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Mohammad Reza Azadehfar

Rhythmic Structure
in
Iranian Music

Mohammad Reza Azadehfar

Tehran Arts University Press

Second Edition 2011 (first published in 2006)


Published by Tehran Arts University Press
Address: P.O. Box 14155-6434
Tehran, Iran
Tel: +98 21 66725682
Mohammad R. Azadehfar
Printed in Iran by Tehran Arts University Press
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or
other means now known or hereafter invented,
including photographing, and recording, or in any
information storage or retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publishers.
ISBN 964-6218-47-4 (9789646218475)

Introduction to the Second Edition


When the Rhythmic Structure in Iranian Music was first published in
2006, there was little or no discussion on rhythmic issues of Iranian
music among Iranian musicians and scholars in the field of West
Asian music and Iranian music in particular. Fast spreading the
issues raised in this book encouraged the Iranian musicians and
scholars to take this neglected issue of Iranian music on board very
rapidly.
It has been a few years since this book's first edition was released.
Not many developments have occurred in rhythmic structure of
Iranian music ever since. One usually has to wait several years
before a second edition of books like this coming out. In this
instance, though, the second edition is being made only less than
five years after the first edition appeared. This updated, second
edition of Rhythmic Structure in Iranian Music brings together all the
principles, techniques, methods, and theories from issue of rhythm
in Iranian music to provide you with a full, all-encompassing
introduction to Iranian music from the window of rhythm. This
edition also contains some new findings of the author in some 4
years of teaching courses on rhythm to Iranian musicians and
university students in all levels in Tehran. Even though this 2nd
edition does not include numerous new topics, it has been updated
in some issues in content and form. The improving the page layout
including the fonts and design also took place in the new edition.
I am hopeful to improve it further by receiving the valuable
feedbacks of the readers as before.

Contents

INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION .......................... i


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................. ii
CONTENTS .................................................................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................... x
CONTENTS OF THE CDS .......................................................... xxii
MAP OF IRAN .............................................................................xxvi
NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION OF PERSIAN LETTERS ..... xxvii
NOTE ON HISTORICAL PERIODS ......................................... xxxii
NOTE ON MUSIC NOTATION .............................................. xxxiii

OPENING STATEMENT ........................................................... 35


PREVIOUS STUDIES.................................................................................... 35
ABOUT THIS BOOK ................................................................................... 40

iii

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ................................ 47
INTRODUCTION: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS ..................... 47
THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN RHYTHM AND METRE ......... 50
THE IMPACT OF ACCENT IN THE CONFIGURATION AND INTERACTION
OF METRE AND RHYTHM .......................................................................... 61

The awt Khatm ......................................................................................................................... 61


asan bi zahr kosht-i shud, oseyn bi shamshr-i jaf (asan was killed
by poison, oseyn by oppressions sword) .................................................................... 63
PERCEPTION AND THE CONCEPT OF GROUPING................ 65
GROUPING IN LP AND WIDDESSS APPROACH ................................... 71
CONCLUSION ............................................................................... 74

PART ONE
Chapter 1
Rhythmic Structure in Persian Poetry ............................ 70
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................... 70
CATEGORISATION OF POETIC RHYTHMIC SYSTEMS AND
PLACE OF PERSIAN POETRY ...................................................... 78
THEORETICAL ASPECTS IN PERSIAN QUANTITATIVE METRE
......................................................................................................... 79
VOWEL AND CONSONANT ...................................................................... 80
SYLLABLE ................................................................................................... 81
1. Short Syllables ......................................................................................................................... 81
2. Long Syllable ............................................................................................................................ 82
3. Over-long Syllable ................................................................................................................ 82
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4. Extremely Long Syllable................................................................................................... 82


5. Diphthong Vowel ................................................................................................................... 83
STRESS ........................................................................................................ 83
CONTEMPORARY CATEGORISATION OF PERSIAN POEMS. 85
ARZ .............................................................................................. 88

Chapter 2
The Rhythmic Cycles ............................................................ 95
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................... 95
TWO SYSTEMS OF REPRESENTATION AND TRANSCRIPTION
OF RHYTHM IN IRANIAN MUSIC .............................................. 97
ATNN ..................................................................................................... 98
ADWR (CIRCLES/CYCLES) .................................................................... 100
THE DOCUMENTED RHYTHMIC CYCLES ............................. 105
THAQL AWWAL ..................................................................................... 110
THAQL THN ........................................................................................ 112
KHAFF THAQL ...................................................................................... 113
RAMAL ..................................................................................................... 116
THAQL RAMAL ....................................................................................... 118
KHAFF RAMAL ........................................................................................ 120
HAZAJ ...................................................................................................... 122
FKHT .................................................................................................... 123
TURK ...................................................................................................... 126
MOKHAMMAS .......................................................................................... 129
CHAHR ZARB......................................................................................... 131
OTHER CYCLES ....................................................................................... 132
GENERAL DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION........................ 135
v

PART TWO
CHAPTER 3
RHYTHMIC STRUCTURE OF THE RADF
AND IMPROVISATION-BASED MUSIC ................ 143
IMPROVISATION AND THE CONCEPT OF THE RADF .......... 143
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................... 143
THE CONCEPT OF RADF .......................................................................... 148
Dastgh ................................................................................................................................................ 150
The Building Blocks .................................................................................................................... 152
STRUCTURING AN IMPROVISATION ......................................................... 157
Melody Type .................................................................................................................................... 159
Motif ...................................................................................................................................................... 162
Rhythmic Pattern ........................................................................................................................... 164
Dynamic Pattern ............................................................................................................................ 169
Bounded by a Range of Notes ............................................................................................... 171
Bounded by Melodic Shap........................................................................................................ 173
THE RHYTHMIC STRUCTURE OF THE RADF ......................... 175
FIXED METRE ............................................................................................ 175
arb...................................................................................................................................................... 176
Majlis afrz ...................................................................................................................................... 178
Sq-nmeh, Koshteh-mordeh and f-nmeh ......................................................... 180
Gereyli .................................................................................................................................................. 188
Zang-i shotor ................................................................................................................................... 192
Zangleh ............................................................................................................................................. 197
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STRETCHABLE OR ELASTIC METRE .......................................................... 201


Chahr-preh ................................................................................................................................... 201
Kereshmeh .......................................................................................................................................... 205
FREE METRE .............................................................................................. 211
Regularity in Phrasing and Metric Balance ................................................................... 211
Dobeyt ............................................................................................. 212
Irregularity in phrasing ............................................................................................................... 218
Mokhlef ........................................................................................... 218
TARR ........................................................................................... 223
CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................. 235

CHAPTER 4
RHYTHMIC STRUCTURE IN PRE-COMPOSED
GENRES ...................................................................................... 239
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 239
PSHDARMAD .............................................................................. 240
CHAHRMEZRB.......................................................................... 245
Chahrmezrb Homyn ......................................................................................................... 249
Chahrmezrb Bayt Turk ..................................................................................................... 251
TASNF ............................................................................................. 254
RENG ............................................................................................... 265
CONCLUSION ................................................................................ 272

