimately so.
Now imagine that I played slowly, slowly enough
to get into Time Pressure, did not build up a superior
position, and had to rush (Time Pressure) my last
dozen moves, some of which were poor, and lost as a
result. During the postmortem, I point out to my
opponent that I got into Time Pressure, and that's
why I made the bad moves. What a beautiful alibi! It
wasn't me, it was the Time Pressure. My ego is intact.
My loss was caused by an external event ( implying,
of course, through no fault of my own) . My slower
play during the first half of the moves improved my
chances of getting a better position than if I had
moved "according to schedule" - and then, if it
doesn't work out, I've got the old Time Pressure
excuse. It's just like the previous example of the
stomachache.
Not exactly !
You can already tell the difference. The stom ...
achache really was accidental; but the Time Pressure
I walked into with eyes open, of my own free will.
That's the cop... out. Or fear of failure. I take no
personal responsibility for losing the game, get my ...
self some free thinking time by playing slowly and
1 72

so 1 73 . ably only slightly better) in this case than if the player plays "on schedule. There is no question that. He is." The "well. on the average. Perfect for the ego. If you get into Time Pressure because you simply have to find the best move all the time. even if it's a fairly obvious one. the quality of the "early" moves will be better (but prob. and then has to rush the other half. There is a combination of some lack of discipline and laziness at the root of this problem. then you're probably a perfectionist. and all the while have the Time Pressure excuse ready if I lose. out and perfectionist) which are not easy to distin. If you feel guilty about making a move quickly. combinations of causes (cop. What a beautiful setup. No chance of failure. The procrastinator. Well-meaning time mismanagement. There are. you're probably a procrastinator. The player spends an inordinately long time in making. the first half of the moves of the time control. guish. But. then you're a perfectionist.meaning time mismanager" here feels that he is more likely to have a better position that will tend to play itself. say. If you don't get your income tax in until the last minute. of course.Moderating Attitude maybe getting that overwhelming position or find. The typical scenario for getting into Time Pres­ sure is standard. ing that fantastic sacrifice. Some of us always wait for the last minute to get things done. how disastrous for my game ! The perfectionist.

This implied con. They feel that they must develop some minimum level of un. However. nent. halfway to the first time control. The flaw is that the player has already written the game off. quently.those in which he hasn't attained that clearly superior position) because he thinks it maximizes his chances of winning. say. or that the move being contemplated must meet some mini. in my view. I know only one master who feels this way. It is practice for the future.Chess Master . then. even if that means sacrificing some wins and draws presently. . even though I believe he's dead wrong. subcon. cept which I believe is incorrect. in ten years. . A major cause of Time Pressure arises from the set of priorities that certain players have. They may also feel that they're trying to play the best chess down the road. sciously. 1 74 . cept is that the games being played at the present time have a real value not just in the technical sense. which is one of the cornerstones of improvement. ment in the future. has no more value than a game against a computer program. As a result. The competitive game against a human oppo. Playing for the future. but the practice will probably last a life. these players get into serious Time Pressure fre. there is an implied con. At Any Age to speak. self. These considerations tran. he considers the game an invest. Should he get short of time. mum standard of quality.consistent set of considerations. scend in importance that of the clock. derstanding of the position in front of them. but also in the sense that they provide experience in the crucible of competition. This is actually a logical. expecting to get into Time Pressure ( in some of the games .

and their use. The remedial program. since we typically have enough opening prepa. rather than use only the rough descriptions "simple" and "extreme. in a 40. b. the number of minutes left in the time control divided by the num. by Move 30. Summarizing. and play becomes easier. at a level consistent with the seri. to maximize our performance not just in the present but in the future. is treated with equal weight. not to find a move we're satisfied with." The reasons will become evident later. to Moves 2 1 to 30? It is true that the first five moves are usually a "gimme" . So why. ber of moves still to be made. Time Pressure demerits. I feel that we must. We'll get into specific remedies for Time Pres­ sure. he will score.move time control. or an understanding of the posit ion we 're s a tisfied w ith . (i) The mechanics of Time Pressure tracking. That "certain timeframe" is. we know that. In the meantime. should we allocate as much time to the last ten moves (Moves 3 1 to 40) as we do. ous disadvantage of frequent Time Pressure. or set of moves. are based on move scheduling in such a way that each move. most of the time.meaning that the time allocation is a gift. The first five moves are allocated as much time as the five moves completing the time control. say. ration to know how to play the first five moves with 1 75 . concede that the top priority is to find the best move within a certain timeframe. a game is decided. Also.wise or performance.Moderating Attitude time.wise. give or take a little. rating. but must first quantify the degree of Time Pres­ sure.

The problem is this: even if. the outcome of the game is still very much in doubt. and should therefore allocate the available time to other moves (maybe 6 through 30) .Chess Master . all moves are allocated equal time. We'll need to know. . that's very much worse. >.I some scale. However. little reflection time is required for Moves 3 1 to 40. At Any Age little thought. where the real fight is.>> ?\LF I sure was that we got into during the game. and you have three minutes to play your last ten moves. on I Fl� i \/�." then in one quarter of the games there will be insufficient time available to think about those moves. Worse because you're much more likely to make a blunder in such an environment. and that is it! There are degrees of Time Pressure.P�!J�� 11 Pressure.��r')���-� I We will need to quantify Time 1 1���!���{··���. how bad the Time Pres1 ) !iq:ia.li(�i��i��G } . if you only have half a minute to play ten moves. that's extreme Time Pressure as explained in Part II. An argument can be made that we probably will not have serious reflection to do after Move 30. To me. and as a result we "give that time away. in fact. in three quarters of all games. So.l . by allocating the time belonging to Moves 3 1 AO to them. I. is not worth the risk of being short that one game in four. 1 76 . and will be available to be allo-­ cated as extra time in difficult positions. How� ever. So let's work out the actual Time Pressure merits and demerits. . scheduling this time will not do any harm. the improvement in the quality of Moves 6�30.�!���. If you're playing a game at 40 moves per hour. Why do we need to make a federal case out of it? You may say we know Time Pressure is not good.l l:iute. when.

and the Time Pressure demerits system. You're playing a rated game at forty moves per hour. See Figure 56.Moderating Attitude Move scheduling. but on the time you've taken relative to a prearranged schedule . a way to determine Time Pressure demerits. So divide the time left. with a subsequent time control of 20 moves per half hour. Before you start playing. the worse is the Time Pressure transgression. So we need a structure. getting seven with a remainder of four. We'll always forget about the remainder. as a visual aid." How much time should you take to make the first five moves. the first quint? Forty moves is eight quints. record keeping. you enter a 53 . Let's begin. So you have seven minutes to make the first quint. Everything is done in five�move chunks. That would leave you 53 minutes ( 60 minus 7 ) at the end of the first quint. and demerits.the scheduling of moves. the recording of elapsed time . by eight (eight quints) . or plan .not on the quality of your moves.this is the schedule. We'll put an empty box at the right of the fourth move. Time Pres­ sure and Time Pressure demerits are based on your clock performance . This degree will be identified by Time Pressure demerits. The degree of Time Pressure that a player has allowed himself to get into is important.in parentheses next to the fifth move. You also draw a line below the fifth move. which we'll call a "quint. and the reason behind quantifying the Time Pressure. The simplest way to learn how to determine your Time Pressure demerits is to go through a game example . which you'll fill in with the actual 1 77 . As you might suspect. namely 60 minutes. The more Time Pressure demerits.

See Figure 5 7 . left in the time control. You subtract 8 from 5 7. 1 78 . Fifty.Chess Master . with 5 7 minutes left on your clock after five moves. . You have 35 moves. The second quint is next. White Black White 1 21 2 22 3 23 4 5 6 7 D (53) 0 Black 24 25 26 27 FIGURE 56 Let's say you've completed the first quint in three minutes . You enter a 5 7 in the box at the right of the fourth move. If this all sounds very complicated to you while trying to play chess. and enter 49 in paren. We'll talk about a visual aid in the next section. don't despair. by subtracting the 53 from the 5 7. or seven quints. round no. leaving 49. See Figure 5 8 .you're familiar with the opening.let's say you're playing the white pieces . date opening vs. theses at the right of Move 1 0.seven divided by 7 is 8 with one left over. This would leave 5 7 minutes on your clock. and can therefore play quickly. Also. You have eight minutes to play your second quint. At Any Age time remaining when you've completed the first quint.you calculate your schedule for the second quint. While your opponent is thinking on his fifth move . and enter a +4 in the circle next to the sixth move. you've earned four merits. . and 57 minutes left.

Moderating Attitude
round no.
date

opening
vs.

White

White

Black

1

21

2

22

3

23

4

5
6
7

Black

24

(53)

25

@

26
27

8

28

9

29

10

30

11

31

12

32

13

33

14

34

15

35

FIGURE 57

1 79

Chess Master . . . At Any Age
round no.
date

opening
vs.

White

White

Black

1

21

2

22

3

23

4
5
6
7

24

(53)

25

@

26

8
9
10
11
12

15
16
17

@]
(49)

@

20

OZ]
(21 )

@

29
30
31
32

0
(1 2)

@

33

34

(40)

35

@

36

18
19

@

28

13
14

27

Black

37

m
(4)

@

38

@]

39

(28) 40

OJ
(0)

Figure 58

As you complete your tenth move, or your sec,
ond quint, let's say you have 4 7 minutes left on the
clock. You enter a 4 7 in the box at the right of Move
9 - see Figure 58 again - and now calculate your
total merits or demerits. You have fallen behind two
minutes during the second quint: 4 7 -49 is -2. You
have obtained two demerits during this quint, which,
after you combine with the four merits after the first
1 80

Moderating Attitude

quint, will give you a net of two merits ( 4 - 2 + 2 ) ,
which you will enter in a circle at the right of Move
1 1 . See Figure 58 again.
=

We'll go through one more quint in detail. While
your opponent is thinking on his tenth move, you
want to compute your schedule to complete your
third quint. Your thinking proceeds this way. I have
30 moves left to play ( 40 moves minus 10 already
played) , or six quints (six sets of five moves each ) . I
have 4 7 minutes left. So 4 7 divided by 6 quints is 7
minutes per quint with a remainder of 5 . So I have
seven minutes to play the third quint, and therefore
enter a 40, which is 4 7 - 7 , in the parentheses to the
right of Move 1 5 . Again Figure 58.
Imagine now that you get bogged down, -and,
upon completing your 1 5th move, you have 35 min ...
utes left. You enter 3 5 in the box at the right of Move
1 4 - still on Figure 58. During this quint, you have
obtained five demerits (35 -40 is -5 ) . You combine
these five demerits with your total accrued merits of
+ 2 through the second quint, for a new total of 3
demerits. See Figure 58 again.
This is the first time you're in the red - with net
demerits - and you can see that it was caused in the
second and third quints because you took more than
the allotted time in each of these quints. Figure 58
also shows the scheduled time, the elapsed time, and
the demerits for the fourth through eighth quints.
On completing the 40th move, you had one minute
left in this hypothetical game, which would show in
the box to the right of Move 39. Note that in this
time control, the last two quints were played in
simple Time Pressure. At 40 moves per hour, the last
ten moves - any ten, for that matter - have a 1 5 ...
minute allotment. But there were only 7 minutes left
after 30 moves, somewhat less than half the sched ...
181

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

ule. This is reflected by the accrual of the 1 3 demerits
by the end of 30 moves.
It is important to continue the process into the
second, and all subsequent, time controls.
In the next time control, 20 moves are to be
played in 30 minutes. At the beginning of the time
control, you will have 3 1 minutes (30 plus one
minute, the one minute being the time on your
hanging flag after your 40th move) to make Moves
41 through 60. You will use merits and demerits
again, starting from a clean slate rather than adding
or subtracting from the previous 1 3 demerits.
The reason for starting over with merits/demerits
is so that you cannot avoid "standing trial" for your
13 demerits by trying to offset them with merits in
the second time control, when the situation is often
clarified and moves could be made quickly.
Up until recently, I used to keep merit/demerit
records primarily during the first time control, and
rarely for subsequent ones. However, as was pointed
out to me by Allan Bennett, it is important to keep a
merit/demerit record during subsequent time con,
trols to maintain the same thought processes - to
avoid disruption. Interestingly enough, because of
fatigue and other factors, one may start to play too
rapidly in a second time control, often making slov,
enly and half,thought,out moves. Your merits would,
in this case, rapidly pile up, alerting you to this
situation.
The next quint schedule card.
The calculations we went through in the last
subsection were very simple division and subtraction
types, but it is possible that you may feel over,
whelmed by these - not so much because of the
math, but because you are trying to think of chess
moves. The extraneous arithmetic merely confuses
1 82

Moderating Attitude

things.
All true. But an important mitigating factor is
present. You'll get used to it so that you can do these
calculations in your sleep. You probably remember
the first few times you used a clock, and how it
disrupted your thinking. But that problem soon
passed. After a while, you will not need the schedule
card we will describe shortly. I used it for a while and then weaned myself from it.
Using the "next quint" schedule card.
Let's do some examples.
We want to schedule the first quint in a 40,
moves,per,hour time control. Our objective is to
determine the entry in the parentheses on Figure 56
(or Figure 58) at Move 5 , representing the "next
waypoint."

On the card in Figure 59, we first find the 60 in
the column at the left. This is the number of minutes
we have left. We then look for the column heading
with a 40 on the card, then down to the row with the
60. We find that number to be a 53 ("A" on Figure
5 9 ) . So the entry on Figure 58, if we used the card,
would be 53 to the right of the fifth move, the same
as the entry we originally figured by doing the arith,
metic in our head.
Let's look at some other entries on Figure 58
now. We had 5 7 minutes left after five moves played.
On the card, in the column under 35 moves, and
across from the 5 7 in the leftmost column ( the time
left), is a 49 ("B" on Figure 59), which becomes the
entry for Move 1 0. Again, this number is the same as
the entry on Figure 58, because the entries in the
card have been calculated the same way as our <level,
opment in the previous section.
1 83

Chess Master . . . At Any Age

THE NEXT Qu1Nr SCHEDULE CARD

A

B

c

D

60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
34
33
32
31
30

40 35 30 25 20 15 1 0

52
51
50
49
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
35
34
33
32
1
30
29
28
28
27

52
51
50
49
48
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
36
35
34
33
32
31

50
50
49
48
47
46
45
45
44
43
42
41
40
40
39
38
37
36
35
35
34
33
32
31
30

48
48
47
46
45
44
44
43
42
41
40
40
39
38
37
36
36
35
34
33
32
32
31
30
29

30
29
28
27
26

29
28
27
26
25

28
27
26
25
24

45
45
44
43
42
42
41
40
39
39
38
37
36
36
35
34
33
33
32
31
30
30
29
28
27
27
26
25
24
24
23

40
40
39
38
38
37
36
36
35
34
34
33
32
32
31
30
30
29
28
28
27
26
26
25
24
24
23
22
22
21
20

30
30
29
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
25
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
20
19
19
18
18
17
17
16
16
15

30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
09
08
07
06
05
04
03
02
01
00

40 35 30 25 20 15 10

27
26
25
24
23
22
21
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

26
25
24
23
23
22
21
20
19
18
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
12
11
10
9
8
7
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

25
25
24
22
22
21
20
20
19
18
17
16
15
15
14
13
12
11
10
10
9
8
7
6
5
5
4
3
2
1
0

24
24
23
22
21
20
20
19
18
17
16
16
15
14
13
12
12
11
10
9
8
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
2
1
0

23
22
21
21
20
19
18
18
17
16
15
15
14
13
12
12
11
10
9
9
8
7
6
6
5
4
3
3
2
1
0

20
20
19
18
18
17
16
16
15
14
14
13
12
12
11
10
10
9
8
8
7
6
6
5
4
4
3
2
2
1
0

15
15
14
14
13
13
12
12
11
11
10
10
9
9
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0

FIGURE 59
1 84

------

if we were using the card to determine our time schedule. left to play. Again the card can be used instead of the calculation we did earlier.ply. or affix it with a 1 85 . available at stationery stores) . as it should be. as it should be. You could give it some durability by making a "plastic sandwich" out of it. And so on for the other quints. but no whole number of minutes need remain after completion of 40 moves." You can make a schedule card by cutting out Figure 60 and folding it in half. consistent. ing plastic sheets (made by Pres. umn under 25 and in the row with the 35 on the left. with five moves. This represents the status after ten moves.seal. After completing 35 moves." These are self. the card. shows a 40 ("C" on Figure 5 9 ) . After completing ten moves. with the entry on Figure 58 across from Move 20. So using the schedule card simplifies the "time record keeping. After completing 1 5 moves. the card. consistent. So 40 would become the entry in the parentheses at Move 1 5 . or one quint. in the col.Moderating Attitude Let's do two more quints on Figure 58 quickly now. with the entry on Figure 58 across from Move 1 5 . This is the reason there is no column under the heading 5 on the card.a. 035 . the schedule would always show a zero in the parentheses to the right of Move 39. The flag must not have fallen. stock #43. To do this. We show 4 7 minutes left in the square next to Move 9 on Figure 5 8. in the column under 30 and in the row with the 47 on the left. shows a 28 ("D" on Figure 5 9 ) . The card is small enough so that you can cover either the right or left half of your score sheet (even with the small USCF score books) . you need simply buy a package of "Clear Seal Laminating Sheets.

I would briefly explain to my opponent before the game started that I use this card to schedule my moves. then. and that I presumed he had no problem with that. . could object to the recording of the schedule 1 86 . During the period that I was using such a card. such a schedule card can be interpreted as referring to notes. At Any Age T H E NEXT Qu1NT SCHEDULE CARD 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 � 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 40 53 52 51 50 49 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 35 52 51 50 49 48 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 30 50 50 49 48 47 46 45 45 44 43 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 48 48 47 46 45 44 44 43 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 25 24 20 45 45 44 43 42 42 41 40 39 39 38 37 36 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 24 24 23 15 40 40 39 38 38 37 36 36 35 34 34 33 32 32 31 30 30 29 28 28 27 � 26 25 24 24 23 22 22 21 20 10 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 15 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 � 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 40 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 35 26 25 24 23 23 22 21 20 19 18 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 30 25 25 24 22 22 21 20 20 19 18 17 16 15 15 14 13 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 25 24 24 23 22 21 20 20 19 18 17 16 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 10 9 8 8 7 6 5 20 23 22 21 21 20 19 18 18 17 16 15 15 14 13 12 12 11 10 9 9 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 0 15 20 20 19 18 18 17 16 16 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 10 10 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 10 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 Figure 60 paper clip. I simply didn't use it. a player who wants to nit pick.Chess Master . aside from the actual recording of moves and the time on the clocks. although it did make me angry. . Technically speaking. and therefore be deemed illegal. and propelled me to play better chess." Technically. One word of caution. The Official USCF Rules state that "The use of notes made during the game as an aid to memory is also forbidden. On the one occasion that my opponent objected.

You've heard my explanations . I feel I established pretty firmly that the cause of my Time Pressure is that I'm a procrastina. and then work on these to eliminate them. Now. First. ing of merits and demerits (as shown on line 6 of Figure 5 7 ) . This. There are two difficulties with this. One is enlightenment. I made only a very modest inroad into reduc. You now have all the wonderful tools to give you a calibrated measure of how serious a Time Pressure transgressor you have been in any game. the causes of Time Pressure are not clear. you have an extremely tough uphill battle to purge yourself of the offending attitude causing Time Pressure.Moderating Attitude (as shown on line 5 on Figure 5 7 ) . even with that awareness for quite a few years. So the gist of the first problem is that the root causes are not clear. yet. using this recording technique. to get to the bottom of.the various possible psychologi. the causes of your Time Pressure. you have the ideas of a giant like former World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik. how to correct it? Two approaches come to mind. is true for me. incidentally. By "enlightenment" is meant the standard idea of trying to sort out. ally recognize the problem.punishment program. even if you eventu. The second difficulty is that. During the hundreds of games I've played. and to the record. ing my Time Pressure problem. measured by the number of demerits you've accrued. no one has ever chal. 1 87 . You also have some ideas of the causes of Time Pressure. Against that. finally. (ii) Reward and punishment . tor. lenged it as being improper or illegal. cal causes. and the other is a reward.and.

The weekly rate of security viola . in that one's take.. ors.. tions dropped like a stone . a company engaged in defense work. petitive posture of the facility. an internal punishment system was instituted. . our level of violations became to . As the situation became more ominous and the company faced the possibility of being denied access to classified information in this facility. Usually the person responsible was taking "his absence" within a day or two.. and rapid. At Any Age Why reward and punishment? A situation at my place of work. unpaid absence of three work. but these made only a small inroad into the level of violations. The results were incredible. The person who committed a security violation had to take an immediate. found later by a security guard (each of us had a file cabinet which can be locked) . I concluded from this that punishment.-home pay for that month.. or week.-one.. An unpaid absence is very much like a hefty fine. with the likely consequence of seriously crippling the com .. secu . and thereby the com . meetings..Chess Master . meted out fairly and quickly. In a facility of several thousand employees. In the 1 980s.by a factor of at least ten. reducing them perhaps by 25 percent. tally unacceptable to the government. The disposition of these violations was relatively just. rallies. The bulk of these violations were in leaving a confidential document unattended on one's desk. sion on me. 1 88 . The level of these violations was typically several per week. rity violations occurred at a certain weekly level as would be expected. ing days.-to. pany. is seriously affected. A diligent attempt was made by management to heighten awareness of the problem with flyers of various col . really made a deep impres . .. really works. almost totally correcting the problem. and so on.

I suggest doing this 1 89 ... earned money. alty under special situations) . If you are a person of moderate income. or the stamps. It must be enough so that you are angry about it. Or. $2 for six to ten demerits.. You may elect to tear up one first . tb�t v<>l.. Tear up the currency.." If you tear up $ 1 for every three demerits. ranged "tear .. of course. the more dramatic will be the results. The specific punishment.... You must be the judge about how much currency you should tear up. You can calibrate punishment to less than a dollar by purchasing stamps and tearing up the stamps. up fee schedule. and you are a typical wage earner.... te�t how. It is important that you accept your punishment promptly.. Tear .. A couple of related issues here. denomination bills.1.Moderating Attitude So reward . but it need not be a huge sum of money. immediately after the time con. some . class stamp per demerit at the end of the time control. punishment is also a way out of Time Pressure. and . till curteticy!! trol during which the Time Pressure demerits occurred. and the more fairly it is administered (not excusing the pen .... But it is very important that you use a prear. I believe the steeper the penalty. dollar bills.. ing up currency makes me angry.. and so on. Angry for allowing myself to get into a situation where I must now tear up some hard . My punishment is to tear up and destroy one .. but let me give it to you straight. that is probably sufficient to quickly get you to stay on schedule. This will sound weird. other ... you might decide to tear up (destroy) $ 1 for one to five demerits...

You may say. you can resolve to donate one. much more so than tearing up stamps. If it bothers you that you're tearing up money instead of getting something for your girlfriend or your wife. . or husband. A long-shot "Time Pressure" fix. ten. Again.mainly about your sanity or funny looks from anyone who sees this activity. or boyfriend.Chess Master . on top of the money you have to tear up. if you feel guilty about not having donated enough to charity. If you know that your Time Pressure problem is the result of being a procrastinator. Mind 1 90 . because most of us feel that we should be doing more for our girlfriend or boyfriend or our spouse. I recom." or wife. you must tear up enough currency so that it has an impact on you. So there you have it. then simply resolve to do both.­ thing for my girlfriend. tearing up US currency really bothers me. A subtle point here. For me. whichever the case may be. .­ mend that you tear up currency. The full fix to your Time Pressure problem. Again. Although very laudable. The same argument goes for saying you'll give that money to your favorite charity or to stop hunger in the world. I'll use that money and get some. there may be some other help for you. You cannot do these things instead of tearing up money. You must tear up currency and spend some amount on your girlfriend. "I'm not going to tear up money. There are several companies that make audio cassettes with subliminal messages on them. this will not influence your chess. The Time Pressure problem will not get fixed. At Any Age out of sight of people. two. or whatever number of dollars to charity for every dollar you tear up. simply because you're liable to get a lot of questions .

Box 904. Listen. free telephone number ( 800) 248." Box 1 1 1 56. Inc. 2 7 3 7 24 hours a day.3602.229 1 ." Now." available at some bookstores for about $ 1 0." which is also identified by the num.. . Box 90608. Inc. They have a tape called "Do it now ! " for $ 1 1 . has a toll. 1 974. has a tape. Their tape.Moderating Attitude Communication.to. Albuquerque NM 87 1 92. Success Education Institute Int'l. tive Learning Systems. at 5 22 1 Industrial Blvd. has Subliminal Tape OPR ($ 1 1 . has a tape titled "Overcoming Procrastination. and seems to have had an impact toward reducing Time Pressure for me. "Stopping Procrastination. "Overcoming Procrastination. tainly had a marked impact on my day.free number (800) 23 7 . I've only listened to the tapes from the first three compa. has a toll. Inc.day procrastination problems. You may want to try one of these tapes. with the toll. and that this trait was largely responsible for my Time Pressure.944440. This tape is available at some bookstores for about $ 1 3 . has "Tape 1 : Stopping Procrastination. Grand Rapids MI 49508. Also. free number (800) 433 .E." $35 . By the way. 2 1 08 Gamet Ave." is 40S or 40X depending on the format $ 1 5 . nies above. "The Joe Land Co. Potentials Unlimited at 4808. Grand Rapids MI 49509.H Broadmoor. Edina MN 5 5 43 5 ." produced by Escott Int'l. "Bright Images. "Stop Procrastination. Inc. I've been under the impression for a long time that I'm a procrastinator. San Diego CA 9 2 1 09.8. S.08. Please remember that there is no guarantee that listening to - - - 191 ..98) . Effec. ber ISBN 0. ing to an audio cassette titled "Stopping Procrastination" cer. available with different types of background music..

as in our example of Figure 58 starting at Move 1 6 . In principle. Again." or behind . ibility of spending extra time when you need it. If. Until you have solved your Time Pressure prob. and which ones to dispatch quickly. some 1 92 . get ahead of schedule in your game. the allocation of extra time for any move is very simple: if your Time Pressure score is positive .if you're ahead of schedule as of the last quint .you can use extra time on the move at hand. At Any Age any of these tapes will reduce your Time Pressure problem. If you're behind. . however. sider the position you're facing for your 1 7th move very difficult. Improving allocation of extra time in critical positions. you may elect to miss the target of 49 minutes left at the end of ten moves (since you had a positive Time Pressure Score after the first quint) . should you con. In essence. in our example of Figure 58. if you ever had one. It allows you the flex.then the extra time you take on any move must be part of the quint you're playing. you may use your The extra time you take on any move "plus" time. You must not let your guard down to allow yourself to miss the target time for the quint. If you are "even. To sort out which moves you should spend extra time on. you don't have the luxury. 2. you felt the position as you're reflecting on your seventh move to be very difficult. Time Management consists entirely of the pursuit of eliminating Time Pressure.Chess Master . . you must nevertheless plan to meet the target of 28 minutes left at the end of 20 moves. lem. must not be borrowed This is a powerful reason to from a future quint. if you're ahead of schedule.

you want to establish that you cannot be mated on your opponent's next move. Does your opponent have a mate on the move ? If so. A technically forced move is one where you have only one legal reply. You have no choice. There is absolutely no reason to look for a mate in two or more moves. There are various degrees of tactical complexity as we leave the technically forced move and cross over to more and more complex moves." or play faster than the allocated time per move. Move! If you have an aversion to being mated at the board. If you are not particularly disturbed about being mated at the board .Moderating Attitude thoughts are offered next. possibly involving a piece sacrifice. Usually you can conclude rapidly whether you must recapture. So you should "gain time. occasionally three. Typically. pieces. on a certain number of moves with limited options. and if you must. we mean within one second. prior to moving. then. Why ? Because there is absolutely nothing to be gained by reflecting any further on the move. you usually have a very limited choice . You will have another oppor� tunity to resign before you can possibly be mated. The time you save will 1 93 . This analysis should only take a few seconds.as compared to resigning the position before the inevitable mate .one or two. namely techni� cally forced moves. you want to resign. there is a very limited range of practical choices when your opponent has just captured one of your men. Many candidate moves have a short analysis tree. By "immediately" here.then you should immediately move when you recognize you have only one legal move. Let's start with the easiest issue.

