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INHIBITION OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILING

BACTERIA BY ESSENTIAL OIL AND EXTRACTS OF ERIGERON
RAMOSUS (WALT.) B.S.P.
ATIQUR RAHMAN1,2 and SUN CHUL KANG1,3
1

Department of Biotechnology
Daegu University
Kyoungsan, Kyoungbook 712-714, Korea
2

Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology
Islamic University
Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh
Accepted for Publication January 5, 2008

ABSTRACT
The antibacterial potential of essential oil and methanolic extracts of
Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P. was evaluated. Thirty-one components representing 95.3% of the total oil were identified, of which b-caryophyllene
(24.0%), a-humulene (14.5%), 1,8-cineole (9.0%), eugenol (7.2%), globulol
(7.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.2%), d-cadinene (5.0%), a-copaene (4.9%)
and widdrol (2.0%) were the major components. The antibacterial activity of
essential oil and methanolic extracts of E. ramosus was determined in vitro
using the agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration determination test against 14 (seven gram-positive and seven gram-negative) foodborne bacteria. The essential oil (5 mL/mL, corresponding to 1,000 ppm/disc),
methanol extract and its different organic subfractions (7.5 mL/mL, corresponding to 1500 ppm/disc) of E. ramosus displayed a great potential of
antibacterial activity against all gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus
aureus (ATCC 6538 and KCTC 1916), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116,
ATCC 19118, ATCC 19166 and ATCC 15313) and Bacillus subtilis ATCC
6633 and four gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004,
Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 and Escherichia coli (0157:H7 ATCC
43888 and ATCC 8739). The zones of inhibition of different concentrations of
essential oil and methanolic extracts against the tested bacteria were found in
the range of 10.1~22.3 mm, and MIC values were recorded between 62.5 and
500 mg/mL.
3

Corresponding author. TEL: +82-53-850-6553; FAX: +82-53-850-6559; EMAIL: sckang@
daegu.ac.kr

176

Journal of Food Safety 29 (2009) 176–189.
© 2009, The Author(s)
Journal compilation © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

which consumers find comforting and which is beneficial for the environment. INTRODUCTION Illness caused by the consumption of contaminated foods has a wide economic and public health impact worldwide (Mead et al. some important foodborne pathogens and spoiling bacteria. They can be used as growth inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes. 2004). Salmonella sp. Essential oils are a complex mixture of compounds. and also have a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activities (Conner 1993).) B. 2004). The main reason for their suitability is their natural origin. Shin et al. esters. plantderived essential oils are considered as nonphytotoxic compounds and potentially effective against microorganisms (Pandey et al. Bacillus subtilis. phenols and oxides) from plants. there have been increased demands for food preservatives from natural sources. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported as the causal agents of foodborne diseases (McCabe-Sellers and Samuel 2004).S. and extracts from plants (Nasar-Abbas and Halkman 2004. Thus. such as essential oils (Nguefack et al. Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus. These beneficial characteristics could increase food safety and shelf life. Enterobacter aerogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. essential oils and plant extracts are promising natural antimicrobial agents with potential applications in food industries for controlling of foodborne pathogens and spoiling bacteria. beverages and confectionary products. Escherichia coli. The demands for more natural antimicrobials have driven food scientists to investigate the effectiveness of inhibitory compounds. ethers. and the very low risk that pathogens will develop resistance to the mixture of components that make up the oil and extracts with their apparent diversity of antibacterial mechanisms. sesquiterpenes and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives (alcohols. which are widely known for their scents and flavors.ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS 177 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The use of essential oil and organic extracts of Erigeron ramosus (Walt. mainly monoterpenes. Many pathogenic microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes. 1982). In general. .P. aldehydes. 1999). as antibacterial agents will be suitable for applications on the food industry as natural preservatives or flavoring to control foodborne pathogens. A variety of different chemical and synthetic compounds have been used as antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacteria in foods. Escherichia coli. Due to the identified and potential toxicity of chemical food preservatives. Plant-derived essential oils have been long used as flavoring agents or preservatives in foods. ketones. Bacillus subtilis.