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PART THREE
CHAPTER 5
RHYTHM IN PRACTICE: UTILISING
RHYTHMIC STRUCTURE ON THE TOMBAK 275
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 275
TECHNIQUE OF THE TOMBAK .................................................. 276
BASIC STROKES .......................................................................................... 278
REPRESENTATION AND NOTATION OF STROKES .................................... 282
REPRESENTATION OF FIXED-METRE PIECES ON TOMBAK. 287
TRANSFORMATION OF THE FREE-METRED PIECES INTO
FIXED-METRE PATTERNS............................................................ 289
ADAPTATION OF THE OLD RHYTHMIC CYCLES INTO
CONTEMPORARY TECHNIQUES OF TOMBAK........................ 293
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION .................................................. 299

Chapter 6
RHYTHM IN PRACTICE: A CASE STUDY .......... 301
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 301
A PERFORMANCE BY FARHANG SHARIF AND MOHAMMAD
ISMILI ........................................................................................... 302
CLOSING STATEMENT ................................................................. 321

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Appendix 1
REPRESENTATION AND TRANSCRIPTION
OF RHYTHM IN PERSIAN MUSIC ........................... 331
SABAB, VATAD AND FSELEH ................................................................... 331
AFL.......................................................................................................... 333
DOTS .......................................................................................................... 335
LINES AND DOTS ....................................................................................... 336
ABJAD ......................................................................................................... 337
NUMBERS ................................................................................................... 339
GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS AND TERMS ....................................... 345
SYMBOLS

....................................................................................... 345

TERMS ........................................................................................... 345


BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES ........................................... 357
PEOPLE INDEX .............................................................................. 379

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List of Figures
Map of Iran .................................................................................................................................. xxvi
Figure I.1 Differences between rhythm and metre (London 2001: 278) ....... 53
Figure I.2: Haydn, Piano Sonata No. 61 in D Major, third movement,
mm. 1-15 (Kramer 1988: 87) .................................................................................. 60
Figure I.3: Rhythmic cycle used in a awt khatm (ibid.: 108)............................ 61
Figure I.4: Murwas player and clappers move their body during the
performance based on rhythm, particularly shake the body at the time
point of beginning of cycles. (Photo from Kerbage 1980: 27) ................. 62
Figure I.5: asan bi zahr kosht-i shud, oseyn bi shamshr-i jaf:
religious song of Bushehr, recorded and transcribed by Mohammad
T. Massoudieh and Josef Kuckertz at the Behbahn mosque (1976:
113) ........................................................................................................................................... 64
Figure I.6: Prescribed version of Masnav mokhlef in Dastgh Segh
from the radf of Sab (1980: 20) corrections by Mr. Naimimanesh
(Isfahan conservatory 7 May 1985) ....................................................................... 69
Figure I.7: Transcribed version of the Masnav mokhlef in Dastgh
Segh performed by M. Azadehfar ........................................................................ 70
Figure I.8: Srat Ysuf (The Verses of Joseph), Quran (12/1-5)
presented by Shaikh Abd al-Bset Abd al-Samad (transcription:
Stock 1996b: 41) ............................................................................................................... 71
Figure I.9: Illustration of pulse in the beginning of lp by involving the
performer for transcription and analysis (transcription: Richard
Widdess 1994:67). ........................................................................................................... 73
Figure 1.1: Short vowels ............................................................................................................ 80
Figure 1.2: Long vowels ............................................................................................................ 81
Figure 1.3: Using vertical positioning to show main pattern of melodic
movement (after Dehlavi 2000: 142).................................................................... 84
Figure 1.4: An example of the metric pattern of a Persian classical poem ... 85
x

Figure 1.5: An example of the metric pattern in a Nim poem ...................... 86


Figure 1.6: An example of the metric pattern in a Sepd poem ......................... 87
Figure 1.7: Bur of Arz .................................................................................................... 89
Figure 1.8: Analysis of the pattern of shorts and longs in a poem in bar of Hazaj90
Figure 1.9: Short and long syllables shown as 1:2 rhythmic values ................. 91
Figure 1.10: Variations of the previous example ........................................................ 91
Figure 1.11: Analysis of the pattern of shorts and longs in a poem in
one of the Azif of bar of Rajaz ........................................................................ 92
Figure 1.12: Representing the basic pattern of short and long syllables as 1:2....92
Figure 1.13: Transferring the short and long pattern of the previous
example to fixed-metre of 4 and 1 ......................................................................... 92
Figure 2.1: Representing the rhythmic pattern of Sharveh with atnn .....100
Figure 2.2: Dividing the cycle by and dots, the approach used by af alDn and Abd al-Qdir................................................................................................. 101
Figure 2.3: Comparing the cyclic system with the system of atnn ................101
Figure 2.4: Representing the rhythmic pattern of Sharveh by the adwri
approach .................................................................................................................................102
Figure 2.5 Dividing the cycle using three different lines, the approach of
Qub al-Dn Shrz in Durrat al-Tj ................................................................. 75
Figure 2.6 Dividing the cycle by line and dots, as presented in Kanz alTuaf (Binesh 1992: 110-11) ................................................................................. 102
Figure 2.7 Helix graphic suggested by Jeff Pressing (Pressing 1993: 12) .103
Figure 2.8 Representing the rhythmic cycle of Thaql awwal on Helix
(presented by author based on Pressing graphic) ............................................104
Figure 2.9: Thaql awwal ....................................................................................................110
Figure 2.10: The cycle of Thaql awwal in manuscript of al-Adwr (p. 80). ,111
Figure 2.11: The cycle of Thaql awwal in manuscript of Durrat al-Tj
(Mishkt 1945: 139) .................................................................................................................. 111
Figure 2.12: Thaql thn......................................................................................................... 112
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Figure 2.13: The cycle of Thaql thn in the manuscript of al-Adwr (p. 82)113
Figure 2.14: The cycle of Thaql thn in the manuscript of Durrat al-Tj
(Mishkt 1945: 139) ..................................................................................................... 113
Figure 2.15: Khaff thaql........................................................................................................ 114
Figure 2.16: The cycle of Khaff thaql with sixteen naqart in the
manuscript of Djmi al-Aln (Binesh 1987: 219)................................... 115
Figure 2.17: The cycle of Khaff thaql with eight naqart in the
manuscript of Rislah al-Sharafiyah (p.128) .................................................. 115
Figure 2.18: The cycle of Khaff thaql with four naqart in the
manuscript of Durrat al Tj (Mishkt 1945: 139) ...................................... 116
Figure 2.19: Ramal, first version, based on the Rislah al-Sharafiyah,
Durrat al Tj, Maqid al-Aln and Djmi al-Aln ..........................117
Figure 2.20: Ramal, second version, based on Djmi al-Aln by Abd
al-Qdir and Risleh Msq by Jm ................................................................. 117
Figure 2.21: Ramal, third version, based on Rislah al-Sharafiyah and
Durrat al Tj ...................................................................................................................... 117
Figure 2.22: The cycle of Ramal in Maqid al-Aln by Abd al-Qdir
(Binesh 1978: 95)............................................................................................................ 118
Figure 2.23: The cycle of Ramal in Rislah al-Sharafiyah (p129) ................118
Figure 2.24: Thaql ramal ....................................................................................................... 119
Figure 2.25: The cycle of Thaql ramal in the manuscript of al-Adwr (p. 87)120
Figure 2.26: The cycle of Mozaf ramal (Thaql ramal) in the manuscript
of Rislah al-Sharafiyah (p. 130) .......................................................................... 120
Figure 2.27: Khaff ramal ....................................................................................................... 121
Figure 2.28: The cycle of Khaff ramal in the manuscript of Durrat al-Tj
by Qub al-Dn Shrz (Mishkt 1945: 140) ............................................. 121
Figure 2.29: Hazaj awwal ...................................................................................................... 122
Figure 2.30: Hazaj thn ......................................................................................................... 122