Let's not quibble over what "very rarely" means. but certainly not more often than one game in 50. or. just going through the motions . The author Everyone can probably remember a game where he was not yet lost. just like depositing money in the bank gives you some cushion against adversity. this one game in 50 1 94 .percent chance of being drawn with some "on. As explained above. Since this was not in your plan. In any case. while it should have had a 50.Chess Master . You may very well have a lost position and need to establish whether you must start a wild attack. D. From a rating point of view. possibly. or reformulate. the situation is special and requires extra time. If the position is hopeless . ists only if your Time Pressure Score is positive. resign. or try to outplay your opponent from a lost position. this luxury ex. or a combination of these. in. however. and played on . but was disheartened. and your opponent has just won a pawn. then play like the fate of the world depends on its outcome . or where an especially complicated tactical situation exists." it should be cause for concern. But it should happen very rarely. lazy." Take a hard look at your game . But if even one game in 50 is lost this way. So here. . if not . At Any Age add to your merits. Improving "on-line toughness. resign. sible that the plan you were pursuing prior to the blunder is no longer practical.but just mechanically. It is pos. line toughness. timidated. a plan. This gained time can be used up on a few moves where you need to formulate. .and lost the game. a careful reevaluation is required. the whole situation must be carefully reviewed. Let's say you just blundered.

If. Your Strength is 1 700 and you're playing an opponent of the same strength.you may be throwing away more than one potential draw every 50 games. in one game in 50. You sense you're not 1 95 . and not only the second. It is very important that you follow both pieces of advice in the quote. By play. less position. of striving for the best move. whenever doubt creeps into your mind.Moderating Attitude turns out to be small. mands you to decide. If so. tion is all the more acute. Don't play on. you lose. It's not the rating points you're throwing away that's bothersome. nent. will be able to win in virtually every case. So what to do about this ? One weapon in your arsenal is to read and apply the quote at the beginning of this section. you are tampering with your will in a future game when the result is not crystal clear.the half hearted. It's a certain lack of resolve. By playing on in this hope. of spirit. Another weapon against quitting . that is likely to permeate your game. your situa. where in fact you should have had an even chance of drawing or losing. I always lose these kinds of positions ! " Let's agree that a lost position is one your oppo. ing on in a position you think is hopeless. An example might be useful. whether you feel the game can be saved or not. resign. It com. subconsciously.is to realize that by quitting you don't pick up the pieces another day where you left off.point rating difference. You may have an "on. and a draw into a loss. feeble play in a difficult position . self. incorrectly: "What's the use.line toughness" problem more severe . that'll convert a win into a draw occasionally. this only makes a four. you may in a future game say to your. with his specific skill level. If you think you're lost (we'll talk about that more momentarily) .

is visualizing a baseball relief pitcher being called in while his team is behind in score and the opponents have men on base. periment. He might assess the position as a plus.over. At Any Age playing well.rated players to make up for this "luxury of quitting. or. and your opponent has you in a bind. will usually cause you to be paired. should you lose. with an even chance for a draw or a win for your opponent. The relief pitcher has figured out how to deal with this circumstance . and your rating (and your opponent's rating) . losing a total of 1 6 points. If you "cave in" and lose your resolve and the game without a real opportunity for a draw. and you're having a tough time concentrating on finding a way out of your predicament. averaging it . which is the equivalent of a 1 692.rated player than if you drew. Returning now to your "real self. So you do the following thought ex. and that you might have to win two games against lower. you have thrown away eight rating points you'll wind up with a 1 684 instead of a crapshoot split between 1 700 ( if you draw) or 1 684 ( if you lose) . Statistically. you should draw one and lose one. He can't crawl into your head and take into account your present attitude of near despair. with a lower." you may want to remind yourself that quitting will cost you eight points. rated players is that the Swiss system of tournaments. when you're on the ropes in a game. 1 96 .to. One consideration that may help. . Pretend you're a grandmaster who has to assess this position to set up some "bookie odds. this means that if there were two similar games like this back.so can you.Chess Master .you should lose eight points each game. ." He only knows the position.minus (your opponent has the upper hand) . which is widely used.back." The reason we're talking about lower. Your resolve is melting. whose move it is.

then this is a heavy price to pay. If you're at all like me. edly in a type of position where all you have is dogged defense. tentions. again prefer." here's one more suggestion. Don't enter the tournament unless you have a mental blueprint about hanging tough in every game. and pretend that you have lost to two of the lower.Moderating Attitude Another suggestion is that you make a conscious decision before you play. ment. and are now in a bad way in an unfamiliar position in the next game. as you would for a combination.or even maybe . The strong recommendation here is that. Should you feel that you're occasionally "giving up in the middle of the game. Have a friend or a teacher. before you consent to be paired for that game. and should propel you to think positively about our in. You need to work on your attitude before allowing yourself the luxury of playing in a tournament.think about not entering the tourna.to "take it to your opponent" . and you'll surely agree. Think ahead.to look hard for a plan out of your bad position? In other words.rated players in a row. if you can't decide in your heart that you're going to play like a tiger for the entire game . that you're going to hang tough for the whole game and not be a quitter. prepare yourself for this eventuality now. If the answer to the last question is no .no matter how tough it looks . So extend your thinking this way. and really love to play. Think this through.then you withdraw from that round. How do you feel ? Have you got the resolve to play hard . review your games with you. 1 97 . ably a stronger player. before entering the tournament. This is far better than taking a chance that you're going to play halfheart.

In chess. If you are guilty of not trying hard enough. and the results much 1 98 . this has worked. such a simplistic approach does not work for everyone. to think about remedial action.Chess Master . if true. this "quitting problem. or rather the lack of physical fitness. to evaluate it.that they were proof that he doesn't really care how well he does in the one. represents an important piece of information for you. you may decide to abstain from playing for a while. to a limited degree. or some suitable time period. to ponder the situation.. On the other hand. which. Now. I had. maybe a week. even if this person trained diligently every day. are much more subtle.-mile race ? You would be right. Take care of the house your brain lives in. .. with a specific "time objec . Ancient saying Imagine a high school student training for the one. One more thought.if he did either of these things . if he's serious about this. or if he were careless about his eating habits and let his weight creep up ? Wouldn't you think . and an objective even better by the end of his college career." and simply resolved to pull myself together and stop doing it. since abusing one's body by smoking cigarettes or becoming overweight directly conflicts with the objective of running a fast mile. tive" by graduation. Improving physical fitness. a month. but the effects of physical fitness.-mile running event. there is great similarity. To a large degree. F. wouldn't you be extremely surprised if he smoked cigarettes. At Any Age You may ask him to see if he spots signs that you're not trying hard enough. and a good point of departure from which to work. .

while the long. - 1. The short. ancy. good health. and very preferably. but a "wellness expectancy" that spans your long. Playing good chess requires a mental alertness. shouldn't your chess career and chess objectives have a long. term physical fitness deals with insuring fitness at a point in the future.term physical fitness and a long. a physi. cal fitness.term physical fitness is primarily an issue for the game today. There is an obvious dimension to this. Let's address these in tum. Short-term physical fitness. cal fitness. The first and painfully obvious priority in work." the future years. So. a. being able to realize a plan of chess improvement in the "out years. in tum. but also a more subtle dimension. You must not just have a life expect.Moderating Attitude harder to pin down. however. There are many good books on the subject Judgment and Planning in Chess by Euwe and Kramer and Think Like a Grandmaster by Kotov. which.range physical fitness come to mind. Before reading on. 1 99 .range plan? It would seem so. But for physical fitness in chess.range plan is that you must be alive. ing out a long. requires a foundation of at least reasonable health. ponder this question: if you should play a game with a plan. requires a physical wellness. and more than that. a short.range plan. We know by now that one should play each game with a plan. The obvious dimension of "today's game" physi. Let's look at them both. you must be physically well for the entire plan.

Another former World Chess Champion. one becomes 200 . During times when the blood sugar level is low. Also.Chess Master . castled into mate in that game. There is a simple. Boris Spassky. nik wrote in Fifteen Games and Their Stories how he would retire early in the evening in order to get a good rest before the next day's game. . to say the least. Some players need to relax and unwind from a game for their mental well. b. It is well known that the current World Champion. tion. Gary Kasparov. During any individual game. specific. Botvinnik has iron discipline. explained in a lecture preceding a simulta. Former World Chess Champion Mikhail Botvin. ration. and. takes much pride and energy in staying fit. while the other players in the tournament would socialize and frolic much later in the evening. nutritional situation you should be aware of. in fact. The subtle dimension of "today's game" physical fitness. . Alekhine showed up drunk for one game in his first match with Max Euwe for the World Championship. neous exhibition (sponsored by the Billerica Mass Chess Club in 1 986) about proper match prepara. This advice is not meant to be an absolute rule. At Any Age Coming to a game exhausted after a late night out on the town would compromise your alertness. he concentrated heavily on the "proper rest.physical fitness" dimension of this prepa.being. which has an important influence on your Strength during a game. you would like your physical condition to be such that fatigue will not become a negative factor toward the latter hours of the game. To my surprise.

the blood sugar level starts to subside. without any nourishment. So. There are two ways that this condition can develop during a chess game. and so on) . hydrates) . the blood sugar level has come right back down again." An hour later.up. frappes. the body dispenses insulin (the pancreas does this) to bring the blood sugar level back down. with the advent of sweets. signaling hunger. as well as less "smart. when one eats a candy bar.me. It has nothing to do with being sick or diabetic. Over the hundreds of thousands of years that man has been around. when hungry. vegetables. candy bars. The pancreas puts out more insulin than it should. which also happens to raise the blood sugar level. and the body does an excellent job of keeping the blood sugar level steady with these kinds of nourishment. The side effects are fatigue and reduction of mental alertness. The body was designed to assimilate food. the body soon overreacts. drates (fruits and breads are mainly complex carbo. set in. should it become too high. but let's not worry about the fancy words. There is an interesting explanation for this. nuts. this low blood sugar condition can. A possible explanation for this is that 201 . Some time after a meal. fruit. The other way this condition can develop is more subtle. There hasn't been enough time in our evolutionary history for the body to adapt to these new kinds of concentrated sugars. ice cream." both directly tying into Strength. and usually to a lower level than it would have been had the person not eaten the candy bar at all. Often. and in fact will. The medical term is hypoglycemic. and some meat have been the source of food. also known as simple carbohy. we can consume sugar in concentrated forms (do. The first is that one gets hungry. So you must be aware that during a long game. a person will eat a candy bar or a donut as a quick "pick.Moderating Attitude tired. During modern times.

The result is that the blood sugar level is brought down lower ( this typically takes place within an hour) than it should be. After several hours in a chess game. At Any Age the body "thinks" that huge amounts of foods have been consumed. . Practice good nutrition . and paid the price several times by getting mentally dull in a game after eating a couple of donuts. 202 . tively recently. an apple. starting with the most important.range chess plan requires reasonably good health "in the future. We'll now talk briefly about each of these.fruit such as a banana. or some bread or bagel without jelly. I was unaware of this until rela. Seven key things come to mind. at least in my view. taining simple carbohydrates mentioned a couple of paragraphs back. this large amount of sugar could only come from huge amounts of food. because. Exercise moderately . Use alcohol modestly or not at all. 2. or a pear. throughout history. Let's try to put this in a positive perspective. Long-term physical fitness. Stay physically lean. . eat something the nutritional value of which is primarily complex carbos (carbohydrates) ." So let's concentrate on how we can do this. So the advice is simple. CD ® ® © @ ® (!) Stay drug free . Your long.Chess Master . Avoid the foods con. Avoid serious stress . Be a NON�smoker. You get more tired and mentally sluggish than you would have been without the candy bar.

heroine. one of which is the desire to improve Strength . This has to be the most serious setback to chess improvement of any health issue. fleeted on. Say NO to cocaine.... more happy. Two things about drugs you may not have re . it has seen fit to give you a sense of pain for your survival. later 203 . including one where he castled into mate. or for a million years. focuses the user from other endeavors. because it attacks the foundation. behind your improvement in Strength . Heavier use. or for a thousand million years. tuning your body for a hun . It's the cornerstone for the improvement in chess . Alekhine. because he played in a drunken state. If you would be better off. similar to drugs.. the driving force. crack. Alexander Alekhine.Moderating Attitude Stay drug free... dred thousand years. and all other non . Among other things. after all these years. don't fix it! Use alcohol modestly or not at all. depending on how you want to keep score. and to make you feel tired at the end of the day in order to propel you to take some rest. Modest use of alcohol is fine. de . Remember the sage advice: if it ain't broke. prescribed drugs... or better able to survive if you experienced some "rush" every several hours.and is eroded by drug use.. Who needs a "rush" every three hours? Nature has been fine . The desire for excellence . in his first match with Max Euwe for the World Championship. nature would.. have provided you with one. lost a number of games.

won the World Championship in his second match with Euwe. and feel now that cutting down ( and staying at a low consumption level) is extremely difficult.term benefit of improving your chances of being in good health to pursue your chess objectives 1 0. Only the most disciplined people can accomplish this. Reduc. I subsequently quit entirely. 204 .Chess Master .smoker! Stay physically lean.term benefit of reduc. So: be a NQN. and the long. but over a period of a year. ing the frequency of blunders occurring in the later hours of a playing session. and the body signals its desire for rest by causing fatigue more quickly than in a person of moderate weight. I consider myself a reasonably disciplined person. or 50 years down the road. should be sufficient to keep one from abusing alcohol. entirely separate from the de. . There is one personal experience that may be of help to you. Why not enjoy the benefits of smoking without the serious risk associated with it? I did. I was smoking about a pack and a half a day. There is no need to plow this field again. ing your weight has the short. Excess weight stresses the heart. The negative impact on health. crept back up slowly to my pack and a half a day. There have been many studies in recent years linking various serious health implications to smok. . Back in the early 1 960s. Be a NON-smoker. At Any Age giving up alcohol. ing cigarettes. 20. I decided to cut down to one cigarette a day.focusing issue.

Aerobics for Women. cises. as well as the sections below on exercise and nutrition. along with the fact that it bums calories. incidentally. The Aerobics Way . Vigorous aerobic exercises .00 1 2. Exercise moderately. I became fascinated with Kenneth Cooper's book Aerobics . swimming. and will 205 . which makes it easier to keep a reasonable weight. But vigorous aerobic exercises are not necessary. is also covered in Cooper's books. weight control. and is impli. tine. efits you would obtain from the more vigorous exer. There are various books out on this subject. rily at exercising your heart and keeping it healthy. and walking. biking.are directed prima. in that you obtain most of the health ben. Lean Rou. Since the heart is the "long pole in the tent. it affects Strength. Stress is our reaction to external "stressors" in the environment. and normal aerobic exercise such as brisk walking is fine too. She has an excellent. An argument you just had with someone you love causes stress." the part of the body most likely to fail. cated as a serious factor in heart attacks. or The New Aerobics) . is covered well in Jane Fonda's video cassette: "Jane Fonda's Workout. simple explanation for exercise. and nutrition in this video." ISBN'O' 7907. In an indi. rect sense.3 . and so on . Exercise tends to moderate appetite. Learn about stress. aerobic exercise makes good sense.running.Moderating Attitude This section. Any of Cooper's books on the subject will do (Aerobics . the principles of which I've used fairly religiously for decades. It compromises health.

This book is not the place to get into any details about nutrition.Chess Master . All libraries have books on stress. He didn't obey. Learn and practice good nutrition." Here again.Factor Diet by Katahn." which you need to realize your chess career plan. This book is summarized in an article in the October 1 989 issue of Reader's Digest. So I'm talking about all stress "outside the game. Jane Fonda's video ( mentioned nine 206 . At Any Age affect your concentration in the game. ing healthy and alive in the "out years. Should you not have a favorite. as a matter of fact. and work at reducing it. . it will improve your chess. suggesting that if he couldn't play anymore.being. titled. Good nutrition will increase your chances of be. and this in tum is linked. So learn about stress. to the quality of nutrition. For your Strength. a chessplayer I know who had heart bypass surgery was told not to play any more chess because of the stress factor.factor Way. Playing chess can cause stress. "Diet the T. but again there are sections in every bookstore about diets and nutrition. it makes sense to understand stress." Stress is such a popular current topic that virtu. a recent book fol. . Also. at least in part. and. tion prescription to follow. Your ability to think clearly and quickly are tied to your body's ability to provide oxygen to the brain at a rapid rate. the surgeon should have put him out of his misery. ally every bookstore has a section devoted to it. Nathaniel Pritiken's The Pritiken Program for Diet and Exercise is an excellent nutri. published by Norton and Co. Aside from improving your health and well. lowing a similar prescription as Pritiken's books is The T.

of course. doesn't occur to us because our thinking is restricted 207 . Should you not be clearly aware of the foods recommended for good nutrition. in some ways. F. These characteristics of playing are the result more of personality features than of technical foun. simple exposition of good nutrition. Personality influences. you will be pleas. and its pursuit is. physical fitness is an indirect. tional disadvantage) willingly without being able to calculate far enough in advance to be sure to recover this material. although called for by the position. ingredient of Strength. lent. antly surprised that following good nutrition is less expensive than the typical American diet. Reckless vs. dations. Summarizing. Some players are overcautious . being reckless . as important as the studying and other training you are doing to improve your Strength. But here. By "sacrifice" is meant surrendering material (or accepting a posi. These players do it far less than other players of similar Strength . excel. The pawn sac. the point is not that the pawn sac is beyond our capability to comprehend . The reverse. we might run across a similarly "deep" pawn sac and would immediately recognize it as a great idea. yond our Analysis Horizon . a pawn sac. 1 . or other sacrifice. overcautious play.Moderating Attitude paragraphs back) gives you a concentrated. doesn't even occur to us. There are two ways in which overcautious chess playing shows up. Often in an annotated grandmaster game. In certain positions.be. but important. namely.in that they virtually never make a sacrifice.sacrificing material too often occurs also.

he may say .not being a grandmaster . you want to make a mental note. . .as the opponent of the grandmaster . but your opponent . Let's say the grandmaster obtained a space ad. fore I'd better get more compensation for that pawn than the grandmaster did. Even at the same Strength. or even a written note. .they get for their pawn sac.will also not get as much benefit out of the material you've offered . vantage for a pawn. . .the pawn .what about this sac ? After jointly evaluating its merits.Chess Master . and then evaluate it. In studying these grandmaster games with sacri. . answering the question: "Did I even consider this move. and if so. or a teacher. attack. The other way the overcautious attitude shows up is that even if we think of the sac. fices.gets. We .might say. . or the sac of the exchange. non. I'm getting an attack. tor. but a grandmaster can do more with a certain space advantage than I could ! There." or " . I'm activating my pieces. but it's not worth a pawn.reckless. This is useful even if this person is not a stronger player than you. " or "Yeah." Not true ! You may not get as much benefit out of a certain space advantage as the grandmaster does. a men.let's say at roughly the same Strength as you . why did I then reject it?" b) We can study annotated grandmaster games and see what sort of compensation . . . it's not worth the exchange. "Yes. At Any Age to considering only sound." There are two specific remedial approaches you can take. mobility. " or "Yeah. "Yeah I'm getting some space. we will start to appreciate the circumstances 208 .in the form of space. restriction of the opponent's forces . a) You go over your games with a friend.also presumed to be a grandmaster . we would say. . moves.

209 . A player making sacrifices too cavalierly is doing the opposite of what we've been covering here. with the pen. ences are usually tied in with your personality. In a difficult situation. alty that it is usually too late to create any complications. verse. but to explain that these prefer. He is willing to accept too little compensation for a sacri. But the risk is worth it when the time is very short and the team is one goal behind. If you start to play for complications "too early. in re. if you wait too long.Moderating Attitude under which a sac is legitimate. is applicable for the reckless player. thereby increasing the number of "forwards" in the game.overcautious attitude reflects in ways other than the frequency with which material is sacrificed. On the other hand. when time is short and the team is a goal behind. there is a fine point based on the hopelessness of the position . and much more so than the team pulling the goalie. gedly. passive defense and play for complications. This. fice. although the price for all this is that the opposing team's chance of scoring also increases. The reckless.vs. you are overcautious. is the logic behind pulling a goalie in hockey. or starting to play for complications." while it still makes sense to the average player of your Strength to defend dog.where one should abandon dogged. of course. sonableness of making a sacrifice. the chance that the team pulling the goalie will score increases. The same program as explained above. The point in this section is not to determine the rea. The overall chance that a goal will be scored increases.. less. then you are too reek.

some people are spenders while others tend to be savers. later. We've touched on certain psychological prefer-­ ences in Part II that result in some distorted perspec-­ tives in chess. you can start to edge away from either overcaution or recklessness. The previous section was an example of this. Outside chess. perhaps. in exchange for greater space and mobility. .is one of these faulty pref-­ erences. d4 Nf6 4. relative to the average of all the players of your approximate Strength . Batsford 1 97 5 . c4 e6 3 . he explains that in Alekhine-Asztalos. a pawn. An example is this: In Kotov's book titled Alexander Alekhine . Bg5 h6. and becom-­ ing comfortable with them. . At Any Age By studying and understanding the appropriate thresholds for various types of sacrifices. Nf3 d5 2 . the player who is a saver in the "non--chess world" is more likely to prefer to be the side having the permanent advantage. Other faulty special preferences. in such a way that the general consensus of grandmasters would be that the player has full com-­ pensation for his sacrifice . Being too cautious or too reckless .Chess Master .and again.now.or credit . in preference to having it. A spender will use his money . 2. plus interest. Let's say a player gives up something permanent. Figure 6 1 is reached after 1 . whereas the spender would prefer to be the side having the space--and-­ mobility advantage. Now. This is human nature and un-­ derstandable. 210 .

portant influences in chess. overcautious play . which is more important than Black's posses. A problem arises when a saver will not even consider 5 . but the point is that there are personal preferences outside the game that have im.board preference is "capturing with the cheapest piece. while all of the spenders would prefer White. Nc3 c6 7." with an example given in Chapter 1 (Figure 14 ) . The issue discussed in the previous section .is likely to be related to this off. not all the savers would prefer White. and accumulate and categorize 21 1 . h6 for fear of the continuation 5 . . sion of the two Bishops. scribed in Chapter 4. Bxf6 Kotov explains that White gains a significant amount of space and a domination of the center after 5 . . or when a spender. Although.board preference (spender/saver). tionale. . playing the black pieces. erately overstated. Bxf6 . The underlying saver/spender mentality is delib. . If you generate Flash Cards in the way we de.reckless vs. hesitates to play 4 . Bxf6 . Qb3 . Qxf6 6 . even though they might be aware of Alekhine's ra. according to Alekhine.Moderating Attitude Figure 6 1-White to move When Alekhine played 5 . objectively White is slightly better after his fifth move. Yet another issue possibly related to an off.

212 . when looked at often enough. similar to our "Stalking the grand themes" section. you will. study annotated grandmaster games where the proper choices were made choices like giving up the Bishop pair for a Bishop and Knight in return for a space advantage . This is the important first step. and second. At Any Age these. at least in this case. find these themes repeating if you have one of these types of faulty preferences. you should do two things to purge yourself of this problem. which. First. Once you've become aware of one of these. is wrong. ticular false preference. .and convince yourself that your preference. keep Flash Cards on these problems. identifying the par. namely.Chess Master . will eventually start to stick. .

" GM Andy Soltis .range chess plan serves as a framework for our chess journey through life. A.. you might plan to work on your endings.which tells us that most chessplayers don't improve significantly after about eight years of serious play.CHAPTER E IGHT TH E LONG-RANGE P LAN I hope today is the tomorrow you planned yesterday . The author A long. Why a long-range plan? If you know you play your endings weakly. we'll briefly revisit "the Soltis curve" .the chess truth discovered by Grandmaster Andy Soltis that we talked about earlier .range plans ? To understand the need for a long.range plan. You've probably read in many a place that you should play each game with a plan . for our chess career.we've touched on that before. "Most chess players don't im. prove significantly after about eight years of serious play. Why dissipate your energy creating detailed long..

range goals one year.-range plan. and maybe a tournament schedule. we often don't do it because it's hard work. Third is a method of we need to do because it's achieving these goals. cific study plan.__ _ ___________... ... Second is the identification of long . ber which is our rating. d) When we do know what needs to be done. Let's get into some details of the long.Chess Master . gram" from preconceived notions. Incidentally. B. These four major reasons limit our progress once we have reached a somewhat enlightened level of strength.. probably coupled with a playing sched . b) We don't honestly look for what's wrong with our game.the US Chess Federation rating ..... four ideas present themselves. 214 . At Any Age In my view.." These are: a) We really don't know what's wrong with our game.. five years. A pretty strong indictment. Long-range plan details. I feel that the rating .is a reasonable reflection of our total Strength ..-range plan. ten years down the road relative to that detailed assessment.. To have a useful long. c) We construct our "chess improvement pro . We often don't do what relative to that status. hard work. a combination of four factors con . to be studied or analyzed... . ------ . a spe . First is a method to obtain the status of our Strength that has more detail than the single num . ule at a club. spires to create "the Soltis curve.

etition of the first item.point increment in rating. we would. In the ideal case. As identified throughout this book. The status is really an evaluation of the Compo. namely. set ambitious goals far into the future. which is the rep. Similarly. and possibly document one's progress each year. the determination of the current status of the detailed breakdown of one's Strength ingredients. or process.The Long . or its quality. there is some quantitative measure for each 1 OO. ing year. He might have a 50. not project winning certain tournaments far beyond one's present capability. one can. The Flash Card route is a manifestation of this progress. I believe one cannot. and the evaluation criteria. or even twenty years. So the long range goals can simply be to monitor. A continuous reassessment needs to be made. One cannot state as a goal to improve 400 rating points in five years. A person with a 1 700 US Chess Federation rating has some average expertise in any specific CCC. for each of the CCC. have a method of determining the degree of its development. In chess. nents of Chess Capability. For the CCC identified below. 215 .Range Plan Fourth is periodic monitoring. understand.percent recall for any move in one of 30 different opening lines that he's learned. I feel improvement in strength is similar to hacking one's way through a jungle a hundred years ago. or ten years. for each CCC. at least in principle. In chess one cannot brute force one's way to greater strength but must make modest steps in improvement and then try to consolidate these. coupled with an objective for the follow. Below are set forth the different CCC. So. a method. to improve is usually identified. realistically. based on the obstacles encountered.

we'll identify an objec. Status: Play three games of Solitaire. tain number of these lines each month. Also identify your goals for one year. a. Middlegame. which is ten times fewer) times the per. . At Any Age Finally. say a year hence. guessing your own color's move for each of the ten moves (after you have played the "correct" move for your side. Play out the opening on a chessboard. 1. or 30 a year (other priorities in life might forestall your plan during a couple of months) . You will have a certain number of moves right. Your objective might be three lines a month. Status: Identify each opening line you're willing to in. For the sake of score keeping in the future. Repeat the procedure for every tenth opening sheet. just read the opponent's move and play it) . tive. dom one of the first ten.Chess Master . Images. ing sheets you included in the test (not the number you tested. elude in the test. Select at ran. The test is for Moves 4 to 1 3 . b . your openings rating or goodness will be the number of total open. using a clock and giving yourself three minutes a move. There might be 50. Openings. Met1wd: Promise yourself you're going to develop a cer.of the percentage of moves you guessed correctly from 216 . . for each CCC. centage of moves you guessed correctly. Keep track.

such as Robert 21 7 . c. by Move 48 the game has progressed into the endgame. It is more convenient to use a source where the entire score is given together. 2. APROP. The number of "middlegame Images" you have are correlated to the percentage you will score on this test. So the middle­ game strategy and tactics need to be studied. new Images are de­ veloped. where most of the men are still on the board. and really studying the annotations to the games. except choosing games that last at least 60 moves. a.The Long -Range Plan Move 13 to Move 24. General. By playing Solitaire · games. for which there are various good texts. Usually. Identify goals for one year. doing the test for Moves 49 through 60. The same thing can be done as directly above. A small increase in the percentage of correct guesses or correct move selections represents a substantial improvement in the number of Images and your understanding of the middlegame. Your plan is to improve your percentage of cor­ rect answers. Status: Select a diagram early in a game from virtually any chess book with games in it. and then generating Flash Cards where appropriate. Method: It's important to note that you will not achieve a higher percentage of correct moves over the follow­ ing year simply by willing it to be so. Set up the board with this p05ition. Endings.

starting from this position." Method: Plan to do a certain number of these a week.without moving the pieces. Years later. or the set of combinations near the end of each Informant. and the source of the problem set. so it would be wise to select a set that you can handle. three moves by each side. Stop the clock. and the 1 9 24 tournament in New York. Combinations. Could be Reinfeld's 1 00 1 Winning Chess Sacrifices and Com. yet is not trivial for you. the time you used. Naturally. Compare. Do half a dozen. The number of ply you mentally followed. annotated by Alekhine. tant to remember whether the test was from the "Reinfeld" book or the "Informant. binations . tion is set up. is a rough measure of your "general APROP. Now play through those same moves on the chessboard where the posi. Identify goals for one year.Chess Master . Record the elapsed time for each. You might plan to do 40 times as many during the year as you have for the week. . or six ply . start a clock and follow the game mentally for a few moves . adjusted for the number of pieces incorrectly located at the end of the sequence. the accuracy. b. . or the tournament books for 1 922. Now. it's impor. so that you keep a "permanent 218 . or one of the nine diagram chess quizzes near the beginning of each issue of Chess Life. all of these combinations are not equally difficult. " Set up a series of tests for 20 years. At Any Age Byrne's column every Tuesday in the New York Times . Status: Obtain a set of problem combinations. and record the position with the symbols you learned earlier.