the aims of the present study were (1) to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of E. Iijima et al. RAHMAN and S. stems and flowers of E.P.) B. Waddell et al. Therefore. ramosus (Walt. occurring in Korea. and it has been introduced to many parts of the world (Holm et al.S. ramosus (Walt.S. The oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and preserved in a sealed vial at 4C until further analysis. diterpenoid. 2002. 2002). MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant material The leaves. is an indigenous weed from northern America and Canada.P. Oh et al. 1981. KANG The genus Erigeron is a member of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and contains more than 400 species. and a voucher specimen has been deposited in the herbarium of the Department of Biotechnology. with potential value as agriculturally useful products (Oh et al.P.) B. The chemical constituents of the genus Erigeron plants such as Erigeron annuus. The dried powder (50 g) was extracted three times . with emphasis on the possible future uses of the essential oil and plant extracts as alternative antibacterial compounds. However. Erigeron ramosus (Walt. were pulverized into powdered form.P. sesquiterpenoids. annuus showed inhibitory effects on seed germination. were collected from Kyungsan city area of the Republic of Korea in June 2006.C. Republic of Korea. triterpenoids. Secondary metabolites isolated from E. Isolation of the essential oil The air-dried flower parts (250 g) of E. was subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. 2003). ramosus (Walt.P.S. Erigeron philadelphicus and Erigeron sumatrensis have been previously investigated and shown to contain monoterpenoids. widely found in fields (Nesom 1989).P. and (2) to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil and methanolic extracts against a range of organisms comprising food spoilage and foodborne bacteria. 1979).. Daegu University. ramosus (Walt.) B. 1983.) B. Daegu University.) B. Preparation of crude methanolic extracts The air-dried leaves and stems of E.178 A. sterols and phenolic compounds (Miyazawa et al. Republic of Korea.S.) B.S. This species is also commonly found all over in Korea.S. ramosus (Walt. there are no reports available in the literature on the analyses of essential oil and antibacterial activity of the oil and extracts of E. The plant was identified on the basis of morphological features and by the database present in the library at the Department of Biotechnology.

computer matching of mass spectra with those of standards (Wiley 6. typhimurium KCTC 2515. Kyoto.0 mL was injected manually in the splitless mode. Japan). Solvents (analytical grade) for extraction were obtained from commercial sources. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)/MS analysis The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was performed using a Shimadzu GC-MS (GC-17A.8 g).9 g).25 mm). aureus ATCC 6538. subtilis ATCC 6633. L. Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190. monocytogenes (ATCC 19116. B. then held isothermal for 10 min and finally raised to 250C at 10C/min.7 g) was suspended in water and extracted successively with hexane. coli 0157 (human). P. Becton Dickinson.7 g).0 data of GC-MS system). Lansing. MI) at 4C. E. Salmonella enteritidis KCTC 12021 and S. ATCC 19118. in methanol) of 1. Identification of compounds of the essential oil was based on GC retention time on a ZB-1 capillary column. Injector and MS transfer line temperature were set at 220 and 290C. and residual methanol fractions (0. The strains were obtained from the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). E. Diluted samples (1/100. S.ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS 179 with 80% methanol (200 mL ¥ 3) at room temperature. Shimadzu. and the solvents from the combined extracts were evaporated by a vacuum rotary evaporator (EYELA N-1000. Antibacterial activity assay The agar diffusion method (Murray et al.2 g) and ethyl acetate (0. film thickness 0. Tokyo. chloroform (1. by co-injection with authentic compounds (Adam 2001). Helium gas was used as the carrier gas at a constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. chloroform and ethyl acetate to give hexane (1.. MO) medium at 4C. coli ATCC 8739. For GC-MS detection. Japan). respectively. aureus KCTC 1916. South Korea. coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43888. The methanol extract (5.. v/v. E. Daegu. The other strains were maintained on Luria Broth (LB) agar medium (Acumedia Manufacturers. aeruginosa KCTC 2004.d. Tokyo Rikakikai Co. whenever possible. ATCC 19166 and ATCC 15313). and. The oven temperature was programmed from 50 to 150C at 3C/min. Sigma.. equipped with a ZB-1 MS fused silica capillary column (30 m ¥ 0. Petri plates were prepared by pouring 20 mL of BHI agar and LB agar .25 mm i. Louis. St. Listeria monocytogenes strains were maintained on BHI agar (brain heart infusion. Inc. respectively. 1995) was used for antibacterial assay. The relative percentage of the oil constituents was expressed as percentages by peak area normalization. Microorganisms The following food-spoiling and foodborne bacterial strains were used in the antimicrobial tests: S. an electron ionization system with an ionization energy of 70 eV was used. Ltd.