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Figure 2.31: The cycle of Hazaj kabr (awwal) and Hazaj aghr (thn)
from the manuscript of Djmi al-Aln by Abd al-Qdir (Binesh
1987: 231) ...........................................................................................................................123
Figure 2.32: Fkht mozaf ................................................................................................... 125
Figure 2.33: The cycle of Fkht kabr (mozaf) in the manuscript of
Djmi al-Aln by Abd al-Qdir (1987: 222) ..........................................125
Figure 2.34: Turk al ghadm............................................................................................. 126
Figure 2.35: Turk al jadd .................................................................................................. 127
Figure 2.36: Eight different versions of Turk in manuscript of Djmi alAln by Abd al-Qdir (1987: 225).................................................................. 128
Figure 2.37: Turk, based on the version reported by Qub al-Dn Shrz
in Durrat al-Tj ............................................................................................................... 129
Figure 2.38: Mokhammas owsa ......................................................................................... 130
Figure 2.39: Cycle of three different versions of Mokhammas in manuscript of
Djmi al-Aln by Abd al-Qdir (Binesh 1987: 226)...................................130
Figure 2.40: Chahr zarb with 24 naqart ................................................................... 131
Figure 2.41: Extended pattern of Chahr zarb by Abd al-Qdir in
Djmi al-Aln (Binesh 1987: 224) .................................................................. 132
Figure 2.42: Three cycles exclusively reported by Qub al-Dn Shrz in
Durrat al-Tj ..................................................................................................................... 133
Figure 2.43: Five cycles created by Abd al-Qdir Margh ...............................134
Figure 2.44: Summary of rhythmic cycles .....................................................................137
Figure 3.1: Shekasteh presented by Nour Ali Boroumand in a private
class in Tehran during the 1960s or 1970s, transcribed by Azadehfar ..........156
Figure 3.2: Simple melody type and the directions to repeat at a
different register and return to the base tetrachord in the gsheh of
Bakhteyr (Sab 1959: 11) ................................................................................................... 160
Figure 3.3: More complex melody type of Masnav in the dastgh of
Shr and its decoration and modulation (Massoudieh 2000: 27).....................161
Figure 3.4: Baste-negr in Ab-at from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(During 1991: 125) ....................................................................................................................163
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Figure 3.5: Baste-negr in Bayt turk from the radf of Mirz


Abdullh (During 1991: 137) ............................................................................................. 163
Figure 3.6: Baste-negr in Bayt kord from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (During 1991: 158) ............................................................................................. 163
Figure 3.7: The significance of a two-bar motif in the gsheh of
Sayakh from the radf of Sab (1985: 11) ................................................................... 164
Figure 3.8: Naghmeh-i avval in Shr from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (During 1991: 89-90)........................................................................................ 166
Figure 3.9: Chahr preh in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(During 1991: 221) ....................................................................................................................167
Figure 3.10: Chahr preh in vz of Ab-at with decorations and
ornamentations (Massoudieh 2000: 44-51).................................................................. 169
Figure 3.11: Sz o godz in Bayt Isfahan from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (During 1991: 273) ............................................................................................. 171
Figure 3.12: Bounding the range of tones in the gsheh of Bdd from
the radf of Sab (1959: 9)...................................................................................................... 173
Figure 3.13: Bounding the piece by melodic shape, as seen in the gsheh
of s from the radf of Sab (1981: 10) ..................................................................... 174
Figure 3.14: Reng-i arb in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcribed by During 1991: 235-7) ............................................................................... 177
Figure 3.15: First few lines of reng-i arb in Mhr, prescriptive
transcription of Farmarz Pyvar for santr (1961: 28) ......................................178
Figure 3.16: Majlis afrz in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcribed by During 1991: 212) ..................................................................................... 179
Figure 3.17: Majlis afrz in Mhr from the radf of Sabthis
gsheh also called Khrazmi in this radf (1981:7) ................................................. 180
Figure 3.18: Sq-nmeh, Koshteh-mordeh, and f-nmeh in Mhr
from the radf of Mirz Abdullh as played by Boroumand (transcribed
by During 1991: 240-4115) ................................................................................................. 182
Figure 3.19: Sq-nmeh in Mhr from the radf of Karimi
(transcribed by Massoudieh 2000: 177)........................................................................... 183
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Figure 3.20: Comparison of the first bar in Mirz Abdullhs and


Karimis versions of Sq-nmeh, ........................................................................................ 184
Figure 3.21: Koshteh, in Mhr from the radf of Karimi (transcribed
by Massoudieh 2000: 178) ..................................................................................................... 184
Figure 3.22: f-nmeh in Mhr from the radf of Karimi
(transcribed by Massoudieh 2000: 178-79) .................................................................. 185
Figure 3.23: Sq-nmeh in Mhr from the radf of Sab (1981: 28-9)..........186
Figure 3.24: Comparing the basic rhythmic pattern in Sq-nmeh,
f-nmeh and Koshteh-mordeh with the poetic pattern of motaqrib .......187
Figure 3.25: First three lines of Gereyli in Shr from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (transcribed by During 1991: 105) ............................................................. 189
Figure 3.26: Gereyli in Shr from the radf of Karimi (transcribed by
Massoudieh 2000: 24-5) .........................................................................................................190
Figure 3.27: Overview of the rhythmic pattern in Gereyli and the setting
of syllables to notes ......................................................................................................................191
Figure 3.28: Representing the rhythmic pattern of Gereyli as a cycle ............192
Figure 3.29: Zang-i shotor in Rst-panjgh from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (transcribed by During 1991: 298-9) ........................................................ 193
Figure 3.30: Zang-i shotor in Homyn from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (transcribed by During 1991: 245-4) ........................................................ 194
Figure 3.31: Zang-i shotor qadm in Segh from the radf of Sab
(1980:19) ..........................................................................................................................................195
Figure 3.32: Zang-i shotor in Segh performed by Toghnian
(transcribed by Azadehfar) ......................................................................................................197
Figure 3.33: Zangleh in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcribed by During 1991: 225) ..................................................................................... 198
Figure 3.34: Zangleh in Chahrgh from the radf of Sab (1980:19) .....199
Figure 3.35: Zangleh in Mhr from the radf of Sab (1980:19) ..............199
Figure 3.36: Chahr-bgh in Ab-at from the radf of Sab (1985: 16).........203
Figure 3.37: Narkhn in Mhr from the radf of Karimi (transcribed
by Massoudieh 2000: 169) ..................................................................................................... 204
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Figure 3.38: The Arzi cycle of Kmil, the basis of rhythmic pattern of
Chahr-preh ..................................................................................................................................205
Figure 3.39: Kereshmeh in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcribed by During 1991: 210) ..................................................................................... 206
Figure 3.40: The rhythmic pattern of the instrumental version of Kereshmeh ..206
Figure 3.41: Kereshmeh in Shr from the radf of Karimi (transcribed
by Massoudieh 2000: 13) ........................................................................................................207
Figure 3.42: Kereshmeh in Shr performed by Shajarian in Deylamn
(1995, transcribed by Azadehfar) ........................................................................................ 208
Figure 3.43: Rhythmic pattern of the vocal version of Kereshmeh ..................209
Figure 3.44: The pattern of Kereshmeh based on the Thaql awwal ..............210
Figure 3.45: Representing the rhythmic pattern of Kereshmeh in a cycle.....210
Figure 3.46: Dobeyt in Shr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh (the
original transcription by During 1991: 235-7) ........................................................... 214
Figure 3.47: Dobeyt in Shr from the radf of Karimi (original
transcription by Massoudieh 2000: 21) ........................................................................... 215
Figure 3.48: Dobeyt in Shr from the radf of Sab (after Sab 1980: 33) .....216
Figure 3.49: The Arzi cycle of Hazaj, the basis of the rhythmic
pattern of Dobeyt ......................................................................................................................... 216
Figure 3.50: A poem by Bb her in the form of Dobeyt and
analysis of its rhythmic structure .......................................................................................... 217
Figure 3.51: Mokhlef in Segh from radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcription by During 1991: 171-72)......................................................................... 219
Figure 3.52: Mokhlef in Segh from the radf of Karimi (transcription
by Massoudieh 2000: 133) ..................................................................................................... 220
Figure 3.53: Mokhlef in Segh from the radf of Sab (1980:18) ................221
Figure 3.54: Special design and decoration as a unique way of
identification of different eras and regions: Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
(1602), Isfahan (Photo: Irania 1997)................................................................................ 224