..-..The Long . The idea is that you will start your analysis from a "platform.... You should record the time you took and the quality or accuracy of your answer. . . 219 .... '· -.. review the solution and determine. This performance serves as the point of reference for the future. ." Method: Plan to do a certain number every week. c. . and plan to do a certain number for the year.. . ���) ·ij�·��·· ·��·· �· ·�����· tion "downstream" in ·��· · · ���������·· ·��·· ·�9� the game from the dia.. ever you take inordinately long to obtain the answer. or if you solve the combination incorrectly. g r a m m e d p o s i t i o n . you must record the time you took and the quality or accuracy of your answer. .. solve the problem. ... if there is a missing or a flawed Image . . the goal for the year can simply be 40 or 50 times the goal for the week. In each case.... .. Method and goals for one year: Do a certain number each week.. . Platform analysis. develop a Flash Card... . . When..... . the set of combinations problems.. Again. Knowing these first two ply.Range Plan reference." from a posi. look up the first two (or maybe just the first) ply of the answer. and if so.. Identify goals for one year.. . Again.. as we did in the section on Flash Card generation. ------------------ . . in the back of an Informant. Status: Use. This performance serves as the point of reference for the future... jpg �@Mil� t�i-�nl� ....

. for the position at the end of ten. quency" with a stronger player. Method and goals for one year: This issue needs to be addressed only rarely.!.Chess Master . ± . ally calculate to a point where you get your material back .sacs. 20. + .+ . Caution. Objectivity. Do not include pseudo. fre. Personality. and is a good indication of APROP. or .and often more. you are not being totally objective. You assess each game as to whether you sacri." To the extent that you overestimate (or underestimate ) your position. it's excellent that you have perpetrated sham sacs. Status: Play over your last 20 games. . or sham sacs. 220 . + . Status: Take several of your recent games. + . ( By the way. and 30 moves. Met1wd: If you assess your caution/recklessness ratio to be too cautious. It could work along the following lines. Then have a master (or player much stronger than you) evaluate all these positions "correctly. . assess your position as = . b. on average. the recommendation is to review your "sacrifice . Count the number of sacrifices you made. which are temporary sacrifices where you can actu.. at most once a year. ) Since a table describing the frequency of sacrifices for each rating level is not available.recklessness. Record whether it was at least a pawn. At Any Age 3. but has nothing to do with personality. you might set up a similar program as for Time Pressure to force yourself to take some additional risks. . a. and.

. you have a ± . If you're "tuned in. Now post the game results for these positions.a master or much stronger player has looked at these. on average. you "reset" to zero and tear up some currency. You can set a goal that more nearly reflects the risk that grandmasters take. it isn't easy to detect by a "technical test. But a much better way of tracking a problem like "toughness" is by being aware of your moods and feelings. or in two. you can work out the de . Since "wimping out. it could be poor endgame technique. tails for this one as well." or stopping to really work hard in a game." The only idea that's come to mind is this: in the test under objectivity. corresponding to the upper hand. a pawn (or more ) is sacrificed at least once every three games. or a lack of toughness. c.1 if you didn't.. Then you give yourself + 10 points. at 20 moves. you may set a target of one sac per ten games as an interim to reach in one year. Status/Method/Identify goals for one year: No good test for this characteristic has occurred to me. and . 221 . With the experience of the Time Pressure remedial system. So. As you hit a certain negative score. you should draw half the games and win half (or maybe draw 60% and win 40% ) . if you haven't been taking enough risks. for most people. Toughness. is. a rare event." you will know when you're giving up or not fighting hard. or some other number you might consider more appropriate. For those games where. say . If it turns out that your results are considerably poorer than this. you now know the correct evaluations of some positions .The Long -Range Plan ficed or not.1 0. Identify goals for one year. You limit your "plus" score to + 1 2 ( let's say). I'm guessing that. if you did.

the formula fo r F gives the answer " 1 ". If you're wondering why you don't get credit for "S"B '1Y� . by the amount of tar in one ciga . just use 1 .. and divide the result by 1 00. C. for fitness. if W. each day. D . by evaluating the expression F=4-W-H-B-C-D-S. and S... and the rest. and simply refers to the fact that smoking and drinking combined reduces fitness and health more than adding up the effects of each of the two factors separately. D is the number of drinks (or 1 2. B is your diastolic blood pressure ( the lower of the two blood pressure numbers) divided by 75.. In case you're curious. of tar) . on average. bottles of beer) that you consume each week. and B are all 1 . '' the number of years downstream that you will be well enough to pursue chess and chess study vigorously. 222 �����.-oz. S is my code for sin. H.. you multiply the number of cigarettes you smoke.. where we'll now identify how to obtain values for W. ) To get C . B. . subtract three. Status: You will develop a number for F. 9 to 1 . . namely C . Ideally. ( If you can't get your blood pressure conveniently. 1�:1�::.ht�._ ______. 1 for F is u d r for 1'smr your "wellness expectancy. W is the ratio ( it should be one) of your actual body weight divided by the ideal weight for your height and sex. and S .� : :�:.___. D.Chess Master . At Any Age d. H is your resting heart rate ( in beats per minute after sitting quietly for five minutes) divided by 62.. ( the number is always given in mg. H.0 for B in the equation. S is simply the lower of the two numbers C or D . rette in mg. is limited. Fitness. and divide this answer by 750. are all zero. ._ . The answer 0.

etc. the lower will be the values for W. and the better (higher) will be your fitness answer. can not be improved with a long. not generated a long. Should your diastolic blook pressure-the lower of the two numbers.range plan. Those portions of our features which are genetic. be 95 or higher. to date. regardless of your total fitness F in the formula. you have a health risk (stroke. ment plan. 5. such as mental clock rate. H . ) and should see a doctor. are largely genetic in origin. you can be sure you do. To round out the long. Move selection Method I have. I hope you can use the ideas from Chapter 6 to help forge a long.range plan by definition.range improve. The more you exercise. Genetic Factors Certain components of chess strength.Range Plan your exercise program. 223 . since we have no way of changing our genetic code (at least not at the time this book is going to press) .The Long . 4. and B .range plan to improve the Move selection Method.

similar to racial or religious prejudice and bigotry.and therefore with adversity in life. gives them the right to put down another person or have fun at someone else's expense.esteem. please consider it carefully.AFTERWORD ' . and you can feel good about yourself. Stand tall. You're learning to deal better with losing . ganda. your progress. or otherwise make fun of weaker players. and regret it now. more so than if you used the "same amount of time" in your usual way. It usually is the handiwork of people with low self. I believe the thoughts in this book. will improve your game. I'm confident this call is unnecessary for you. Enough said . one else down. By the way. properly applied. Be proud of your ability. I've seen chessplayers ridicule. I've done this on occasion myself. but remember: you'll never be taller by pushing some.ban voyage ! Rolf Wetzell April 1994 . really crude propa. embarrass. or maybe even their hard work. I feel that this is tasteless humor. They feel that their good fortune. but should I be wrong. I'd like to offer one more thought.

. he can eventually track a higher click rate. as well as the total time in seconds. tablished (Section 2. or practice. This maximum mechanical click rate can be es. Let's define a person's Information Tracking Rate as the maximum rate. displayed.a. He can develop a higher Information Tracking Rate. A timing device must first be designed and built that would feature an audible click rate. Method of the experiment or test. in clicks per second. The click rate selected is displayed. the maximum mechanical click rate.APPENDIX I I D EAS F O R S C I E NTI F IC STUDY A. The click rate might have a range from two clicks per second to 30 clicks per second. Thesis and Objective. ment stopwatch. Through repeated and prolonged exposure. T. The thesis then is that a person can track a higher click rate for a short period of time. Can Mental Clock Rate be improved? 1. ber of clicks. that he can accurately count. since the counting began. The sound track that a mechanical stopwatch makes comes to mind. The clicking can be started and stopped. similar to the ticking of a mechanical move. like a stopwatch. which is adjustable by the operator. as a measure of establishing this click rate. ) . M . with the num. 2.

As he tires. At Any Age a. If he has correctly counted . The experimenter sets the click rate to the mini� mum.without looking at the display at any time . starts the device. By practicing in this manner. This asser� tion can be confirmed or repudiated by the above test. If he stops the timer when he thinks he has heard 200 clicks. a person may achieve a repeatable performance Information Tracking Rate that may be significantly higher than his reference Information Tracking Rate. with his hands "on the throttle. The reference portion of the experiment. we will call his initial. The person being tested sets the click rate near his reference Information Tracking Rate. he increases the click rate.if the display M is reading 200 clicks (or within a count or two) . The learning portion of the experiment. and M is in fact near 200. Information Tracking Rate. he keeps up with the count. counts mentally for 200 clicks . or reference. he goes back to his reference click rate. b. This exercise can be used as the cornerstone for various and repeated testing. . . A natural question that would follow success in 226 .and then stops the timer. then during this trial he has achieved a "performance Information Tracking Rate" of 200 divided by T. The highest rate at which he did. however.Chess Master ." By straining his mental faculties. where T is the number of seconds of the trial. This procedure can be used to determine if the Information Tracking Rate can be improved. Partially through the 200 counts. he can no longer determine accurately this rate.he repeats the test at higher and higher rates until he can no longer keep track.

and therefore Strength. There. ally. that doubling Mental Clock Rate is worth about 1 00 rating points in Strength. will be received in the brain in such a way that 227 .The Long . The issue is whether the playing of certain sub.music. The prin. certainly a worthwhile goal. or. if. ing Rate would be indicated. I think they can. ciple is that two sounds of different intensity. as one would suspect. The value of subliminal audiocassettes. We've already touched on the possible use of subliminal tapes in Chapter 7. liminal tapes can affect some characteristics of our chess playing.Range Plan the above endeavor is whether this higher lnforma. may or may not improve Mental Clock Rate. periodic "refresher Information Tracking Rate exercises" to maintain the higher Information Track. The message is dubbed at a weaker level than the main sound track. but each loud enough to be heard when played individu. they are simply audiocassettes in some format . or ocean waves. tion Tracking Rate stays with a person. Should you be unfamiliar with subliminal tapes. a list of a few of the companies making these audiocassettes was given. Remember from the discussion of Mental Clock Rate in Part II on Strength . at a weaker level than the waves. allowing them to be absorbed and used. as defined here. I believe that it will. Achieving a higher Information Tracking Rate. These messages supposedly can be received by the subconscious. or something similar with messages on them that cannot be consciously heard. but above the audible threshold. the Information Tracking Rate would slowly drift back over the months to its old reference. If so. B. as you would gather by extension of the ideas on Mental Clock Rate in Part II.

The company . up. At Any Age only the louder one will be heard consciously. but without the subliminal messages. the message. one. sages. He alone knows which is which. and not being able to hear some. the frequency of brilliancies or good sacrifices? Again. Does listening to that tape re. duce Time Pressure? I believe it can.could make up tapes with the same music as the "Stopping Procrastination" tape. son. even near you. Two examples of this are: not being able to hear road traffic while wearing a headset playing radio music or an audiocassette." which is supposed to unlock one's creative ability. and a number of tapes without. but is straightforward. So the director of the experiment would have a number of tapes with. The subliminal idea is that the brain receives the subliminal message and processes it. which is often blocked out due to some psychological hang. how severe . the method of testing this idea would have to be done carefully. it does not edit. Will play.say Bright Images .is known to the experimenter. . I think so. The players are also told about the purpose of the tapes. speaking at a normal level at a rock concert. The tapes are given to a number of chessplayers who often get into Time Pressure.how often. The players record their "listen. as compared to the normal advice one hears. For some rea. the subliminal mes. The com.Chess Master . Two specific examples come to mind. pany "Bright Images" has a tape called "Stopping Procrastination" (other subliminal tapes companies have similar tapes) . or tune out. and whose recent history of Time Pressure . Without getting into too much detail about the scientific method of verifying a hypothesis. Bright Images also has a tape called "The Idea Tape. 228 . ing this tape increase the frequency of clever moves. .

or similar tapes by other companies) is slightly more difficult. He slows down to compen. . He's having trouble finding moves. The questions that will be answered are these: Does playing these tapes re. finding ideas. . and the control group who didn't play any tapes ? The testing of the hypothesis about "The Idea Tape" (or "Creative Thinking" by Potentials Unlim. often a very difficult task.who gets into Time Pressure in maybe a quarter of his games . two effects from two or more causes must be sorted out. of Time Pressure among the players will be a reflection of the effectiveness of these tapes. brate. providing nothing else changes ? What does that mean ? You might already be getting a headache trying to understand the question. To determine the influence of something sci en. Time Pressure influence on chess Strength. if any.Range Plan ing times" of the tape. etc. and not playing well. tifically. and also their subsequent games. ited. He's taking longer than he normally would to 229 . sate.The Long . Imagine a player . provided nothing else changes. the question is: Does Time Pressure degrade results." Otherwise. C. a group of masters could review the games of the participants ( the masters wouldn't know the participating players) before and after a period of listening to determine if there has been an increase in the innovativeness of the participants. the group who played tapes without subliminal messages but thought the mes. Here. sages were present. duce Time Pressure? Is there a difference in the results among the group of players who played tapes with subliminal messages.playing a game. The degree of reduction. the usual proviso is: " . in that the results are harder to cali. So here. Let's try to break this down.

In fact. Let's say he's rated 1 700. Now. on average. playing at a 40/60 time limit. The Time Pressure was an effect. So the player will have a higher level of play in his 40/90 games than those at 40/60. 25 moves. A number of this player's games are monitored. the games played at the longer time limit will show up as higher levels of "25�move S trength . as well as the time left at. say. . We'll call the "25�move Strength" the performance ( during the first 25 moves) for any game expected of a player with that Strength. We now have a reference and are ready to run the experiment. A master (or senior master) . one player. He scores every "set of moves" with a "25�move S trength . the master has a good idea of the level of play of the average player rated 1 500 in a 40/60 time control. Let's now work with just one subject. and so on.Chess Master . " Remember that S trength means the strength expected at 40/60. So what can we do ? Suppose a selected group of players consent to play a number of games. He also has an estimate for players rated 1 600. If I looked at this situation in a shallow way. to minimize confusion. not a cause. 1 700. without knowing the time control. I would identify the Time Pressure as the culprit: Time Pressure degrades results. 230 . and without knowing how long the subject player took to make these moves. rated much higher than the players under study. some at 40/60 ( 40 moves in 60 minutes) and some at 40/90. He gets into Time Pressure. . Each player's games are recorded. it was poor play that degraded the result. now as� sesses the playing strength for the first 25 moves. At Any Age find reasonable moves. and then loses. " Now.

D.The Long . We would tabulate his result for this game in the column under Time Pressure. Chess Strength vs. The testing to be done to establish this is straight. or worse than those games where he did not get into Time Pressure." then this game becomes part of the test data. If this Strength was "okay. equal. if it was as good as expected for the "extra time. forward cataloging.Range Plan and for those games in which he ran into Time Pressure his "25. The tabulation of games would show whether his performance in the column under Time Pressure is better. 23 1 . study time.move Strength" is established." in other words.

For a tie.S EARC H ALGO RITHM If you were asked to generate a simple computer program to play chess. but good enough for our purposes .you might want a tie.. .. and so on. Since we could surmise that for many move look-aheads there would be several moves that the program could select which would give the same material result . able would be extremely curtailed.Chess Master . . that is to be used as a measure of control of space. The simplest idea that would probably come to mind would be to look at every possible board position for some number of ply (half. the number of moves avail . able to you as a measure of the control of space. Now you have to provide the program with the means to make a move selection.-breaker.-moves) into the future. 232 .-breaker. Let's say you've done that. the rules of chess: how the pieces move.is to count the number of different moves avail . Usually. If you happen to be in check. but we will not worry about that here. legal moves with respect to chess. So it's really the difference between the number of moves you can make and the number of moves your opponent could make. A simple way .let's say even in material . if it were his move.. We'll accept this as a weak . more space for one's pieces is an advantage. and then count material .just figure out who's ahead in material ­ and make the move that puts you furthest ahead in material. or put into code. At Any Age APPENDIX I I COMPUTE R-GE N E RATED MOVE. let's do this.not foolproof. you would have to first put into program language.

So the number of different moves you could make in the position minus the number of moves your opponent could make in this position. Now what does that mean? Let's say you're White and about to make your 6 1 st move from the position in Figure 63 . Let's do a "three. tage .meaning all possible combinations of White's 6 1 st.ply exhaustive minimax search" and count material ( and space. plus the pawn advance. ing out the move giving you the best material advan. Let's be more specific about the process of figur.Generated Move. Our program would have two criteria for evaluation. would be the tie. if necessary) .Computer. if it were his move. breaker. You want to make the move that gives you the maximum advantage. for a total of eight candidate 233 .Search Algorithm ness of the program. and White's 62nd would be entered into this book.a choice for White's 6 1 st. At the top of each page would be a candidate move . All the possible move chains . Let's return now to the position of Figure 62. material and space. White has seven legal King moves available to him. Black's 6 1 st. namely. Figure 62-White to move Visualize a blank notebook. after figuring out every Black response ( Black's 6 1 st) followed by any White response (White's 62nd ) .

For this position. . ahead. . These four un. Kd4 . At Any Age moves. date move 6 1 . Kf5 234 . Kc7: e7. Kc7 . Kc8 . . We'll describe the "minimax" analysis in gen. Ke8 . . Kd5 . Kf6 .Chess Master . For the position looked at before. As an ex. and . . we'll start with a specific application of it here. Kc7. then. . has every possible continuation of three half. Kd5 . Ke4 . Kf5 . namely the candi. Ke8 : e 7 . we would enter every possible White reply (White's 62nd move) . eral terms later. . Kf5 . On any given page. Kf4 . . 6 1 . tions at his disposal. A specific row represents all White's legal answers (White's 62nd ) to a particular Black response (Black's 6 1 st move. Kd4 . ample: for the page for the candidate move Ke5 . . We have just worked out. shown in the top line (next to . a column corresponding to the different Black replies to the particular candidate move for that page. Kd4 . . Kd6 . there are four possible Black replies. . . Ke4 . Kf6 . Kd4 . underlined and followed by a colon. Kf4 . derlined moves would be . . and now choosing the Black reply 6 1 . Kf4 . Kf5 . White has seven possible continua. . in principle. Ke7. The book. Ke5 . how we would generate an "exhaustive" three. Next to each underlined entry. . Kd6 . Ke4 .ply look. Ke7: Kd5 . Kf4 . Kc8 : e7. Ke4 . . . just separating each of these moves with a comma. . we would enter on the left side. written and underlined on the left side of the row) to the specific candidate move (one of White's options on his 6 1 st) for that page. Let's look at any row on any page in the book. 6 1 . there would be eight pages. Kf6 61 . then. Ke5 61 . Kd5 .moves. . .

listed after e7: . KeS Kc7 62 . For the example above. material force.7 = 2. . Kc7 ) of the table. 8. The evaluation would be in two parts. so we need to work out the tie--break for each of White's seven legal con-­ tinuations on his 62nd move. and each of White's possible responses. The tie--break says that the best White continua-­ tion to 6 1 . 6-5 = 1 .Computer--Generated Move--Search Algorithm 6 1 . with any move to follow for White.the first one being the material balance at the end of the sequence. KeS Kc7 would result in + 1 . all the move chains for 6 1 . 9-7=2. leaves the material count at + 1 (White is up a pawn) at the end of the sequence. and the second one being the difference between the number of legal moves available to White at the end of the sequence (even though White just made his 62nd move) minus the number of legal moves Black could make in response to White's particular 62nd. Now on every row we can develop an evaluation for each of White's possible moves. whereas the 6 that follows is the number of different moves that Black has after 6 1 . and the second is used only for tie--break purposes. 9-7=2. The table also identifies the other three choices Black has for his 6 1 st move. 9 . KeS Kc7 62 . . 8. The first number. is the num-­ ber of different moves White would have after 6 1 . takes precedence. Here the numeral 8 . e7: KdS : Kd4 : Ke4 : Kf4: KfS : Kf6: 8-6=2.7 = 1 . that is. e7 if it were his move again. e7. and has two numbers . KeS Kc7 . meaning: • 235 . + 2 .7 = 1 .

A couple of definitions are needed. with best play for Black on his 6 l st. would yield a maxi-­ mum evaluation (material plus the tie--break) for White after White's best 62nd. Similarly. and so on. unambiguous way. what does "third legal move option" mean? In any chess position. The 3 means the "third legal move option" .2. and the 5 is the "fifth legal move option" for White's 62nd." Squares al to a8 would become squares 1 to 8. Now.we'll explain that shortly . We could now number the legal move options this way: the legal move options of the King are categorized first.Chess Master .-numbered square . We'll give one such method now. b l to b8 would become squares 9 to 1 6. and White's 62nd move. We'll call a "move sequence" any particular string of White's 6 l st. We can start by numbering the squares " l to 64" instead of "al --h8. We're ready now for a general definition of the minimax selection process. and so on. .for White's 6 l st move. then the op-­ tions for the Rook residing on the lowest. . then the options for the Queen. we can order all the possible moves by one side in some clear.. For any particular piece or pawn. and so on. At Any Age White up a pawn. Black's 6 l st. You can verify for yourself 236 . the destination square of lowest number is the first move listed. the 2 means the "second legal move option" for Black's 6 l st (given the particular 6 l st move by White) . Now the "M" merely stands for move se-­ quence." with four moves qualifying. again given the particular White and Black 6 l st moves. The result is that the move sequence M(3 . or which candidate move. We're trying to determine which choice of White's 6 l st move. universally agreed--upon sequence.5 ) becomes a unique. Such a move sequence will have a notation such as M(3 .2.5 ) . and + 2 in "space.

l . namely 6 1 . 237 . playing computer program. For Candidate Move 5. Ke5 . x ) ] .x)] is the evaluation for the best continuation for White after 6 1 Ke5 Ke8 . H [M ( S . Next. and H[M(S." with four choices.x)]. 2 . + 2.x ) ] .3 . H[M(S. For consistency.x ) ] . . the expres.Computer. for M(S . H[M(S. H [M ( S .4. pect from 6 1 . Ke5 . The "H" stands for the highest evaluation for White. 1 ) . Now comes the "minimax" aspect of a chess. Ke4 Ke7 62 .x)] is the evaluation for the best continua.Generated Move. Ke5 Ke7. l . Examine now the evalua. ing: White up a pawn. or 6 1 .4. x ) ] .Search Algorithm that M(3 . mean. The inside parenthesis M ( S . quence. We've already worked that out above. t ion L{H [M ( S . or any White continuation.x)] is the evaluation for the best continuation for White after 6 1 . and + 2 in "space. with the result + 1 . paradoxical as it may sound.3 . H[M(S. l . Ke5 Kc8 .x)]}. H [M ( S . 2 . Now H[M(S . tion for White after 6 1 . Ke5 Kc7 . "H" stands for the highest evaluation for White.3 .x)] means the best final evaluation for White after White makes the best move after 6 1 . while "L" stands for the lowest evaluation for White. Black wants to choose the reply to 6 1 Ke5 which is least favorable to White. or the best for White. H[M(S. l .x ) ] .x)]} represents the best that White can ex. H [M ( S .x)] i s the evaluation for the best continuation for White after 6 1 . given best play by Black. The move selection . or has the lowest evaluation for White. So H[M ( S .2.x) means "any" move se. Black has four replies. sion L{H [M ( S .5 ) for Figure 62 becomes 6 1 . each of which in turn can be responded to by White by various moves. or the worst for White. consider the evaluation H[M( S . 1 ) happens to be the sequence we looked at above.or candidate move chosen by the program for White's 6 1 st would be the . So. Ke5 Kc7. Now M ( S . 1 . 1 .4. Ke5 Kc7. Kf4 .2.x )] .

Kc6 .3.3 .x )] . H [M(3. 238 .4. l . H [M(S . 6 1 . 6 1 . H [M( 7.3. l . L{H [M(8.4. while the sixth one. H [M (8. H[M(6. H [M(8.x )] . H [M ( l . el. L{H[M( 4.x )] . the seventh one. Ke5 . H [M(4. L{H [M(6.x) ]} . .x) ] .x )]}. H [M(6. H[M( l .x )].2.x )] . H[M (4.x )]}. At Any Age move corresponding to the evaluation shown in the box below. 6 1 . L{H[M( 7 .4. H[M(4.x )] . H[M(3. The first five candidate moves.x)].x) ] . 6 1 . and 6 1 .Chess Master . Kc5 .x )] .2. H[M(2.x) ] .2. H [M(8.2. allows only three Black responses. H [M(8.4.3 . Kc4 . and the eighth one. allows five Black responses.x) ] .x )]}) = ? This evaluation would determine the best of eight lines. l . H [M (2.3.x )]} . L{H [M(S.3 .x )].3. H(L{H [M( l .x )] . L{H [M(3 . l .x )] .4. H[M(2. 1 .x) ] .x )]} . H[M(S.4. H[M(3. H [M(S . l .2. H [M ( l .x) ] . 6 1 .2. l .x) ] .x )]} .x) ]} . l .5.x )] .x )] .x )] .2.2. Ke4 . allows two Black responses. . L{H [M ( 2. 6 1 . each allow four legal responses by Black. 6 1 . Kd6 . Kd4 .x) ] .

.

t. A. Figure 63 is one of the test diagrams in Larry I �ote - n. d3 ? ? Ng4 ! WTBM #l l Figure 63 I . Play by rote is NG. Rote is NG. Additional ones are presented here. preparing you to start your own set.APPEN D IX I I I S C ENARIO S LEAD I N G TO F LAS H CARD S In Chapter 4 we developed some Flash Cards.. 5 .

At Any Age Evans's book What's the Best Move? . So the grabber phrase is: Rote--NG . What happened? I played by rote. . Bxe7 and 1 4 . .Chess Master . . Here one of the choices was 5 . . 3 7 Figure 64 240 . Nc5 . . . a � White has just played 1 2 . of course meaning: Rote . Black played 1 2 Bd6 to stop this plan. and totally overlooked 5 Ng4 winning material for Black. . living in some sort of dream world of chess where I didn't expect the possibility of a "material winning move" as early as the fifth move.not good. Re l . B I � Ut. d3 . "WTBM # 1 1 " is my code for Question # 1 1 from Larry Evans's book What's the Best Move? .efJ. He plans 1 3 . . which I selected. I was looking at an eventual Bg5 . Alexander Alekhine p.

which was to follow up with 1 3 . Danvers MA. 24 1 . giving me the idea for the grabber phrase: Frog into a prince . Nc5 . or traded. transforming a frog into a prince. C. I didn't understand the subtle purpose of this move. Central Knight .Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards B. The Knight is much better placed uncontested (by a black minor piece) at c5 than the contested Bishop (Black neutralizes White's Bishop at c5 with his own at e7 ) . White had just played 1 2. Occasions will arise where a piece can be moved. Bxe7 and 1 4 . with the idea of replacing it on that square with a "more suitable" piece. Frog into a prince.safe squares? During the Comeau Memorial. I was on the move with the black pieces in Figure 65 . August 1 985 . Rae l in Figure 64. annotated in Alexander's book Alekhine' s Best Games of Chess 1 938. In the game Czerniak-Alekhine. 1 945 .