eugenol (7. The oil contains a complex mixture consisting of mainly oxygenated mono.000 ppm/disc) and 7. was tested by the twofold serial dilution method (Chandrasekaran and Venkatesalu 2004). Antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter of the zones of inhibition against the tested bacteria. viridiflorol (1. ramosus (Walt. St.4% (w/w).0%). a-copaene (4. RAHMAN and S.6%). ledol (0. Negative controls were prepared using the same solvent employed to dissolve the samples.5% yeast extract.9%) and widdrol (2.S.C. The identified compounds are listed in Table 1 according to their elution order on a ZB-1 capillary column.5% agar) medium and allowed to solidify.0%).9%). each from Sigma-Aldrich Co.5 mL/mL of MeOH extract and its derived subfractions (1500 ppm/disc).0% NaCl. which did not show any growth of tested organism after macroscopic evaluation. 1.and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The excess inoculum was drained out and the inoculum was allowed to dry for 5 min.3%). Geraniol (1. methanol extract and its derived subfractions were incorporated into 1 mL BHI broth and LB medium to get a concentration of 1. methanol. Each assay in this experiment was replicated three times. globulol (7. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) MIC of essential oil. 62. chloroform and ethyl acetate.8-cineole (9. 0. were used as positive controls for the tested bacteria. RESULTS Chemical composition of the essential oil The hydrodistillation of the air-dried flower parts of E.0%). 250 125. The test samples of oil. The lowest concentration of the test samples. tetracycline and streptomycin (10 mg/disc. A 10-mL standardized suspension of each tested organism (108 cfu/mL) was transferred to each tube.8%).180 A. b-selinene (0. MO). Plates were dried. gave the dark yellowish oil with a yield of 0. 1. respectively.2%). and 1 mL of standardized inoculum suspension was poured and uniformly spread. trans-b-farnesene (0. A Whatman No. KANG (1. nerolidol (0.5%).4%).0%). and methanol-derived subfractions of hexane.2%).5%) .P. The major compounds detected were b-caryophyllene (24.3% of the total oil. and serially diluted to achieve 500.6%). representing 95. GC-MS analyses of the oil led to the identification of 31 different components. d-cadinene (5. a-humulene (14. 1. 1 sterile filter paper disc (6 mm diameter) was impregnated with 5 mL/mL of essential oil (1. caryophyllene oxide (5.) B.5 and 31. Louis. spathulenol (1.1%).25 mg/mL. The control tubes contained only bacterial suspension and were incubated at 37C for 24 h. was determined as MIC. Standard reference antibiotics..000 mg/mL.0% trypton.

) B.2 95.S.0 0.P. IDENTIFIED BY GC-MS Peak no.) B. ramosus (Walt.P.5 1.8-cineole (eucalyptol) Dibutyl phthalate Stearic acid Palmitic acid Total 0.9 1. against the .3 0.4 0. methanol extract and methanol-derived subfractions of E.0 0.3 24.6 4.0 0. COMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS (WALT.S.4 0.8 0.0 7.5 0. oil in the present study.) B. Components Percentage in total oil 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2-phenethyl alcohol Eugenol b-chamigrene a-humulene Nerolidol g-cadinene a-copaene Aromadendrene b-caryophyllene d-cadinene Trans-b-farnesene Aromadendrene epoxide Caryophyllene oxide 3-p-menthen-9-ol (Z)-5-pentadecen-7-yne b-selinene Spathulenol (Z)-6-hexadecen-4-yne Widdrol Globulol Viridiflorol Ledol n-nonanal Ledane Geraniol Myristic acid Patchulane 1.2 9.0 5. In vitro antibacterial activity The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil.9 1.6 0. ramosus (Walt.2 0.5 0.5%) were also found to be the minor components of E.7 1.1 1. and n-nonanal (0.3 GC-MS.5 1.S.ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS 181 TABLE 1.6 7. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.5 5.3 0.6 0.2 0.P.6 14.4 2.5 0.