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Figure 3.55: Interpretation of Western notation by a santr player (Sab


1980: 5-7) ........................................................................................................................................225
Figure 3.56: Tekiyeh and its common realisation (Pyvar 1961:41) ............226
Figure 3.57: Tarr in dastgh Shr performed by Shajarian in Khalvat
guzdeh (1981, transcribed by Azadehfar) ..................................................................... 227
Figure 3.58: Gham-angiz in Dasht from the radf of Sab (1985: 30-31)...229
Figure 3.59: Gham-angiz in Dasht from the radf of Karimi
(transcribed by Massoudieh 2000: 73) ............................................................................. 230
Figure 3.60: Baghdadi in Ab-at from the radf of Sab (1985: 13) .........231
Figure 3.61: vz (darmad) of Afshri from the radf of Sab (1985: 17) ...232
Figure 3.62: Darmad of Afshri from the radf of Karimi (transcribed
by Massoudieh 2000: 79) ........................................................................................................232
Figure 3.63: Darmad of Afshri from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcribed by During 1991: 144) ..................................................................................... 233
Figure 4.1: Gholm oseyn Darvish, (Darvishkhn) the innovator of
pshdarmad (photo, Ruh-Allah Khleqi 1974) ........................................................ 241
Figure 4.2: Pshdarmad Mhr by Darvishkhn (Tahmsbi 1998: 11-12) ...244
Figure 4.3: Some popular techniques of mezrb in chahrmezrb-ha
(derived from different works of master Farmarz Pyvar).................................248
Figure 4.4: Chahrmezrb of Homyn from the radf of Mirz
Abdullh (transcribed by During 1991: 244) ............................................................. 250
Figure 4.5: Chahrmezrb of Bayt turk (Pyvar 1990: 25-30).....................252
Figure 4.6: Ab al-Ghsem ref Qazvini, one the distinguished creators
of tanf on political issues (photo, Ruh-Allah Khleqi 1974) ..........................256
Figure 4.7: Ali Akbar Sheyd, the most distinguished tanf composer of the
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (photo, Ruh-Allah Khleqi 1974) ......260
Figure 4.8: Tanf Amn by Sheyd (transcribed by Azadehfar from the
version presented by Shajarian 1981) ................................................................................ 262
Figure 4.9: Simplification of the main rhythmic phrase in the first part
of Amn .............................................................................................................................................263

xvii

Figure 4.10: Simplification of the pyeh (rhythmic ostinato) in the first


part of Amn ...................................................................................................................................263
Figure 4.11: Comparison of the main rhythmic phrase in the first and
second parts of Amn .................................................................................................................. 264
Figure 4.12: Comparison of the pyeh in the first and second parts of Amn ..264
Figure 4.13: Classical Persian dancer in special costume (Margaret
Caton and Neil Siegel 1986)................................................................................................. 267
Figure 4.14: Reng Zarb-i ol from the radf of Mirz Abdullh
(transcription by During 1991: 103-5) ........................................................................... 270
Figure 4.15: Similarity between the cycle Zarb-i al as reported in
Durrat al-tj by Qub al-Dn Shrz with the Reng Zarb-i ol..................271
Figure 5.1: A typical tombak with approximate size .............................................. 277
Figure 5.2: The posture of the right hand, ready to play tom ............................. 278
Figure 5.3: Striking the tom ...................................................................................................279
Figure 5.4: The mineh technique, type 1....................................................................... 280
Figure 5.5: The mineh technique, type 2....................................................................... 280
Figure 5.6: The bak technique, type 1 (pelang) ........................................................... 281
Figure 5.7: The bak technique, type 2 ............................................................................... 282
Figure 5.8: Tombak three-lines notation and its interpretation ....................... 283
Figure 5.9: The most common tombak rhythms, as found in the works
of oseyn Tehrani (1992)....................................................................................................... 285
Figure 5.10: The process of deriving rhythmic pattern of tombak from
the rhythmic cycle of Chahr-preh .................................................................................... 286
Figure 5.11: The Arzi cycle of Kmil, the basis of rhythmic pattern of
Chahr-preh..................................................................................................................................................286
Figure 5.12: The main rhythmic motif in Zang-i shotor performed by
Toghnian (transcribed by Azadehfar) ............................................................................. 287
Figure 5.13: Rhythmic pattern of Toghnians version of Zang-i shotor
for tombak (prescriptive transcription by Azadehfar) ............................................... 287
xviii

Figure 5.14: Simplification and transformation of the rhythmic pattern


of some of the fixed-metre gsheh-ha in the tombak style (prescriptive
transcription by Azadehfar) ....................................................................................................288
Figure 5.15: Dobeyt in Shr from radf of Mirz Abdullh (after
During 1991: 235-7) .................................................................................................................290
Figure 5.16: Transformation of the gsheh of Dobeyt from free metre
into fixed metre ..............................................................................................................................291
Figure 5.17: Contrapuntal tombak line corresponding to the rhythmic
pattern of the gsheh of Dobeyt (prescriptive transcription by Azadehfar) .........292
Figure 6.1: Farhang Sharif, tr performer ...................................................................... 303
Figure 6.2: Mohammad Ismili, tombak performer................................................. 303
Figure 6.3: The opening section, improvisation based on the darmad of
Shr and Khr performed by Farhang Sharif on tr..............................................304
Figure 6.4: A comparison between the phrases in the opening section,
performed by Farhang Sharif on tr ................................................................................... 306
Figure 6.5: Section two, pshdarmad in dastgh Shr ........................................... 308
Figure 6.6: The main pyeh of the melodic line in pshdarmad ......................309
Figure 6.7: The main pyeh of the percussion line in pshdarmad ................309
Figure 6.8: Section four, fragment of first chahrmezrb ........................................311
Figure 6.9: Interaction between Mohammad Ismili and Farhang Sharif
(note how they intently look at each others hands) ................................................... 313
Figure 6.10: Section six, second chahrmezrb, opening section and a
fragment from 357 ....................................................................................................................315
Figure 6.11: Comparison between the rhythmic pattern of the gsheh of
Gereyli and the rhythmic pattern of a selected part of the chahrmezrb
presented by Farhang Sharif ................................................................................................... 316
Figure 6.12: Section eight, third chahrmezrb, opening section and a
fragment from 510 ....................................................................................................................317
Figure 6.13: The rhythmic pattern of the vocal version of Kereshmeh as
presented in Chapter Three...................................................................................................... 318

