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What is a local block?

A local block is any portion of a C program that is enclosed by the left brace
({) and the right brace (}).

Should variables be stored in local blocks?
The use of local blocks for storing variables is unusual and therefore should
be avoided, with only rare exceptions.
When is a switch statement better than multiple if statements?
A switch statement is generally best to use when you have more than two
conditional expressions based on a single variable of numeric type
.
13. What is the difference between ++var and var++?
The ++ operator is called the increment operator. When the operator is
placed before the variable (++var), the variable is incremented by 1 before it
is used in the expression. When the operator is placed after the variable
(var++), the expression is evaluated, and then the variable is incremented
by 1.
The same holds true for the decrement operator (--). When the operator is
placed before the variable, you are said to have a prefix operation. When the
operator is placed after the variable, you are said to have a postfix
operation.
For instance, consider the following example of postfix incrementation:
int x, y;
x = 1;
y = (x++ * 5);

In this example, postfix incrementation is used, and x is not incremented
until after the evaluation of the expression is done. Therefore, y evaluates to
1 times 5, or 5. After the evaluation, x is incremented to 2.
Now look at an example using prefix incrementation:
int x, y;
x = 1;
y = (++x * 5);
This example is the same as the first one, except that this example uses
prefix incrementation rather than postfix. Therefore, x is incremented before
the expression is evaluated, making it 2. Hence, y evaluates to 2 times 5, or
10.
what is data structure?
A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the
items stored, but also their relationship to each other.
List out the areas in which data structures are applied extensively?
Compiler Design,
Operating System,
Database Management System,
Statistical analysis package,
Numerical Analysis,
Graphics,
Artificial Intelligence,
Define variable and constant.
A variable can be defined as a meaningful name that is given to a data
storage location in the computer memory that contains a value.

What is a data type? How many types of data types are there in
.NET ?
A data type is a data storage format that can contain a specific type or range
of values.
Value type - Refers to the data type that contains the data
Reference type - Refers to a data type that can access data by reference
What is an identifier?
Identifiers are northing but names given to various entities uniquely
identified in a program
Programmers

cannot

develop

a

class

whose

name

is public,

because, public is a keyword used to specify the accessibility of data in
programs.
What is parameter
A parameter is a special kind of variable, which is used in a function to
provide a piece of information or input to a caller function. These inputs are
called arguments. In C#, the different types of parameters are as follows:
Value type - Refers that you do not need to provide any keyword with a
parameter.
Reference type - Refers that you need to mention the ref keyword with a
parameter.
Output type - Refers that you need to mention the out keyword with a
parameter.
Optional parameter - Refers to the new parameter introduced in C# 4.0. It
allows you to neglect the parameters that have some predefined default
values

It is similar to sub-procedure and performs the same task. We can also provide arguments in a sub-procedure. What is cloud computing? The cloud computing is the computing which is completely based on the Internet. The cloud computing uses the cloud (Internet) that provides the way to deliver the services whenever and wherever the user of the cloud needs. and displaying an output. The main difference between a function and a sub-procedure is that subprocedures do not return a value while functions do What are main features of cloud services? Some important features of the cloud service are given as follows: Accessing and managing the commercial software. however. it does not return a new value. receiving or processing data. and classes. such as changing properties of objects. structures.What is the main difference between sub-procedure and function? The sub-procedure is a block of multiple visual basic statements within Sub and End Sub statements. It can also be defined as the next stage in the evolution of the Internet. Centralizing the updating feature of software that eliminates the need of downloading the upgrades. such as in modules. Developing applications that are capable of managing several clients. Centralizing the activities of management of software in the Web environment. Companies use the cloud computing to fulfill the needs of their . You can define a sub-procedure anywhere in a program. The function is also a set of statements within the Function and End Function statements. It is used to perform certain tasks.

customers. They are used to implement mutual exclusion and synchronize concurrent processes. Circular Wait: A closed chain of processes exist such that each process holds at least one resource needed by another process in the chain. What is a cloud? A cloud is a combination of hardware. the base addresses of the last few referenced pages is maintained in registers called the TLB that aids in faster lookup What is the difference between a constructor and a method? . services. The vendors are the one who provide applications and their related technology. hardware. and integration. networks. infrastructure. It has broadly three users which are end user. and cloud service provider What is a binary semaphore? What is its use? A binary semaphore is one. storage. and interfaces that helps in delivering computing as a service. List the Coffman's conditions that lead to a deadlock. and business leaders as the three major contributors. The cloud computing includes vendors. No Pre-emption: No resource can be forcible removed from a process holding it. Hold & Wait: A process may be allocated some resources while waiting for others. which takes only 0 and 1 as values. partners. Mutual Exclusion: Only one process may use a critical resource at a time. Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)? In a cached system. business management user. and providers. partners.

It has the same name as the class itself. 3. What are the advantages of DBMS? Redundancy is controlled. has no return type. built and populated with data for a specific purpose. 4. and is invoked using the new operator.A constructor is a member function of a class that is used to create objects of that class. representing some aspect of real world and which is designed. a return type (which may be void). It has its own name. A method is an ordinary member function of a class. Unauthorised access is restricted. What is the purpose of garbage collection in Java. and when is it used? The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard objects that are no longer needed by a program so that their resources can be reclaimed and reused. and is invoked using the dot operator. 2. In other words it is general-purpose software that provides the users with the processes of defining. What is a Database system? The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system. What is DBMS? It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a database. . What is database? A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. . constructing and manipulating the database for various applications.

Providing multiple user interfaces. Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction. What are the disadvantage in File Processing System? Data redundancy and inconsistency. Describe the three levels of data abstraction? The are three levels of abstraction: Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored. In other words. Difficult in accessing data. Enforcing integrity constraints. Security Problems. Providing backup and recovery. 6. Data integrity. 5. What is Data Independence? Data independence means that "the application is independent of the storage structure and access strategy of data". Concurrent access is not possible. View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database. Entity Integrity: States that "Primary key cannot have NULL value" Referential Integrity: States that "Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or should be Primary Key value of other relation. The ability to . describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data. Define the "integrity rules"? There are two Integrity rules. Data isolation.

data relationships data semantics and constraints. NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve 12. What is Weak Entity set? An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key. What is a view? How it is related to data independence? A view may be thought of as a virtual table. that is. and its primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity. a table that does not really exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base table. What is E-R model? This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of relationship among these objects. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. Two types of Data Independence: Physical Data Independence: Modification in physical level should not affect the logical level. then it is said to be Weak Entity set. there is no stored file that direct represents the view instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary. . 14.modify the schema definition in one level should not affect the schema definition in the next higher level. In other words. Logical Data Independence: Modification in logical level should affect the view level. What is Data Model? A collection of conceptual tools for describing data.