S. methanol extract and organic subfractions (chloroform and ethyl acetate) exhibited higher antibacterial activity compared with streptomycin. and its derived subfractions also revealed a great potential of antibacterial activity against all seven grampositive and four gram-negative bacteria.) B. ATCC 19118 and ATCC 19166). P. as compared with standard drug streptomycin. the oil.5 mL/mL. typhimurium KCTC 2515. coli ATCC 8739 and E. coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43888. aureus (ATCC 6538 and KCTC 1916). In this study.1~21. at the concentration of 7. coli ATCC 8739 (125 mg/mL for each).4 mm. subtilis ATCC 6633 (62. subtilis ATCC 6633. L. On the other hand.P. S. RAHMAN and S. aureus KCTC 1916. chloroform and ethyl acetate against the tested bacteria were found in the range of 62. aureus KCTC 1916. B. L. ATCC 19118.5 mg/mL for each) than those of S. coli ATCC 8739. KANG employed bacteria was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones. aeruginosa KCTC 2004 and E. Methanol extract of E. hexane. aureus ATCC 6538. the MIC values for the oil were found more susceptible to S. On the other hand. S. Hexane fraction displayed a moderate inhibitory effect. chloroform and ethyl acetate subfractions showed interesting antibacterial effect.182 A. in all cases.2 mm. The oil exhibited antibacterial activity against all seven gram-positive and four gramnegative bacteria at the concentration of 5 mL/mL (1. The blind control did not inhibit the growth of the bacteria tested. with the diameter of inhibition zones ranging from 16. monocytogenes (ATCC 19116. aureus ATCC 6538. L. MIC values of the methanol extract and its derived subfractions of hexane. MIC As shown in Table 3. E. P. were tested. subtilis ATCC 6633. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 and B. including seven gram-positive and seven gram-negative bacteria. P. with diameter zones of inhibition of 22. a total of 14 food spoilage and foodborne bacterial strains.5~500 mg/mL (Table 3).1~20. corresponding to 1500 ppm/disc (Table 2). ramosus (Walt.2 mm. aeruginosa KCTC 2004 and E. as shown in Table 2. Methanol extract and its chloroform fraction showed higher .C. B. ATCC 19166 and ATCC 15313). aeruginosa KCTC 2004. monocytogenes (ATCC 19116. The oil exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against S. According to the results given in Table 2. the residual methanol subfraction did not show any activity against all the bacterial strains tested (data not shown). in some cases. with inhibition zones in the range of 10. enteritidis KCTC 12021 and S.3~12. coli 0157 (human). E.000 ppm/disc). Methanol extract showed the strongest antibacterial effect against S. L. while tetracycline showed higher activity in some other cases than the essential oil and solvent fractions. No inhibitory effect was observed against E. monocytogenes ATCC 19118. However. aerogenes KCTC 2190.