xix

Figure 6.14: Simplified rhythmic pattern of vocal version of Kereshmeh


as performed by Sharif in the third chahrmezrb ...................................................... 319
Figure Ap1.1: Asbb, avtd and favsel in manuscript of Shar-i
Adwr by Abd al-Qdir (reported by Binesh 1991: 255) .................................... 332
Figure Ap1.2: Sharveh, a song from Bshehr, transcribed into sabab,
vatad and fseleh............................................................................................................................333
Figure Ap1.3: The main eight afl .................................................................................. 334
Figure Ap1.4: Representing the song text of Sharveh with afl................335
Figure Ap1.5: Representing the rhythmic pattern of Sharveh with dots ...336
Figure Ap1.6: Transcribing Sharveh using lines and dots ................................337
Figure Ap1.7: Abjad characters and the equivalent atnn and naqart ........338
Figure Ap1.8: Transcribing Sharveh based on Abjad ......................................... 339
Figure Ap1.9: arqeh (fi al-qadm) Yurifu bi-mojannab al-ramal
from the manuscript of al-Adwr (p. 94)........................................................................ 340
Figure Ap1.10: arqeh Yurifu bi-mojannab al-ramal from the
manuscript of Rislah al-Sharafiyah (p. 135).............................................................. 340
Figure Ap1.11: Tanf dar pardeh Hoseyn dar duwr-i ramal reported
in Maqid al-Aln................................................................................................................... 341
Figure Ap1.12: Tanf dar pardeh Hoseyn dar duwr-i ramal
transcribed in western notation by Farhad Fakhreddini (Binesh 1991:
21, numbers and the text transliterated to English by the author). ...................341
Figure Ap1.13: arqeh f al-Ramal Guwsht from the manuscript of
al-Adwr (pp. 93-4) ...................................................................................................................342
Figure Ap1.14: arqeh f al-Ramal Guwsht transcribed to Western
notation by Farmer (1986: 60) ............................................................................................ 343

xx

Contents of the CDs1


Two audio CDs accompany this book. CD1 is examples performed
on santr and tombak by the author. All pieces performed on santr
in this CD are from the radf of Sab other than those indicated
below. CD2 is a collection of examples performed by other
musicians, whether recorded by myself in the field or collected from
other recorded materials.
CD1:
Track 1

Masnav mokhlef in dastgh Segh

Track 2

Bakhteyr in dastgh Homyn

Track 3

Sayakh in vz Ab-at

Track 4

Bdd in dastgh Homyn

Track 5

s in Mhr

Track 6

Reng-i arb in Mhr, a version by Farmarz Pyvar for santr

Track 7

Majlis afrz in Mhr

Track 8

Sqi-nmeh in Mhr

Track 9

Zang-i shotor qadm in Segh

Track 10

Zangleh in Chahrgh

Track 11

Zangleh in Mhr

Track 12

Chahr-bgh in Ab-at

Track 13

Dobeyt in Shr

Track 14

Mokhlef in Segh

Track 15

Some techniques of santr in Western notation

Track 16

Tekiyeh

Track 17

Gham-angiz in Dasht

Track 18

Baghddi in Ab-at

CDs are downloadable from: www.art.ac.ir/publications/


xxi

Track 19

vz (darmad) of Afshri

Track 20

Chahrmezrb of Bayt turk composed by Pyvar

Track 21

Tombak notation

Track 22

Rhythmic pattern of Toghnians version of Zang-i shotor (on


tombak)

Track 23

Rhythmic pattern of arb (on tombak)

Track 24

Rhythmic pattern of Majlis afrz (on tombak)

Track 25

Rhythmic pattern of Sqi-nmeh (on tombak)

Track 26

Rhythmic pattern of Gereyli (on tombak)

Track 27

Rhythmic pattern of Zangleh (on tombak)

Track 28

Mokhammas aghr, 4 naqart (on tombak)

Track 29

Fkht aghar and Far Far Turk (Shar-i Adwr), 5 naqart (on
tombak)

Track 30

Zarb Fath (Djmi al-Aln), 5 naqart (on tombak)

Track 31

Hazaj thn, 6 naqart (on tombak)

Track 32

Turk sar, 6 naqart (on tombak)

Track 33

Khaff thaql (Sharafiyah), 8 naqart (on tombak)

Track 34

Mokhammas owsat, 8 naqart (on tombak)

Track 35

Khaff ramal, 10 naqart (on tombak)

Track 36

Hazaj awwal, 10 naqart (on tombak)

Track 37

Fkht aghr and Turk khaff (Djmi al-Aln), 10 naqart (on


tombak)

Track 38

Unnamed cycle (Durrat al-Tj), 10 naqart (on tombak)

Track 39

Turk (Durrat al-Tj), 12 (14) naqart (on tombak)

Track 40

Ramal (version 1) and Turk khaff (Risleh Msq), 12 naqart


(on tombak)

Track 41

Ramal (version 2) and Zarb al or Zarb rst (Durrat al-Tj), 12


naqart (on tombak)
xxii

Track 42

Ramal (version 3, in Sharafiyah: khaff ramal), 12 naqart (on


tombak)

Track 43

Ramal (Adwr), 12 naqart (on tombak)

Track 44

Zarb Jadd (Djmi al-Aln), 14 naqart (on tombak)

Track 45

Thaql awwal, 16 naqart (on tombak)

Track 46

Thaql thn and Mokhammas kabr, 16 naqart (on tombak)

Track 47

Khaff thaql, 16 naqart (on tombak)

Track 48

Khaff (Durrat al-Tj), 16 naqart (on tombak)

Track 49

Fkht mozaf, 20 naqart (on tombak)

Track 50

Turk al jadd, 20 naqart (on tombak)

Track 51

Thaql ramal, 24 naqart (on tombak)

Track 52

Thaql ramal (Sharafiyah, Durrat al-Tj),24 naqart (on tombak)

Track 53

Turk al ghadm, 24 naqart (on tombak)

Track 54

Chahr zarb, 24 naqart (on tombak)

Track 55

Fkht azf, 40 naqart (on tombak)

CD2:
Track 1

Srat Ysuf from Quran presented by Shaikh Abd al-Bset


Abd al-Samad

Track 2

Sharveh vocal song from Bshehr

Track 3

Improvisation based on the gsheh of Shekasteh in a private


lesson by Nour Ali Boroumand

Track 4

Performing the gsheh of Shekasteh in a private lesson by


Boroumand

Track 5

Masnav in dastgh of Shr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 6

Baste-negr in Ab-at from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 7

Baste-negr in Bayt turk from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 8

Baste-negr in Bayt kord from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand
xxiii

Track 9

Naghme-ye avval in Shr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 10

Chahr preh in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 11

Chahr preh in vz of Ab-at by Mahmud Karimi

Track 12

Sz o godz in Bayt Isfahan from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 13

Reng-i arb in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 14

Majlis afrz in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 15

Sqi-nmeh, Koshteh-mordeh, and ufi-nmeh in Mhr from


the radf of Mirz Abdullh performed by Boroumand

Track 16

Sqi-nmeh in Mhr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 17

Koshteh in Mhr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 18

ufi-nmeh in Mhr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 19

Gereyli in Shr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh performed by


Boroumand

Track 20

Gereyli in Shr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 21

Zang-i shotor in Rst-panjgh from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 22