Qb7.f4+. 1 . and if 2 . 1924. c5.. New York.f4 .. chose 242 . . So the grabber phrase: Central Knight . Qc5 .safe squares ? D. which was under attack. and chose 1 5 . £4! What went wrong? It never dawned on me that a Knight could get trapped in the middle of the board. Alekhine. At Any Age 1 .. White went on to win my Knight with 2. . Game: Comeau Mem'l Aug 85 Figure 65 I moved my Queen. Redeploy! I was playing Solitaire. . . emulating White in Fig� ure 66 in Alekhine-Maroczy. Qbl? ? 2 . Black should play 1 . INSTEAD. . •• . . however.Chess Master . then 2 Nc6 . also annotated by Alekhine in his famous work The Book of the New York International Chess Tournament 1 9 24 .

Rfc8 16. 154 May 85 Figure 66 the more flexible 1 5 .. I simply used: Redeploy! Again.Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards Alekhine-Maroczy 1 924 p. while still playing Solitaire and trying to emulate Alekhine. For a grabber. Rxc8 Bxc8 1 7. Predefend. Rc7 . In the same game. Qa5. 243 . an attack conducted with Queen and Rook is best when one "leads with the Rook. I'll always remember this idea when I see that Flash Card. it was White's 22nd move in Figure 67. Rel . Typically." Here Alekhine cleverly moved the Queen to prepare 1 6 . E.. when play continued 15 .

. with the idea that if 22 . Qb5 . and play could continue 23 . and b8 free up for the white Queen. . The clever thing about 22 . Bfl . Qb6 Ne4 24 . with decisive advantage (note by Alekhine in the same book) . Nb5 . The grabber phrase: Predefend! The Flash Card has triggered this idea several times to my advantage . 1 54 Figure 67 I chose 22 . predefending the check. . 23 . b4 . White does not lose material. If 22 . Qd8 t Kg7 25 . . a5 . played 22. Qcl . Qc 1 t . Qcl . At Any Age 1 �1 1 Alekhine: 22. QxdS Nd2 26 . . however. the squares b6. Alekhine. Bf1 or at least one of the clever things. Qb6 Ne4 24 . Jun 85 1 924: p. QxdS Nd2 26 . . Bf l . 244 . . QdB t Kg7 25 . so that if 22 .Chess Master . . is that White gets what amounts to a free move should Black pursue the idea of invading the eighth rank.

F. . Rxgl is bad. In Larry Evans's book What's the Best Move? . One of the options Larry gives the reader for study is 3 . Qh5 ! WTBM #6 1 Jan 88 Figure 68 In studying this option. . Bxgl . . I was visualizing the position of Figure 68. where I probably would not otherwise have thought of it. . Qxh2 would follow (note by Evans) . I only looked at the continuation 4 . one diagram in the section on the King's Gambit shows the position after 1. when 4 . . e4 e5 2. Bc4 4 .Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards in my games. There are other ideas besides recapturing. £4 Bc5. assuming that Black might play 3 . . 4. In mentally analyzing this position. Rxg 1 . Qh4 t and 5 . 245 .

. . My concern was my incorrect evaluation of 3 . Rxgl Qh4t and 5 Qxh2 s even less desirable for White. Kd3 b4 33 .Chess Master . Nb5-tricky! With what idea? Botvin­ nik: 3 1 . QhS Qe7 5 . Larry Evans gave three options for White's third move. Nf3 . QhS . Na2 bxa3 . Bc4 Bxgl 4 . threatening mate. which of course stops Black from winning the Rook­ pawn as in my mental analysis above. . . bS-if 32 . according to Larry Evans. The whole sequence. For the record. . . Bc4 . l �:i l 3 1 . . with Nf3 as his recommended move in the position. 3 . and Bc4 . namely fxeS . . At Any Age I never looked at 4 . . my conclusion that the move is worse than it really is. I believe the continuation 4 . 1/2 Century Game 54 Figure 69 246 Jan 86 . In contemplating my reasons for not seeing . Nf6 is awkward for White. . Rxgl Nc6 with the idea 6 .

the grabber phrase: "The Block. Moscow. ing the material balance after 3 . Botvinnik played here 3 1 . Bd3 . 1 926. Furthermore. which is very strong for Black.file to White's Rook. Chigorin Memorial Tournament. " •• 247 . Qh5 . Kd3 . how can one seriously consider playing a piece down? This thought blinded me from even considering any other move. bxa3 Rxc3) . safeguarding his threatened Bishop by blocking access to it. . . . 1 94 7 . Don't prepare useless sorties. Here. reaching the position of Figure 70 with Black to play his 4 l st move. so that if 32 . R The Block. . So the grabber phrase: Don' t prepare useless sorties! •• . I hadn't even considered this move. reaching the position of Figure 69 with Black to move. I concluded that I was obsessed with restor. Here I was playing Solitaire. Ba3 . Nb5 . . with the threat of 3 2 . So. also annotated in his book Half a Century of Chess . Here again. b5 . . But Botvinnik chose 4 1 .the grabber phrase: There are other ideas besides recapturing! - G. Leningrad Championship. .Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards 4 . this move at the same time closes the d. Nxa3 winning a pawn (33 . Bxg 1 after all. but White easily defends against this transparent threat with 3 2 . I selected 4 1 . I was playing Solitaire. Kd3 . moving the threatened Bishop out of harm's way. . trying to determine Botvinnik's moves in Keres-Botvinnik. I selected 3 1 . . annotated in Botvinnik's Half a Century of Chess . determining Botvinnik's moves in Rokhlin-Botvinnik. . So . Na2 bxa3 . 32 b4 33 . Kd2 or 32 .

and that the double check wins easily after 2 .up to 3 . . I selected 1 Rxh7 t .Chess Master . . . . At Any Age 41 . . with White on the move. But what about an entirely different first move ? How about 1 Nf6! ! Black can avert mate at h 7 by at . figuring Black would continue 1 . . I had overlooked 1 . Furthermore. Bd3 ! Not 4 1 . However. Ba3 . . Kh6 3 . when White doesn't have an immediate crushing continuation. . . . 248 . . binations . . . 1/2 Cent Game 64 Oct 85 Figure 70 L Permute! I was studying the combination of Figure 7 1 from Reinfeld's 1 00 1 Winning Chess Sacrifices and Com. Kxh7 2 . Nf6 t . even though Black's King is out in the open. Kg5 . . Kg8 . . Qh7t . White really doesn't have a simple winning follow.

with a simple alteration of the move order. In the game Rick Swift-Wetzell. d3 . The grabber phrase: "Permute! " J. I played 39 . since after White would attack the 249 . ... What I didn't consider was that. Westford MA. White wins. I saw the mate at h 7 . Not 1 . Nf6!+-. What did I do wrong? The basic ingredients were there.Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards 1 . figuring that the advance was risky but worth it. Rxh7tro . Rh4 . the position of Figure 72 was reached with Black to play. . Jan 89 1 00 1 : #3 2 1 Figure 7 1 best one move with 1 . The binary-results move. February 1 986.

Re7t Kf8 4 1 . . My opponent obliged by playing 40.. . I did not continue 40 . as origi. because I finally saw the continuation 250 . Kf2 . White might be able to at. . I reasoned that certainly White didn't have time to win a Bishop with my pawn on the "sixth. and Black played 40 . d2 42 . otherwise risk too great. Re7t Kf8 4 1 . . . . Rd6 . . nally planned. giving me a reprieve. . Rd6. d3?? 40. Be4 ." I overlooked that White could win outright with 40 . . Be4 . Rd7 stopping the pawn) 42 . but Black could probably keep up protection of the pawn. Kf2. followed by 43 . Rxa8t . stopping the pawn. d2 42. Rd7 ! ) 42. Game: Swift Feb 86 Figure 72 advanced pawn with his Rook with 40 . . . At Any Age 7� g'� ii!e<Jedt4 �. Rxa8t.Chess Master . Rxa7 Ke8 (41 . Rxa7 Ke8 (41 . tack the Bishop with his King and Kingside pawns. 39 . 'Z)uode tt M � ttf Must analyze move correctly. 43. .

he will have a won game. ) . results move is a move that could decide the out. Decode it or drop it: figure it out properly. cated pawn race. or possibly a pawn. come of the game. my analysis was slovenly in making my 39th move. a player having a significant advantage may make a series of temporizing moves near the time control. A certain percentage of moves selected at any "game. But more significantly. until he reaches the time control. suing this approach ." but many moves have at stake "only" a positional advantage for the opponent if incorrectly evaluated. particularly if he doesn't have much time.decode it or drop it! Trans lated. I played 40 . I made a move when I was aware that I may have reached a "game. So he postpones making these "game.deciding position" without evaluating it accurately. Strictly speaking. etc.deciding moves. By doing a sloppy analysis. What did I do wrong on my 39th ? To start with.tender loving care.deciding position" in the short time he has left.not treating "game. The grabber: The binary--results move ." such as starting a compli. If your opponent now calculates it properly.Scenarios Leading to Fl. it means this: a binary. any position may be considered a "game. or don't make that move. there is now a good chance that you'll miss this. You may have noticed that. Bc5 instead.deciding position. Rd7 t ..deciding positions" with TLC . "binary" simply meaning two possible conditions.ash Cards similar to the one given above ( 4 1 .deciding position" will leave a win for the opponent. of course. for the simple reason that he can't do a "correct" analysis on a "game.. in grandmaster games. That puts you at an enormous disadvantage for pur. 25 1 .

Qxg2 is hopeless for White) Rxg2 t 4 . and after 7 . 2 . QbBt Kg7 5 . . Ke 1 . •• Chess Stratagems #353 Figure 73 I did not even think of the Rook sacrifice 1 . Rxf2 2. Qe5 t f6!) Rxg2t 6 . Rc2 t 3 . Kxf2 . 1 . I was trying to determine Black's answer to White's threat of winning the b� pawn. Qf4 (any King move leads to mate in two) Rg2 t . . Qe4t 5 .Chess Master . then 3 . At Any Age K The attack beyond the galaxy! In Figure 73 . Kg3 (3 . by Reinfeld. Rxf2 . Kh4 we again reach the position where Black mates as in the parenthesis after White's 252 . because if 2 . . from The Complete Book of Chess Stratagems . Kg4 Qe4t 6 . Kh4 it's mate after 4 . . Ke l Qxg2 4 . Kg3 ( if 3 . Kf4 ( if 4 . Qf4 g5 t 6 . . Kf4 . . .now White cannot take the Rook. KhS Qg6) Rf2 t 5 . . . etc. . Kxf2 Rc2t 3.

pawn was in an. First of all. . second. Whenever a move causes Relin. quished Protection. and a Bishop at c5 . another powerful theme is noticeable. leaving Black with the very enviable advantage of a pawn plus a Rook on the seventh rank. totally overlooking 1 0 . . . 0-0-0 allows 1 0 . Qg3 .pawn. So the grabber phrase: The attack beyond the galaxy ! We got to the next galaxy in two steps . . So White must defend after 1 . it was protected by the King. shielded from Black's Queen and Rook by the f. and the same move as directly above. Rxf2 with 2 . Ng4 when the pawn at f2 cannot be defended. 0-0-0 .Scenarios Leaaing to Flash Cards fourth move. there wasn't an enemy piece near it. . M. What did I miss here ? The g. What went wrong? I wasn't even thinking about f2 prior to castling. castling long. Playing 1 0 . other galaxy .mentally inaccessible to me. Ng4 with White having no way to protect the pawn at f2. I played 1 0 . So. Review relinquished protection! In the same game. the trappings of "safety at home" were in the air. L Home not always safe! In the game Wetzell-Mishkin. . relinquishes protection of f2. namely that of "relinquished protection. So my grabber phrase: Home not always safe! . Rxf2 and (should White play Kxf2) 2 . April 1 987. Westford MA. one envisages an attack on f2 with the black Queen at h4 or f6. Third. . . a very rapid mental check just 253 . . the position of Figure 74 was reached with White to play." White's 1 0th move. Rc2 t leading to the capture at g2.1 .

So we can create a diagram with the same posi� tion. with the grabber phrase: Review relinquished protection! 254 . .Chess Master . At Any Age 1 0 ." by the move under consideration. Figure 7 5 . piece. or "less defended. 0-0-0? ? Ng4 and the pawn at f2 cannot be defended. or point is being left undefended. . Game: Mishkin Apr 87 Figure 74 prior to moving should be made to confirm that no pawn.

. Botvinnik selected the superior 3 9 . 0-0-0? ? relinquishes protec. 1 95 5 . accomplishing the same objective while keeping con. Again playing Solitaire. 22nd USSR Championship. Transfer of forces. What went wrong? I simply didn't think about transferring forces from wing to wing. in order to recapture the pawn. Ra8. ure 76 was reached with Black to play his 39th move.Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards 1 0 . Game: Mishkin Apr 87 Figure 75 N. . . Qe8 .. the position of fig.file. I selected 39 . Moscow. trol of the c. tion of f2. The black Queen had been operating on the Kingside for so 255 . trying to reconstruct Botvinnik's moves in Kotov-Botvinnik.

Rc2 . . Again.if 40 . . with the Queen particularly agile.Chess Master . . Qh4 . then 40 . but these are secondary issues here. The important thing is that pieces can be transferred from wing to wing.• Qe8! 1/2 Cent Game 68 Jun 87 Figure 76 long that I must have believed it was her permanent theater of operations. At Any Age 39 . 256 .. Botvinnik's choice for his 39th move recognized that it was unnecessary to keep the white Queen away from Black's King (where would she go . really putting White on the defensive ) . So the grabber: Transfer of forces! . doing a good job of keeping White's Queen away from Black's King. the important thing is that I did not have this motif as an operating Image .

since I couldn't stop the a. Why is pawn capture automatic? In the game Roger Cappallo-W etzell. figuring White would need four moves to capture my pawn at b 7 .cut.•• Game: Roger Cappallo Oct 84 Figure 77 I calculated that if I started the pawn race with 1 . then White would play 2 . . forcing White to go after my passed f. Kb6 KcB-+ -but 2. when I could in •• 257 . f5 . Kf5 .pawn. Kc5 . Westford MA. followed by 3 . the position of Figure 7 7 was reached with Black to play. Kxc4 . I felt I could defend my pawn at b 7 . I played 1 . Kc5 Kd7 4 . with the outcome not clear. 1 Kf5 with the idea 2 . . Kxc4 Ke6 3 . pawn without giving up my Queen for it. 5 . a6 . 4 . and 6 . Kc5 ! . Kxb7. which I thought would be complicated. Kb6 . October 1 984.Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards 0.

when such a move is available. is best. Kc5 . Kf4 .pawn. and win easily. Qa3 and 1 1 . . . I was mesmerized by the pawn capture by White to the extent that I didn't look at any alternatives for my opponent on his first tum. Ke3 . . 1 . . and win with his remaining pawns. Let's dissect this thinking in steps. The move sequence I as. However. If White enters the pawn race with 2 . Kxb7 fl =Q 6 . Qxa8 . then 2 . At Any Age turn go after the white Queenside pawns with my King. 1 1 . . . - - 258 . If Black tries to stop the f. Kb6 Qxb2 t followed by 1 0 . f5 2 . after which Black simply gives up his Queen fo r the a. Play might continue 9 . . . Kxc4 .Chess Master . . a8=Q Qa3 tand 1 1 . a7 Qxb2 t . and an evaluation at the end. Even if White had played 2 . Kc5 . f4 3 . Kf1 Kf3 and now White must give up his pawns or give way with his King with 5 . followed by 1 0 . The evaluation was also wrong because I concluded that the position after Black queened was unclear. . Kxb7 f2 5 . Qxa8 . . Kg3 3 . a6 fl =Q 6 .pawn and wins. . Actually. Qxa8 . Kc5 f3 4 . a6 Qal 7.. .capturing detour. queening his a. Kxc4 . etc. Kgl (or 5 . . Qa3 . . . What went wrong? Since usually the capture of an undefended pawn or piece. . a7 Qf7t 7. play would continue 2 . Qxb2 t . Or 9 . Black to play in Figure 7 7 is winning. . . pawn one move earlier than by my preconceived King j ourney including the pawn. .pawn from queening with 2 . f4 3 . and 1 2 . 1 . If 9 . since White would have played 2 . was wrong. . . sumed. . still give up his Queen for White's pawn. Ke l Kg2) Ke2 and the black pawn queens. Ka6 Qxb2 1 0 . . Qxb2 stalemate Black simply temporizes with 9 . Kb6 (or 7. the projection of the wrong first move by White is the major point. Ke2 f4 4 . Kb7 Qg7t and now Black will capture the b. . sis was based on a certain move sequence. Kb6 f3 4 . . he loses: 2 . Kb6 f2 5 . namely. . f5 . My first analy. Ka8 hoping of course for 9 . Ka6) Qf8 8 . .

.. Bf5 ! Not the passive 1 5 1/2 Century #53 . .Scenarios Leading to Flash Cards The grabber: Why is pawn capture automatic? P. 1 946. B 15 . . . oping the Bishop. . Jan 86 Figure 78 I saw that White was threatening 1 6 . defending f7 and devel . the position of Figure 78 was reached with Black to play his 1 5 th move. . and what chessplayer in his right mind ever allows the opponent to make a move like that when he can prevent it? I chose 1 5 Be6 . Moscow. Look for the active defense! Playing Solitaire. Match USSR. Qxf7t . . Be6 .• 259 .-USA. But Botvinnik chose the much better 1 5 Bf5 ! In his notes he said that the move . and trying to reconstruct Botvinnik's moves in Reshevsky-Botvinnik. .

Qh6 Rxg2.Chess Master . etc . I wouldn't think of allow. . and his King has no. So the grabber: Look for the active defense! . 260 . . I didn't even consider playing an active move which might allow him to carry out the threat. .pawn for the g2. but first things first. ing White to carry out the threat. and exchanged the f7 . The actual play continued 1 6. . Bxf7t Kd7 1 7. when White's extra pawn will be worth nothing. Be6 was not active. where to go.pawn. What went wrong? I knew that 1 5 . At Any Age undoubtedly surprised his opponent.

8 percent) .9987 x 0.92 x 0. etc.9987. when multiplied by itself 522 times. = 49.5 hours x 2 units per hour. 7 5 units. The half hour of actual study is worth 0. which corresponds to the number of weeks in ten years. assume that 1/7 50th of it evaporates in a week. assume that 8 percent of whatever amount of it exists at the moment evapo. or just about a half (0. the half hour "expo. ) .5 games x 1 . and. or 0. we'll get 4 7 percent. 75 units. Calculation for liquid added weekly. 7 5 units of liquid to his vase every week by the following rationale. It may help to think of the half hour allocation . showing that the evapo.5 hours/game x 1 unit per hour.APPENDIX IV BAC KU P CALCU LATION S F O R THE MO DE L A. Evaporation rate of light and heavy liquid. If we multiply 0. rates in a week. ration rate assumed is correct. is 0.92 x 0. Now two months is somewhat shorter than nine weeks. For the heavy liquid.92. etc. The typical 1 600. 749/750 of it.9987 x 0. or 1 unit.92 by itself nine times (0. For the light liquid. will leave 49 . sure to the world" is worth 1 unit. This number. adding up to 2. likewise. The half. That leaves 92 percent after one week.9987 .8 percent.rated player gets to add 2.game is worth 0. So the fraction left after a week. B. which is consistent with the concept of approximately half evaporating in two months.

he would add 0." We could construct. 7 units of this liquid. corresponding to his rating. for a total of 7 5 units of liquid in the vase for the situation where his rating is stable. evaporates. after many years. and stops studying.055 units. Let's say a 1 600 player stops playing. is made up of 98 percent light liquid. 8 percent of the light liquid. which.49 units. 6 of which will be light. He would start out with 7 5 units of liquid.02 units. . just balancing the half unit he gets for the week for "exposure to the world. and 1/750th part of the heavy (0. of our player rated 1 600. A 1 600. totaling half a unit of liquid. because he will lose 8 percent of the light liquid each week. sponding to 0. corresponding to 0.Chess Master . or evaporation. rates. he will stabi. 133 percent) . this unit of liquid. for exposure to the world.rated player will have 4 1 units of heavy liquid and 34 units of light liquid. C. or rating chronology. corre. from our model. corresponding to 2 1 units of liquid. of light and heavy liquid just balances the 2. adding 2. This combined loss. The level of liquid in the vase.49 units of light liquid and 262 . Rating track for a 1 600 player who quits playing. 1/750th of the heavy liquid. One always gets this half hour. each week. incidentally. lized. or roughly 2. about 0. Each week. will have stabi. 7 5 units of liquid every week. At Any Age for "exposure to the world" as similar to the $200 one gets for rounding "GO" in Monopoly. lize at a rating strength in the vicinity of 1 4 1 5. . During the week. a rating track. in addition to any credit received for actual studying and playing. Also. 7 5 units earned for the week. evapo. and 1 5 will be heavy. who suddenly stops playing and studying. 34 of the light and 41 of the heavy. Eventually.

7 5. of what was left at the beginning of the week) . Various rating. parture from active play and study . each week. plus 0.2 40.3 43. l 6.0 25..6 40.. 75 to 4.0 39. ing to two different clubs.Backup Calculations for the Model 0.3 52.01 units of heavy liquid.2 5.3 5. Our 1 600 player has decided to increase his play .0 4 1 .5 40.6 5. Time 0 months 1 month 2 months 4 months 6 months 1 year 2 years 4 years 8 years 1 6 years 25 years 50 years Light Liquid Heavy Total Liquid Units Strength 34.5 60. one game each other Tuesday evening (his original schedule of a game every other week) plus one game each week on Fri . 1 33 percent of the heavy liquid (again.8 24.6 40.6 5.5 games x 1 .6 1 9. day evening at a different club.6 34.3 28..6 29.25 units ( 1 . See Figure 79.8 20.5 hour of study x 2 units/hour plus 0.3 75.0 66.2 5 . 7 1 2.0 45. 263 ..6 1 5 .6 23.6 37.2 35... 8 percent of his light liquid (of what he had at the beginning of the week) and 0.5 hours/game x 1 unit/hour.9 19 .9 49.9 40. He would lose (forget) .4 8. Rating calculations for increasing play.9 1 600 1 583 1 568 1 550 1 539 1527 1520 1 5 10 1491 1462 1440 1416 Figure 79 D. Adding an additional unit and a half (the "credit" for a typical game) of liquid each week.related information for the 50 years following a player's de. from 2. increasing the total input by 5 5 percent.5 hours for expo .

The doubling effect per 1 00 points com. the vase in Figure 20. The player ratedl 600. This last point is true because. as the level of the liquid rises. and the amount of liquid that evaporates each week is increased. The level . is flanged in such a way that an increase in Strength of 1 00 points doubles the amount of liquid in the vase. so that the rate of evaporation increases.point increase. sure from half a game a week to one and a half games a week. 264 .point increase eventually. so that to achieve a 300. . the amount of the liquid increases by two times two times two.will keep rising until the increased evaporation just offsets the additional unit and a half added each week. At Any Age sure to the world x 2 units/hour) . increasing his chess expo. It works approximately this way.Chess Master .rating. and also that each 1 00 rating points increases the height of the liquid by the same amount. the total amount of liquid in the vase is increased. .corresponding to the Strength this month . pounds. will make the level of the liquid rise above the reference level we have just been talking about. As the level is increased. the total surface area at the top exposing the liquid to evaporation increases. or a factor of eight. Doubling the weekly input to the vase will eventually increase Strength by 1 00 rating points. The model. will raise his chess input 5 5 percent and obtain a 63. This is a geometric (or logarithmic) effect.

and also the breakdown of these. namely to analyze my own games. During these analyses. It just turned out to not to have an association with anything in the book. during this short. much faster than I alluded to in Chapter 4. Also. I've been leaning into my games for about four hours each ( typically one game a day for sixteen games) . tense analysis period. where bad moves and good moves all draw com. duced earlier in this book. a move without comment could have been excel. Typically. The comments are mostly critiques of my moves. hence the paucity of comments. I felt my Strength surging. sented in the book relate to methods of thinking. to a much greater degree than I would have. it would not be pertinent for me to com. but in. since the ideas pre. what I expounded so vehemently in the body of the book. only two or three moves in each game relate directly to material presented earlier. so all the games in this appendix are my games. to such an astonishing degree that I'm afraid to speculate on it for fear of being misleading. There's no question that I've been improving. ment. since I don't normally know how they arrived at their move selection. Here. Developing these annotations forced me to do. the publisher of Thinkers' Press-I had not originally intended to include annotated games. lent. It's too . This makes the annotations different from those in other chess books. mediocre. I prepared this appendix on the suggestion of Bob Long.APPENDIX V I LLU STRATIVE GAME S The annotations to these games connect to ideas intro. or terrible. ment on moves other people made.

the rate of improvement per game studied. for the first time. after all. and therefore more deeply in the same amount of time. I've had some good review comments by one master. As with all ideas. The other is that I feel that I can accomplish much more ( than I could prior to tackling the annotations for these games) on any move in over the board play.Chess Master . using a chessboard and moving pieces. As one goes through the games here. A couple of deep impressions came to light during these analyses. as explained in the body of the book. who writes the excellent chess column for the New York Times . I feel I can analyze more quickly. since it is providing such a powerful stimulus to my improve. It is this accountability that may be the distinguishing feature making this type of analysis so valuable. or per hour studied. felt that the column was a real factor propelling him into the prestigious elite of the candidates for the World Championship in 197 5 . I think that no chessplayer who analyzes and publishes something. will even. ment in Strength. I feel that I can come up with a line . so that I have an expanded Analysis Horizon. tually decline. . would like his work branded as that of a lightweight. a clear impression . I couldn't just put together some careless analyses and expect others to catch all the mistakes. I believed that was the province of the GM. Undoubtedly this was because of the discipline in analysis required to put together a high quality column. in a quiet environment. This has been a powerful incentive for me to do the analysis right the first time . but know that he had limited time. . I have been conducting the analysis of these games alone. I think it is useful to describe some features of the analysis. At Any Age early to tell the relationship between the study program and the improvement in Strength. One is that. I believe that GM Robert Byrne. which I never believed possible in the past. riddled with errors and false conclusions.

But it isn't so. Rigel Cappallo. Not: You're a bad player. I hope these games will illuminate some of the ideas pre . 14 at the time we played the last game (game 1 6 ) . has been playing. . but. I take notice of that sort of thing and draw enthusiasm and confidence from it. sented in the book. over the last couple dozen games. is due to two key factors. The first is that my studying was affected by the continuous subconscious realization that I would be held accountable for the quality of my resulting analyses. not good ones I made or poor ones my opponent made. You might think that I'm going to go downhill in Strength and start to believe that I can't do anything right. By way of example. My annotations in that game include three important poor moves for me.Illustrative Games may be that I'm constantly admonishing myself for every little error. I feel that playing significantly better after a very short (by chess standards. It is the usual psychological guideline. at a performance in the upper range of Master level. To summarize.. The second is that I looked hard only for poor moves that I made. overall. a couple of weeks is very short) period of relatively intense studying.. which might lead to a reverse Pygmalion effect. My admonition is: You made a bad move . I must have played OK to draw.

