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# 1.

## Increased understandings of cathode rays led to the

development of television
Saturday, 23 October 2010
9:47 AM

1.1 explain why the apparent inconsistent behaviour of cathode rays caused debate as to whether
they were charged particles or electromagnetic waves
Some characteristics fitted the wave model:
Travelled in straight lines
Shadows
Could pass through thin metal foils
Some fitted the particle model
They left the cathode at right angles to the surface
Obviously deflected by magnetic fields
Small paddlewheels turned when placed in path of rays
Travelled slower than light
When Thompson was able to observe deflection via electric field, he confirmed the charged
particle theory
1.2 explain that cathode ray tubes allowed the manipulation of a stream of charged particles
At very low pressure, air conducts electricity
If a significantly high potential difference is placed over a cathode ray tube, electricity flows as
a stream of charged particles
1.3 identify that moving charged particles in a magnetic field experience a force
Moving charged particles in a magnetic field experience a force
1.4 identify that charged plates produce an electric field
Charged plates produce an electric field
1.5 describe quantitatively the force acting on a charge moving through a magnetic field
Right hand palm rule gives direction
Formula gives magnitude ( is angle to magnetic field)
1.6 discuss qualitatively the electric field strength due to a point charge, positive and negative
charges, and oppositely charged parallel plates
Field lines go towards negative
Bulge near edges
1.7 describe quantitatively the electric field due to oppositely charged parallel plates

## 1.8 outline Thomson's experiment to measure the charge/mass ratio of an electron

By applying a magnetic and electric field to electrons, and equating the equations once
balanced, q/m could be calculated
Cathode rays pass through slots in cylinders making a near parallel beam
Electric field deflects beam downwards, magnetic field deflects beam upwards
When balanced, two equations can be equated

## 1.9 outline the role of:

- electrodes in the electron gun
- the deflection plates or coils
- the fluorescent screen
In the cathode ray tube of conventional TV displays and oscilloscopes

Electrodes control 'brightness' of beam, focus the beam and accelerate electrons along the
tube
The deflection plates deflect the beam of electrons separately up, down, left, right
The screen emits light when electrons strike it
1.10 perform an investigation and gather first-hand information to observe the occurrence of
different striation patterns for different pressures in discharge tubes
Coloured 'streamers' appear and both the anode and cathode are surrounded by a luminous
glow
As pressure is reduced further, positive glow extends up tube for about half its length
If pressure is reduced further, positive column breaks into a series of striations
At Very low pressures, a green glow appears in the glass at the end of the discharge tube
opposite the cathode

1.11 perform an investigation to demonstrate and identify properties of cathode rays using
discharge tubes:
9.4 From Ideas to Implementation Page 24

discharge tubes:
containing a Maltese cross
containing electric plates
with a fluorescent display screen
containing a glass wheel
analyse the information gathered to determine the sign of the charge on cathode rays

Deflected towards the positive plate in the electric plates experiment, therefore, negatively
charged
1.12 solve problem and analyse information using:

and

## 2. The reconceptualization of the model of light led to an

understanding of the photoelectric effect and black body radiation
Sunday, 13 March 2011
10:33 AM

2.1 describe Hertzs observation of the effect of a radio wave on a receiver and the photoelectric
effect he produced but failed to investigate
Set up an induction coil connected to a ring with a spark gap, and a second ring
When voltage applied, spark appeared in both rings
If UV light shone onto gap, more sparking occurred at detecting loop
Glass shielded spark and no spark produced at receiving coil
2.2 outline qualitatively Hertzs experiments in measuring the speed of radio waves and how they
relate to light waves
First calculated frequency from LC circuit (inductor L and capacitor C)
Used interference patterns to figure out wavelength: set up metal plate for radio waves to
deflect off such that some went from source to receiver and some bounced off plate. Using
interference pattern, calculated wavelength

## Velocity very close to predicted value by Maxwell

2.3 identify Plancks hypothesis that radiation emitted and absorbed by the walls of a black body
cavity is quantised
Black body - perfect emitter or absorber of energy
Planck proposed energy released from black body in quanta

i.e. frequency is proportional to energy. Set amount of energy goes into the black body, and
the same amount comes out, in discrete packets, proportional to the amount of energy
2.4 identify Einsteins contribution to quantum theory and its relation to black body radiation
Einstein proposed all electromagnetic radiation occurred in discrete quanta, which he called
photons (particle theory of light)
Proposed that EM interacted with matter
Essentially, extended on Planck's mathematical relationship
2.5 explain the particle model of light in terms of photons with particular energy and frequency
Photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from substances, in particular metals, when
they are bombarded with light