Zang-i shotor in Homyn from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 23

Zang-i shotor in Segh performed by Toghnian

Track 24

Zangleh in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh performed


by Boroumand

Track 25

Nasrkhn in Mhr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 26

Kereshmeh in Mhr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 27

Kereshmeh in Shr by Mahmud Karimi


xxiv

Track 28

Kereshmeh in Shr performed by Shajarian

Track 29

Dobeyt in Shr from the radf of Mirz Abdullh performed by


Boroumand

Track 30

Dobeyt in Shr by Mahmud Karimi

Track 31

Mokhlef in Segh from the radf of Mirz Abdullh performed


by Boroumand

Track 32

Mokhlef in Segh by Mahmud Karimi

Track 33

Tarr in dastgh Shr performed by Shajarian

Track 34

Gham-angiz in Dasht by Mahmud Karimi

Track 35

Darmad of Afshri by Mahmud Karimi

Track 36

Darmad of Afshri from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 37

Pshdarmad Mhr by Darvishkhn performed by an orchestra


of Iranian master musicians, conducted by Farmarz Pyvar

Track 38

Chahrmezrb of Homyn from the radf of Mirz Abdullh


performed by Boroumand

Track 39

Tanf Amn by ref presented by Shajarian

Track 40

Reng Zarb-i ol from the radf of Mirz Abdullh performed


by Boroumand

Track 41

Reng Zarb-i ol, orchestrated version by Parviz Meshkatian

Track 42

Darmad of Shr performed by Farhang Sharif

Track 43

Pshdarmad in dastgh Shr performed by Farhang Sharif and


Mohammad Ismaili

Track 44

First chahrmezrb performed by Farhang Sharif and


Mohammad Ismaili

Track 45

Second chahrmezrb performed by Farhang Sharif and


Mohammad Ismaili

Track 46

Third chahrmezrb performed by Farhang Sharif and


Mohammad Ismaili

xxv

Map of Iran2

Map from: www.nationalgeographic.com


xxvi

Note on transliteration of Persian letters


There is no single rule in the transliteration of Persian terms to
English. Different sources use various systems of transliterations.
The most well-known systems are those used in the Encyclopaedia
Iranica, the Encyclopedia of Islam, International Journal of Middle East
Studies and the Library of Congress. Each system has some
advantages and some limitations. For instance, the Encyclopaedia
Iranica employs single letters in special shapes to show consonants,
which normally are represented by a combination of to letters
instead of sh (as in shop) and instead of ch (as in child).
International Journal of Middle East Studies uses the modified
Encyclopedia of Islam system. The problem with Encyclopedia of Islam
and consequently the International Journal of Middle East Studies is
that the transliteration system is based on Arabic pronunciation,
which is different in number of respects from Persian pronunciation.
is represented with in this Encyclopaedia which
For instance,
makes sense in Arabic pronunciation but in Persian it is simply
pronounced z. Those problems have been avoided in the Library of
Congress system of transliteration where Arabic and Persian have
two separate systems of transliteration.
All terms from Persian and Arabic in this book are transliterated
according to the system of Library of Congress.3 None of the
sources mentioned above suggest English equivalents for the vowels
and consonants, and some of the consonants used in Persian
language do not exist in English. The list of English examples
presented here have been developed in collaboration with the
English Language Teaching Centre, University of Sheffield, and are
used only as approximate equivalents.

The table of transliteration presented here is a summary of the


instructions and the table of transliteration of Persian language provided by
the Library of Congress (see: http://www.loc.gov/rr/amed/Transliteration
Page/TransliterationPage1.html).
xxvii

Vowels and Diphthongs


Persian

English

as in

hat

go

ten

arm

see

too

aw

brown

ay

(no equivalent diphthong was


found in English)

Consonants4
Persian

English

as in

bad

In Persian language there are a number of the consonants which have a


different spelling but the same pronunciation (the same consonants have
different pronunciations in Arabic). In the Library of Congress system of
transliteration those letters are distinguished by dotted, double-dotted and
underlined characters which help the readers familiar with Persian
language, to recognise the correct spelling.
xxviii

pen

tea

sit

Jack

ch

cheap

him

kh

Bach (no equivalent in English)

dip

zoo

trilled r

zoo

zh

measure

sit

sh

she

sit

zoo

tea

zoo

a with pressure on throat (no


equivalent consonant in English)

gh

articulated further back than g (no


equivalent in English)

free

articulated further back than q (no


equivalent in English)

cat
xxix

got

leg

man

no

voice

him

Notes:
For short vowels not indicated in the script, the Persian vowels
nearest the original pronunciation of the word are supplied in
romanized.
The two-letters symbols kh, gh, sh and zh are note combined by an
underline. In case infrequent sequences of k, g, s and z followed by h
an apostrophe ( ' ) is used to separate an independent h from a
preceding of k, g, s and z (example maz'hab).
The silent v ( ) preceded by an initial kh ( ) is not retained in
transliteration (e.g. Norzkhn, rather than Norzkhvn).
The Persian suffix for the plural form -ha is retained instead of
adding the English plural suffix s to a Persian word (e.g. dastgh-ha
rather than dastghs).
Concerning persons name, as a general rule, the named persons
own spelling is respected (e.g. Massoudieh rather than Masdyeh).
Foreign words in a Persian context, including Arabic words, are
romanized according to the rules of Persian (except the technical
Arabic names used in rhythmic cycles).

xxx

Words in Arabic context are romanized according to the rules of


Arabic. Transliteration of Arabic words follow the same rules as in
Persian except following consonants:

Arabic

English
th
dh

xxxi

Note on Historical Periods


The country has always been known to its own people as Iran (land
of the Aryans), although for centuries it was referred to as Persia by
the Europeans, mainly due to the writings of Greek historians. In
1935 the government specified that it should be called Iran;
however, in 1949 they allowed both names to be used.
The table below shows the order of historical periods from
Achaemenid up to now.5

Achaemenid
Hellenistic
Parthian
Sasanian
The advent of Islam
Abbasid
Samanid
Ghaznavid
Seljukid
Mongol
Timurid
afavid
Zandieh
Qajar
Pahlavi
Islamic Republic

559330 BCE
331 BCE250
247 BCE224
224651
640829
750821
819999
9771186
10401157
12561394
13871502
15021736
175079
17941925
192579
1979

The information on table is based on the Encyclopaedia Britannica.


xxxii

Note on Music Notation


This book employs two systems of notation. The first is a notation
based on ancient Iranian musical sources which I mainly use to
represent rhythms. This system is fully introduced and explored in
Chapter Two. The second is Western notion in the way it is
currently used in Iran.
Elements of Western staff notation were adapted for notating
Iranian music by Ali Naqi Vaziri in the 1920s. This idea was
expanded to notate percussion instruments such as tombak in the
1960s by a group of Iranian music theorists and musicians under the
editorial guidance of oseyn Dehlavi. Gradually, further signs for
representing techniques on different instruments were added by
various musicians. There are also some new signs specially used in
this book for the first time which I will introduce wherever I use
them. Other than songs transcribed by author, the music examples
notated by the other musicians have been used with no change or
re-notating.
NB. Although I use staff notation and detailed note-by-note
analysis, it is important to remember that this approach does not
necessarily correspond to the way in which performers actually
think of the music. For instance, the form of ornamentation known
as tarr (discussed in Chapter Three, Section Five) will appear in
staff notation as a series of main notes with grace notes, while a
performer thinks of it more as continuous melodic line with a
certain subjective quality.