6 13.1 21.3 ⫾ 1.1 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 1.4 ⫾ 1. aureus KCTC 1916 Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19116 L.3 ⫾ 0.2 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 0.2 15.2 ⫾ 1.4 ⫾ 0.2 18.7 nd¶ nd nd nd nd Hexane 20.4 ⫾ 0.7 15.2 17. typhimurium KCTC 2515 Microorganism 19.8 10.6 14.000 ppm/disc).1 ⫾ 1.2 14.4 ⫾ 0.6 19.2 16.2 ⫾ 0.6 20.0 ⫾ 1.4 ⫾ 0.3 ⫾ 1.4 18.3 ⫾ 1.5 ⫾ 1.2 nd nd nd Zones of inhibition (mm) 14.0 ⫾ 1.1 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 1.3 15.2 ⫾ 1.7 18.3 ⫾ 1.5 nd nd nd CHCl3 16.0 ⫾ 0.2 ⫾ 0.4 ⫾ 0.1 18.2 ⫾ 1.5 15.3 ⫾ 1.2 14.3 ⫾ 0.7 16.1 ⫾ 0.1 15. coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43888 E.3 ⫾ 0.S.5 ⫾ 1.2 ⫾ 1.5 14.5 17.1 14.6 nd nd nd nd EtOAc Subfractions of MeOH extract‡ Diameter of inhibition zones of essential oil including diameter of disc 6 mm (tested at a volume of 1. Values are given as mean ⫾ SD (n = 3).6 11.2 ⫾ 1.5 22. coli 0157 (human) Salmonella enteritidis KCTC 12021 S. Standard antibiotics: TC.7 12.1 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 0.6 15.7 16.5 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 0.1 12.5 20.1 14.5 17.2 ⫾ 0.0 ⫾ 1.6 16.0 15.2 18.6 TC Antibiotics§ 14.7 12. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 S.2 20.1 ⫾ 1. not detected.0 20.7 14. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL.2 ⫾ 0.2 ⫾ 1.3 18.9 13.2 21. monocytogenes ATCC 15313 Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004 Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 E.5 17.3 ⫾ 0.P.1 ⫾ 0.6 SM TABLE 2.5 ⫾ 0.1 ⫾ 0.) B.1 18.2 20.3 ⫾ 0.0 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 0.2 16. tetracycline and SM.1 24.* † ‡ § ¶ MeOH extract† 20.3 ⫾ 1.1 ⫾ 0.1 ⫾ 1.4 15.5 15. MeOH EXTRACT AND SUBFRACTIONS OF MeOH EXTRACT OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS (WALT.3 ⫾ 1.2 ⫾ 1.2 ⫾ 0.2 12.500 ppm/disc). MeOH extract (1.0 ⫾ 0.2 ⫾ 1.2 14.3 ⫾ 1.2 15.8 13.7 13. AGAINST FOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILING BACTERIA ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS 183 .3 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 0.9 16.2 14.5 17.5 16.2 ⫾ 1.2 18.2 ⫾ 1. monocytogenes ATCC 19118 L.6 14.3 ⫾ 1. Subfractions of MeOH extract (1.3 ⫾ 0.0 ⫾ 0.5 14.2 ⫾ 1.0 ⫾ 1.4 10.6 12.0 12.7 17.6 20.2 ⫾ 0.4 ⫾ 1.3 ⫾ 1.2 15.7 nd nd nd Essential oil* 22. monocytogenes ATCC 19166 L.3 ⫾ 0.3 ⫾ 0.2 ⫾ 0.5 14.3 ⫾ 1. streptomycin (10 mg/disc). nd.6 19.1 13.1 ⫾ 1.1 ⫾ 1.500 ppm/disc).1 ⫾ 0.2 ⫾ 1.5 16.1 15.3 ⫾ 1.2 15.

