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Logic Design and Switching

Boolean
Function
a Boolean expression that have binary variables
and operators plus a binary variable as an
output
F = X + YZ
Output variable
Input variables

is evaluated by determining the binary value of


the expression for all possible combinations of
the binary input variables

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
Page 1 of 12

Logic Design and Switching

Boolean
Function
Example 1:
Theorem 6b is a form of absorption where the
Boolean function F is F = X(X+Y) and is
equivalent to F = X. More precisely, the
expression holds

X(X+Y)=X
Prove the expression above and illustrate the
different ways of writing down F in algebraic
form. How many ways can we represent F
using a truth table?
Solution:
F=X(X+Y)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6

F=XX+XYDistributive
Property(Postulate 5b)
F=X+XY
Theorem 1b
F=X(1)+XY
Identity
F=X(1+Y) Distributive Property
F=X1)
Theorem 2a
F=X
Identity

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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Logic Design and Switching

Boolean
Function
Truth Table for F = X(X+Y)

Truth Table for F = X+XY

Hence,

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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Logic Design and Switching

Standard
Canonical Forms
enable the process of simplification of Boolean
expressions digital logic circuits
contain product and sum terms which imply the
logical operations AND and OR, respectively

Product terms
ANDed literals (ABCDE, XYZ)
Sum terms
ORed literals (A+B+C+D+E, X+Y+Z)

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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Logic Design and Switching

Minterms
Minterm or Standard Product
represents the least combination of the input
variables for each output state in a truth table
there are 2N minterms for N input variables
corresponding to each combination of input
variables in a truth table
Example:
input variables: X, Y
22 = 4 minterms: XY, XY, XY, and XY
Minterms for Two Variables

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
Page 5 of 12

Logic Design and Switching

Maxterms
use only sum terms that contain all the input
variables in either normal or complemented
form
the symbol for a maxterm: Mj where j is the
decimal value of its logical combination
The maxterms and minterms
with the same subscripts
are just the complements of each other.
M3 = X + Y = XY = m3
Maxterms for Two Variables

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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Logic Design and Switching

Canonical
Terms
any Boolean function F may be expressed as
either a sum of minterms or a product of
maxterms

a sum of minterms for which the function is 1:


F = XY + XY = m1 + m2

a product of maxterms for which the function is


equal to 0:
F = (X + Y) X + Y = M0 M3
the abbreviation of the expressions above:
F = S m(1,2) = P M(0,3)
and

F = S m(0,3) = P M(1,2)

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
Page 7 of 12

Logic Design and Switching

Canonical
Terms
Example 2:
Obtain the value of the function:
F = S m(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Solution:
Minterms and Maxterms of Three Variables

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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Logic Design and Switching

Canonical
Terms
Solution (cont.):
a function that includes all its minterms will
always lead to a value of 1
F = S m(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7) = 1
the product term that includes all maxterms will
always be equal to 0
F = P M(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7) = 0

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
Page 9 of 12

Logic Design and Switching

Canonical
Terms
Example 3:
Obtain the sum of minterms expression and the
product of maxterms expression of the threevariable function
F = X + XZ + YZ
Solution:

minterms of the function


F = S m(1,2,3,4,5,6,7)
complement: F = S m(0,2)
product of maxterms
F = P M(0,2)

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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Logic Design and Switching

Standard
Forms
sum of products and the product of sums
Example:
Consider the Boolean function expressed as a
sum of products

F = B + ABC + AB

Logic Diagram for the F Sum of Products

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
Page 11 of 12

Logic Design and Switching

Standard
Forms
Example:
Consider the Boolean function expressed as the
product of sums
F = B(A + B + C)(A + B)

Logic Diagram for the F Product of Sums

Combinational Logic (Part 1)

* Property of STI
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