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MELJUN CORTES HANDOUTS_Combinational Logic (Part 1)

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Boolean

Function

a Boolean expression that have binary variables

and operators plus a binary variable as an

output

F = X + YZ

Output variable

Input variables

the expression for all possible combinations of

the binary input variables

* Property of STI

Page 1 of 12

Boolean

Function

Example 1:

Theorem 6b is a form of absorption where the

Boolean function F is F = X(X+Y) and is

equivalent to F = X. More precisely, the

expression holds

X(X+Y)=X

Prove the expression above and illustrate the

different ways of writing down F in algebraic

form. How many ways can we represent F

using a truth table?

Solution:

F=X(X+Y)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

F=XX+XYDistributive

Property(Postulate 5b)

F=X+XY

Theorem 1b

F=X(1)+XY

Identity

F=X(1+Y) Distributive Property

F=X1)

Theorem 2a

F=X

Identity

* Property of STI

Page 2 of 12

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Boolean

Function

Truth Table for F = X(X+Y)

Hence,

* Property of STI

Page 3 of 12

Standard

Canonical Forms

enable the process of simplification of Boolean

expressions digital logic circuits

contain product and sum terms which imply the

logical operations AND and OR, respectively

Product terms

ANDed literals (ABCDE, XYZ)

Sum terms

ORed literals (A+B+C+D+E, X+Y+Z)

* Property of STI

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Minterms

Minterm or Standard Product

represents the least combination of the input

variables for each output state in a truth table

there are 2N minterms for N input variables

corresponding to each combination of input

variables in a truth table

Example:

input variables: X, Y

22 = 4 minterms: XY, XY, XY, and XY

Minterms for Two Variables

* Property of STI

Page 5 of 12

Maxterms

use only sum terms that contain all the input

variables in either normal or complemented

form

the symbol for a maxterm: Mj where j is the

decimal value of its logical combination

The maxterms and minterms

with the same subscripts

are just the complements of each other.

M3 = X + Y = XY = m3

Maxterms for Two Variables

* Property of STI

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Canonical

Terms

any Boolean function F may be expressed as

either a sum of minterms or a product of

maxterms

F = XY + XY = m1 + m2

equal to 0:

F = (X + Y) X + Y = M0 M3

the abbreviation of the expressions above:

F = S m(1,2) = P M(0,3)

and

F = S m(0,3) = P M(1,2)

* Property of STI

Page 7 of 12

Canonical

Terms

Example 2:

Obtain the value of the function:

F = S m(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

Solution:

Minterms and Maxterms of Three Variables

* Property of STI

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Canonical

Terms

Solution (cont.):

a function that includes all its minterms will

always lead to a value of 1

F = S m(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7) = 1

the product term that includes all maxterms will

always be equal to 0

F = P M(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7) = 0

* Property of STI

Page 9 of 12

Canonical

Terms

Example 3:

Obtain the sum of minterms expression and the

product of maxterms expression of the threevariable function

F = X + XZ + YZ

Solution:

F = S m(1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

complement: F = S m(0,2)

product of maxterms

F = P M(0,2)

* Property of STI

Page 10 of 12

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Standard

Forms

sum of products and the product of sums

Example:

Consider the Boolean function expressed as a

sum of products

F = B + ABC + AB

* Property of STI

Page 11 of 12

Standard

Forms

Example:

Consider the Boolean function expressed as the

product of sums

F = B(A + B + C)(A + B)

* Property of STI

Page 12 of 12

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