In recent years.5 125 250 250 500 nd nd nd Subfractions of MeOH extract Hexane CHCl3 EtOAc 250 250 250 500 500 500 125 500 500 nd nd nd nd nd 62. A number of publications documented the antimicrobial activity of essential oil constituents and plant extracts (Morris et al. 1979. the gram-positive bacteria were found to be more susceptible to the essential oil and various solvent extractions than gram-negative bacteria. KANG TABLE 3. not detected. drugs and perfumery. RAHMAN and S. aureus KCTC 1916 Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19116 L. coli 0157 (human) Salmonella enteritidis KCTC 12021 S. many plant oils and extracts have been reported to have antimicrobial properties (Hoffman 1987). monocytogenes ATCC 19166 L.5 125 125 250 250 62.C. the aromatic plant extracts have been used for many purposes. Also.5 125 125 125 250 250 62. Historically.) B. several researchers have also reported that mono. monocytogenes ATCC 19118 L.5 125 62. antibacterial activity by minimum inhibitory concentrations than did hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. such as food. MeOH EXTRACT AND SUBFRACTIONS OF MeOH EXTRACT OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS (WALT. In this study.and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives are the major components of essential oils from . Nasar-Abbas and Halkman 2004). DISCUSSION Since ancient times.184 A.5 62.5 125 250 250 62. typhimurium KCTC 2515 62.5 125 250 250 500 nd nd nd 125 125 125 250 250 500 125 125 500 500 nd nd nd nd * Minimum inhibitory concentration (values in mg/mL).5 125 250 125 500 nd nd nd MeOH extract 62.S.P. the renewal of interest in food industry and increasing consumer demands for effective. monocytogenes ATCC 15313 Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004 Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 E. safe and natural products means that quantitative data on plant oils and extracts are required. nd. AGAINST FOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILING BACTERIA Microorganism MIC* Essential oil Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 S. coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43888 E. MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL.

Salamci et al.P. nerolidol (0. and these finding are in agreement with the previous reports (Guillen and Manzanos 1998. eugenol (7. which have enormous potential to inhibit microbial pathogens (Gudzic et al. globulol. indicating high contents of b-caryophyllene. ATCC 19166 and ATCC 15313).). active phenolic compounds might have several invasive targets. spathulenol (1. This activity could be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds and oxygenated monoand sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Deans et al. etc. Burt 2004. E. coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43888. Filipowicz et al. 2002.8-cineole (9. 2002. 2004. coli ATCC 8739 and E.5%) and n-nonanal (0. Cha et al. Burt 2004. L. a-humulene. aureus (ATCC 6538 and KCTC 1916). Thus. b-selinene (0. Bougatsos et al. 2005). Those claims are further supported by our findings.) B. monocytogenes (ATCC 19116. P. B. the essential oil and methanolic extracts of E. Shunying et al. aerogenes KCTC 2190.6%). subtilis ATCC 6633. 2005).0%).S.1%). However. such as S. some oils appeared more specific. ATCC 19118. Actually. caryophyllene oxide (5. Most of the studies on the mechanism of phenolic compounds have focused on their effects on cellular membranes. comprising 76. 2003). such as electron transport. protein and nucleic acid synthesis. 1997.-mediated oil also contained high percentage of b-caryophyllene (24. Erdemgil et al. (1995) observed that the susceptibility of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria to plant volatile oils had little influence on growth inhibition. caryophyllene oxide. which could lead to their inhibition of bacteria. and enzyme activity. 2002. phenolics not only attack cell wall and cell membranes. Oumzil et al. 1. Azaz et al. exerting a greater inhibitory . ledol (0.9%). E. ramosus (Walt. It is also possible that the minor components might be involved in some type of synergism with the other active compounds (Marino et al. globulol (7.2%). most publications provide generalization about whether or not a plant oil or extract possesses activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Na glutamate.6%). aeruginosa KCTC 2004. which had potential antimicrobial properties (Porter and Wilkins 1999. On the other hand.) B. 2001). 2007). but also interfere with membrane function. d-cadinene (5. thereby affecting their permeability and release of intracellular constituents (ribose. However. nutrient uptake.P.0%) and a-copaene (4. a-humulene(14. ramosus (Walt. 1. trans-b-farnesene (0. showed remarkable antibacterial effects against most of the bacteria.S. When comparing the data obtained in different studies. as earlier reported the major components of the various essential oils. eugenol. E. d-cadinene and a-copaene.0%).ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERIGERON RAMOSUS 185 plant origin.4%).9%). Filipowicz et al.8-cineole.8%). 2001. In this study. the components in lower amount such as geraniol (1. Bisignano et al. 2003.5%) also contributed to antibacterial activity of the oil (Demetzos et al.9% of the oil (Table 1). few provide details about the extent or the spectrum of this activity.5%).2%). 2007.

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