. which describes the entity. t2.. vn). What is an attribute? It is a particular property.. What is Relationship? It is an association among two or more entities. 22. A2. An ERP system typically uses a multiuser database.v2. . tn).21.. What is degree of a Relation? It is the number of attribute of its relation schema. Let r be the relation which contains set tuples (t1. What is DDL (Data Definition Language)? A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called DDL. . What is RDBMS? Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) are database management systems that maintain data records and indices in tables What is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). What is a Relation Schema and a Relation? A relation Schema denoted by R(A1... A relation is defined as a set of tuples.. Each tuple is an ordered list of n-values t=(v1. production planning. An) is made up of the relation name R and the list of attributes Ai that it contains. inventory. 24. purchasing and other business functions. and what kind of a database is used in an ERP application? Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an information system used in manufacturing companies and includes sales.. 23. t3... .

Name and briefly describe the five SQL built-in functions. A DBMS receives requests from applications and translates those requests into actions on a specific database. Write an SQL SELECT statement to display all the columns of the STUDENT table but only those rows where the Grade column is greater than or equal to 90. Technically. a foreign key is a column (or columns) appearing in one relation that is (are) the primary key of another table. What does it mean when we say that a relation is in Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)? . AVG: computes the average value. What is a DBMS? DBMS stands for Database Management System. A DBMS processes SQL statements or uses other functionality to create. MIN: obtains the minimum value of a column in a table. 8. SELECT * FROM STUDENT WHERE Grade >= 90. 9. What is a foreign key. MAX: obtains the maximum value of a column in a table.3. COUNT: computes the number of rows in a table. SELECT COUNT(*) AS NumStudents FROM STUDENT. and what is it used for? A foreign key is used to establish relationships among relations in the relational model. process and administer databases. SUM: totals numeric columns. Write an SQL SELECT statement to count the number of rows in STUDENT table and display the result with the label NumStudents.

The Most common Difference are as follow : 1.. oriented. char. The function allocates an array object containing nelem (number of elements) each of size_t size. otherwise..e. and returns the address of the object if successful. You can safely convert the return value to an object pointer of any type whose size in bytes is not greater than size.Its originated from c and include the most important concept i.C is Procedural Language and C++ is Procedural+Objected Oriented. 4. it returns a null pointer.but not in C. "Object Oriented".We can use function inside structure in C++. You can safely convert the return value to an object pointer of any type whose size is not void greater *calloc(size_t than nelem. C++ can be considered as the Develop form of C. 2.C++ secured in C extends due it to to 52 non-object Keywords. size. The function allocates an object of size_t size (size_t = int. float. otherwise. .etc). it returns a null pointer. 5. Malloc and calloc void *malloc(size_t size). The values stored in the object are indeterminate.C followe top down approach while C++ follow Bottomup approach.C contains 3. size_t size).Data is 32 not Keywords. and returns the address of the first element of the array if successful.A relation is in BCNF when every determinant in the relation is a candidate key. stores zeros in all bytes of the array.

What does Candidate Key mean? A candidate key is a column. or set of columns. it is termed a composite key A superkey is a combination of attributes that can be uniquely used to identify a database record. execution execution.Whereas when procedureis called it sends the control to the starting address of the code defined in the procedure and the code is invoked in the program. and it is called the primary key. When a key is composed of more than one column.In the case of Procedure it makes use of stack may be the system stack or explicitly defined stack. but one candidate key is special. 3) Macro does not make use of stack as the codes are defined in a macro within the register and these codes are invoked with the help of macro at different parts of the program wherever they are needed. 2) There is branched execution in case of macro but there is sequential execution in case of procedure.But the procedure is called by pointing to the address in 5) Macro is comparatively and procedure is the faster memory slower as as there where procedure is there is is branched sequential stored. This is usually the best among the candidate keys.The registers are pushed onto the stack and are popped back before the end of the procedure. in a table that can uniquely identify any database record without referring to any other data. 4) Macro increases the length of the program if macro is invoked several times within the program. . A table might have many superkeys difference between macro and procedure 1) The invocation of macro in the program invokes the code in the program with the codes defined in the program. Each table may have one or more candidate keys.

Each node has two parts first part contain the information of the element second part contains the address of the next node in the list. where the linear order is given by pointers. What is a queue? A queue is an ordered collection of items from which items may be deleted at one end (front end) and items inserted at the other end (rear end). DATA STRUCTURES 1. What is precision? . A minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree organized so that the total edge weight between nodes is minimized. All the nodes of the graph appear on the tree once.we have to decide where we have to use macro and where we have to use procedure. It obeys FIFO rule there is no limit to the number of elements a queue contains. called nodes. There are two types of data structure Linear Nonlinear 2. What is a linked list? A linked list is a linear collection of data elements. What is a spanning Tree? A spanning tree is a tree associated with a network. What is data structure? The logical and mathematical model of a particular organization of data is called data structure.Macro and procedure both helps us in shortening our program. 4. 5. 3.

What is sequential search? In sequential search each item in the array is . What are the goals of Data Structure? It must rich enough in structure to reflect the actual relationship of data in real world.e.  Stack may contain different data types. array can be declared large enough for maximum size of the stack.  Array is a static object. The structure should be simple enough for efficient 7 .  Array can be home of a stack i. Array  Array is an ordered collection of items.  Stack is a ordered collection of items.Precision refers the accuracy of the decimal portion of a value.  Stack is declared as a structure containing an array to hold the element of the stack.  It contains same data types. 8. Precision is the number of digits allowed after the decimal point. processing of data. What is the difference between a Stack and an Array? Stack  Stack is a dynamic object whose size is constantly changing as items are pushed and popped . 6. and an integer to indicate the current stack top within the array.

12. What does abstract Data Type Mean? Data type is a collection of values and a set of operations on these values. The no of nodes declared must remain allocated throughout its execution. 15. Define circular list? In linear list the next field of the last node contain a null pointer. 13.compared with the item being searched until a match occurs. 9. What is a priority queue? The priority queue is a data structure in which the intrinsic ordering of the elements. What actions are performed when a function is called? . 11. No more than fixed amount of storage is allocated causing overflow. What are the disadvantages array implementations of linked list? The no of nodes needed can’t be predicted when the program is written. What do you mean by recursive definition? The definition which defines an object in terms of simpler cases of itself is called recursive definition. It is applicable to a table organized either as an array or as a linked list. 14. What are the disadvantages of sequential storage? Fixed amount of storage remains allocated to the data structure even if it contains less element. when a next field in the last node contain a pointer back to the first node it is called circular list. Abstract data type refer to the mathematical concept that define the data type. 10.

18.When a function is called arguments are passed local variables are allocated and initialized transferring control to the function 16. What do you mean by overflow and underflow? When new data is to be inserted into the data structure but there is no available space i. where each node is divided into three parts An info field that contains the information stored in the node.e.free storage list is empty this situation is called overflow. Whether Linked List is linear or Non-linear data structure? According to Access strategies Linked list is a linear one. Right field that contain pointer to node on right side. According to Storage Linked List is a Non-linear one. When we want to delete data from a data structure that is empty this situation is called underflow. Define double linked list? It is a collection of data elements called nodes. Left field that contain pointer to node on left side. . 17.