. I think we all know from childhood. Ne2t 30. ther. Bc7 Qf8 3 7. or from our earliest games of chess. as it was ad. structed a new Flash Card. . Qe4 29. At Any Age Game 1 Wetzell-Barbara Peskin October 1 993 1 . Qa6 comes to mind. So why did I miss this fork? I must have thought. I decided not to convert this lesson into an additional Flash Card. Dis. exd4 Nac7 20. h3 ? is a premature and unnec. .. 29 . Qc4t Kh8 2 1 . g3 c6 4. Qd3 Rfd8 26. d3 . Be3 Nb5 22. sciously. Bxb6 axb6 . . Bf5 8. fol. threatening 8 . or on dl . Qe6 Rb8 33. . nation leading to a Knight fork. Nxe6 fxe6 1 1 . Qxf8 Bxf8 3 8. What I will do is to take that Flash Card more seriously in the future. Rdl Bg7 ) . Qe2 Ne8 14. FC 1 . . Ne2t 30. Rbd l Ned6 23. lieve now that I know the reason. Bxd4 Bxd4 3 1 . . and then Knight fork. fully its balance sheet! Luckily my opponent played 8 . Figure 30. as well as 29. Qe4 ? is a terrible move ( 29. Kh2 Rxdl 3 1 . . What I never before thought of consciously was that a check. that it takes three moves for a Knight on d4 to capture a piece on e4 . because it takes three moves for the Knight to reach ei. Check. allows the Knight to capture one of the two pieces.1� e ad. . d5 cxd5 2 7 . sponse to the check. Qxd5 Qe8 28. Bf5. cxd5 exd4 1 8. since neither can be moved in re. subcon.between exchange move.. evaluate care. Black's correct continuation was 29 . e3 d6 6. essary pawn move (White should simply have castled on this move) . c4 Nf6 2. making White's development awkward. h3 7 . Bd3. d3 Qd7 9. a3 Qc7 34. Kh2 Nc3 3 1 . Nge2 Bg4 7. Qxc3 Nb5 25.. I tried to understand why I missed this combination. Rbl Na6 15. d4 d5 13... Rxd8 Qxd8 32. with the grabber phrase: i$'eacau o. Nd4. Qd7. and castle King side after all. 0-0 0-0 1 2. b4 Rc8 16. and be. 7 . Qd3 Nxc3 24. allowing me to to get rid of Black's light squared Bishop after 9. Nd4 Be6 10. stopping White from castling King side.Chess Master . allowing 7 . Bg2 Bg7 5. I now con. allowing a very simple combi. ning the Exchange and likely the game. 'l (Check and Fork) .. Here I was guilty of forgetting the lesson from an old Flash Card. an in. After 8. and only one can be moved out of harm's way on White's second tum. Qe6 Nd4 29. . Black could continue 8 . Rxd4 Rxd4 30. Nc3 g6 3. equately covered by the existing Flash Card on Figure 30. lowed by a fork. Bd2 e5 1 7. trust a pawn move . dxc6 bxc6 1 9. Rxdl Nc3 win. Qf7 Qd8 36. Bf4 Rb6 35. that my Queen and Rook were safe. Qc8.

. Bxc3 a6 12. Nxd8 Nxf2 and Black would be better. Here White threatens to win immedi. but I could find no way to take ad. Nf3 Nc6 4. Bxb7 Bh3 16.. ately with 20. with a big advan. the Bishop at g2 cap. a5 e6 42. Bc5 was not a correct response.. 7 0-0 8. Bd3 ? This and my next move were totally reckless play. Bxa6 Qe7 18. a3 Be6 9. a4 Nd4 4 1 . Qxd4 £6 15.Nxd5. when Black must give up the light squared . when I'm reviewing it. d4 Nxd4 13. Bd. . I completely missed 7. two Knights. which I will get back to momentarily. Rather than make up an. In projecting the combination. Nxd4 exd4 14. Bc4t Kh8 ••. tor suggests the possibly stronger 9 . this grand theme of discovered mobility is having a more widespread application than I thought. cxd5 Nxd5 6. while the Edi. defending the King. Bb2 Nxc3 1 1 . a6 Nb5 43. I analyzed over the board 7. I knew that Black must play carefully since White is threatening to win a pawn by Nxe5. g3 d5 5. 0-0 7. Nxd l .3 19. I thought that 6 . I was feel. Qh4. Re l Nb5 40. hoping that a Flash Card with a star will make a deeper impression than one with. with two intervening pieces. Nxe5 Nxc3 8. 0-0? Missing a combination.Illustrative Games 39.. But there's another. Nxe5 Nxc3 8. For me. c4 Nf6 2. Bxc6t . more 19. Nxc6 Nxd l (Allan Bennett suggested here for Black the much stronger 8. Rxe6 and 1 -0. other Flash Card. Game 2 Wetzel l-Frank Deming October 1 993 1. b4 Bd6 10. I will place a star near the diagram in all my Flash Cards with that theme. ) 9. vantage. Bg2 Bc5 important reason. Rfdl Rb8 1 7. and embarked on some simpleminded tactics. Nc3 e5 3. for a Knight. Kfl Qf6. The combination was made possible through discovered mobility . out. So what was the problem? Normally I don't think of giving up the critical fianchettoed Bishop. at f3 and d5 . ing high about my material advan. 7. tage .. tures the Knight at c6. tage for White. Bxf2 t with the idea 9.

rela. relatively short time limit game.open f. e4. bxc5 Qxc5 t after 19. or 26. Black could have muddy the water! The advice is: played 24 . . Bfl . at least the Exchange. exd6 Qh3 2 7. Black's 1 9th through 23rd moves in the actual game con. . On considering my 1 9th and 20th tively short time limit. but the September 1 993 point here is that I had two oppor.. . ••. and instead engaged in a game of "Chicken. At Any Age Bishop to avoid mate. and thought to carry the fight to my opponent with 20. bxc5 Qxc5 winning enjoying a permanent positional ad. or semi. So.file for Here then. tunities to consolidate. exf4 Bxf4 22. P/g3 ) if he ning chances in an over the board. e3 would have winning at least the Exchange. . Qf2 vantage. on that one too. n ing advantage . creating a safe square at e3 for my Queen. I started to feel uneasy about the safety of my Lady. Theme Status. e3. . or held down the fort. Qd2 Bf3 24. . Qe5 Qb7 23 . Qf2 Bb6 with excellent win. c5 and . . f5 . fxg3 winning two pawn advantage. I knew that ... fxg3 25. . Qe3 Bg4 22. judge the outcome of any King side attack. . f5. Instead with the mantra: When ± . bxc5 Bxc5 22. of an open. instead of generat. he start thinking about exploiting his could have played 24 . until his 24th White has consolidated and can move. Rfel Qg5 Black was starting to knock me me to play this way. 20. Instead of his 24 . don't start double edged B b 6 w i th e x c e l l e n t w in n i n g play with chances for both sides. . the don't muddy the Black. All Qe4 forces the exchange of Queens) these games were controlled at 40 and White's Queen was safe . I have one make White feel the heat. e4 c5 21. Bd3 f5 . don't of 24 . and started to existing Flash Cards. what's so bad? Among my tinuation were good. fxg3 25. 25. cated for me to see far enough to ing another Flash Card. . Black would 26." I deserved to get into serious trouble over my reckless 1 9th and 20th moves. Adm i t t e d l y . 19 £5 20. with the potential in an hour.f4 ( 20 . and 1 -0. Bd3 than 1 9 . e3 with the idea 20. when 1 9th and 20th moves. f4 2 1 ." chances i n a n over the board.Chess Master .. On my 1 9th move. e5 Qh5 26. so we'll draw a star the position was much too compli. or if moves in an hour.f4 games were controlled at 40 moves were in the air. . . . c5 2 1 . Even Bc7 with the idea of 26. Qg5 . When Black parried with 19 . . run into granite ( P/e3 . I could have simply played around the block over my reckless 1 9. or when the idea of 26.. . All these moves. Bfl 20 . . tried . . It was absolutely crazy for Rfl £4 23. Qg5 . Even though I had raking water Flash Card is nearing Grand Bishops trained at the black King. fxg3 Bc7 with "When ahead in material. Game 3 Black's chances are much better af John Loyte-Wetzell ter 1 9. Bfl when White retains a win.

. 1 2. Nf8 may not be that good. I had previously constructed a Flash Card with the theme Retreat to at. Kfl b6 1 0. creating two Black isolated pawns. pletely overlooking . Qxe3 should White capture the Knight at f2 . b4 ••• 26 . a big advan. Nxg3 . Ne6 and . . Here Black stays a pawn ahead. . Now. Rxe6 Qxe6 20. thereby getting compen. Nf3 Bd6 5. Ne3 22. c4 23 . I was aware of this during the game. Nxd5 Qe2 25. tack. . Black's simple combination is an exploitation of discovered mo. Rh4 Re6 1 7. White continued with 24. I have a Flash . . . Bd3 0-0 7. .. Nxg3 ) Nxf2. I didn't think I had any decent squares for my Knight at d7. . Qd3 Qe7 18. Bh4 Re8t 9.. e4 e6 2. hxg3 .file for his Rook by playing 1 3 . where I might have continued with . Qc2 Nxf2 24. tage. axb4 ? allows White to com. Bxa6 Rxa6 15. . Here the Knight at e4 screens the major pieces on the e. d4 d5 3. 22 . Black needs to deflect White's Queen in order to be able to exploit the discovered mobility. with a better posi. ity. sation for his uncastled position. hxg3 Ba6 14. . bility. Qc2 ( 23 . Kgl Ne4 2 1 . 13. Qbl Nd3 26. Qb3 Nbd7 12. Nbd2 a5 1 1 . NxdS ." As you recall. Qb5 Ra8 16. axb4 26 . . . If Black tries to take advantage of this theme immediately with 22 . com. c3 Nf6 6. Bxg3 ? allows White to open the h. In the game. Bg5 h6 8. regaining his pawn but allowing Black to obtain control of White's second rank. NeS. Nf8.BbS . .1 FC2 . Rel Re8 19.Illustrative Games 1 . . White could continue by capturing on c5 and then on d5. exd5 exd5 4. but didn't want to allow 1 3 . this was a grand theme I hit upon after a number of Flash Cards over an extended pe. . The important thing is that I didn't consider the move. plicate the game.. since White has 1 3 .Nf4. Qe2 allows Black to win a pawn with 23 .file. Nfl c5 22. 22 c4 23. Ne3 ? allows Black to take advantage of his "discovered mobil. Bg3 Bxg3 1 2 . .. . . tion to boot with 24 . Bxd6. riod. but must not have thought of this as an attacking situation. So a new Flash Card with the mantra: 'if!etlieeU a ()7::.

lowed by Rd2 . cxd5 Nxd5 1 1 . Qf2 and . Nxd5 Qxd5 12. which I alluded to in the pre. Kh3 Nxh6 33. Rd4 N6g4t 33 . Rbl 1 6. don ' t muddy the water! I should have simply continued the attack with 26 .7 The invasion at Normandy during Wodd War II was a surprise to the Germans. . or 2 7. Black could have played 29 . elevating it to Super Flash Card status. A Flash Card is in order. and. .. 0-0 Nge7 7. I didn't really consider an invasion of my second rank_:_that would be un.. Kh2 Re2 28. but less so than miss. d4 cxd4 9. Better than my 1 7 .. .-j ust barely into the middle game. Nh4 Nf5 and White overstepped the time limit. Nxb4 Qe3t 28. Rxc4 Nf2 3 1 .. ond rank. . Qe2. Qgl Qxg3 with the two threats . a theme I miss more often than I should. there wasn't even an open file yet! Black's . c4 g6 2. Ncd4 g4t 34.. and . and.Been. Game 4 Wetzell-Rigel Cappallo September 1 993 1. followed by less than ster.. Nc2 Qf2 3 1 . . Rel t. . Rel ) Rc2 with the threat .Kgl Ne4 and White must lose more material to avoid mate by . . with the theme When ± . the possible 30. prima. Kh2 gxf3 35. Kgl Qe3 with the same mate threat as above. Rdl Rac8 16. Qg 1 Qxf3 .. ing 16 . . .fS .. rily because it was still early in the game. vious game.Chess Master . winning.. Black would not . as I do all my Flash Cards. is my continuation. gS was a Should.A. e3 0-0 8. eS. Nxc6 bxc6 14. Be3 after the game. Be4 would have been 1 7 . Ncd4 N6g4t 32. We already have a star on that Flash Card. . after all.Nxg3 . Nc3 Bg7 3.. Important. or sec.f4. . fol. Play might have continued 30. dS.. Kh2 Nf6 29. allowing Black to gain space and keep me off balance with . . Nf2 with a similar continuation as the note directly above. . Rxc4 was an attack on a rank. Khl Re2 28. with the theme: � t1Wadto« tuu4i&e. 27. since I missed both of the above themes. furthermore. which I review reli. but would have been OK. for example 27. when 1 6 . . The move 29 . heard of. Nc2 Qe2 3 2 . Qc2 Ba6 15... Nc2 Qe2 3 1 . Qe2 . 30. Nf3 e6 6. gS ? Once again missing the d iscovered attack ( the White Rook's control of the fourth rank was screened by his d. particularly with an invasion of my back rank. . . exd4 d5 1 0. Rxh6 Ng4t 32. Also. gS ?.pawn) by the move 29. Re2. g3 c5 4.. Nxf3 Re2 36. Rigel pointed out the simple 1 6. .. Qxe2 . At Any Age Card. . Bg2 Nc6 5. giously.. ling play on my part. Instead of 29 . Rh2 (28. did much to undo my game. I thought about my sixteenth move. 30. so the message is to search for the way my opponent might surprise me. Ne5 Qb5 13. . FC3 . Qf2t and 27 . d5 g5 29 . Qe2 could be answered with 1 7 . and concluded that I was unaware of the danger of an invasion of my second rank. Nf2t and . Rd2. Rb l ? I did not carefully evaluate Black's response. tra for an existing Flash Card. the man.. .

Rel .. at this time. Kfl h2 38. A better plan . Rdl Re2 46. is eleven ply.Illustrative Games have been able to make those pawn moves with gain in tempo. Bd3 Bxd3 1 9.. ciently far into the future is an APROP issue. Kfl and White may b e better off than in the text. Black has an easier game against 4. Qxd3 Qxd3 20. ally the first clear sign of a problem. RhS with the idea .file. Ke2 c5 3 7. Be l Rd. £3 h5 30. Bxd4 Re2t 40. R3d2 Rxd2 42. Bc5 Kg6 4 7. 16 Qe2 1 7. � /ott. But evaluating my 1 7th move insuffi. Ba3 Re8 27. Bb6 Kh4 49.. e5 c5 4. Bc5 Kh3 50. Kh3 .pawn) 3 2 . . f4. tion of an existing Flash Card. Be4 £5 1 8. d4 d5 3. then 34. Bc7 h4 35. when White can recover his pawn should Black elect to take the d. �. Rxd3 Rcd8 2 1 . Kf2 ? Black is continually im. cxd4 ? Here I violated one of my own principles and an admoni. Kh l Rxa2 4 1 .. eleven half moves. Bc5 a6 28.. Rel is dis. R l d l £4 23. and so was playing from gen. Nf3 cxd4 4 . Black's 22 . eral principles here.. quently played fourth move is the quiet c3 . but not from 4. ter 3 0 . Khl Re8 45. beyond the move I was considering. With correct play. Bd6 Rf2 0... maintaining both center pawns. Rxd2 Rd8 43 . Kg2 and if 33 . I should have tried 30. Nf3 . Bf6 3 1 . h4 3 3 . Kg2 Kf7 44.e� ad �I FC4.. Af. Kf2 30. ing Black's control of the e. I am currently reassessing my APROP. re. Kfl g4 29. . .. 3 2 . • Not considering 30.1 Game s Allan Bennett-Wetzell October 1993 1. turbing. . so that a move eleven ply "away" can legitimately surprise me.. • . gxf3 32. b3 g5 26. hxg3 Bxg3 34. . gxf4 exf4 24. e4 e6 2.5 25. hence a new Flash Card with the theme "N/h. Rxf3 . . Kf2 or even 32. Nf3 than 4. Be5 h3 36. h3 .. Rxel 3 1 . ing that I shouldn't be playing if I don't have a familiarity with the openings I choose through at least eight moves) ? White's more fre. Be3 e5 22. c3 but not if he's unfamiliar with the themes and must play by his wits. g2. Kxe l g3 (3 1 . I've studied the lines arising from that move.. my Analysis Horizon is not eleven ply deep. My gut reaction is that. Bb6 Bh4t 32. b4 Kh5 48. Kg2 cxd4 39. challeng. proving his position and will sooner or later penetrate somewhere. Kfl g3 33. 30 . whose mantra was: Why a wrong sixth move in the opening ( imply.

Nhd2 0-0 1 1 . let's agree fwto/teetiQe.. After the game. and should White withdraw his light squared Bishop along the f1 -a6 diagonal in order to attack d4 for the third time. we choose having allowed myself to get into a the move that suits us best.NfS and . take only those Bf4-Qf3 -Qg3-Bg5 -Bf6 threatening . . Bd7 . disappointed in ing when it is our move.. when White still has the not so simple task of recaptur­ ing the pawn on d4 .Nxg3. At Any Age for Black. if one only has to be familiar with the first eight moves of each. 0-0 g6 ? It turns out that this move is not in keeping with the position. where a different move is intro­ duced through the seventh move ( instead of through the e ighth move) . there aren't that many trees or variations to learn.. Nxd4 Rac8 1 5 . I became aware of that within the next few moves in the game. Re l Bg7 9. So a Flash Card with the mantra: � eUJ4t HUWe4-I ad­ vising. Rac8 ? Playing without a ways that only the opponent's choices of moves create different plan. or geringly high to you. and anxious about what I thought were powerful White Bishops. NfS ? is a serious mistake. expecting an attack imminently. after the game.Chess Master . For example. For example.. and looking into account all reasonable moves at this position with Black to play for our opponent at moves six.. Black then has . I saw very quickly seven and eight. take 6 . Nb3 Qb6. FC6. Bg3 Nf5 1 1 . 1 2. allowing White to damage Black's pawn structure. Bf4 Nge7 1 0. and easily recapture his cl-pawn.. Bd3 Nc6 6. Black should simply play 1 1 . . leave a manageable total number of simple winning plans. variations (two to three hundred). Bxf5 gxf5 1 3 . not two messy position on my sixth move or three. study the lines arising from 4. . After all. 0-0 g6 7. of course. to know at least eight moves of any opening you may encounter. . This cuts down the number of variations drastically. namely 4 . FC5 .t k. of course. I was already not playing and variations.(. c3 transposing to familiar lines. 5. Nb3 Bd7 14. dence to this statement. . Bd3 Nc6 6. I will make it a point to be prepared to that extent for all the lines I play for our club championship next month. his 1 5th move. a3 Qc7 8. .. taking into account the lack of knowledge with this specific continuation. and. but this should that White has several related. 1 2. Nc6. remembering al­ Nbxd4 Nxd4 15. and then. or Bf4If this number of lines seems stag­ Qf3-Qg3 -Bh6 threatening mate. if it's any consolation.� � � 4. The mantra: �� 4. I was already unhappy with my position.. there aren't that many lines for the first five moves. To give some cre­ dad M#t. At any point in an open­ thinking actively.. which I'm sure you can master. Nf3 cxd4 5.. was to play the for­ give and forget variation. We must. Bf4-Qh5 -Re3 -Rh3 -Qxh 7.. g6. A Flash Card is called for. Nf3 cxd4 in order to avoid surprises in the future. expecting White to play 5 .

16.file. Bh4 Qc7 2 1 .. such as thinking that defending is the only thing left in life. . . 0-0 Re8 12. Rae8. to the exclusion of be. an obsession with getting in . c4 e6 2. f6. etrate on the c.bxc6. The text move allows . I should have seen it. I had in mind 2 1 . BxeS ! 22. Bg5 Be7 5. The mantra: ?U«J. . Bxe7 Qxe7 7. would saddle Black with an isolated d pawn should he break with . . . Let's examine why I missed this simple combination. e3 Nd7 9. Even if White plays f4 and maintains a pawn on e5 .. QxeSt QxeS 23 . Qf4 Rg8 20. or the idea of get.. f6 22. . Black can connect his pieces on the second rank (without a pawn at f7) . fxg7 t winning).a.el FC7. I didn't look for a real plan. . don't get hung up on one idea. o'4eddeo*'4-: jet­ tu<ue UWeti. Re3 1 -0. or Qh5. . A Flash Card is called for. Qc2 c6 8. cxdS ../ In other words. so that under normal circumstances. with the mantra: pettf4o#e. . . d4 Nf6 4. since White's Queen is loose should he capture with his pawn at f6 . Rgf8 ? M iss ing my last chance to salvage the game. But 2 1 . So the bottom line is that I didn't have a real plan. A Flash Card is called for. 2 1 . I realized that .... ting in .. 22. more. a. Rae l ? is a mindless move. Qxc3 0-0 1 1. when Black would answer 1 2. FCS.f6. Qb6.f6. 'U!4t. Nf3 Ne4 6. Nc3 d5 3.. . .f6 was a powerful threat. To prepare. and further. Game s Wetzell-Allan Bennett August 1 993 1 . . RxeS RxgS and White would have to struggle to draw. Rgf8 and .fxe5 .fxe5 . even if that plan is wrong. It seems imperative that Black must prepare . Qc8. Qc7 . Bd3 Nxc3 10. eS ). Qd2 Kh8 18.f6. c3 Qb6 1 7. BgS parries the threat ( 2 1 . when White can con.. For one thing. it fell in with my Discovered Mobility grand theme covered in an earlier chapter. ing wood..a7 diagonal.Illustrative Games mate. and possibly get some play on the gl .. . . exf6 Qxf4 23 . and worse. cxdS would allow White to pen. ing able to see other opportunities. a4.Nf3. exdS ( 1 2. Bg5 Rgf8 2 1 .Ng5 threatening mate . So there was an inertia in my thinking. . as I played 20 . instead of push. Racl 1 2. So Black should instead play .b5. Racl Qd8 1 9. tinue with the minority attack: b4. Qh4 Kg8 23. pta. I should have played 1 2 . I now seriously think I should have told myself that I have to find a real plan. However.

I'd be hanging out my lack of fore. since I'm making so many shallow moves. after I lost the game. We can dust off FC7 with its mantra: Find a real plan! 12 e5 13. The Queen move is more flexible and allows White to maneuver on the ranks. ness of the plans underlying my ac. I've spent more than a few minutes coming up with these plans after the game. b u t subcon. Bh3 . . sight for all to see. Nxe5 Qxe5 15. I didn't look at the logical demands of the position.?'/� � eieMa""'4 o/ � �I FC9.Rf2 followed by the advance of the e and f pawns. this undercurrent of think. These comments on moves 1 2 and 1 7 warrant another Flash Card. Bfl only fleetingly. cxd5 Qxd5 1 6. another Flash Card-FC 1 0. Rfd 1 Qg5 1 7. Nonetheless. dxe5 Nxe5 14. g3 1 8.f3 . admittedly. but apparently I'm not. tual moves. ing with one of my opponents. I thanked Mike for his sleuthing. 1 8. Bfl would be a better defense than a pawn move. prove considerably on the shallow. since I j ust posted it aggressively at c4? Besides. erally didn't seem to work hard enough. Qb4 would restrain Black's <level. I didn't think this consc iously. also a master. 1 7 . At Any Age Black to break with . diately equalize. part of which are to consider Black's tasks. my friend Mike Hart. Bfl in a very short time. and gen. opment by attacking b 7.evaluation here. Bc4? Pushing wood!-1 j ust thought it would be nice to allow the Rook to control the d. The mantra: . . S. namely. How could I move the Bishop again so soon. . and tried to take it to heart. in the event of 1 7 . I'd be aware of that fairly obvious challenge. that I am capable of deeper. that I underutilize my analytic abil. where RcS comes to mind. At the time. . it would be an admission that I didn't consider Black's last move. He told Mike that he felt I was away from the board too much.· "°' � IH(W. Now you'd think by now. but it now appears that I didn't. I believe I've discovered a grand theme. without getting into Time Pressure. higher quality plans than the ones I've generated over the board. g3 ? I'm going to give that move a question mark. Open by talk. So. a master and my chess mentor in the 1 980s.Rcz. . ity. and maybe at the same time attack f7. sciously. after all these years. but to look hard for a plan.U. sarily because it's a bad move. helped me during the 1 988 U.Chess Master . Also. ing must have influenced me to pass over 1 8. ••• . since these games annotated in this section were played at a 40 in an hour time control. and many games. Another plan might be to play Re l . and. e5 and imme. I certainly could im. but because I considered 1 8 . ••. . Since Black needs to develop his Bishop.I 1 7 Bh3 18. with the mantra: 7� � 4t � �. The lesson to take from these observations is to not play perfunctory moves. Now that I think of it. Now I may be too harsh in my self.file. Bc4 1 7 . not neces.

. Qxb 7. Rf5 wins a pawn. I simply need to exchange a pair of Rooks to break up the combination. Two Flash Cards are i n order. Rxd8 20. cxd4 7 .. Nxd5 Qxd5 8.: � to a. . d4 Nc6 6. with the mantra: iee­ ef44&U · d. hxg4 hxg4 3 1 .c4 Nf6 2. . � �.e � µea �. Qa6 ) . Rd7 34. Rxe2 g4 28. Bfl h6 23 . I me. So how did I overlook such a simple move ? I had been working so hard to obtain a draw. Rd2 Re l 4 1 . . and the other with the mantra: z:>"* 'e 9d '""" � ol tfutHe. cxd4 is not neces. Rf2 Ke6 38. recently developed. Rdl t 22. Rh6 ? Overlooking that 50. g6. but my point is that I never explored this variation. Nxd4 Nxd4 9.pawn. . Kxf3 Rd3t 36. Rxfl g5 24.k �I. Rh6 50. 1 8 . Qxd4 Qxd4) and White has an isolani.e � e4ll. with Black having a comfortable game . So there were two things wrong. Rxd8 ? I was planning Qxb7. Now 6 . . So. Qb3 Qh5 20. Kg2 Rd3 29.e «!t#/tVuuu. Qxb7 ( . steering into a sort of Gruenfeld defense. e3 g6 6 . Qd 1 t) I saw ghosts. Rc2 Kg7 32. I could have played 2 1 . I realized that 2 1 . Qc2 Qf3 22. b3 Rd4t 48. 20 Rxd8 21. e4 c5 26. .. . Qxb 7 Rd 1 t 22. f3 gxf3t 35. h3 h5 30. Allan told me after the game that he had an immediate win ( after 2 1 . Nxd4 Nxc3. Kf4 Rdl 37. without the Queen sac (let's assume neither player saw the possi. FC 1 2 and FC 13.. Ke3 b4 49. l/z-1/1 � 1HOUe Game 7 Brad Ryan-Wetzell August 1993 1 . that mentally I was predisposed to the idea that the best I could do is draw . bili ty 2 1 . Rxd8. exd4 ( 7 . Bfl h6. Rxd l t. . since White's dark squared Bishop is freed after 7. Kd3 a4 45. or 7 . . had the mantra: Know the first . d. is incorrect-players make mistakes that tum the game around. in fact. Ke3 Rg l 39. g6 ? Here I missed giving White an isolated pawn.Illustrative Games surely in less than ten seconds. A Flash Card is in order. . Qxb7 ) with 2 1 .Bfl Qxcl . . Rh6t f6 46.. when White gets an isolated c. and although it was White's move. Re l b6 25. KB Re l 40. The lesson ? FC5 . cxd5 Nxd5 4. I missed the Queen sac. Nc3 d5 3. Rf2 a5 43.. g4 a3 47. Ke3 Rc4 42. But that. After Black recaptured with 20 .. when. I thought. exd4. Rh2 b5 44. . A Flash Card. . Kfl Kf6 33. but playing it immediately would lose to 20 . � l FC 14. Rad8 1 9. One with the mantra: � 14#. Rxdl Qxd l 24. The mantra: s� � fPUde: �­ aitWt � d. . Nf3 c5 5. Qe2 Qxe2 2 7. Ke2 •.. Bfl Bxfl 23. it looked like there were too many strong continuations for Black. Qdl t 22. chanically played . sarily such a great move. FCl l. when Wh ite might have some winning chances. Rh5 Kd6 50. And so I refrained from 2 1 . of course. 6 . 't �.