xxxiii

Transcriptions observe the following conventions:


Sign

or

Meaning

riz, tremolo
riz or tremolo, especially as used in tombak notation
Tie
slur or phrase mark, particularly where one syllable is
sung on more than one note
dorrb-i set-i, two grace notes played immediately
before the main note
dorrb-i panjt-i, four grace notes played immediately
before the main note
Accent

right-hand stroke
left-hand stroke
koron: symbol that lowers the pitch by approximately
one quarter tone
sori: symbol that raises the pitch by approximately one
quarter tone
the pitch values of notes are not distinguishable (this is
used in pieces transcribed by Massoudieh)

xxxiv

Glossary of Symbols and Terms


Symbols
: koron; symbol for half-flat, approximately 1/4 tone. This symbol
was introduced by Ali Naqi Vaziri (1887-1979).
: sori; symbol for half-sharp, approximately 1/4 tone (introduced
by Ali Naqi Vaziri.)
: rst; playing with right hand.
: chap; playing with left hand.
: juft; right and left hands simultaneously.
: short syllable.
: long syllable.
: Alif; smallest possible time which can be considered between two
naqart, equivalent to Ta.
: Ba; two Alif, corresponding also to Tan.
: Jim; three Alif, corresponding to Tanan.
: dl; four Alif, corresponding to Tananan.
: ha; five Alif, corresponding to Tanananan.
: mm; struck beat

Terms
Abjad: special way of ordering the Arabic alphabet, which differs
from its typical arrangement, such that the standard pattern
is transformed
(read from the right) of
.
into

346

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

Ab-at: one of the major subdivisions of dastgh Shr; one of the


five vz-ha of Iranian classical music; its primary scale is G
A

B C D E

F G.

Abyt: the plural form of beyt (see beyt).


Adwr: (pl. of dowr), cycles; system in ancient Arabic and Persian
music theory for representing both interval patterns (mode or
scales) and rhythmic patterns.
Afl: trigram of F--L (
) used to represent the pattern of
verbs, noun and other components in Arabic grammar. In
prosody, they are used to represent the rhythmic structure of
poems.
Afshri: one of the major subdivisions of dastgh Shr; one of the
five vz-ha of Iranian classical music; its primary scale is F G
A

B C D( ) E

F.

lp: structured improvisation on a chosen rg which is the first part


of any dhrupad (ancient vocal form in Hindustani music).
Aghni: Ketb al-aghni; comprehensive book on music and
musicians by Ab al-Faraj Isfahani (d. 988).
Arq: gsheh in dastgh Mhr (also be played in Bayt turk).
Arkn: (pl. of rukn) feet; fundamentals.
Arz: collection of certain patterns for organising the number and
order of short and long syllables in each hemistich; system of
metric poetry requiring the consistency of a set pattern of long
(-) and short () syllables; system by which a poem is judged
to ascertain whether its rhythm is right or not.
Asbb: (pl. of sabab), see sabab.
shr: the tenth days of the holy month of Moharram, the first
month of the Islamic calendar, which marks the martyrdom of
Imam oseyn, the grandson of Prophet Mohammad.
Al: main; authentic.

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

347

Assyrian: a member of a group of Semitic-speaking peoples of the


Middle East and northern Africa; an extinct language of the
Assyrians regarded as a dialect of Akkadian.
stn Qds: the organisation of the holy shrine of Imam Reza in
Mashhad, Iran.
Awt: (pl. of awt), voice; tune.
Atnn: a system for representing the rhythm by employing the
nonsense syllables ta, na (each equivalent to one time unit) and
tan, nan (each equivalent to two time units).
vz: literarily, song; subdivision of the dastgh in contemporary
Iranian radif; free-metred section of a mode.
Avesta: the holy book of the Zoroastrians.
Awtd: (pl. of vatad), see vatad.
Azif: (pl. of zehf), see zef.
Azerbaijani: a gsheh in dastgh Mhr.
Bar: sea; name referring to all the standard metric patterns in
Persian and Arabic poetry.
Bakhteyr: name of a region in central Iran; gsheh in dastgh
Homyn.
bl dasteh: upper part of the neck of the tr and setr; low tetrachord
of every scale.
barbat: kind of lute.
Baste-negr: gsheh which can be played in different dastgh-ha.
Bayt Isfahn: one of the major subdivisions of dastgh Homyun;
one of the five vz-ha of Iranian classical music; its primary
scale is C D E

FG A

B C.

Bayt kurd: one of the subdivisions of dastgh Shr.


Bayt turk: one of the major subdivisions of dastgh Shr; one of the
five vz-ha of Iranian classical music.

348

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

Beyt: complete poetic line consisting of two equal hemistichs.


Bdd: gsheh in dastgh Homyun.
Bur: (pl. of bahr), see bahr.
Bshehr: province in southern Iran by the Persian Gulf.
Chahr preh: gsheh in Ab-at and Mhr.
Chahr zarb: ancient rhythmic cycles consisting of twenty four
naqart in the form Tananan Tananan Tananan Tananan
Tananan Tananan.
Chahrgh: one of seven dastgh-ha in contemporary Iranian music;
its primary scale is C D

E FG A

B C.

Chahrmezrb: four strokes; an instrumental genre of compositions


with fixed-metre.
Chakm (also in form of chakmak): love-lyric or romantic story in
the Sasanian period (224-651).
Chang: harp.
Dnish Nmeh Al: book by Ibn Sn (Avicenna 974-1037) in
Persian which contains one chapter in music.
Darmad: introduction; first gsheh in every dastgh or vz.
Dastn: (pl. of dastn), see dastn.
Dasht: one of the major subdivisions of dastgh Shr; one of the five
vz-ha of Iranian classical music; its primary scale is G A
B C D( ) E

F G.

Dast afshn: dancing; Sufi dance.


Dastn: pattern of pitches; mode; frets on a fingerboard.
Dastgh: modal system; a collection of melodic segments that share
a common basic scale with its variations (Miller 1999: 349).
Dawyer: (pl. of dyereh) circles.
Dyereh: circle.

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

349

Deilamn: gsheh in dasht.


Dhrupad: in Hindustani music, ancient vocal musical form in four
parts preceded by extensive introductory improvisation (lp)
and expanded by rhythmic and melodic elaborations.
Dour Maatayn: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of two-hundred
naqart reported by Abd al-Qdir in Jme al-Aln.
Dour Shhi: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of thirty or thirtyfour naqart in the form Tananan Tanan Tan Tan Tanan
Tananan Tananan Tan Tan Tanan Tanan Tan.
Faili: a gsheh in Bayt trk.
Fkht: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of four different versions:
Fkht aqar, which consists of five naqart (Tanan Tan); Fkht
aqr, which is made up of ten naqart (Tan Tananan
Tananan); Fkht mozaf, composed of twenty naqart
(Tananan Tan Tananan Tananan Tan Tananan); and Fkht
azf built upon forty naqart (by the double performance of
the pattern of Fkht mozaf).
Far: trivial.
Farsakh: 120 miles.
Farsi: Persian; the official language of Iran.
Fseleh: duration in poetic metre equivalent of three voweled
consonants and a consonant, as in be+ra+va+m.
Favsel: (pl. of fseleh) see Fseleh.
Ford: descent; conclusion; return to the first modal degree.
Ghadm: old; ancient.
Ghameh-zan: a gsheh in dasht.
Ghina: music in general (Arabic).
Gsheh: a traditional repertory of melodies, melodic formula, tonal
progressions, ornamentations and rhythmic patterns that serve

350

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

as a model for improvisation; units which comprise each


dastgh or vz.
Haft: seven.
Hazaj: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of two different versions:
Hazaj awwal, which consists of ten naqart (Tanan Tan Tanan
Tan), and Hazaj thn, which consists of six naqart (Tananan
Tan).
arakat: movement, vowel point.
ijz: gsheh in Ab-at.
Homyun: one of the seven dastgh-ha in contemporary Iranian
music; its primary scale is G A

B C D E

F G.

q: rhythm.
Isfahn: large city in central Iran; one of the major subdivisions of
dastgh Humyn; one of the five vz-ha of Iranian classical
music; its primary scale is C D E(

)F G A

B C.