3. 2. State the different between Security and . What is a node class? A node class is a class that has added new services or functionality beyond the services inherited from its base class. What is the purpose of Database systems? A Database Management system provides a secure and survivable medium for the storage and retrieval of data. 4. the data is shared among several users and is persistent. 20. What are the methods available in storing sequential files ? Straight merging Natural merging Polyphase sort Distribution of Initial runs 21. Database 1. what is binary tree? A binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two child nodes. What do you mean by free pool? Pool is a list consisting of unused memory cells which has its own pointer.In the real world.19. Define Dbms? A Database Management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and set of programs to access that data. 22. Define SQL? Structured query language is the standard command set used to communicate with the relational database management system. usually distinguished as left and right.

Remove insert. delete and update anamoly during the database activities. 8. 7. 5. Define Unique Key? Unique key is a one or more column that must be unique for each row of the table. . Primary key column will not accept a null. Reduce the need to reorganize data it is modified or enhanced.Integrity? Security is a protection from malicious attempts to steal or modify Integrity constraints damage to the guard database. What are the purpose of Normalisation? Minimize redundancy in data. A good understanding of the semantic of data helps the designer to built efficient design using the concept of normalization. against by accidental ensuribg that authorized changes to the database do not result in a loss of data consistency. Whereas the unique key column will accept a null values. Define Primary Key? The primary key is the columns used to uniquely identify each row of a table. It is similar to primary key. A table can have only one primary key. 6. data. Define Normalisation? Normalisation is an essential part of database design. No primary key value can appear in more than one row in the table.

10. 13. is a DML operation. It is derived from a table but has no longer of its own and often may be used in the same manner as a table. which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a DDL operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback.9. A view is a virtual table that has columns similar to a table. instead of the typical SQL commands that operate on all the rows in the set at one time. The delete command. 11. 12. What is cursors? Cursor is a database object used by applications to manipulate data in a set on a row-by-row basis. Define SubQuery? . on the other hand. Define View? A View is a database object that is a logical representation of a table. Compare and contrast TRUNCATE and DELETE for a table? Both the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. A view does not represent any physical data. A foreign key constraint also known as Referential Integrity Constraint. Define Foreign Key? A foreign Key is a combination of columns with value is based on the primary key values from another table.

Define Sequence? A Sequence is a database object that can be used to provide very quick generation of unique numbers. of one table with . 17. 14. What are the different types of subquery? Single row subquery Multiple row subquery Correlated row subquery 15. What are the different types of replication? The SQL Server 2000-supported replication types are as follows Transactional Snapshot Merge 16. 19. The self join can be viewed as a join of two copies of the same table. 18. Define Self Join? Self join means joining one table with itself. Define Joins? A Join combines columns and data from two or more tables (and in rare cases. A table can have only one primary key. What is User Defined Functions? User-Defined Functions allow to define its own TSQL functions that can accept 0 or more parameters and return a single scalar data value or a table data type.Nesting of Queries one within the other is called as a Subquery.

20. 22. What are primary keys and foreign keys? Primary keys are the unique identifiers for each row. 25. and REVOKE 24. Define Equi Joins? A Equi Join is a join in which the join comparison operator is an equality. Define data model? Underlying the structure of the database is called .itself). They must contain unique values and cannot be null. What are three SQL keywords used to change or set someone's permissions? GRANT. they make an Equi Join. Define Cartesian Join? Joining two tables without a whereclause produces a Cartesian join which combines every row in one table with every row in another table. DENY. 21. Foreign keys are both a method of ensuring data integrity and a manifestation of the relationship between tables. When two tables are joined together using equality or values in one or more columns. 23. Primary keys are the most fundamental of all keys and constraints. A table can have only one Primary key. What are the types of Joins? Equi joins Cartesian Joins Outer Joins Self Joins. Due to their importance in relational databases.

What is an Entity? It is a 'thing' in the real world with an independent existence. Explain the use of the by GROUP BY and the HAVING clause? The GROUP BY partitions the selected rows on the distinct values of the column on which the group by has been done.time variant. BCP does not copy the structures same as source to destination. known as father of Data warehousing. non volatile collection of data in support of management’s decision making process”. integrated . 26. 29. What is DataWarehousing? According to Bill Inmon. 28. What is BCP? When does it used? BulkCopy is a tool used to copy huge amount of data from tables and views. 30.as data model. The HAVING selects groups which match the criteria specified. 27. “A Data warehouse is a subject oriented. What are the advantages of Database? Redundancy can be reduced Inconsistence can be avoided The data can be shared Standards can be enforced Security can be enforced Integrity can be maintained 31. What are the advantage of SQL? The advantages of SQL are .

34. What are the transaction properties? Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability 35. What is the difference between join and outer join? Outer joins return all rows from at least one of the tables or views mentioned in the FROM clause. Application written in SQL can be easily ported across systems. as long as those rows meet any WHERE or HAVING search conditions. Define Boyce coded normal form? A relation is said to be in Boyce coded normal form if it is already in the third normal form and every determine is a candidate key. 32. A join combines columns and data from two are more tables. What is data mining? Data mining refers to using variety of techniques to identify nuggests of information or decision .SQL is a high level language that provides a greater degree of abstraction than procedural languages. 33. SQL enables the end users and system personnel to deal with a number of Database management systems where it is available.

There are different types of attributes. What are the types of SQL Commands? Data Definition Language (DDL) Data Manipulation Language (DML) Data Query Language (DQL) Data Control Language (DCL) 38. What is an attribute? An entity is represented by a set of attributes.making knowledge in bodies of data and extracting these in such a way that they can be put in the use in the areas such as decision support. forecasting and estimation. Attributes are descriptive properties possessed by each member of an entity set. predication. What are the different types of data models ? Entity relationship model Relational model Hierarchical model Network model . Simple Composite Single-valued Derived 39. Compare DBMS versus object oriented DBMS? DBMS consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. The object oriented DBMS is one of the type of dbms in which information is stored in the form of objects. 36. 37.

43. What is an active database? Active database is a database that includes active rules. The self join can be viewed as a join of two copies of the same table. What is a tuple? A tuple is an instance of data within a relational database. the statement itself does not change(although values .Object oriented model Object relational model 40. Define Self Join? Self join means joining one table with itself. What is meant by embedded SQL? They are SQL statements that are embedded with in application program and are prepared during the program preparation process before the program is executed. After it is prepared. providing a uniform and efficient mechanism for database system applications. 41. 44. database database systems functionality enhance with traditional powerful rule processing cabalities. mostly in the form of ECA rules(Event Condition Active rules). What are ACID properties? Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability 42.

This means the value of X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y. The constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. What are the different phases of transaction? The different phases of transaction are Analysis phase Redo Phase Undo phase 47. What is diffrence between Co-related sub query and nested sub query? Correlated subquery runs once for each row selected by the outer query. 48. 45. Nested subquery runs only once for the entire nesting (outer) query.of host variables specified within the statement might change). It does not contain any . What the difference between UNION and UNIONALL? Union will remove the duplicate rows from the result set while Union all does’nt. It contains a reference to a value from the row selected by the outer query. What is Functional Dependency? A Functional dependency is denoted by X Y between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can form a relation state r of R. 46.