The greater the energy of the photoelectrons, the greater voltage needed to stop them
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The greater the energy of the photoelectrons, the greater voltage needed to stop them
(known as stopping voltage)
As frequency is proportional to energy, higher frequency means more kinetic energy
Work function of a metal is how much energy is required for electrons to reach the surface
and be emitted from the metal (i.e. there is a threshold frequency)
Higher intensity means more current

2.6 identify the relationships between photon energy, frequency, speed of light and wavelength:
and

2.7 perform an investigation to demonstrate the production and reception of radio waves
Set up an induction coil so that it generates sparks
Tune in a radio receiver
Observe radio interference on FM and AM (more on AM)
2.8 identify data sources, gather, process and analyse information and use available evidence to
assess Einsteins contribution to quantum theory and its relation to black body radiation
2.9 identify data sources, gather, process and present information to summarise the use of the
photoelectric effect in photocells
Cathode coted with photosensitive material
Photoelectrons accelerated to the anode by potential difference
Photocurrent proportional to amount of light that falls on them (e.g. radiation detectors, light
meters, electric 'eyes')
2.10 solve problems and analyse information using:
and

2.11 process information to discuss Einsteins and Plancks differing views about whether science
research is removed from social and political forces
Planck worked for Nazi party
Planck saw no moral imperative to oppose the Nazi regime until all Jewish teachers were
sacked from German Universities
Planck spoke out against anti-Semitism directed towards Einstein
Planck - anti-Nazi views, refused to work on war research
Einstein was a pacifist
When Hitler came to power, he toured Europe making speeches about the Nazis
Moved to US, advocated re-armament of democratic government to oppose the Nazi tyranny
Warned Roosevelt of potential for German atomic bomb - led to Manhattan Project
Advocated for a world government to eliminate the threat of atomic war

## 3. Limitations of past technologies and increased research into the

structure of the atom resulted in the invention of transistors
Sunday, 13 March 2011
10:34 AM

3.1 identify that some electrons in solids are shared between atoms and move freely
Conductance in metals is due to electron 'cloud' of shared electrons between atoms able to
move freely
3.2 describe the difference between conductors, insulators and semiconductors in terms of band
structures and relative electrical resistance

Conductor has lowest resistance, semiconductor has medium and insulator has high.
Conductors resistance decreases with temperature decrease, semiconductors decrease with
temp. increase
3.3 identify absences of electrons in a nearly full band as holes, and recognise that both electrons
and holes help to carry current
Absence of electrons in a nearly full band is a 'positive hole'
Current is the flow of charge - i.e. electrons and positive holes
3.4 compare qualitatively the relative number of free electrons that can drift from atom to atom in
conductors, semiconductors and insulators
Conductors - large amount of free electrons
Semi-conductor - some
Insulator - almost none
3.5 identify that the use of germanium in early transistors is related to lack of ability to produce
other materials of suitable purity
Silicon is more abundant (and hence cheaper)
Silicon retains semi-conducting properties at higher temperature
Silicon forms insulating layer when heated to high temperatures (used in integrated circuits)
Germanium was originally used due to the lack of refinement processes of silicon.
3.6 describe how doping a semiconductor can change its electrical properties
Adding a small amount of a group three element into silicon (a group four element) will
increase the amount of positive holes as the fourth bond of silicon is incomplete (p-type)
Adding a small amount of a group five element into silicon will increase the amount of
negative electrons (n-type)
3.7 identify differences in p and n-type semiconductors in terms of the relative number of negative
charge carriers and positive holes
In a p-type material positive holes are the majority carriers and electrons are minority carriers
In an n-type material electrons are the majority carriers and positive holes are minority
carriers
3.8 describe differences between solid state and thermionic devices and discuss why solid state
devices replaced thermionic devices
Thermionic devices are bigger which limited the minimum size of any electronic device
(miniaturisation is essential to progress of electronics)
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## (miniaturisation is essential to progress of electronics)