Be5 ? Wrong plan! I rea. Qc2 Nd5 1 9. exd4 Bg7 14. But the problem is that this tempo allows White to win the h. if 3 2 . So what is the problem? I should have simply attacked White's c. c6 Be5 3 1 . Rb3 Ra8 36. Kg8. sider that my correction. . b5 axb5 28. Bg2 g6 6. Re l R2g3 56. Rb6 Kf7 3 1 . White could have played 1 2. Khl e4 52. Rb3 Bc7 39. . 12 . Bc4 Nb6 8. Rb5 f4 40. g3 g5 38. dxc5 . Rb4 Kg5 46. Nfl R2d3 27. fxe3 Rd2 23. . then attack it. Kxgl Kd4 60. Kf2 Kd3 0. b3 Rfd8 1 7.Ra7. when White has doubled on the seventh. Qc5 Qxc5 2 1 . this is not as ominous for Black as Wild Pigs usually are.Rxg3 5 7.. d3 Be6 . Rb7 Kg5 44. pawn again with 3 1 . a3 0-0 8. 7. a4 Rac8 20. Rb3 Bxh2 49. R3e3 Rg4 53. gxf4 gxf4 4 1 . . Rxg3.. Rxb5 Rc3 30. Rb3 Kh4 45. Nc3 Nc6 3. Rfel Rcd8 24. . Kh2 Rg6 58. Rb l Qd5 16. pawn and a nice target for attack. Rb3 Rf2 4 7. So a Flash Card. Nxc6 Bxc6 1 1 . with the mantra: 'ieede ""· I: 'Pae up. Game s Wetzell-Larry Charpentier July 1 993 1. a Flash Card in existence before this book has the mantra: You may think in the opening! I'll pay more heed to these two Flash Cards and will con. c4 Nf6 2. Ne2 0-0 1 5 . pawn as in the game. After 3 2 . Nxh2 Rxh2t 50. dxc5 Nxe3 22. I was afraid of Ral . Ne5 Bd7 10. my reme. 0# de �· FC 1 5 . Kh l e5 43.pawn. At Any Age eight moves ! Not quite so tersely. Rfl t Ke5 55. Rc8. . Kgl Rhg2t 5 1. Rb7t Kf6 3 3 .1. Rb7 t Kf6 just wins the pawn (33. axb5 cxb5 29. 0-0 Bg7 7. and know. because of White's poor King position. Rb7t. Rgl Rxgl 59. Nf3 d6 5. Be3 Qa5 18. Rh3 R2g2 54. Rdd7 Bh6 and Black stays a pawn ahead) . 0-0 The result of my poor opening play. Rb4 Kf5 48. cxd4 13. the first eight moves of any opening I might encounter ! Also. exf4 Bxf4 42. Rb7 Rc2 35. Ng3 f5 25. Bxc6 bxc6 12.Chess Master . leaving me with an isolated c. soned that I may as well start by fixing White's c. Rd3 Raa2 3 7. when 32. Rdl R8xc6 34. b4 a6 26. g3 e5 4. . Bb5 e6 9. As it turns out. Rxh7 Rxc6 34. 32.. . dial plan. it advises me to learn.

A plan might have been Qb3. has as its title to the second chapter: An.•• logical to examine all reasonable re. Again. Rbl h6 l 1 . he is saddled with the isolani. I: . axb5 Ne7 14. Bb2 Bh3 2 1 . after having played openings with the control the center with pawns strategy all my life. Bd2 Ra7 1 7. Be3 1 5 . As a result. but I'll pay better attention to the Flash Cards with that theme. Firstly.e3. Ne4 Qe7 30. Re l c5 15. Nc3 Nd7 26. we have 6.L� � ad � '4. . d4 Nf5 27. only to move it again along the same diago. sponses by one's opponent. In that chapter. Nxe5 Bxe5 29. it's obvious that I hadn't considered Black's Knight move 15 . the Bishop move should fit into some plan (which it did not). ing the competitive edge not in chess but in other endeavors. dxe5 Nxe5 28. ticipating your rival's response . easy to find re. fi. Rd5 f6 ••. ing only recently. 9 a6 10. After the game. b4 9. nally. but it's more important to have some plan. We'll not generate any more Flash Cards. . Bd2. Nel exd3 1 1 .been.li!ute. The lesson here is already covered in FC7 : Find a real plan.d. it took me quite a while to come up with any plan at all. . so why not do that? I now can think of at least two reasons. ered mobility grand theme again. dxe5 . Bbl Rc8 22. exd3 Ne4 1 2 . In examining my ninth move. What about the issue that 1 5 . b4 ? allows 9 . Nf5 . a4 Qd7 12. Qb3 R8a8 25. or if Black exchanges twice on d4 . one of the sections is titled: The first rule of strategy . why would I move my Bishop to a square. so it's really a Should. b5 axb5 13. . But it would seem . Qc2 g5 19. That Flash Card appears to be headed toward grand theme status. in that section.Illustrative Games 9. . Be3 ? Perfunctory develop. Bxe4 Bxc3 and Black is slightly better. I missed the Discov. This little combination is not the end of the world for White. 15 Nf5 1 6. FC 1 6. Rbdl Nf8 24. sponse ? Let's examine the second reason first. Looking at my 1 6th move 1 6.a. A fairly recent book titled Thinking Strate. e3 Nh7 1 8. So we'll use the title of the section and Rule 1 as the mantra for our next Flash Card. nal when my opponent makes a pretty transparent.d4. e4 1 0. The dark squared Bishop hasn't moved yet. ment. Na4 Qd8 23. gically by A vinash Dix it. Be3 did not fit into any plan? I have started playing the English Open. my positional understanding of the ideas of the English is j ust beginning. and secondly. Be l Ne7 20. my point here is that it's always nice to have a correct plan. expound.

Bxd4 Rb8 1 7.o. .Mfrete��"e4. Nxd. d4 d5 3.. fxe5 destroys White's center). sition and assess whose game is su. pawn). . and keep the mantra simple. . and what's more. Qa2 Bxb4 25. Qb4 and White won in a few more moves. is in order. e4 e6 2. c3 cxd4 10. . cxd4 Qc l t 28..5 exd.4_44-_ 4e44. .pawn would become more dangerous than Black's d. Rxa3 Rxa3 40.­ � µea e:rda1e9u u. Qa5 Bxd4 ) Bxd4t 27. Nf4 Be8 23. j ust from general princ i p l e s . . as well as ceding White the more dangerous passed pawn (I believe White's e . fxe5 axb5 20. . . a6 ? A fairly simple move to find is 1 1 . Be3 Qb6 8. giving up the Bishop pair to White. axb5 fxe5 19. Bxd4 ( if 1 2. Rxf8t Nxf8 2 1 . Nb4 ( if 26. . At Any Age 3 1 . . Nb2 Be7 14. We'll leave the always off in order not to clutter up the Flash Card.. Nxb7 Qc7 39. Nd3 Bd7 22. . Game 9 Frank Deming-Wetzell July 1993 1. A Flash Card is called for. Bfl Qe3t 29. £4 c5 6. Qb l Qc7 36. . Nxd6 Ne7 37. FC 1 7. . exd5 ? Carelessly played.tk � � �· FC 1 8. a6 1 1 . Be2 b5 13. . sion to exchanges in the opening­ it' s probably more a personal issue with me. Nxc5 R8a8 34.f6. . My conclusion is that I was just careless. The mantra: (3. a4 Nxd4 1 6. Bc5 ! 26. 0-0. . Most people don't have this programmed aver. Nc3 Nf6 4. So why didn't I see this ? After thinking about it for a while ( all these observations under discussion were made well after each game was over). Nxd4. after 1 1 . White's N/d4 is better than Black's N/c6. Black is crampe d . 0-0 0-0 1 5 . e5 Nfd7 5. . Nxd4 1 2. Nf3 Nc6 7. 1 2. since u s u a l ly t h a t s t re n g t h e ns the opponent's position. Qxd4 Be7 . Rldl Rd8 32. there are exceptions. A Flash Card. the B/d4 is hemmed in and nowhere the dynamic piece that the N/d4 would have been. 25 . . b4 Qc7 1 1 . . yet wound up giving a permanent advantage to my opponent. Ne3 b4 2 7 . R5d3 Qa5 38. Qf2 Qxf2 and Black is much better than in the game. grammed not to exchange pieces in the center in the opening.. . . I know I didn't think about this move very long. Ne4 Ra3 35. Ra6 Qc8 24. of course. . Bxe5 fxe5 33. The mantra: ?to.5 2 5 . I realized that I'm prepro. Na4 Qa5t 9. Qd2 £6 18. c5 Bf5 4 1 . I didn't stop at a quiet po.Chess Master . Nxd4 1 1 . perior. . But. tk �· Implied is: always consider piece exchanges in the opening.

if three pieces can recapture. is: "'1od at 4od. Bg2 0-0 5. Particularly. Bxf3 1 1.raking Bishops-as in 3 6 . Bg2. in response to the eventual stan. Best Kxe8 42. All of us have been exposed to the fearsome power of two raking Bishops. 1 1 . Bh6t 1 -0. Nd7 12. A good point. one should look at both pieces. Two Flash Cards are in order. Qxf3. 0-0 e5 7. tured must be immediately recap. particularly because the response is so limited. . Bh6t Ke7 39. h3 weak. Yes. Ne 1 and 1 1 . I remember in Reuben Fine's Ideas behind the Chess Open. . 36. A Flash Card is in order. Bxf3 and 1 2. Rxf8t Kxf8 32. for example: 10. If. g3 Bg7 4. Bxb5 Qxe5 34. ens the King position. Bg2 £5 13. FC 19 has the mantra: 11� th.f5 . Qxf3 and 1 2.pawn advanced. Bh5 .Illustrative Games 26. FC22. putting the question to the Bishop. when Black must lose material. f4 ? Another preprogrammed pawn move. a piece cap. . plied. . Qxe6t Kf8 43. It was the simplistic way of putting the question to the Bishop. I feel I should have been able to see this coming. But they are more dangerous than one expects. Bh4t g5 37. Ra8 Rf8 3 1 . instead of the pawn move. Qa8t Ke7 35. Bxg5t Kf8 38. Mike Hart pointed out to me-why not 1 3 . d5 Ne7 9. but was there anything special about this position. . The mantra for a new Flash Card. which I was aware of. Qc2 Nd7 1 1 . as played by my opponent. with Black's g.eltOU� 11�1 The mantra for FC20 is: � � M#dtdatul Here.hJ . . when I would get a free developing move for the Queen ( in lieu of the Bishop retreat) ? So. Qc7 ? loses to a Bishop com.. So. Bxf3 1 1 . Bh4 t as my opponent played-are not so dangerous. with the mantra: 'P� th. contributing to my not seeing it? After thinking about it. Furthermore. Per. instead of 1 1 . almost cerp inly back to g2 . euea. haps an unstated corollary is im. I played 1 0. . f4 1 3 . Bg5t Kf7 4 1 . h3 ? semiautomati.. . dard break . •• . White continues his development with Qc2. Bxf3 ? I played this move knowing I would move the Bishop again. bination. where 35 . Black can't play 10 .f5 . . c4 Nf6 2. d4 Nc6 8. So what was the problem? As I explained above. Qb7t Qc7 35 .g4. Bfl Bf7 28. tured. Bf2 d4 33. cally. f5 ? would be answered by f3 . Black cannot go willy nilly into the simple break . or all three. Qa l Ne6 30.. . Qd3. sidering at least two is implied. Ra7 Qf4 29. con. ting the question means.�/ Usually. Nf3 d6 6. Kf6 keeps Black in the game. of course. Game 1 0 Wetzell-Roger Cappallo July 1 993 1. as I rapidly learned. cxb4 Qc l t 2 7. e4 Bg4 1 0. 1 0. Qe4 Bg6 40. I conclude that there is. that cross. 10 . FC2 1. . we'd have 1 1 .Be3 .� a a. Nc3 g6 3. h3 I played 1 0.eltU«) � � eU4luate �I Here put. h3 too automatically.

. 1 . . with his excellent minor piece position. I should have played more cautiously here. In the note to the 1 5 th move . c4 im. a new Flash Card is in order. Black simply plays 23 . The resulting pawn ex. . with the mantra: Distrust a pawn move . ine carefully its balance sheet. Now I realize that most pawn moves are un.c5 . I should have seen that 1 5 . . f3 . ing s p l e n d i d p o s i t i on of my opponent's minor pieces. this motif is getting close to becoming a grand theme. un. Ne4 Ne3 20. White can't move his Rook from the first rank. Rf2. ter 22 . changes in the center favor Black markedly. e4. Nxc5 Bxc5 22. Rxfl . . exf5 1 5 . Figure 30. d4 and 1 . So what's the remedial action? I already have a Flash Card. when Black can't capture the e. FC23. exfS ? Running scared. Bg2. . If Black advances . So I played 1 5 . However. Bxc3 1 6 . 23 . Here again. . or. mediately come to mind. Considering the lessons from this game. since Black j ust defends with 25 . more accurately stated. unforced pawn moves. having played h3 . JS in the King's Indian Defense. Bb6 followed by mopping up White's Queenside pawns. White's 25 . desirable unforced pawn moves looks like it just achieved grand theme status. that f4 is the correct response to . then g4 and f3 .pawn with 15 . Rf2 .•• What was I thinking about ? Af. .. Rf8.. Qd2 Qf6 1 7. Kh2 Qd4 1 8. Bxe3 Bxe3 2 1 . my pawn structure on the King side is too loose. so after 24. when White can't stop .. sion of the seventh.f4. as well as win at least one pawn. If I had thought a little further. 15 Nxf5 16. . Qxc3 fxe4 ? because 1 7. Bxc3 . ing yet another unfarced pawn move . capture. I like that description.• So. fender of the P/e4. I reasoned that I needed my Rook on the e. Bxfl 23. Bh6 is strong for White.. with the mantra: 2?e ""4IUf o/ � � �. Qxd4 Bxd4 1 9.file for a quick invasion of the seventh rank. Bxf4 Nc5 15. I'd remember that we take turns in this game. At Any Age ings . exam. or even 1 3 . Re7 would be useless. forced-I .. b4. one that's unique and easy to grasp.. etrate the seventh rank. oped earlier. devel. but I will not misinterpret this Flash Card to block those kinds of moves. ing my pawn structure further. So. . ing to allow White a useful inva. •. Bxfl ?? allows Black to pen. You'd think that after all the games of chess I've played. Qc2 is OK. since that would leave the Bishop loose. without hav.. developing slowly on the Queen side with Rbl . exfS . . . mak. as well as damag. aware of the result. making un. I never considered what Black would do after my re. Rael Rxfl 23. with my preponderance for weakening pawn moves. doubtedly entering my mind from unforced errors in tennis .Chess Master .N a4. Black invades with 24 . taking away a de. 13 exf4 14. . We'll put a star on it for extra emphasis. Bxfl . I was afraid of .

Rh3 Kg5 33.pawn are not beyond my ability to foresee. but at least Black would still have to demonstrate some chess ability to bring home the point. Kh3 Bxh4 ! ) . . FC1 6-we won't put it into the stack to be repeatedly re. Kgl Rb l t 3 1 . Let's generate another Flash Card with the mantra: � 'Ude I: L� � ad. vious one. Nf3 Qb6 6. Rb l . . h4. In considering my 29th move. . a budding grand theme. about looking ahead and reasoning back. when I'd have to lose the Exchange. h4 ? Another bad move lead. c3 Nc6 5. and discard the pre. Rf8 24.Illustrative Games of Game 8. viewed. b3 Rxa2 26. This example is more stark than the one from Game 8. � dad. Kf2. A Flash Card. . It turns out that Black cannot easily capitalize on White's cramped King. h5 (30. Bf2 forces 30. with the mantra: Z'O# 't k w � Uetfl. d4 d5 3. concerned. FC24. Bg2 Rf2 25. Rfl Kg7 2 7. g4 Rb2 28.e4 e6 2. 4 � �1 29 . . So we'll develop this one. But I George Mirijanian-Wetzell June 1 993 1 . that my King was hemmed in. Be4 h6 34. since this is a repeat.Be5 t in the air. Bd3 6 • • . 29. h4 29. . Game 1 1 29. we developed FC 1 6. for example. e5 c5 4. ing to the loss of a second pawn. gxh5 Kh6 32. when all of Black's pawns become weak. But. So what happened? I was playing by general principles. Khl Rxb3 and Black won shortly thereafter. FC25 . Rf3 Bd4 should have projected some moves ahead. and probably rightly so. is called for. instead of being handed the point by White's gift of another pawn. with threats like . . Bg6 Be3 t 35. Black can of course advance his King and possibly choke off White's King's access to safe squares. h5 gxh5 3 1 . 23 . Bf2 30. 29 . Black's response and the forced advance of the h. Bd7 . we'll put a star on this Flash Card. . to see if Black can really carry out this threat in the absence of my 29. Rd3 Be5t 30. and make progress that way.

0-0 f6 9. . . . with the mantra: 1fltd em. Bb3 0 . lem was a certain impatience . Qe2 . not see. Qh5t Kf8 15. af\d _ particularly. The problem is. Be3 Qc7 1 1 . b4 Be7 1 0.Chess Master . which... assuming. Now the number of moves one needs to know to get out of the opening alive and rea. we can take a minute to put a star on it. Re l b5 7 . that one is playing the Ruy with White. of course. after 0-0. Nxe5 Qxe5 13. In this game I played a wrong sixth move ! It's time to dust off FC5 . Bd4 Nf6 1 7. and consider. when reviewing it. 16. Again. But my real prob. Ba4 Nf6 5.. Rel Qc7 14. such as the Marshall attack against the Ruy ( 1 . as we encounter it in re. Nxe5 Nxe5 1 1 . rating Strength. to remind me. e4 e5 2. but the long range. pert level.Nf6 was a good tempo gaining sequence attacking the w h i te Queen.0 8. ter plan is to review the entire stack at least once every two months. that many players. . I believe that at the Ex. slightly longer over the board thinking should have re. however. 7. This gives those players a huge edge when playing a person of similar ability who is play. for a certain number of moves-and for some of the sharp lines. Since part of the Flash Card mas.. creating potential weak squares in Black's camp. tionally debilitating feature of this pawn move far outweighed the short term gain. . s onably well depends on various factors. with the mantra: Know at least eight moves of any opening you may encounter! Let's put a star on that Flash Card. ing by general principles. that it has become a super Flash Card. I there. one should know all lines that one may encounter through eight moves anyway. Bb5 a6 4. ably more in the sharper lines. even more. fore think it's necessary to know at least playable lines in the opening. know the refutation to many poor moves in the opening. e5 .ei "'4te1Ut:d.. vealed that I could play . b4 favors White considerably is understandable. I felt that . a4 f5 1 5 . Bd7 ? Allowing White to play 7. we can make a mental note to be on the lookout for this particular one. e.. At Any Age 6 . f5 . A Flash Card is in order. gaining space. so that. would result in a very strong position for Black. 0-0 Be7 6. by b4. c 3 d 5 9.. counter. Since I was playing by general principles here. In short.. Rxe5 c6) . Bd6. exd5 Nxd5 1 0. for any openmg that one might en. posi. when finally implemented.e­ utidate /14�1 FC26. f5. because the theme has been come up more than once. and slowly think about . ing that the position reached after 9. even well below the master level. Nf3 Nc6 3. view. I was in a rush. dxc5 followed.Ne7. b5 Nxe5 12.o. dxc5 Bxc5 8. A seriously weakening pawn move.

as we've done with others. For example.. Incidentally. but is not winning yet. h6 ? Yet another weakening pawn move! Undoubtedly. 1 7 . However. pawn without the pawn move . Nd2 Kf7 20. h6. Bd6) with Bxf6.. . Here. Qxe6 Qxe6 25 . There are several things wrong with this logic. h6 . ning..pawn is not the end of the world for Black. I reasoned this way: White will play Ng5t followed by Bxf6 and Nxe6. . . Nxe6t Bxe6 24. 18.Illustrative Games 1 7 g6 1 7 . although denuding Black's King. Re8. or 1 7 . Ng5 t Kg7 22. with the mantra: Distrust a pawn move. . Bd6 was probably better. . b6) .. What to do about my first mis. or even 1 7 .. the move . giving up the e. Be5 Qc8 19. Re8 (White can't play 1 8. White enjoys a fine position with the ini.. although I developed this analysis after the game without a clock run. R l e l Rxe6 27. g6 ? Another weakening pawn move intending to parry the threat 1 8 . 20. . .. tify it as a Super Flash Card. . g6 may not be that much weaker technically than the alternates mentioned. . because Black has moves such as . Bxf5 . Firstly. penetrating into Black's camp and winning. We'll put a star on that Flash Card. Rxe6 Rhe8 26. he still has to recover the sacrificed pawn. . White cannot easily get to Black's King ( after 1 7 . . It is time once more to dust off the Flash Card of Figure 30. . but my feeling is that I went to the pawn move. . .Qh5 etc. . Bxf6t Bxf6 23 . Bxa7 because of . • 20 h6 20 . to iden. Rxe6 Kf7 and Black is OK. . 20 . I feel it is not beyond my APROP to analyze over the board. which I knew was weakening. Qe8 (to make room for the development of the R/ a8) 2 1 . . . stops White from winning the e. w i thout searching hard enough for an alter. . Qg7 . . As a matter of fact.. Nf3 . . Therefore. . native... Qd6. I have to stop Ng5 . tiative. Secondly. Be8 and . 20 . one that has been encountered at least twice. . examine carefully its balance sheet.

Although not easy. Bxe4. Qf4 and Black cannot avert serious material loss. ing.. Rdl and 1 -0. I can finally alleviate it with . when the outcome of the game is not at all clear.pawn was curtains. I should have examined 25 .pawn. . . Ne4. Kg8 2 8 . Nc3 Nf6 4. now that I think of it. . I reasoned this way: after all these moves with pressure on my P/e6.pawn would win for White. I should have played 25 . which can happen in dif. a bigger Flash Card. or something. Ne4 and seen it lead to ruin. . ficult positions. . . which I'm working to root out. he'll be staring at some strong pawns in the center. nates to the Knight move 25 . . . d4 d5 3. . 26. So what went wrong? Was my APROP good enough to project the analysis above ? I would say j ust about. Rxd7. NeSt Kg7 28. For now. Rael Ba3 22. Kg8 29. Ne4. Bxe4 fxe4 2 7 . Rc2 Re8 23. examine carefully its balance sheet. A Flash Card is called for. Nxd7 followed by 30. During my considerations for the 2 5 th move. � a. . This one is a Super Flash Card already. we'll stick with the simple. Bf8 and it's curtains for Black. In the game. I may have to think about a second star. Ne5t Kg7 28. It probably goes along with some of the other faulty chess ideas I have. and 28 . nished.squared Bishop and the h. FC2 7. . . tional attack on the pinned piece (here P/c5 ) . but only subconsciously. a different color Flash Card. has never been at the forefront of my conscious think. �I This idea. Qe3 Bb4 30.. c4 Qd8 24. A Flash Card is called for. White was threatening 29. Qe3 Bb4 29. . overvaluing a structural or material advantage vs a dynamic advantage. then look for an.Chess Master . discussed earlier in the book. At Any Age take in logic? Time to further dust off our by now well known Flash Card of Figure 30 with the mantra: Distrust a pawn move . . b6. . NeSt Kg7 ( if 2 7 . and attacking with the piece of least value. �I FC28. Bxe4 dxe4 2 7. this motif. Super Flash Card. Qe3 again forking Bishop and h. and if White captures the Knight. but 28 . with the mantra: Z)04e 't k �tiated­ � 4. which is hopeless for Black) 28. . . such as overvaluing a Bishop vs a Knight. . Game 1 2 Nasser Abbasi-Wetzell June 1 993 1. other defense. Bd6 Ne4 25 . and find the addi. dxe4 losing even more quickly to 2 7 . I did not look at any alter. But more important is a failure in resolve. 26. c5 Rc8 25. 21. unvar. I played 26 . Qe3 forks the dark. How about my second mistake in logic? I knew I was a pawn up. . Ne4 ? White can now win quickly. nor did I look seriously at the continuations following 26. Kh7 29. Rdl when I resigned. with the mantra: � � ema. Bf8t and 3 1 . e4 e6 2. I felt that losing the e.

which he played. Qxe4 when White has a powerful game] 1 9. but there are no demerits for klutzy. 1 2. Bxf6 Nxf6 I played 1 1 . So what did I do wrong? The Knight at f6 is the defending piece of choice .. Na3 (or 14.. Ng5 Nb4 19. 1 1 . QhS when White is threatening mate in three: Qxh 7t. Qxb5 Nfxg4 26.. 63 . is in order. castle early. Qe2 Qxc5 14. Qc7 ? is a serious game los... exf6 Bxf6 1 0 . d4 ? Reckless play. c3 a6 14. namely 2 7 . For one thing. White cannot play 1 2. . cxd4 . Black is threatening to play 1 2 . should have realized that White was threatening to win outright with gS. Nxf6 ? too rou. given a typical position . a3 Nbd5 20. Ne4 Qe7 18. g4 d4 1 6 . sive about White's chances for an attack on the King. . h4 0-0 7 . a Flash Card with the mantra: ieote: '1'19. So I was guilty of playing by rote. Also.. I failed to see that a very obvious defense for my opponent.Ne3 . Nd6) Nc6 when Black is OK. In. I was undoubtedly enraptured with the idea . ferred. FC3 1 with the mantra: ieed­ � � � tou u �I 17. and should have played 1 6 . it's NG (not good) . .Nd5 . Bxb5 axb5 25. Nxe4 1 9. e5 Nfd7 6. w i t h the mantra: 1te""t"'a-tt1 e � 4. dxcS and furthermore. of course. Nb4 to get rid of White's dangerous Bishop. N e4 Qe 7 1 8 . failing to take into account a key idea accessible with a very short Analysis Horizon. This move not only artificially isolates Black's own d. as should be clear after the moves 1 7. . a Knight belongs at f3 (or f6) .. 0-0-0 Nc6 15.pawn.. But this is precisely what chess is about. So. . tinely. Nf6t. Ne 5 Qe8 1 1 . h5 Bb5 23. . dxcS . Rf3 Qc7 26 . Anyone can learn a few buzz. . tates White's game. � /Qutl I could make up at least one more Flash Card. Black. Nf3 c 5 8 . words. gS Nd7 [ 1 8 . ter that move. which I eventually was able to play. on his 1 6th turn. But I played the move somewhat automatically. is: Don't play by rote. QhS . . Rxf6 looks klutzy. memorize a couple of ideas such as Knights before Bishops. NgS (possibly stronger was 1 8. . Rf2 Bd7 22. and so on. Bxh 7t. h6 g6 24. d4. perhaps apprehen. FC30. 1 1 . and Ng6) with a strong game. . but also facili. see Fig. Bd3 f5 9 . which disrupts White's game. Af. White has the useful move 1 2. I played a shallow mate threat. Rdfl Ne3 2 1 . NbS Qd8 1 3 . A Flash Card. . So. Rxf6 1 2. ing blunder. FC29. dxc5 Qe7 1 3 . would lead to immediate loss of ma.Illustrative Games Bg5 Be7 5. Qb3 . f4 a6 16.