49. What is the use of DBCC commands? DBCC stands for database consistency checker. 52. maintenance. What is Collation? Collation refers to a set of rules that determine how data is sorted and compared. 51. i. you can create very clean. accent marks. What is a Linked Server? Linked Servers is a concept in SQL Server by which we can add other SQL Server to a Group and query both the SQL Server dbs using T-SQL Statements. with options for specifying case-sensitivity. validation task and status checks. Character data is sorted using rules that define the correct character sequence. joined and combined with local data. With a linked server. What is the difference between a primary key .reference to the outer query row. 50. We use these commands to check the consistency of the databases. What are different type of Collation Sensitivity? The different phases of transaction are Case sensitivity Accent sensitivity Kana Sensitivity Width sensitivity 53.. kana character types and character width.e. easy to follow. SQL statements that allow remote data to be retrieved.

In that case first bring db to single user using sp_dboptions. Inline UDF’s can be though of as views that take parameters and can be used in JOINs and other Rowset operations.and a unique key? Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. primary key doesn’t allow NULLs. This can be used in JOINs with other tables. . but unique key allows one NULL only. Another major difference is that. UDFs that return tables can be treated as another rowset. BCP does not copy the structures same as source to destination. where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. 55. Use sp_renamedb to rename database. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column. What command do we use to rename a db? sp_renamedb “oldname” . 54. 56. Use sp_dboptions to bring database to multi user mode. What is BCP? BulkCopy is a tool used to copy huge amount of data from tables and views. What is the difference between Function and Stored Procedure? UDF can be used in the SQL statements anywhere in the WHERE / HAVING / SELECT section where as Stored procedures cannot be. “newname” If someone is using db it will not accept sp_renmaedb.

58. 61. What are stored-procedures? And what are the advantages of using them? Stored procedures are database perform a user defined objects operation. What is OLTP? Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) relational databases are optimal for managing changing data. A stored procedure executes the SQL commands and returns the result to the client. application programs and queries submitted to the system. A that stored procedure can have a set of compound SQL statements. updated. The size of a Cartesian product result set is the number of rows in the first table multiplied by the number of rows in the second table. update. What is database Trigger? A database trigger is a PL/SQL block that can defined to automatically execute for insert. The trigger can e defined to execute once for the entire statement or once for every row that is inserted. or deleted. Stored procedures are used to reduce network traffic. What is Cross Join? A cross join that does not have a WHERE clause produces the Cartesian product of the tables involved in the join. What is Storage Manager? It is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in database.57. 60. When several users are performing . 59. and delete statements against a table.

What is a deadlock? Two processes wating to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises. and its primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity. What is Storage Manager? It is a program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in database. then it is said to be Weak Entity set. It has no cross-file capabilities but is user-friendly and provides userinterface management. What is Weak Entity set? An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key. It . What do you mean by flat file database? It is a database in which there are no programs or user access languages. 64.transactions at the same time. application programs and queries submitted to the system. Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently. 62. 63. 67. 65. OLTP databases are designed to let transactional applications write only the data needed to handle a single transaction as quickly as possible. 66. What is Index? An index is a physical structure containing pointers to the data. What is DDL (Data Definition Language)? A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called DDL.

HAVING behaves like a WHERE clause. 69. the leaf nodes contain index rows. What is the difference between a HAVING CLAUSE and a WHERE CLAUSE? HAVING can be used only with the SELECT statement. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages. What is the difference between clustered and a non-clustered index? A Clustered index is a special type of index that reorders the way records in the table are physically stored. When GROUP BY is not used. 70. WHERE Clause is applied to each row before they are part of the GROUP BY function in a query.is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table. Therefore table can have only one clustered index. and each index is given a name. Instead. The leaf node of a nonclustered index does not consist of the data pages. A Nonclustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. What is log shipping? Log shipping is the process of automating the backup of database and transaction log files on a . Having Clause is basically used only with the GROUP BY function in a query. 68. HAVING is typically used in a GROUP BY clause.

log file In from log shipping one server the is automatically updated into the backup database on the other server. as long as the joined tables are the same. A table can have only one Primary key. What is an Integrity Constrains? An integrity constraint is a declarative way to . A self join is rather unique in that it involves a relationship with only one table. 72. The check constraints are used to enforce domain integrity.production SQL server. 96. 73. 71. Foreign keys are both a method of ensuring data integrity and a manifestation of the relationship between tables. Enterprise Editions only supports log transactional shipping. Due to their importance in relational databases. What is Self Join? A self join can be of any type. They must contain unique values and cannot be null. What are primary keys and foreign keys? Primary keys are the unique identifiers for each row. Primary keys are the most fundamental of all keys and constraints. and then restoring them onto a standby server. What are check constraint? A Check constraint is used to limit the values that can be placed in a column. What are the type of Synonyms? There are two types of Synonyms are : Private Public 74.

Table data is stored in rows and columns. The all SQL changes statements made by in the the SQL statements of a transaction become visible to other user sessions transactions that start only after transaction is committed. 77. What is the difference between normalization and denormalization? Normalizing data means eliminating redundant . What is a Database instance? A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files. 81. What does COMMIT do? A Commit makes permanent the changes resulting from transaction. What is Table? A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE database. sequence or program unit. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. view. 78. 80. 82. What is Rollback Segment? A Database contains one or more Rollback Segments to temporarily store "undo" information. What is SQLPlus? SQLPlus is an application that recognizes & executes SQL commands & specialized SQL*Plus commands that can customize reports. 75.define a business rule for a column of a table. 76. 79. What is a synonym? A synonym is an alias for a table. What are Roles? Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles. provide help & edit facility & maintain system variables.

The main benefit of denormalization is improved performance with simplified data retrieval and manipulation. Denormalization means allowing redundancy in a table. update or delete). insert. as the check constraints. 84. What is a trigger? Triggers are stored procedures created in order to enforce integrity rules in a database. Triggers are executed automatically on occurance of one of the data-modification operations. Dynamic SQL the program must dynamically allocate memory to receive the query results. The not null constraints are used to enforce domain integrity. What is UNIQUE KEY constraint? A UNIQUE constraint enforces the uniqueness of the values in a set of columns. The unique key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity as the primary key constraints. What is the difference between static and dynamic SQL? Static SQL is hard-coded in a program when the programmer knows the statements to be executed. .e. 83.information from a table and organizing the data so that future changes to the table are easier.. 85. so no duplicate values are entered. A trigger is executed every time a data-modification operation occurs (i. What is NOT NULL Constraint? A NOT NULL constraint enforces that the column will not accept null values. 86.

91. What are types of sub-queries? Single-row subquery. What is meant by query optimization? The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization. where the subquery . 89. There are five types of Constraint namely Null / Not Null Primary Key Unique Check or Validation Foreign Key or References Key 92. What is meant by embedded SQL? They are SQL statements that are embedded with in application program and are prepared during the program preparation process before the program is executed. which manages the allocation of space on disk storage and data structure used to represent information stored on a disk. What is File Manager? It is a program module. 90. Define Constraints? Constraints is a rule or restriction concerning a piece of data that is enforced at the data level. Define transaction? A collection of operations that fom a single logical unit of works are called transaction. A Constraint clause can constrain a single column or group of columns in a table.87. 88.