Thermionic devices consume more electrical energy and produce more heat (i.e. much more
inefficient)
Thermionic devices are much more fragile
Cannot operate as fast as SSDs
Require a 'warm-up' time to become operational whilst the heating filament warms
3.9 perform an investigation to model the behaviour of semiconductors, including the creation of
a hole or positive charge on the atom that has lost the electron and the movement of electrons
and holes in opposite directions when an electric field is applied across the semiconductor
Students in chairs - standing up means conduction band, sitting means valance band
Remove a student - positive hole is created, students (electrons) shift down, whereas hole
moves up the row
3.10 gather, process and present secondary information to discuss how shortcomings in available
communication technology lead to an increased knowledge of the properties of materials with
particular reference to the invention of the transistor
A p-n junction acts as a diode (i.e. charge can only flow in one direction), as application of a
charge will move electrons from n type into p-type, and vice versa, increasing 'depletion zone'
and resisting charge flow
Semiconductors replaced triodes as a transistor, for example, amplification
Development of transistor allowed for miniaturisation of electronic components, efficiency
increased, communication technologies made much more efficient
3.11 identify data sources, gather, process, analyse information and use available evidence to
assess the impact of the invention of transistors on society with particular reference to their use in
microchips and microprocessors
Miniaturisation and mass production of electronics More e-waste
Digital revolution
Less paper needed
Information easily accessible
Interconnected society
Automation of processes - job loss/better quality of life
3.12 identify data sources, gather, process and present information to summarise the effect of
light on semiconductors in solar cells
Incident light hits semiconductor
Electron/positive hole pair produced via photo-ionisation
Potential barrier (p-n type junction) separates these charges, setting up an emf
Metal contacts conduct away electrons
Pass through the load and move back to the p-type silicon doing useful work

## 4. Investigations into the electrical properties of particular metals

at different temperatures led to the identification of
superconductivity and the exploration of possible applications
Sunday, 13 March 2011
10:34 AM

4.1 outline the methods used by the Braggs to determine crystal structure
Short wavelength X-rays produced by hitting metal target with electrons (e.g. in an induction
coil)
Penetrate and reflect from atomic planes of metal crystal
In some directions constructive interference would occur, in others, destructive
x-rays hit screen and results analysed using formula

## 4.2 identify that metals possess a crystal lattice structure

Metals possess a crystal lattice structure
4.3 describe conduction in metals as a free movement of electrons unimpeded by the lattice
Conduction in metals is the free movement of electrons unimpeded by the lattice
4.4 identify that resistance in metals is increased by the presence of impurities and scattering of
electrons by lattice vibrations
Resistance in metals is proportional to presence of impurities and scattering of electrons by
lattice vibration
4.5 describe the occurrence in superconductors below their critical temperature of a population of
electron pairs unaffected by electrical resistance
Superconductivity is due to a population of electron pairs unaffected by electrical resistance as
described in the BCS theory
4.6 discuss the BCS theory
Below the critical temperature, lattice vibrations decrease to a point where electrons do not
collide with the lattice, and pass unimpeded through
Electron pulls down on positively charged lattice, distorting it
Distortion attracts another electron, 'pairing' the two
This is known as a Cooper pair, which pass unimpeded through the lattice
Cooper pairs result in superconductivity
4.7 discuss the advantages of using superconductors and identify limitations to their use
Superconductors minimise energy loss due to resistive heating and to allow the generation of
intense magnetic fields
Limitations - require incredibly low temperatures
'high temperature' superconductors which can work if cooled with liquid nitrogen are:
Brittle
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Brittle
Difficult to manufacture
Difficult to form into cables
Chemically unstable in some environments

4.8 process information to identify some of the metals, metal alloys and compounds that have
been identified as exhibiting the property of superconductivity and their critical temperatures
YBa2Cu3O7 - critical temp: 92 K
Hg - critical temp: 4.2 K
Niobium Germanium compounds - critical temp: 23.2 K
4.9 perform an investigation to demonstrate magnetic levitation
Superconducting ceramic disc with small permanent magnet placed on top
4.10 analyse information to explain why a magnet is able to hover above a superconducting
material that has reached the temperature at which it is superconducting
A superconductor does not allow a magnetic field to penetrate its interior
(field inside induces a current that produces a magnetic field that just balances out the field
the would have penetrated the substance)
This is known as the Meissner effect
4.11 gather and process information to describe how superconductors and the effects of magnetic
fields have been applied to develop a maglev train
Levitation: maglev train in Japan: Helium cooled superconducting magnets on the vehicle
interact with coils in the guideway in such a way that repulsion between 'like poles' causes the
train to lift off the guideway
Train 'chases' changing magnetic field on track ahead, and is repelled from behind
4.12 process information to discuss possible applications of superconductivity and the effects of
those applications on computers, generators and motors and transmission of electricity through
power grids
Computers - faster information processing
Generators and motors - more efficient
Transmission of electricity - DC based, more efficient, less energy loss

## 9.4 From Ideas to Implementation Page 31

Formulas
Sunday, 13 March 2011
10:35 AM