Re8t Kf7 39. But it turns out that one defense against my mate threat threatens the P/e6 a second time. Qd2 Qxa8. . d3 0-0 9.. b5 Nd4 1 2. b4 a5 1 1 . So. Nxe5 . Rxe3 Qf6 38. as well as the fact that I felt he was recently playing better than his rating. FC33 . easing Black's game. At Any Age terial for me. Rac8. Nf3 Nc6 4. should I have played that. so we could have . Rb l 1 2. though it looks like Black would be better after 1 2. ing that I was making a greater threat. NxeS for more than ten or fifteen seconds before abandoning it. tention to a theme. Qd7t and 1 -0. with the mantra: �°" 'ire eu � eu � ul This infers: I'm as good as he (or she) is. Nxe6 Kh8 29. . I will not repeat this type of blunder. FC32. ure out if I can play this move. Allan and I looked at his responses to 1 2. Qd3 Kg8 34. a3 Be6 1 0. for which there is no answer. what happened? I believe the nature of a mate threat is such as to give the threatener a false sense of security. al. when White probably has nothing better than 27. Nxg4. I thought that he had some combination up his sleeve should I play 1 2 . Rxe3 Rgl t 36. Rb l ? Allan. This Flash Card is similar to FC28. Nxe5 . I ' ll believe you and and played a different move. of course. Nxg4 Qe4 3 1 . So what's wrong? I was clearly intimidated by Allan's higher rat. So. Kbl Rg4 35. sition-of course the diagram will help. Ka2 dxe3 3 7. . I re. 27. ing very heavily over the last year or so. Bg2 Nb6 7. Bxb7 Bxe5 14. Nxf8 Rxf8 30. which Allan probably would have found during the game. A Flash Card. Bxa8 Bb3 1 5 . fleets the strong half of the USCF master class. cxd5 Nxd5 6. This is precisely what happened in this game. realiz. Rhh3 Qxe5 33. The Flash Card doesn't have to spell everything out in excruciating de. ing. with the mantra: ?ltate � � k doJte �I This Flash Card will immediately conjure up this po. Nc3 e5 3. Nxe5 . is in order. But the defense to the mate threat can sometimes be a threat. A Flash Card. moved a defender (my Queen) of an attacked man (the P/e6) . is in order. is to spend some time analyzing the move 1 2. A little closer look might have revealed that Black had a similar threat with 26. I said mentally-OK.. so don't be intimidated. In the postmortem. rather than spending a lot of time trying to fig.Chess Master . It turns out Allan wasn't sure how to continue. whose rating re. since the opponent must defend against the threat. Bf6 1 3 . while it is now undefended. tail-it only needs to call one's at. Ne5 Rxf4 32. and who's been study. I didn't look at 1 2. played his eleventh move very quickly. . Game 1 3 Wetzell-Allan Bennett June 1 993 1. The right thing to do. 0-0 Be7 8. Hopefully. c4 Nf6 2. Qb3 Qe7 28. g3 d5 5.

curity for my Rook as I considered Na4. Bxf3 Rb8 1 5 . Re 1 ? I gave the move a ques. g3 Nf6 4. Ne5 .. .Illustrative Games alternately j ust strengthened that one. b4 Qc8 l 1 . There was a way to defend this pawn against 1 1 . Qc2 f5 16. My Analysis Horizon is far enough to be able to see it. As in the game. so I resigned.pawn was so vulnerable. But what else contrib. Nxa4 20. Maybe I should consider a second star for even greater emphasis. Bxb2 22. . cause of any foresight on my part. . Na4 1 9 . so moving it where it will be protected comes to mind. Qxa4 Ba2 attacks my Queen Rook. the likelihood of my perceiv. by playing 2 1 . Had my Queen for some reason stood on d2 .. Rook. Nc3 e5 3. by using a star on it. I didn't project the control of al and b2 by Black's dark squared Bishop in my general thinking. 22 . In that case. this loses a couple of pawns. w ith the mantra: 7o. 0-0 Nc6 7. . Bg2 Be7 5. Bg2 Bd6 1 7. 2 1 . Nxd4 Bd7 9. I believe. Either way is OK. . 19 Nxa4 20. fxe5 Bxe5 1 9. after 2 1 . FC35 . I wouldn't have been able to save the c. The attack on my Rook follows only three ply beyond my 1 9th move. but at ••• least I would have had the two Bish. making another blunder more likely. e3 Nxf3 14. Qxd3 . like my 1 9th move. So why didn't I ? The key reason.4.1 . tential fie ld of control of the pieces-both mine and my oppo. but not be. 12 . the move . affects the way we think. c4 d6 2. Often the anger of making one blunder. Firstly. or Bishop under con. Nf3 0-0 6. 0. £6 13. . ops. . I would have been hopelessly behind in material. Rel 1 1 . sideration. Qxa4 Ba2 21. uted to my bad 2 1 st move ? I think two things. tarily. But I could have descreened the Rook. namely that Black's dark squared Bishop screens. A Flash Card. stems from a chronic problem I have of not paying attention to the po. Qxe3 t. Rb2 2 1 . . nent's. but I do have Flash Cards on it. d4 exd4 8. Rb2 ? On top of losing the Exchange. Allen almost certainly could have won with the Exchange up only. We'll generate a new Flash Card. I also could have played 2 1 . fz-"-t>tea. I didn't want to lose a whole Rook. Rbl h6 10. tion mark because I was unaware that the c. Bd2. I should have been able to see it. Qxe3 t and 2 3 . . and not created this new Flash Card. 19 . Na4 ? loses the Exchange. etu�I M issing the discovered mobility is unfortunate. Qc2. Bxb2. . f4 Qe7 18. . •• Game 1 4 Wetzell-George Mirijanian June 1993 1. is called for. and there is no escaping Black's raking Bishops. FC34. Of course. . with the mantra: � � � de "'4taete. . terrupt the full board control of the Queen. apparently I missed that Grand Theme on discovered mobility. Now. leaving me with a false sense of se.pawn. momen. The obstacles are the pawns and pieces which in. Secondly.

with the mantra: A � � k � ol. .a4. Bxd7 Re7 32. Ne5 that I couldn't maintain the protection of my B/e4 with 30. or the P/f7 when Black is playing the French and has castled Q side. after 28 . . Ne5 12. Bf4 Ne5 20. Qd3 Re5 26. At Any Age ing the danger to my pawn would have been no greater. Also. Ne4 28. One. knowing Black could win a pawn . damaging White's pawn structure. NeS . As a parking place. . is called for. Ne4 ? Allowing Black to dam. 15 . I saw that Two Flash Cards are i n order.. Nd5 Bxd5 14. Bd8 16. About the only good thing I could say about this Bishop move is that it gets the Bishop off the back rank. than no plan at all. tion where I had a chaseable pro. then another. Nc3 Re8 28. I knew could be risky. . may ripen quickly as its owner can't defend it against an attack from a Knight. cxd5 Re8 15. . Bg4 3 2 . Nb5 a6 2 7. . Nxe4 29.a.a. incidentally. FC36. Be3 • . there was a failure in APROP in that I didn't see that Black could move his Bishop to the vacated squre 30 . . . FC38. viewing this Flash Card will break me of the bad habit of closing off a square to all other pieces during the contemplation of a move. the square will ac.Be3 ? is a move that is not part of a middle game plan. will have the mantra: B� th dadealte �I The other. Qb3 Ng6 25. Better a bad plan. repeatedly re.Be3. 1 5 . Bf6 3 1 . Be3 Ne4 22. So my tenth and eleventh moves really were Should. . will have as mantra: S� aire � �I I have a tendency to think of a square as married to the piece that's on it... Rc2 Re7 18. sage as FC7 . A plan I would have had time to cook up over the board might be e4. . I was too cavalier about allowing myself to get into a situa.Chess Master . Beens. . it would have to move or probably be recaptured by a pawn. Qdl Ng4. h3 Ng6 2 1 . Nxe4 29. Qd4 because I would lose the Exchange after 30 . I've noticed that a P/c4 when White employs the English. Bf5 Nxd3 3 1 . Ral Ne5 24. even if that square is vacated in the middle of the combination. Bxe4 Black could attack my Queen with . We'll generate a Flash Card. Bg4 ? I chose this move. 17 "" �1 1 .�I Now this Flash Card is very similar in its mes. FC39. but felt I could move the Queen while maintaining protection of my Bishop at e4. I didn't realize until after Black played 29 . tector.f3. If attacked by one of Black's Knights. Rbc l Qd7 1 7. Qh3 Be6 13. age my pawn structure. . Qd3 Nf6 23. 28 . . Ne4 ) . but that's OK. commodate first one traveler. FC3 7. a4 Neg4 19. be that plan good or bad. Bxe4 Ne5 30. � �: e4 "" EIU)fld. Bf6 (while I was contemplating 28. with the mantra: B� �­ So. A Flash Card.Nb5 with play on the Queen side.. Hopefully. which. what went wrong? At least two things.

. h4 Kg6 59. I believe that three factors contributed to my move selection. Qb5 t wins material. Rbb7 Rf8 44. Rh7 Re7 53. e3 8. gxf4 Nf5 42. e4 Nf7 30.e3 ? Missing a chance to win a pawn. exd3 . Rf5 Rb7 76. Rxa7 h5 38. Rg4 Rh5 65. veloping maneuver 46. Rc6 Rxh5 74. I was fascinated with discovered mobility. h3 g5 40. Kf3 Re7 62. 0-0 Bc5 8. Bf3 Bg5 35. f5 Rd7 80. but didn't see how I could win a pawn.Illustrative Games rather than subj ect myse lf to doubled. Rxh5 Kg7 58. Rg8t Kf7 64. f3 Rg5 73. . Nxd5 cxd5 14. . f4 Kf7 79. After 46. This. First of all. Rh7t Kg8 83 . Rd7 Ne5 34. Rc6 Rb7 8 1 . Rc5 Rb8 68.file. Nxe5 wins a pawn. Rd5 46. Kf3 Kf5 45. when Black's King has been shut out and White is threatening to advance his King. Bg2 Be6 6. f6 Rb l 1h-1h. Kf4 Re5 63. Rh8 gxh4 60. Be5 Kg6 43. R l d l Rc7 20. Rc4 Rdl t 49. Kg3 Rh8 66. cxd5 Nxd5 4. exf5t Kxf5 33. Qb3 . Bb6. . Kf5 48. Rg7t Kf8 52. Kg2 b6 23. The mantra: Z'f> t:Uitu tf> t�f>�e ri'P'ietJ'1'I 8 0-0 9. Rb 1 Rxa5 41. Rf4 f6 4 7. g3 e5 5. however. Rd7 Nc6 46. 9. . d4 exd4 1 0. Rxd6 Rc5 40.. f3 Kg6 29. ••• In thinking about this after the game. Rcc7 h5 5 1 . ticularly if the correct candidate move is already being considered. White would obtain some compensation for the doubled pawns through the semiopen c. dxc6 Nxc6 3 8 . If my knowledge of endgames were better. If 8 . Rd7 Kh6 39. Kg2 Rde l 5 0. is an incorrect assessment of the resulting position. Rxd5 Rac8 1 7. Rc7 Rxe2 43. pointment is that the analysis over the board just isn't that hard. Nf3 f6 7. Bxc6 bxc6 3 9 .. Ra8t Re8 54. w h ich A l l an Bennett pointed out to me after the game. Rd5 Kg6 35. Qb3 . Rxa6 R l e6 55. Kg5 Kg7 7 7 . Bxd5 Qxd5 15. R6a7 R6e7 56. then 9. Qxd5 Bxd5 16. Kf2 f5 32. Rd5 . I analyzed the position after 8. The disap. Rd2 Re5 34. Bc3 Rc8 1 9. gxh4 Rg7 6 1 . But after 8. Kg4 Rg8t 70. Rd7 Ne7 37. Kf4 Rg2 7 1 . Rc7 Ne7 44. I would have known earlier that I couldn't win and would have offered a drawn earlier. a5 c5 3 7 . isolated pawns with 32. With 32. Kf3 Re7 24. Bb4 Re6 3 1 . During the game. Rdl Na6 13. Rc4 Rd8 46. Bxg5 Rxg5 36. Rh6 Rb l 82. Rg5 . Game 1 5 Wetzell-William Aulson October 1 993 1. A Flash Card. Rc5 Ra7 78. h5t Kf7 69. if 8 . FC4 1 is in order. Raxe7 Rxe7 5 7. a3 Nc5 2 1 . Rxd2 Ng5t 27. c4 Nf6 2. Ra7 Re6 45. Nc3 d5 3. Rg5 mate) 48. Rld4 h6 22. Bd2 Rc2 1 8. Ra7 Rb6 84. Rf7t Kg6 47. Flash Card FC40 has the mantra: � � u � � � df>ed-ted pa. 32 . Qxd4 c6 12. Rc7t Kg8 72. Ke2 Kh7 28. Nxb4 33. Rxc6 Ra2 42. Bc3 Nc6 36.fQ-114 .. Rd2 Rxd2 26. Nxd4 Bxd4 1 1. Rc4 Kg6 67. Rd6 Ne6 25. exd3 . Rg7 t Kh6 (47 . par. Rd5 ? M issing the strong en. f4 gxf4 4 1 . . Rxf6 Rb5 75. Nf4. Rg4 g5 48.

is in order. .. Nd6t White wins with 7 2 . Normally. and somehow increase the impact of this Card. Ke4 Nc l 5 7. will have a mantra: B� de ultu1tatet. ment for this maneuver. Kf5 Kh7 67. mately forkable. Ke6 . FC4 2. Be5 Nc4 63. I never considered a second candidate. Be3 Na5 60. The common thread between both situations above is that there e x isted two p iec e s u l timately forkable. Bb4 Ke6 56. a fork in two can be parried because one attacked piece can be moved on the move. Bd2t Kh7 7 1 . We'll place a star on the new one.. Now. with a star. I fell prey to some simplistic reason.•• 69. In both cases we can think of the first Knight move as a decoy move. we'll place a star on FC20. with the same message. FCl shows a strikingly similar theme as that used to exploit this position. £6 Nf7 66.. axb4 Nxb4 52. since it's the same arrangement as two pieces about to be forked. Secondly. Bc5 Nb3 59. and the other on the following move if the maneuver is carried out. � �I 53 Na5 54. . and then dis. . card FCl . other choice for my 46th move. Kg6. Rd6 Rxd6 48. Here.. so let's coin a different term-forced K ing march. could always be advanced to a dark square covered by my Bishop. Bc5 Nxb3 55. Bxd6 Kf5 49. drawing. I am probably abusing the term envelop. tial fork. followed. Na5 . Be5 b5 50. edy my not looking for a second candidate. Kf4 Nc4 6 1 . Ke6 ? allows . But the threat is vague and somewhat simpleminded. after 53 . A new Flash Card. I simply didn't know the se. In the third place. Bc3 Nd6 64. b3 b4 5 1 . with the mantra: *. My P/b3 was safe. To rem. Like every. It's easy to visualize the arrangement of two pieces ulti. I had to give up the pawn or lose my Bishop to a fork. Ke3 53. if 7 1 . I thought. ing. ther 72.Chess Master . by a fork. . I could have played 69. Bb4 Kh6 70.Olt«d � llUllld. if the pawn is not given up. Ke6. At Any Age I could discover check with the Bishop. Be l and now. Ke3 in this game. I didn't recognize the concept of envelopment in this position. we had a free Knight move (attacking the pawn which must move to escape capture) . Both scenarios lead to a fork in two. . Bd4 Nd2 62. Let's rethink that Flash Card. f5 t Kf7 58. .. FC43. However. h4 Kg8 65. thus losing a pawn. with the objective of combining these two similar but not identical themes. what went wrong? For one thing. FCl . while on other Black moves White will be able to win with ei. we had a free Knight move (the check) followed by a fork. to replace FCl . Ba3 Kh7 69. Ke3 ? Walking into a poten. u � "'""eew-�. 46 . since. an. In FC l . After 53. vere limitation of a single Bishop in these kinds of endings. if attacked. Bb2 Kh6 68. Kg6 4 7. Kg5 or Kg6. . Bd6 Nc6 53.

everything is covered. but aban. c4 g6 2. I saw 15 . Bb2 f5 1 0. Bg2 e4 14. and thought no further. a3 and 1 8. Ncl Qf6 1 6.. . Game 1 6 Wetzell-Rigel Cappallo November 1993 1. � e«d­ w. cause I had insufficient time. How about a Flash Card? FC45 . then I move there" sort of logic. a3 Nd3 1 6. Time is of the essence ! I did think through that after 1 5 . quired to see this "other color principle. Ncl Black would have to ex." So-Flash Card FC44 with the mantra: 11e '8� fl4. as well as ripening his forward d. in this line 1 5 . I was aware that the Bishop covered only its own color. The mantra-Never think: ()'. d5 . a square of different color from the Bishop. Bg2 c5 4. ways have moves. OK-that's it-I was convinced-too danger. Bf8 Nf7 72.Illustrative Games one else. look what he can do to me then simplistic analyzing. Nc3 d6 6. Nd5 Nxd5 1 1 . once at g6. e3 Nc6 5. 15 Nd3 16. Ncl briefly.. I've spelled out my problem pretty clearly here. we can often find a better analysis by spending a lot of time after the game. Nc l Nxc l 1 7. Ncl line. .""I' 9-od· � ""4e M � M 16 HU �I Incidentally. with White having the useful moves 1 7 . cloned it after some Oh my God. a3 . f4 Nb4 13. Bxd5t Kh8 1 2. cxd5 Qxd5 ••• . track the more global thinking re. ous. and I didn't stop be. d3 on tap. a3 1 5 . Bxg7t Kxg7 1 5 . Bg7 Nd8t 1h-1h. 69 ..pawn. a3 ? I was worried that the N/ b4 was going to become the next nail in the knee . nent's King. Rxc 1 d5 18. contribut. ing to my not grasping this over the board-I do believe I have enough ability to deduce this g6 principle over the board-was a preoccupa. So I was satisfied with 1 5 . This could happen i f I d a w d l e d and l e t B l a c k strengthen his bind on d3 after the Knight lands there. b3 0-0 9. Zugzwang is not available in this position because the Knight will al. 0-0 Nge7 8. tion with the "I move here. Kg6 70. could not be forcibly dislodged. Nge2 e5 7. But here I was clearly uncomfortable pursuing the 1 5 . or get an inferior position by opening up the h l . with moves like . onds analysis would have revealed that. but didn't realize that my oppo. come too cumbersome.pawn. Be7 Nh8 7 1 . change Knights. But just an additional few sec. . I did look at 1 5 . Rb 1 . he moves there. Qf6 threatening my R/al . which was protecting my a. Also.a8 diagonal for my Bishop. the implied message is: Control over the other color from the Bishop is very weak. � � u � �I Al. neutralizing the scary black Knight. which tends to side. g3 Bg7 3. . though a l l the words aren ' t there-The Flash Card would be.

. and kept my backward d­ pawn. Bc4 exchanging Queens and Bishops ? But 25. Qc3t Kg8 2 1 . to elevate it in importance. and a protected passed pawn at d4. . So why not 25... So basically the same thing happened to me here as in my previous note. of course. Rxc4 Rd3 28. M any times. I crossed the line. But here. allowing Black to recapture his pawn with a Rook on the sev­ enth to boot. Rac8. I played too quickly in a situation where I had time to improve my position without get­ ting into time pressure. . Rfd l .. Be6 20. able to play steadily at master . Ra7 Rc8 34. Rxd3 doesn't allow Black to pile up as easily on White's backward e-pawn as he did in the game on the cl-pawn. Rb4 Rxc5 3 1 . there is no time. Rfdl Bd7 23. . I will put a star on that Card. d4 would have been much better. Ra4 a6 29. that in this line. 19 .. ••• When I first reached the master rating. Bc4 ? Here I was guilty for the third time in a row of curtailing my thinking. or sacrificing material. Time for a Flash Card. Qxb3 would be terrible since the R/dl would have to move after Black recaptures with the Bishop. before the next better record can be set. I abandoned a good idea. Rd8. Kfl Rc8 30. before contemplating any major operation.1h. Bfl Be6 24. Ke l Rd8 1/2 . The mantra: 1� � � ""4&1 The implied idea is that I should. d3 Qxd3 20. Rxc5 with an excellent game.. . determine if I have time to improve my position first. b4 Rad8 22. .Bxb3 attacking the Rook on the cl-file. Qxc4 t Qxc4 2 7. Qc2 ? I considered 1 9 . so why not head for the endgame ? The simple 25 . Qc2 1 9 . . I was a pawn up. since 25 . a few sec­ onds of further thought would show me that White has 22. . again. exd3 ( White would be golden with the extra pawn. after 2 1 .. ex­ changing my backward cl-pawn for Black's e-pawn. . such as heading into the endgame. if Black doesn't capture en passant) 26.. but then got wor­ ried about moves like . Be6. Rxb7 Rxa3 3 2. got the master "sheepskin" from the USCF.. 25 Bxc4 26. Bc4 25. Rfd8. R l b l Ra2 33. Qxd3 exd3 2 1 . At Any Age 19. The same admonition pre­ vails as that of the previous Flash Card. It turns out. of course. FC46. winning easily. bxc5 Qb3 25. but knew I wasn't a solid master yet.Chess Master . . . it was similar to a runner having a hot day and making a per­ sonal record which will take a while to digest or consolidate. and Black getting two connected passed pawns.

along with one weekly serious forty moves per hour game. using the study techniques I develop in this book within a meager regi. dix V-and here I urge you to read the introduction to that appen. But my very recent development of Appen. I have been unable to maintain (for any ex. Since that first debut as master. .Illustrative Games strength. steady playing strength at master level with a seven hour a week study program. men of about three hours a week. dix-has given me great confidence about my intermediate term goal (next several years) of achieving a solid. tended number of games) a playing strength at master level.

. this doesn't have to be a drawish variation. as suggested. . Nge 7 7.APPENDIX VI F ROM TH E E D ITO KS F I LE I liked what I read in Mr. . . Qd7 0-0-0 9. Qa4!? Holmov . Qa4 Kb8 1 3 . Nbd2 Psakhis has p layed 9 . 0-0-0 as "risky but interesting"-my type of chess (and. Qa4 caught me off guard. it makes marketing a lot easier! I decided to apply it to some recent games. . but prob­ ably a place for my first FC. . 3. c3 In a previous game my opponent played 5. Bg5 f6. Nf3 and we went 5 . The losses have been exasperating but instructive. it is much more valuable applying these techniques to games I've lost. f6 wastes a move. as a whole. . Ba3 f6. Not in the Exchange. 5. 2. using the Rolf Wetzell method. Rel . gets out of hand because of those very similar moves-FC material. Nc6 6. I am not so much trying to "annotate" this game for you as to show you how "similar" moves can be played and yet the game. 4. and title my own flash cards.0 though h e looks at 9 . I let my guard down at "crucial moments" like I've done before. . 8. 1 0 . As the publisher at Thinkers' Press it is important for me to understand what is in a manuscript. Bg4 6. Tallinn 1 987 went 8. the innocuous Exchange Variation. 0-0 8. . Kb8 is prob­ ably better. b5 Nd8 1 2. As I accumulate these cards. c3 Nge7 7 . 1 0. Game 1 7 Bill Sandbothe-Long March 1 994 French Exchange e4 e6 d4 d5 ed ed Bd6 Bd3 1. This " . . . 0 . Wetzell's book. from a notebook. 5. . I hope to give you some insight about one of my games. I am going to try to hold the Q-side even though 1 0. He's correct. my type of undoing too). Nf3 Bg4 Often we hear of the "problem Bishop" in the French. . 10.f6" idea will haunt me in a few moves. 10 . f6? ! It's very soon already. I will review them. One master I know reviews mating patterns and other odds and ends before each significant tournament he plays in. b4 Rde8 1 1 . Kiev 1 9 84 went 10. I expected my opponent to play something like 1 0. Using the cards would make it a lot easier.Psakhis. In spite of what the older books say. Sure. Re l Kochiev-Psakhis.

16. vering room. but not Bill. . How about. . 13. Unfortunately it makes e6 weak. g6 with the idea of 1 7 . Because I see the move cJ. b4 a6 A different opponent and 1 2. Be6 I saw the idea of the Rook doubling. "'if!. f6 because I didn't want the N/f3 to land on gS or eS .'e OQell.Publisher's Game b4 because launching a pawn as. . 14. Bg4 and this involves mov. " 14." Chess isn't easy. .c4 coming. I played 10 .Ll. twe1r-. . I don't see anything else. ". tdt ce4. " 1 5 . 1 6 . . 1 1 . Rb l b6?! Whew. . His card? "1e 4'lt. 1 7.ptidate � o/ tk UH-­ � aaad " might have been my next Flash Card. ing the piece again. I need some of Rolfs ideas about handling time. . . BfS is probably better( ! ?? ! ) . sault seems a lot less risky than bringing a Queen out like this.� to. '"Pue te Ue. QxbS QxbS 1 7 . 12. . 13 . BfS ! is even stron. The reason I didn't see 1 3 . " Nb8 1 2. Bxa6 might be in the cards. . . ger. b5 Here my opponent could have used a Flash Card! He thought he was winning at this point. Qb3 axbS 1 6. BxfS NxfS Ba3 a5 Qxd6 Bxd6 Qc2 I don't think White is serious about winning the h7 pawn so I never gave it any thought. 15. RxbS c6 gives Black more maneu. in the reverse direction! The FC might instead say. BfS ! is because I had invested in the move . � tk aaad. "°' � �. Be6 16. . My notes show three pages of analysis about the next move. This was a 40/80 event and I was starting to feel the pressure of the clock.� tk paa. . . but I should have at least rolled it over in my head for a few seconds instead of "assuming. Re3 I need a FC fix here! Right after I played 1 6 .

I forgot that the N/d6 stops the Rook from going very far. naming it isn't always. . might be more to the point since there is so much in Alexander Kotov's Think Like a Grandmaster. . mances. It's amazing how chess blindness can set in because of a complicated po. . d5 Knowing I need a Flash Card is clear. . Nxd4 ! Systems can work! . . 24. c4 20. . . Bb5 a6 1 2. 26. Bxe4.c8 diagonal. Thus. . ity. . I just missed it. side attack which died after 13 . sition. cause I was afraid of 24.e8. . 25. It turns out that 2 1 . Now let's see if I can use these ideas to pump up my playing perfor. Nf5 be. . Ne4 Qf4? ! White has voluntarily blocked the e. But. After 1 1 . the move of the week is 24 .c8. 'ie� lto. My thinking has become fuzzy. 28. lize Rolfs book. non. Nd6. I didn't play 23 . cific idea for a card. I looked at this game very critically. . pert opponent repeated and I played 10 . Be6t 23. but it may permit me to see this kind of defense in another situation-if I can remember it. too many possibilities. Rde8 1 7. attadl" 23. Bd3 h6 he played 1 3 . 18. use the subcon. 29. Bxc4 Bg6! 2 1 . Rc3 . Bob Long Senior Editor PS: Does the method work? I believe it does .spe. I can't play . Rxc7 with the threat of Rc8. Two months later my Ex. b4. That's where the FCs come in handy. Kd8 22. And at the same time. Kb8. Bf? but instead all I do is lose tempi. . launching a Q. Qd7 ! is probably much more effective. Perhaps a Flash Card can't save me from this type of blindness. Rd7 because it seems White can generate too much heat on the h3.. In my head I saw 25 .. Rbel Bf7 dxc4 1 9.file and I make a move that contributes nothing towards that idea. Bxe4 Rxe4 Qd6 Nd7 Qe2 Nc5 Bf7 Re3 Rhf8 Kxe8? Bxe8 1-0 Rxe7t It's not my intention to monopo. is an incomplete. . � �. .Chess Master . At Any Age I thought I could protect the pawn on d5 with an eventual . . " . Even "'Rea-et �.c6. "-"'� � jM. Good luck to you to Dear Reader. euut.d. age which is showing up in the "square" e6. Black is threatening 25 . The N/e7 has become a big liabil. scious. Rolf went along with including a game too. Of course I was concerned about the giant cholesterol block. . . but I did want to show you how it works for me. 27.

and quality Images . durable Images .APPENDIX VI I G LO S SARY Analysis Horizon: Averaged for all the moves in a time control. It varies from individual to individual. coupled with a shorter Analysis Horizon. nected to other knowledge. durable and quality Images are easier to remember. the Analysis Horizon is the look.ahead in half moves (ply ) . The accuracy of the look. (The) Exchange: Winning a Rook for a minor piece ( Bishop or Knight) . which are quickly forgotten. APROP: Ability to PROj ect Positions: Total speed and accuracy of calculation. the most impor. tant 650 or so games for that period . This includes how well one visualizes a position several ply into the future. among other special items. which are logically con. High quality APROP. Check: Symbol used in the text is t. bound book published three times a year. Informant: Soft. Images: Motifs or ideas subject to rapid mental recall. There are light Images . A move that attacks the enemy King. but is always further for slower time controls. which have been repeatedly rein. forced.ahead does not change the Analysis Horizon. Mental Clock Rate: The maximum speed at which you . featuring. CCC: Component of Chess Capability. without moving the pieces. is superior to a further Analysis Horizon coupled with a faulty APROP.