94. where the subquery returns multiple rows. where the subquery returns multiple columns. 93. What is SQL Profiler? SQL Profiler is a graphical tool that allows system administrators to monitor events in an instance of Microsoft SQL Server. 97. When used properly. Multiple-row subquery. which have one or more column in common among them. Multiple column subquery. What is data integrity? Data integrity is an important feature in SQL Server. it ensures that data is accurate. What is De-normalization? De-normalization is the process of attempting to . It also acts as a trap for otherwise undetectable bugs within applications.returns only one row. correct. Define Clusters? Clustering is a method of storing tables that are intimately related and often joined together into the same area on disk. 96. Define Indexes? Index is a general term for an Oracle/SQL features used to primarily to speed execution and imposes uniqueness upon certain data. The most important of an index is to ensure uniqueness of rows and help in speedy retrieval of data. and valid. You can capture and save data about each event to a file or SQL Server table to analyze later. 95. A cluster contains one or more tables.

101. A synonym is a name assigned to a table or view that may thereafter be used to refer to it. Define Synonym? Synonym is an alternative method to creating a view that includes the entire table or view from another user it to create a synonym. What is referential integrity? Referential integrity refers to the consistency that must be maintained between primary and foreign keys. Whereas the unique key column will accept a null values. 102. What is the difference between static and dynamic SQL? Static SQL is hard-coded in a program when the programmer knows the statements to be executed. every foreign key value must have a corresponding primary key value. De-normalization is a technique to move from higher to lower normal forms of database modeling in order to speed up database access. It is similar to primary key. For dynamic SQL the program must dynamically allocate memory to receive the query results.optimize the performance of a database by adding redundant data. 98. What is an Data Abtration? A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the . Define Unique Key? Unique key is a one or more column that must be unique for each row of the table. i.e. Primary key column will not accept a null. 100. 99.

There are three levels of data abstraction Physical level Logical level View level 103. See CREATE DEFUALT in books online. What is Transaction Manager? It is a program module. Inline Table-Valued and Multi-statement Table-valued. . 104. remains in a consistent state despite system failures and concurrent transaction execution proceeds without conflicting. if no value is supplied to that column while inserting data. DBMS QUESTION 1: What is database? ANSWER: A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. What kind of User-Defined Functions can be created? There are three types of User-Defined functions in SQL Server 2000 and they are Scalar. which ensures that database.data. What are defaults? Is there a column to which a default can't be bound? A default is a value that will be used by a column. IDENTITY columns and timestamp columns can't have defaults bound to them. 105.

? Enforcing integrity constraints. ? Data isolation. ? Providing backup and recovery. QUESTION 4: Disadvantage in File Processing System? ANSWER: ? Data redundancy & inconsistency. ? Security Problems. QUESTION 2: What is DBMS? ANSWER: ? Redundancy is controlled. QUESTION 5: Describe the three levels of data abstraction? . built and populated with data for a specific purpose. QUESTION 3: What is a Database system? ANSWER: The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system. ? Data integrity.representing some aspect of real world and which is designed. ? Providing multiple user interfaces. ? Unauthorized access is restricted. ? Difficult in accessing data. ? Concurrent access is not possible. .

structure of table and the constraints laid on it.ANSWER: The are three levels of abstraction: ? Physical level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how data are stored. QUESTION 6: Define the "integrity rules" ANSWER: There are two Integrity rules. Intension – It is a constant value that gives the name. QUESTION 8: What is System R? What are its two major subsystems? . ? View level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of entire database. QUESTION 7: What is extension and intension? ANSWER: Extension -It is the number of tuples present in a table at any instance. This is time dependent. ? Entity Integrity: States that ?Primary key cannot have NULL value? ? Referential Integrity: States that ?Foreign Key can be either a NULL value or should be Primary Key value of other relation. ? Logical level: The next higher level of abstraction. describes what data are stored in database and what relationship among those data.

QUESTION 10: How is the data structure of System R different from the relational structure? ANSWER: Unlike Relational systems in System R ? Domains are not supported ? Enforcement of candidate key uniqueness is optional ? Enforcement of entity integrity is optional ? Referential integrity is not enforced QUESTION 11: What is Data Independence? ANSWER: Data independence means that ?the application is independent of the storage structure . It is a prototype and its purpose was to demonstrate that it is possible to build a Relational System that can be used in a real life environment to solve real life problems. with performance at least comparable to that of existing system. Its two subsystems are ? Research Storage ? System Relational Data System.ANSWER: System R was designed and developed over a period of 1974-79 at IBM San Jose Research Center .

In other words. Thus the view can insulate users from the effects of restructuring and growth in the database. In other words. The ability to modify the schema definition in one level should not affect the schema definition in the next higher level. NOTE: Logical Data Independence is more difficult to achieve QUESTION 12: What is a view? How it is related to data independence? ANSWER: A view may be thought of as a virtual table. . Hence accounts for logical data independence.and access strategy of data?. that is. data relationships data semantics and constraints. QUESTION 13: What is Data Model? ANSWER: A collection of conceptual tools for describing data. Two types of Data Independence: ? Physical Data Independence : Modification in physical level should not affect the logical level. Growth and restructuring of base tables is not reflected in views. a table that does not really exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more underlying base table. QUESTION 14: What is E-R model? . there is no stored file that direct represents the view instead a definition of view is stored in data dictionary. ? Logical Data Independence : Modification in logical level should affect the view level.

QUESTION 18: What is an Entity set? ANSWER: It is a collection of all entities of particular entity type in the database. QUESTION 17: What is an Entity type? ANSWER: It is a collection (set) of entities that have same attributes. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into classes. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. QUESTION 16: What is an Entity? ANSWER: It is a ‘thing’ in the real world with an independent existence.ANSWER: This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of relationship among these objects. An object contains values stored in instance variables with in the object. QUESTION 19: What is an Extension of entity type? . These bodies of code are called methods. QUESTION 15: What is Object Oriented model? ANSWER: This model is based on collection of objects.

QUESTION 23: What is degree of a Relation? ANSWER: It is the number of attribute of its relation schema. vn). A2. which describes the entity.v2. ?. QUESTION 21: What is an attribute? ANSWER: It is a particular property. and its primary key compromises of its partial key and primary key of its parent entity. An) is made up of the relation name R and the list of attributes Ai that it contains. t2. …. tn). QUESTION 20: What is Weak Entity set? ANSWER: An entity set may not have sufficient attributes to form a primary key. Each tuple is an ordered list of nvalues t=(v1. t3. …. A relation is defined as a set of tuples.ANSWER: The collections of entities of a particular entity type are grouped together into an entity set. QUESTION 22: What is a Relation Schema and a Relation? ANSWER: A relation Schema denoted by R(A1. then it is said to be Weak Entity set. . Let r be the relation which contains set tuples (t1.

QUESTION 28: What is Data Storage – Definition Language? ANSWER: The storage structures and access methods used by database system are specified by a set of definition in a special type of DDL called data storage-definition language. QUESTION 25: What is Relationship set? ANSWER: The collection (or set) of similar relationships. QUESTION 27: What is degree of Relationship type? ANSWER: It is the number of entity type participating.QUESTION 24: What is Relationship? ANSWER: It is an association among two or more entities. QUESTION 26: What is Relationship type? ANSWER: Relationship type defines a set of associations or a relationship set among a given set of entity types. QUESTION 29: What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)? .

QUESTION 30: What is VDL (View Definition Language)? ANSWER: It specifies user views and their mappings to the conceptual schema.ANSWER: This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by appropriate data model. ? Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data. QUESTION 32: What is Query evaluation engine? ANSWER: It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler. . ? Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without specifying how to get those data. QUESTION 31: What is DML Compiler? ANSWER: It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query evaluation engine can understand. QUESTION 33: What is DDL Interpreter? ANSWER: It interprets DDL statements and record them in tables containing metadata.

Codd. of languages based on it are DSL ALPHA. QUESTION 38: How does Tuple-oriented relational calculus differ from domain-oriented relational calculus . This retrieve of a record is said to be Record-at-a-time.F. This retrieve of a record is said to be Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented.QUESTION 34: What is Record-at-a-time? ANSWER: The Low level or Procedural DML can specify and retrieve each record from a set of records. E. QUESTION 37: What is Relational Calculus? ANSWER: It is an applied predicate calculus specifically tailored for relational databases proposed by E. QUESTION 36: What is Relational Algebra? ANSWER: It is procedural query language. QUESTION 35: What is Set-at-a-time or Set-oriented? ANSWER: The High level or Non-procedural DML can specify and retrieve many records in a single DML statement.g. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produce a new relation. QUEL.

.g.. E. This means the value of X component of a tuple uniquely determines the value of component Y.g. QUESTION 39: What is normalization? ANSWER: It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties ? Minimizing redundancy ? Minimizing insertion. variable whose only permitted values are tuples of that relation. QUESTION 40: What is Functional Dependency? ANSWER: A Functional dependency is denoted by X Y between two sets of attributes X and Y that are subsets of R specifies a constraint on the possible tuple that can form a relation state r of R. deletion and update anomalies.ANSWER: The tuple-oriented calculus uses a tuple variables i.e.e. QUEL The domain-oriented calculus has domain variables i. DEDUCE. E. The constraint is for any two tuples t1 and t2 in r if t1[X] = t2[X] then they have t1[Y] = t2[Y]. variables that range over the underlying domains instead of over relation. QUESTION 41: When is a functional dependency F said to be minimal? . ILL.

where X and Y are both subsets of R.ANSWER: ? Every dependency in F has a single attribute for its right hand side. ? We cannot remove any dependency from F and still have set of dependency that is equivalent to F. QUESTION 42: What is Multivalued dependency? ANSWER: Multivalued dependency denoted by X Y specified on relation schema R. ? We cannot replace any dependency X A in F with a dependency Y A where Y is a proper subset of X and still have a set of dependency that is equivalent to F. specifies the following constraint on any relation r of R: if two tuples t1 and t2 exist in r such that t1[X] = t2[X] then t3 and t4 should also exist in r with the following properties ? t3[x] = t4[X] = t1[X] = t2[X] ? t3[Y] = t1[Y] and t4[Y] = t2[Y] ? t3[Z] = t2[Z] and t4[Z] = t1[Z] where [Z = (R-(X U Y)) ] QUESTION 43: What is Lossless join property? ANSWER: It guarantees that the spurious tuple generation does not occur with respect to relation schemas after decomposition. .

In other words. if every non prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key. A functional dependency X Y is full functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more. QUESTION 45: What is Fully Functional dependency? ANSWER: It is based on concept of full functional dependency.QUESTION 44: What is 1 NF (Normal Form)? ANSWER: The domain of attribute must include only atomic (simple. . QUESTION 47: What is 3NF? ANSWER: A relation schema R is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and for every FD X A either of the following is true ? X is a Super-key of R. ? A is a prime attribute of R. QUESTION 46: What is 2NF? ANSWER: A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key. indivisible) values.

Rn} that holds R. R2.QUESTION 48: What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)? ANSWER: A relation schema R is in BCNF if it is in 3NF and satisfies an additional constraint that for every FD X A. QUESTION 49: What is 4NF? ANSWER: A relation schema R is said to be in 4NF if for every Multivalued dependency X Y that holds over R. OPERATING SYSTEM . ? The join dependency is implied by the set of FD. QUESTION 50: What is 5NF? ANSWER: A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1. …. ? X is a super key. one the following is true ? Ri = R for some i. one of following is true ? X is subset or equal to (or) XY = R. over R in which the left side is key of R. X must be a candidate key.

7) Describe the objective of multiprogramming. CPU utilization is said to be maximized. 9) What is SMP? . overall reliability is increased as well. It connects applications to the actual processing of data. 2) What is demand paging? Demand paging is a system wherein area of memory that are not currently being used are swapped to disk to make room for an application’s need. 6) What is virtual memory? Virtual memory is a memory management technique for letting processes execute outside of memory. Another is that it provides an environment for the development and execution of programs. This process happens so fast that users can actually interact with each program while it is running. 8 ) What are time sharing systems? In a Time sharing system. One is that it is designed to make sure a computer system performs well by managing its computational activities. Finally.1) Explain the main purpose of an operating system? Operating systems exist for two main purposes. It also manages all communications between software and hardware components to ensure usability and reliability. also known as multitasking. It can also save more money because they can share resources. With this design. the CPU executes multiple jobs by switching among them. The main objective of multiprogramming is to have process running at all times. 3) What are the advantages of a multiprocessor system? With an increased number of processors. 5) What are real-time systems? Real-time systems are used when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation of a processor. This is very useful especially is an executing program cannot fit in the physical memory. there is considerable increase in throughput. 4) What is kernel? Kernel is the core of every operating system. It has well defined and fixed time constraints.

program counter. and is the most common type of multipleprocessor systems. each processor runs an identical copy of the operating system. allocating CPU to each process for a time interval of up to around 10 to 100 milliseconds. 13) Give some benefits of multithreaded programming. 11) What is asymmetric clustering? In asymmetric clustering. In the first case. a thread is composed of a thread ID. provisions are available for clients to create. 12) What is a thread? A thread is a basic unit of CPU utilization. first-served. In the second case. Implementation is managed by a FIFO queue. access and update files. the process that requests the CPU first is allocated the CPU first. 15) What is RR scheduling algorithm? RR (round-robin) scheduling algorithm is primarily aimed for time-sharing systems. 10) How are server systems classified? Server systems can be classified as either computer-server systems or file server systems. a machine is in a state known as hot standby mode where it does nothing but to monitor the active server. In this system. register set and the stack.utilization of multiprocessing architecture 14) Briefly explain FCFS. FCFS is short for First-come. 16) What necessary conditions can lead to a deadlock situation in a system? . - there is an resource increased sharing - responsiveness within to the the user process economy . A circular queue is setup in such a way that the CPU scheduler goes around that queue. an interface is made available for clients to send requests to perform an action.SMP is short for Symmetric MultiProcessing. That machine takes the active server’s role should the server fails. and these copies communicate with one another as needed. and is one type of scheduling algorithm. In this scheme. In general.