400. . . voluntarily. .529. Rating: A ranking method used by the US Chess Federa. or second. Quint: a set of five moves ( 10 ply ) . 1 00.move. MM: Move selection Method. .640. A move by White followed by a move by Black would be two ply. Solitaire: A method of chess study where the "student" selects an actual game. such as counting a series of clicks. with. usually between grandmasters." . .990. used as a tool for time management. He then also plays the opponent's move. and attempts to determine. Sac(k) or Sacrifice ( or real sacrifice) : Giving up material.909. the World Chess Federation) . chooses a partner from the two players. 200. to fold. ply: a half. what his partner played. t: Symbol used in text for "check. Sham Sac or Sham Sacrifice: Surrendering material. out actually being able to calculate far enough in advance to determine if the material (or positional disadvantage) can be recovered. 20. " The player "guesses. Strength: Chess strength. and repeats the process.5 7 1 . respectively. . From the Latin plicare .5 14.Chess Master . or yielding a positional advantage. At Any Age can assimilate information. tion ( and the FIDE. and covers his partner's subsequent move. in such a way that the player can calculate far enough ahead to know that he can recover his material or positional disadvantage. his winning expectancy should be . 760.guess. or taking a positional disadvantage." then uncovers that move and makes the actual move played by his partner in the game. 600. . or . If one player is rated higher than his opponent by 1 0. 50. or 800 rating points. .969. The game score is covered so that all the moves are visible up to the one being "guessed.

of course. occasional community serv ice . he 's start­ ing an investment advisory business while enj oying some golf. 1® and PageMaker 5 . Horowitz ( symbols copyrights 1992 by Thinkers' Press ) and Wetzell . and. Word processed in MacWrite® and MS-Word 5 . Married. i n h i s early teens . diagrams and layout: Pat Scoville Proofreaders: Rolf Wetzell and Bob Long . With degrees i n electri­ cal engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and N ortheast­ ern University.0a®. sailing. with tax-pay ing daughter and son. Cover Design: Greg Sterling and Bob Long Typographic Design: Bob Long Copyediting. chess . Chess ( symbols copyrighted 1994 by Rolf Wetzell) . Diagrams done in C . S .T H E AUT H O R Rolf Wetzell was born in China to Ger­ man parents and immigrated to the U . R . COLOP HON Typeset i n Adobe's Trajan Bold and Goudy Oldstyle . he worked in the defense industry for thirty six years .

Our Italian IM offers this system as a secret weapon because the lines are not as numerous nor complex as many others are. THE OPENING ------ Alekhine's Defense Four Pawns At­ tack: GM Larry Christiansen. flexi Ultimately. $4. G underam. flexi 1 28 pages. Bb5 Nd4 by giving hundreds of annotated and unannotated games such as Rohde-Christiansen 1 985 (won by Black). 4Jf6 (B1 5-B1 6): S. The whole book is chock full of brilliant tacti­ cal counterstrokes. .. Please o rder b y catalog nu mber.. $1 6..Th i n kers' P ress is known worldwide for its qual ity chess literature. and Teichmann). what we sell through this catalog is guaranteed or you r money back. this attack is probably the one Black fears most. presents a great number of scintillating games where Black is often crushed under the weight of a mighty piece onslaught by White. . OP57889.95.. Bogol­ jubow. ICCF G M Rotariu ex­ plores the correspondence weapon 1 . Euwe. Published in 1 993._. and dangerous.. $21 . Decl i ned.. it will also add many points to you r rating. Black's conges- . $1 5... flexi A 20-page supplement to the above book on a highly-tactical line not con­ tained in the ADFPA book. We provide quick delivery and postpaid s h ipping of all of o u r produ cts.. tion and development problems last throughout the game. Ziegler. in this line he has been running i nto a brick wall . OP57887. . f/exi Popular with Karpov. Designed like our King's Gambit book. contro­ versial . Bob Raingruber. flexi Master Sawyer's compilation of 743 (mostly) annotated games. You can be assu red of top-n otch materi­ als.95 Blackmar-Diemer gambit keybook: Rev. e4 arse­ nal.. Figurine algebraic notation with 1 OOs of decisive annotated . it arms White with a very powerful weapon for his 1 . Bird Variation in the Ruy Lopez Rotariu and Cimmino. Published in 1 989. arranged in 7 chapters (Avoided . e4 e5 2. . Tim Sawyer. © 1 992.95 Bronstein-Lju bojevic: Four Pawns Attack: Tom Tucker & Bob Long. . OP57882.95 Caro-Kann Defence Knight Variation 4 . Manuel Joseph... While this opening is excitin g . Curtacci.. $1 2.. f/exi While Black seems to keep coming up with ways of diverting White's latest innovations.00 Benoni Defence Taimanov Variation 8 Bb5 (A67): Maurizio Tirabassi. 1 7 main lines plus com­ plete games indices.. Chapter one is loaded with ways of beating Black when "he" avoids your open ing. Controversial and exciting. Nf3 Nc6 3.. OP77529.. Seirawan . .. and many others.

95 Sici l ian Defence Najdorf Variation (898-899): Curtacci.95 Keres Defence: G. Be 7. Nc3 Bb4!? 200 games plus extensive analysis as well as original analysis of this hot system to combat the English. this book is not for you . Falchetta & Curtacci. $1 7. Nf3 d6 3. . OP77559. c3 ) . Gelfand and many others.95 King's Indian Defence Samisch Varia­ tion : Tirabassi. c4 Bf5. . Nc3 a6 6. Botvinnik's variations in any opening are usually important and this one is particularly true. Bg5 dc4. flexi 292 pages. Black's play has resulted in great tactical and posi­ tional tension . Current practitio­ ners are Kasparov. Tukmakov. ECO style. ex­ cel lent comments and games./c7 (896): S. 2 1 O games plus lots of analysis on one of the most diffi­ cult and yet fascinating gambits in the history of chess (1 . d4 ed 4. '/f. OP72985. White presses and Black tries to complicate. a huge and easy to read i ndex of variations.95 The Goring Gambit: Cimmino. I nd ices. White's objectives are on the Q-side but Black can also get active play there as well as a solid game. flexi 9 1 pages. The author suggests you fasten your seat belt. . © 1 994. and many decisive contests. 7 . d4 cd4 4. .95 The King's Gambit As White 3: Bob Raingruber and Lou Maser. Chandler. © 1 993. OP58295. 96 pages. More problems and al­ most three times as many games as before.95 E n g l i s h Open i n g (A21 ): Ma urizio Tirabassi. $20. © 1 993. flexi Rewrites to the Berlin and Fischer systems plus new additions to various declined methods in this heavily ex­ panded edition.and unannotated games. Qb6. Indices. Nf3 Nc6 3. © 1 992. Falchetta. . c4 e5 2. A hot line of interest with thousands of copies sold in Germany alone. O P72982. fiexi 244 pages. .00 Schaak: collected by Jaap van der Kooij (Dutch). fiexi 223 pages. hundreds of annotated games.95 Semi-Slav Defence 8otvinnik Varia­ tion (D44): Konikowski and Thesing. Figurine algebraic notation. O P77557. however. © 1 992. $1 4. Nf3 Nf6 4. $21 .95 The LDL Sicilian: Alex Dunne. $22. Nd4 Nf6 5. 1 . Over 300 complete games plus lots of analyses on 1 . Bg5 e6 7. he says! N e w w i n n i n g c h a n ce s for B l a c k . Covers the "new" 1 . Extensive details. Other moves have been 7 . e4 e5 2 . H undreds of modern games and the latest analyses of the many lines ema­ nating from 5 f3. $1 9. 2 1 l ines. This suggestion by the great Lasker is 30 pages in length and designed to fit i nside a standard business envelope. e4 c5 2. d4 d5 2. flexi A system in vogue in order to solve the problem of the QB: 1 . O P72988. Featuring a "new" winning method against the Sicilian De­ fense using a fianchetto system. . c4 c6 3. flexi These regularly updated pamphlets each contain an average of 1 00 corre- . $6.95 Sicilian Defence Najdorf Variation 7 . OP59972. Nc3 e6 5 . O P77552. The latest word on this most potent system for White or Black. flexi 96 pages. flexi 1 28 pages on C44. clearly diagrammed. If. $1 2. Curtacci. $1 6. f4 Be7. © 1 993. b5. d4 d5 2 . O P77572. 1 28 pages. OP58298. © 1 994. you have a faint heart. $1 2. and 7 . . f/exi An eight-chapter dissertation of the Lasker-Dunne-Line.

00 each. and move order. Prices are $4.00 each. consistent. . and this book con­ tains 50 annotated games whose sole purpose is to get you to win more often and tone up that killer instinct. discussions with friends etc . © 1 993. there are answers to the questions posed in the book. and endgame play is d isplayed to get you used to winning in any phase of the game. flexi Rolf Wetzel l was 50 years old when he attained a master's rating after years of fruitless pursuit at the 1 800 level. in your head.95 Answer G uide to How to Become a Candidate Master: Alex Dunne. TR72872. The collection is too large to list here. he finally made it.00 each for 25 or more copies. This is to be our entrant in the instructional chess market. Nearly 300 pages. flexi Dr. aphorisms. The emphasis often revolves around getting a winning endgame or great pawn play-typical master achieve­ ment. but you may contact Thinkers' Press for a complete listing by name of opening. Chess Master . To be published in 1 994. Pub­ lished in 1 986.spondence games (mostly master level) on a particular opening. ECO number. Buckley is a Senior Master from Cali­ fornia. Using all kinds of psycholog ical in­ sights. A wide variety of opening. rat­ ings of the combatants. you can buy 1 00 or more for $2. How to Become a Candidate Master: Alex Dunne. phi- � . Examples from master play and Ault's own master praxis will convince you of his step-by-step ap­ proach. 700+ diagrams . Or. At this writing 1 92 pamphlets exist. Besides the brief biographical back­ ground of the author. and corrections to the first edition of HTBACM . techniques . 2nd printing. . He shows yo how and what he found necessary to do when one isn't blessed with instant natu­ ral talent. to their con­ cl usion including long chunks of analy­ sis. The success and comments of his students offer proof of the worthiness of his methods. the author shows you how it can be done. .95 Practical Chess Analysis : Mark Buck­ ley. really! The goal is to systematize the way you think so can carry these logical chains of reason ing . The charts. analysis. $3. 3rd printing. Presented in easy-to. middle­ game. flexi This book came about due to the tremendous popularity of the preceding book. One of our most important works. flexi This expert has been teaching i m­ provementto amateurs and average play­ ers for years with his own special brand of phi losophy. $1 8. $3. TR57885 $4. and open­ ings.50 each for 1 0 or more copies. TR58288. 352 pages . At Any Age: Rolf Wetzell. and effective play. To be reprinted in 1 995 for the 3rd time! TR58527. not covered here-to-fore.re ad D u tch a l g e b ra i c a n d unannotated . Ault's contention is that a thor­ ough grounding in strategy and tactics is necessary for strong. There is also a ''think and grow rich" tone presented throughout by the author. If you really want to follow a long thread of analysis. TREATISES The Genesis of Power Chess: Leslie Ault. $24.95 Win At Chess: Ron Curry. The methods and aims are il­ lustrated through many fine examples. in your mind. f/exi A brilliant expose of how masters analyze. TR77992 . flexi Most of us non-masters want to make the "expert" rating. 2nd printing.

$1 7.95.95 This book contains many items miss­ ing from h is Anti-Chess" such as photos. an Australian . In 1 953 he won the world's First Correspondence Championship. "Gerz" elucidates on the Pirc/King's Indian/Modern sys­ tems. an afterword. I ncluded with the master-grandmas­ ter level games are many aphorisms/ maxims from his writings to help you improve your chess ("Purdyisms") and avoid those nerve-wracking blunders. dietary and other consider­ ations abound.95 GAM ES COLLECTION _ CJS Purdy's Fine Art of Chess Anno­ tation and Other Thoughts: compiled by Ralph J. is the theme . from years of experi­ ence on either side of the board ! Rave notices and reviews (so much so that a seco nd vol u m e is in p re p a rat i o n ) . This is a HOW TO book that real ly worked . See ad at back for m o re d et a i l s . B l 72989. $8. Also includes his recent ret u rn to chess . the other 4 by Alburt and Shamkovich). For years Purdy. Master Gordon annotates 24 of Meck­ ing's best games and provides another 320 in the most complete collection ever of this Brazilian fireball. flexi One of the brashest. We also have a very small supply of hardcovers (Bl 58525) at $22. BIOGRAPHICAL The Journal of a Chess Master: Ste­ phan Gerzadowicz. $1 6. and other appended items (ten in all).95 Persona Non Grata: GM Viktor Korch­ noi & Lenny Cavallaro. flexi 1 00 superbly annotated games by the man Fischer referred to as one of the best annotators of chess games.95 Henrique Mecking Latin Chess Ge­ nius: Stephen Gordon. of the 70s and the first player of great significance from South America. Several times finalist in national cor­ respondence events. and others. brightest play­ ers. seven annotated games (3 by Kortchnoi. Published in 1 98 1 during his match with Karpov.50 each . TR77997. GC58279. 300 pages. Bl58522. 1 72 pages . $23. $1 9. letters. at Baguio City in the Philip­ pines. Kortchnoi's notes are a motherlode of information on such topics as pushing passed pawns. ed­ ited Chess World magazi ne and a large majority of his readership was in the U SA. B l 58292. flexi Korchnoi's defection from the USSR and his battle for the World Chess Cham­ pionship. G rand master Fea rless : edited by Long. Tykodi. Incl udes 1 6 dissected games using his methods.losophies. flexi Th is pamphlet came on the heels ( 1 982) of "Persona Non G rata" and will . flexi An amazing collection of annotated games mostly from correspondence events played against many of the best players around and annotated in a belles­ lettres style that William Shakespeare would have loved.

advice. Bl58287.95. There are 1 3 games and 6 are anno­ tated. $1 5. theories. flexi A book about a player who is just as interesting in person as he is in the book. rules. The vocabulary is twice the previous size and now a pronunciation guide to the names of Soviet players has been included . grab this book and reminisce about driving to far away tournaments. Nothing else l i ke this in print. $1 6. He also discusses why he decides to drop certain variations just as they become popular. written by Bronstei n . Anno­ tated Games. events and lots of other informa­ tion. and chess humor makes Pupols a fascinating and humorous study. and the Ten Best Contro­ versy. i l lustrative posi­ tions. verbs. Foreword by GM Vasser Seirawan . Issue One: Capablanca-Lasker negotiations. All are 8. praises Kortchnoi's play. 36 pp. $1 5. Soltis discusses his penchant for "bi­ zarre" systems in "normal" openings and gives lots of details. Virtually all new. and translate on the fly using HWR ba­ sics. Now with every pu rchase get a 1 6page supplemental update of addresses. Also incl uded are Kortchnoi's scores against all world champions he has played (Karpov was the only player with a better percentage at that time) . and some incredible game annotations cover Lasker and the other giants of chess from the Golden Age. original informa­ tion whether it is about Fischer. Soltis is a gifted writer and chess player. EN59855. H is knowledge of chess.00 Viktors Pupols.95.5" x 1 1 " format and . especially in his Sicilian lines. An oasis in a Sahara of chess literature. Zucker­ man. Kortchnoi's results in the USSR cham­ pionships included title wins 4 times! An article. An ex­ panded edition will be printed in 1 995. rosters of winners. $1 2.00 Issue Two: The G reat Steinitz Hoax. $6. and dis­ covering new chess theory. American Master: Larry Parr. EN59857. flexi Everyth i n g about correspondence chess is here: players. organiza­ tions. B l58282. Some rust on staples. RE58529.be included FREE with any paid order for that book. prizes. computers and cheating. $3. photos. Lasker the Mathematician. Lasker's Profundity. new articles. h istory. dealing with obnoxious people. 40 p p . and the 1 9 1 0 Lectu res i n South America. Lasker & His Contemporaries I n 1 978 we began publishing transla­ tions. All types of openings. Dunne has been the "Check Is I n The Mail" columnist for Chess Life for the past ten years. Russian for Chessplayers: Hanon W. opponents and a 1 00 tournament first-places! Tired of boring chess or boring chess masters?. REFERENCE The Complete Gu ide t o Correspon­ dence Chess: Alex Dunne. 1 903 Lasker-Chigorin. Pupols' Lat­ vian Gambit flattened Fischer n umerous times when Bobby was just a youngster. unfortunately. f/exi A revised and expanded edition of his earlier book-this is completely re-type­ set. several are in short supply. or the Russian GMs. games.50 Confessions of a Chess Grandmas­ ter: GM Andrew Soltis. Russell. flexi Do only born geniuses have a chance to become a GM? This and lots of other questions are discussed in this 370-page autobiography. Bl59852. How to handle nouns. the Earliest Recorded Lasker Game. Karl Schlechter.00 . R E58285.

Colle System : A New Idea for Black. 1 d4 dS 2 Nf3 Nf6 3 e3 cS 4 c3 ??? 7. full size. Colle System: A New Idea for White. Frank Marshall. New York 1 893. 1 d4 dS 2 Nc3 Nf6 3 BgS Nbd7 4 Nf3 g6 5 ??? 3. CHESS HAMMERS Originally published a s "Chess Analysis Reports.95. Chess Nerves. These typeset idea­ starters run from 3 to S pages. '. 1 e4 c6 2 d4 dS 3 ed cd 4 c4 Nf6 S cs es 6 Nc3 ed 7 Qd4 ??? 1 3. Symmetrical English: A Gambit for White. Guimard Varia­ tion : An Underestimated Resource for Black. 1 d4 dS 2 c4 de 3 Nf3 Nf6 4 e3 ??? 20. 1 d4 dS 2 Nf3 Nf6 3 g3 ??? 5. Sicilian Defense Moscow Variation: An Unusual Resource for Black. Catalan: A Surprise Weapon for Black. Contributions by Masters Tom Tucker. 1 e4 dS 2 ed Nf6 3 c4 ??? 1 6. And. Reti System: An Unusual Idea for White. 1 e4 cs 2 Nf3 d6 3 BbS Nc6 4 d4 cd s Qd4 Qa5 6 Nc3 QbS 7 NbS ??? 1 1 . Caro-Kann Advance Variation: A New Resource for Black. 1 c4 cs 2 ??? 9. Reti vs. and "old" Lasker in the USSR. "Modern" Variation: A New Resource for Black. 48 pp. Ruy Lopez Classical Defense: A Gambit Idea for White. Khrulev on Lasker. the Devil . Price includes shipping. 8. Allan Savage. 1 Nf3 fS 2 e4 fe 3 ??? 1 9. ideas that you won't find in the regular opening books. Nimzo-lndian Defense: A Gambit Sys­ tem for Black. if you look close enough. Center-Counter with Colors Re­ versed: A Surprise for White. Richter-Veresov: A New Idea for White. Panov-BotvinnikAttack: A Blow to the Gunderam Attack. Chess and Strategy. QGA: A "Beginner's Move" for Black. Center-Counter Defense. 1 e4 e6 2 d4 dS 3 Nd2 Nc6 4 Ngf3 Nf6 s es Nd? 6 Nb3 Be? 7 BbS ??? 1 7. 1 e4 c6 2 d4 dS 3 es ??? 1 5. and the Annotated Lasker. French Advance: An Interesting Idea for White. 1. Lasker's Forgotten Games. The English Defense: Black Fights Back! 1 d4 e6 2 c4 b6 3 a3 ??? 1 8." Use these just like a jackhammer to you r opponent's game. This is winning chess. Orange-brown and black. Bob Long. 1 d4 dS 2 Nf3 Nf6 3 e3 cS 4 ??? 2. 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3 Bb4 4 Qc2 0-0 S a3 Bc3 6 Qc3 ??? 4. French Defense Burn Variation: A Gambit Idea for White. Tim Sawyer. Marshall and Lasker C a m b ri d g e S p r i n g s .00 The Lasker Poster: A beautiful . 1 e4 e6 2 d4 dS 3 es cs 4 c3 Nc6 S Nf3 Qb6 6 Be2 cd 7 cd Nh6 8 Nc3 NfS 9 ??? ? Includes 6 games. 1 8 9 4 M atch Lasker's Visit to Spain. Old Catalan : A New Idea for Black. French Tarrasch. Caro-Kann. 1 Nf3 d5 2 c4 d4 3 ??? 1 4. two-color rendering of the artwork designed by Bob O'Hare for Lasker & His Contemporaries.00 Issue Four: Doomsday Encounter. 56 pp. 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 e6 3 g3 ??? 6.Issue Three: Lasker vs. see at the end. EN598958 $1 5. 1 e4 es 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5 Bes 4 ??? 1 2. $1 2. EN59859 $1 5. 1 e4 e6 2 d4 dS 3 Nc3 Nf6 4 BgS de 5 ??? 1 0. 1 e4 es 2 d4 ed 3 Qd4 Nc6 4 ??? . and your editor. you will find lines that probably refute current thinking-no kidding! There are 32 of these (with 4 more coming soon!) and you can get them all at special prices. Dutch: An Old Gambit Springs to Life.

1 e4 Nc6 2 d4 dS 3 Nc3 de 4 dS NeS S Bf4 Ng6 6 Bg3 fS 7 ??? 30.00. 1 d4 fS 2 c4 Nf6 3 g3 e6 4 Bg2 dS S Nf3 c6 6 0-0.. 1 1 complete games. Semi-Annual Update. a6. for just $3.1 6 pages in length and put together by Master Tom Tucker. The Emergence of a Main Line. There were semi-annuals that added new material from the previous 5 issues. 3. Lisitsin Gambit 1 Nf3 fS 2 e4 fe 3 NgS . CHESS PREVIEWS · Want to see some fresh. 1 e4 cs 2 g3 Nc6 3 Bg2 g6 4 Qf3.00 each. Bf5. Refuting the King Pawn Nimzovich Defense. 1 e4 eS 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bc4 Nf6. 1 d4 dS 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3 Be? 4 cd de 5 ??? 27. 6. English Opening. Dutch Defense Modern Stonewall 6 Bd6. They were 1 4. stuff that will drive you r opponents nuts? The original idea was to provide a free gift for each monthly purchase of a certain amount to all of our good and regular custom­ ers.•. The King's Indian Defense: Smyslov's Variation 5 Bg5. c6. S l Editrice Three ann ual yearbooks for correspon­ dence chess players.. innovative. Buy all 32 for just $48. 2. 1 e4 d6 2 d4 Nf6 3 Nc3 g6 4 Nf3 Bg7. 7.00.21 .. French Defense. Pirc Defense Classical System 5 Be2. 1 c4 es 2 g3 Nf6 3 Bg2. The English Opening: Neo-Keres 3 . Trompowski's Attack: Black's Criti­ cal Answer. 1 1 . 1 c4 Nf6 2 Nc3 e6 3 e4 dS 4 es d4 S ef de 6 be Qf6 7 d4 cs 8 Nf3 ??? 28. 9. Krejcik Gambit 1 d4 fS 2 ??? Each "Chess Hammer" is $3. 1 e4 es 2 Bc4 ??? 25. 1 e4 c6 2 d4 dS 3 Nd2 de 4 Ne4 ??? 26. The Center Counter Wing Gambit: The End of Tunbridge Wells 1 91 2..• Priced at $4. 1 d4 Nf6 2 Nf3 e6 3 BgS.. Slav Defense Exchange Variation 6 .00. ??? 32. Mikenas System: Improvements in the 8 h6 Line for Black. LDL Sicilian. 1 e4 dS 2 ed QdS 3 Nc3 QaS 4 ??? 31 . 1 2.• . QGD: Anti-Alatortsev. Alekhine-Chatard Variation: The Recommended Defense Crumbles. Chess Ham­ mers and Previews are available only through Thinkers' Press. the sem i-annual is a good composite and would give you a good picture of what it is all about. 1 e4 e6 2 d4 dS 3 Nc3 Nf6 4 BgS Be? s es Nfd7 6 h4 a6 7 ??? 29. 1 0. The Larsen-Nimzovich 1 b3: White's Punishment. An update of issues 7� 1 1 .. 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 cs 3 dS e6 4 Nc3 ed S cd d6 6 Nf3 g6. Buy a complete set of all 12 for just $36. these same size books have 350-400 games per issue and are anno­ tated by the best postal chess masters around. 1 d4 Nf6 2 Bg5 Ne4 3 Bf4 c5 4 f3 Qa5 s c3 Nf6 6 d5 ??? 23. •. eye­ opening. you will be pleasantly surprised at how GOOD this material is! 1. Caro-Kann Defense: A New Idea for Black. 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 g6 3 Nc3 Bg7 4 Nf3 d6. Previous S open­ ings updated + 1 O games. In fact. Similar to the Chess Informants. 1 b3 e5 2 Bb2 Nc6 3 c4 ??? 24.. Semi-Annual Update. The French Defense: Tarrasch 3 . Modern Benoni 7 Bf4 Variation. postpaid. jam-packed information about chess openings? You know. 1 e4 e6 2 d4 dS 3 Nd2. 8. The Closed Two Knghts' Defense 4 d3. 4. The Old Indian Defense: Pseudo­ Saemisch System for White. Try a few of these. Get an accompanying binder.95. The Bishop's Opening: An Unusual Defense for Black. 1 d4 Nf6 2 c4 d6 3 Nc3 e5 4 d5 Nbd7 5 ??? 22. Torre Attack 3 h6 Variation. Kil ler stuff. Thinkers' Press has become the exclusive North American distributor for . 5.

Opening Theory promised for 1 994: O P77558 Caro-Kann Defence Ad­ vance Variation: Curtacci. . Their line of open ing books are featured in earlier pages of this catalog and denoted by their figurine algebraic notation. $24. $24.95 CCYB#5 . .95 *CCYB#8 . . Catalog numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . $24. are available by cal ling 1 800. illustrations. .all S 1 E books. . . . . . . . $22.S. . . . . $22. and Gridical Analysis Charts (© 1 994) . . our retail company. . . . Box 8 Davenport. . . . . . . . $24. . .95 *CCYB#7 . . are available in our 1 28 page catalog for only $2. . though usually there is an introduction in English. .A. . . . . .00 Chess Theory booklet. . . . . .95 CCYB#4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $23.95 CCYB#1 0 . . .95 *CCYB#9 . . $2 1 . .J 0 0 � rJ) 0 u � � 0 0 � z:: � � I!!! � ocne> 7 �r §·� J � products. . . 1 28 pages (81 2) OP87982 Dutch Defence A89 OP87985 Exchange Variation in the Ruy Lopez C68-C69 OP87987 Winawer French C1 5-C1 9 Chess : Books Antiquarian New Supplies Sets and Boards Clocks Score books Pins and Medals Photographs Postage Stamps Magazines Latest Flyers Souvenirs Caricatures Chess Gazette Lasker & His Contemporaries Schaak Video Tapes New Thinkers' Press books CH ESSCO P. . . . . I nformation?: Call (31 9) 323-7 1 1 7 As Always shipping is FREE on ALL Thinkers' Press chess ri. . . . . . . . .O. In the chess business since 1967 Information and prices on "blank" diagram cards used in this book. . . .00. . . . . . $24. . . . .3 97 -71 1 7-Chessco. . . . . Fi rst comes the available Chess Correspondence Yearbooks: O P72852 OP72855 OP72857 OP78227 OP72858 OP72859 OP77528 OP79757 OP87897 * I ncludes CCYB#2 . . . . . .95 CCYB#3 . . . . . . IA 52805 U. . .J u CHESS z:: ri. . . . . . . .95 CCYB#6 . . . . . . . . . . . . Several open ing titles prom ised in 1 993 are listed below. . . . . and other details of more than 1 700 items sold by Chessco. .

00. P u rdy.Pu rdy reveals the i ntrica­ who had 3. from Th i n kers' Press at $28. H is Games and H i s Writ­ world champion himself. The annotations come from the Cecil John Pu rdy. Now a book has· been published Even Bobby Fischer tol d a friend whereby. nearly 70% wi n n i ng record. i ngs. H i s anyone else. and the endgame. S . . Pu rdy came from Australia." and who published his thoughts­ He d ied at a chess tou rnament. the middlegame. CJS P u rdy's Fine Art of lyst for his overseas chess periodi­ C h ess An notation. For more de­ cal. and was consid­ One.000 books · in h i s l i b rary cies of master play and what makes that he was missing the best book G randmasters better than masters on chess ever written-Jamieson & and world champions better than H a m m o n d 's C . A 20-page section on how to make general i m p rovements in you r postpaid. had a chess playing as wel l a s specific im­ p rove m e nts i n the o pe n i ng. Chess World. be­ c a m e t h e fi rst Wo r l d Co rre­ spondence Chess Champion. 81 28285. He knew. wrote numerous books.J . but it's going to take time. of the tru ly great instructive ered an extraord i nari ly gifted ana­ books. he was a Life. That book is also available I 00 annotated games of al l types. tai ls see Game Collections.The Notes In This Book Have One Purpose Only: To Make You A Better Chess Player By Showi ng YOU How The St"rong Players Play When It Cou nts ! ! ! best teacher of chess who ever l ived His famous last words were: "/ have a win.