RAID 0 RAID RAID 1 2 RAID – striping Mirrored Disks error-correcting codes Memory-style – 4 5 Non-redundant – 3 RAID RAID – – – Bit-interleaved Block-interleaved Block-interleaved distributed Parity Parity Parity RAID 6 – P+Q Redundancy 18) Describe Banker’s algorithm Bankers Algorithm Banker’s algorithm is one form of deadlock-avoidance in a system. . 19) What factors determine whether a detection-algorithm must be utilized in a deadlock avoidance system? One is that it depends on how often a deadlock is likely to occur under the implementation of this algorithm. 20) Differentiate logical from physical address space.Deadlock situations occur when four conditions occur simultaneously in a system: Mutual exclusion. It gets its name from a banking system wherein the bank never allocates available cash in such a way that it can no longer satisfy the needs of all of its customers. No preemption. The other has to do with how many processes will be affected by deadlock when this algorithm is applied. 17) Enumerate the different RAID levels. and Circular wait. Hold and Wait.

Waiting – means a process is waiting for certain conditions or events to occur . - New Running State – – means means a process instructions is are being being created executed .Ready – means a process is waiting for an instruction from the main processor . It can be internal if we are dealing with systems that have fixed-sized allocation units. The basic idea of this is that only instructions and data that are needed at any given time are kept in memory. 22) What are overlays? Overlays are used to enable a process to be larger than the amount of memory allocated to it. physical address refers to the address that is seen by the memory unit. and then copied back later. 21) How does dynamic loading aid in better memory space utilization? With dynamic loading. Each endpoint of a communication is a socket. or external if we are dealing with systems that have variable-sized allocation units. processes can be copied from main memory to a backing store.Logical address refers to the address that is generated by the CPU I thinks . . 24) What is fragmentation? Fragmentation is memory wasted. 26) Give an example of a Process State. 25) How does swapping result in better memory management? During regular intervals that are set by the operating system. a routine is not loaded until it is called. On the other hand. This method is especially useful when large amounts of code are needed in order to handle infrequently occurring cases such as error routines.Terminate – means a process is done executing 27) What is a socket? A socket provides a connection between two applications. Swapping allows more processes to be run that can fit into memory at one time. 23) What is the basic function of paging? Paging is a memory management scheme that permits the physical-address space of a process to be noncontiguous. It avoids the considerable problem of having to fit varied sized memory chunks onto the backing store.

such that it is viewed as a numbered sequence of blocks or records.28) What is Direct Access Method? Direct Access method is based on a disk model of a file. It is also based on a filerepresentation structure known as vnode. There are different factors to consider in order to come up with a suitable page size. size. and level of protection. such as page table. which contains a numerical designator needed to support network file systems. Direct access is advantageous when accessing large amounts of information. supported file types. 33) What are device drivers? Device drivers provides a standard means of representing I/O devices that maybe manufactured by different companies. It also contains other potentially important system files that are mounted during boot time. so there is no single best when it comes to page size. This happens when it is spending more time paging instead of executing. 35) What are the different types of CPU registers in a typical operating system design? . 29) When does trashing occur? Trashing refers to an instance of high paging activity. 30) What is the best page size when designing an operating system? The best paging size varies from system to system. what attributes are considered? Typically. the different attributes for a file structure are naming. or Virtual File System. identifier. 34) What are the primary functions of VFS? VFS. and location for the files. 31) When designing the file structure for an operating system. 32) What is root partition? Root partition is where the operating system kernel is located. It allows arbitrary blocks to be read or written. paging time. This prevents conflicts whenever such devices are incorporated in a systems unit. separates file system generic operations from their implementation by defining a clean VFS interface. and its effect on the overall efficiency of the operating system.

only one application is active at a time for user interaction. When different applications want to send an output to the printer at the same time. It also shows which files are opened. 37) What is multitasking? Multitasking is the process within an operating system that allows the user to run several applications at the same time. This is a downside for people who are not fond of memorizing commands. 40) What is spooling? Spooling is normally associated with printing. including the switches and parameters that come with it.- Accumulators Index Stack Registers Pointer .General Purpose Registers 36) What is the purpose of an I/O status information? I/O status information provides info about which I/O devices are to be allocated for a particular process. However. 39) What is caching? Caching is the processing of utilizing a region of fast memory for a limited data and process. spooling takes all of these print jobs into a disk file and queues them accordingly to the printer. Assembly codes. 38) What are some pros and cons of a command line interface? A command line interface allows the user to type in commands that can immediately provide results. The main problem with a command line interface is that users have to be familiar with the commands. and other I/O device state. although some applications can run “behind the scene”. A cache memory is usually much efficient because of its high access speed. Many seasoned computer users are well accustomed to using the command line because they find it quicker and simpler. written using mnemonic commands are translated by the Assembler into machine language. 41) What is an Assembler? An assembler acts as a translator for low level language. 42) What are interrupts? .

Interrupts are part of a hardware mechanism that sends a notification to the CPU when
it wants to gain access to a particular resource. An interrupt handler receives this
interrupt signal and “tells” the processor to take action based on the interrupt request.
43) What is GUI?
GUI is short for Graphical User Interface. It provides users with an interface wherein
actions can be performed by interacting with icons and graphical symbols. People find it
easier to interact with the computer when in a GUI especially when using the mouse.
Instead of having to remember and type commands, users just click on buttons to
perform a process.
44) What is preemptive multitasking?
Preemptive multitasking allows an operating system to switch between software
programs. This in turn allows multiple programs to run without necessarily taking
complete control over the processor and resulting in system crashes.
45) Why is partitioning and formatting a prerequisite to installing an operating
system?
Partitioning and formatting creates a preparatory environment on the drive so that the
operating system can be copied and installed properly. This includes allocating space
on the drive, designating a drive name, determining and creating the appropriate file
system structure.
46) What is plumbing / piping?
It is the process of using the output of one program as an input to another. For example,
instead of sending the listing of a folder or drive to the main screen, it can be piped and
sent to a file, or sent to the printer to produce a hard copy.
47) What is NOS?
NOS is short for Network Operating System. It is a specialized software that will allow a
computer to communicate with other devices over the network, including file/folder
sharing.
48) Differentiate internal commands from external commands.
Internal commands are built-in commands that are already part of the operating system.
External commands are separate file programs that are stored in a separate folder or
directory.

49) Under DOS, what command will you type when you want to list down the files
in a directory, and at the same time pause after every screen output?
a)

dir

/w

b)

dir

/p

c)

dir

/s

d) dir /w /p
Answer: d) dir /w /p
50) How would a filenamed EXAMPLEFILE.TXT appear when viewed under the
DOS command console operating in Windows 98?
The filename would appear as EXAMPL~1.TXT . The reason behind this is that
filenames under this operating system is limited to 8 characters when working under
DOS environment.

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
1. Define software engineering?
According to IEEE, Software engineering is the
application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable
approach

to

the

development,

operation

and

maintenance of sofware.
2. What are the categories of software?
System software
Application software
Embedded software
Web Applications
Artificial Intelligence software
Scientific software.
3. Define testing?
Testing is a process of executing a program with
the intent of finding of an error.
4. What is white box testing?

White box testing is a test case design method that
uses the control structure of the procedural design
to

derive

test

cases.

It

is

otherwise

called

as structural testing.
5. What is Black box testing?
Black box testing is a test case design method that
focuses on the functional requirements of the
software.

It is otherwise called as functional

testing.
6. What is verification and validation?
Verification refers to the set of activities that
ensure

that

software

correctly

implements

specific

a

function.

Validation refers to the set of activities that
ensure that the software that has been built is
traceable to customer requirements.
7. What is debugging?
Debugging is the process that results in the
removal of error. It occurs as a consequence of
successful testing.
8. Define cyclomatic complexity?
Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric that
provides a quantitative measuer of the logical
complexity of a program.
9. What is error tracking?
Error tracking is an activity that provides a means
for assessing the status of a current project.
10. What are case tools?
Computer Aided Software Engineering - CASE tools
assist

software

engineering

managers

and

practitioners in evey activity associated with the
software

process.

They

automate

project

design. 12345678910 11. 12. What are the different types of coupling? There are different types of coupling are Data coupling Stamp coupling Control coupling . 13. the relative interdependence among modules.management activities manage all work products produced throughout the process and assist the engineers in their analysis. coding and test work. Define cohension and coupling? Cohension is a measure of the relative functional strength Coupling is of a measure a of module. What is data design? Data design transforms the information domain model created during analysis into the data structures that will be required to implement the software. What are the different types of cohension? There are different types of cohension are Coincidental cohension Logical cohension Temporal cohension Procedural cohension Communicational cohension 14.

20. and resources that produce an intended output of some kind is known as process. What is meant by specification? A specification can be a written document. 19. 16. a formal mathematical model. constraints. What is winwin spiral model? Winwin spiral model defines a set of negotiation activities at the beginning of each pass around the spiral. a prototype or any combination of these. It also has an emphasis on the use of risk management techniques. Mention the various views in system engineering hierarchy? The various views in system engineering hierarchy from top to bottom in order are . a graphical model. How spiral model works? The spiral model is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the waterfall lifecycle model. 18.External coupling Common coupling Content coupling 15. a collection of usage scenarios. Define process? A series of steps involving activities. What is user interface design? User interface design creates an effective communication medium between a human and a computer. The best negotiations strive for a win-win result. 17.

What are data aquistion systems? Systems that collects data from sensors for subsequent processing and analysis are termed as Data acquistion systems. organizing. 25. 22. as per the needs. 23. 24. It is an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process. Data collection process and processing processes may have different periods and deadlines. All these activities are carried out in different ways. Define software configuration model? SCM is the art of identifying. What is software requirements definition? A software requirements definition is an abstract description of the services which the system should provide and the constraints under which the system must operate. Each way is known as a Software Development Lifecycle Model (SDLC).World view Domain view Element view Detailed view 21. and controlling modifications to the software being built by a programming team. What is SDLC ? A software cycle deals with various parts and phases from planning to testing and deploying. What are the SCM activities? SCM activities are developed to Identify change .

29. nested loops.Control change Ensure that change is being properly implemented Report changes to others who may have an interest. 26. 30. This technique can be applied to simple loops. What is meant by loop testing? Loop testing is a white box testing techniques that focuses exclusively on the validity of loop constructs. Disadvantages : Doesn’t ensure that user requirements are met. concatenated loops and unstructured loops. What is alpha and beta tests? Alpha test is the test that is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer. Beta test is the test that is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of the software. 28. It verifies whether the . What is meant by system testing? System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer based system. Its test may not mimic real world situations. 27. What is meant by smoke testing? Smoke testing is an integration testing approach that is commonly used ehen “shrink wrapped ” software products are being developed. What are the advantages and disadvantages of white box testing? Advantages Software’s structure : logic can be tested.

It involves changing a system so that it operates in a different environment from its initial . What is adaptive maintenance? Adaptive maintanence is the maintenance to adapt software to a different operating environment. 31. 33.system elements have been properly integrated and perform the allocated functions. Mention the categories of approaches? There are three categories debugging of debugging approaches as follows : Brute force Back tracking Cause elimination 32. Mention some of the appropriate for the process software models to be engineered? Linear sequential or waterfall model Prototyping model Rad model Incremental model Spiral model Winwin spiral model Component based development model 34. componen. or process possesses a given attribute. Define metric? IEEE93 defines as a quantitative measure of the degree to which a system.

What is test scenario ? Test scenario is the hypothetical story to test the particular functionality of an application. What are the advantages and disadvantages of black box testing? Advantages: Simulates makes no actual system system structure usage. 40. 36. try out design options and generally to find out more . Define an analysis model? An analysis model is a set of models that serves as the technical representation of system. For test scenario we need use case.implementation. What are the broad categories of system requirements? System requirements may be either functional or non-functional requirements. 37. 39. Disadvantages : Potential of missing logical errors in software. 35. Possibility of redundant testing. What are user requirements? User requirements should describe functional and non-functional requirements so that they are understandable by system users who don’t have detailed technical knowledge. It serves as an input to functional testing. Define prototype? Prototype is an initial version of a software system which is used to demonstrate concepts. tables and diagrams. assumptions. 38. User requirements are defined using natural language.

what is transform mapping? Transform mapping is a set of design steps that allows a DFD with transform flow charactersistics to be mapped into a specific architectural style. What is tracebility matrix? Traceability matrix is a document in which we map the test cases with the requirements. List the metrics for specifying non functional requirements? The possible metrics that specify the non- functional requirements are : Speed Size Easy of use Reliability 46. 43. What is system image? The system image combines the outward manifestation of the computer based system. coupled with all supporting information that describes system syntax and semantics. 45. 42. 41. 44. In general we check whether the application works as per requirements or whether we had covered all the required functionality through test cases. What is the difference between black box testing and white box testing? Black box testing : No knowledge of the internal logic of the .about the problem and its possible solutions. What is the function of the user model? The user model establishes the profile of end users of the system.

integration testing. acceptance testing. 47. Applied during later stages of testing. Uses verification techniques Performed early in the testing process. Mention the various types of maintenance? The various types of maintenance are : Corrective maintenance Adaptive maintenance Perfective maintenance Preventive maintenance 48. .are involves in system specification architectural design intergration and deployment. White box testing : Knowledge of the internal logic of the system is used to develop test cases. software and process engineering.is concerned with all aspects of computer based systems development including hardware. System Engineering .system is used to develop test cases. Examples include unit testing. What is the difference between software engineering and system engineering? System Engineering . system testing. Uses validation techniques.