Ismliyeh: branch of Sufism.


Jadd: new.
Jhiliyah: pre-Islamic period in ijz (currently Saudi Arabia).
Kamncheh: unfretted spike fiddle (bowed) with four strings which is
about the size of a viola. It is played resting upright on players
lap.
Kanz al-Tuaf: book on music theory and musical instruments in
Persian written between 1341 and 1364, author unknown.
Karbal: city in Iraq where the holy shrine of Imam oseyn is
located.
Karbzan: stone beating; ceremony of mourning.
Ketbkhneh: library.

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

351

khaff ramal: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of ten naqart in the


form Tan Tanan Tan Tanan.
Khorsn: large province in north-east Iran.
Khosro and Shirin: a gsheh in Ab-at.
Kitb al-adwr: book of cycles; substantial book on Arabo-Persian
music by af al-Dn Abd al-Mumin Urmaw (1216-94).
Koron:

; flattened by a quarter tone.

Mhr: one of the seven dastgh-ha in contemporary Iranian music;


its primary scale is similar to the major scale in Western music.
Majlis: gathering.
Maqsid al-Alhn: old music theory in Persian language by Abd alQdir Marqi (ca. 1367-1435).
Marwis: (pl. of Murwas), see Murwas.
Masnav: poetic form; gsheh in the poetic metre of Masnav played
in different dastgh-ha and vz-ha, particularly Afshr.
Mezrb: plectrum on long-necked stringed instruments such as tr
and setr; hammers on the hammered dulcimer (santr).
Misra: hemistich.
Mokhammas: poetic form; ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of three
different versions: Mokhammas kabr (the grand), Mokhammas
owsat (the medium) and Mokhammas aqr (the small).
Motoghayyer: changeable.
Munfarid: simple.
Murakkab: compound.
Murwas: small double-headed cylinder drums.
Msiq: music.
Msiq-i al: indigenous or noble music.
Msiq-i dastghi: dastghi music.

352

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

Msiq-i radfi: radfi music.


Msiq-i sonnat: traditional music.
Nagham: pitch; melody.
Naghmeh-i avval: gsheh in dastgh Shr.
Naqart: (pl. of naqareh), see naqareh.
Naqareh: measurement of note values; smallest unit in a rhythmic cycle.
Nairkhn: gsheh in Mhr.
Nav: one of the seven dastgh-ha in contemporary Iranian music;
its primary scale is C D

F G A

B C.

Ney: kind of vertical flute.


Nim: new style of Persian poetry.
Norz: Iranian New Year; series of three gsheh-ha in Rstpanjgh
and Humyn.
Oj: ascendance; the climax of a dastgh or vz.
Pn dasteh: high pitches.
Pardeh: fret; mode.
Pyeh: fundamental; tonic; referring motif in chahrmezrb.
Pshdarmad: instrumental genre; rather long prelude in slow tempo
played by Iranian orchestra as the opening piece; apparently
first introduced by Gholm Hoseyn Darvish, known as
Darvishkhn (1872-1926).
Radf: entire collection of gsheh-ha in all the 12 modes (seven dastghha and five vz-ha) as transmitted by an authorised master.
Rh-i Sam: tune of Sam (dervishes dancing); old rhythmic cycle
from Khorsn
Rajaz: poetic metrical pattern; ancient rhythmic cycle (see table of
Arz in chapter one).
Rk: gsheh in Mhr and Rstpanjgh

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

353

Ramal: poetic metrical pattern (see table of Arz in chapter one);


ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of twelve naqart in two
different versions. The first version equals Tan Tan Tan Tan
Tananan and the second version equals Tan Tan Tananan
Tananan.
Ramal thaql: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of twenty-four
naqart in the form Tananan Tananan Tan Tan Tan Tan Tan
Tan Tananan.
Rst-panjgh: one of the seven dastgh-ha in contemporary Iranian
music; its primary scale is similar to the major scale in Western
music.
Reng: instrumental genre in fixed-metre originally played to
accompany dances.
Risleh Msq: music treatise in Persian written by Abd al Ramn
Jm in 1489.
Sabab: duration in poetic metre equivalent of one voweled
consonant and one additional consonant, as in de+l.
Sang-zan: stone beating; ceremony of mourning.
Sasanian: ancient Iranian dynasty between 224651 evolved by
Ardashir I in years of conquest, AD 208-224, and destroyed by
the Arabs during the years 637-51.
awt: sound; tune.
Sayakh: gsheh in Ab-at
Segh: one of the seven dastgh-ha in contemporary Iranian music;
its primary scale is A

B C D

F GA .

Sepd: new style of Persian poetry.


Setr: long-necked, four-stringed lute with pear-shaped wooden
body; fretted like the tr but played with the nail of the index
finger.
Shahbi: a gsheh in Bayt trk.

354

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

Shhid: witness; sweetheart; note which is the centre of attention in


melodic phrases. It is comparable to the dominant in Western
art music, but is not necessarily the fifth.
Shahnz: a gsheh in Shr.
Shar-i Adwr: clarifications of the cycles; old music treatise on
cycles of modes and rhythm in Persian by Abd al-Qdir
Marqi (ca. 1367-1435) based on af al-Dns Kitb al-Adwr.
Sharveh: vocal form song in different regions of Iran, particularly the
south.
Shir: poem.
Shekasteh: a gsheh in Mhr and Bayt trk.
Shiit: the second largest branch of Islam.
Shr: largest dastgh in the set of the seven dastgh-ha in
contemporary Iranian music; its primary scale is G A
D E

B C

F G

sneh-zan: breast beating; ceremony of mourning.


Sz-o-godz: a gsheh in dasht.
Tabriz: large city in north-west Iran.
Tarr: falsetto break; cracking of the voice. In vocal music tarr
takes the form of melisma and is characteristic of musical
performance from Tibet to West Asia.
Taqsm: free-form melodic improvisation in Islamic music,
performed by solo voice or instrument, often a lute, or by the
principal instruments of an orchestra playing in succession.
The taqsm often forms the first movement of a suite (nawbah),
a popular form in Arabic music.
Tr: long-necked lute with double belly, covered with sheepskin
membrane. It has six strings, tuned in pairs, and twenty-six
movable gut frets.

Glossary of Symbols and Terms

355

arab-angz: a gsheh in dastgh Mhr.


Tanf: most popular vocal form in Iranian classical music with a
fixed-metre rhythm.
Ts: ninth day of Moharram, the first month in the Islamic lunar
calendar.
Tekiyeh: a grace note which is normally one step higher than the
main notesometimes more than one step higher, as
governed by special rules of interpretation.
Thaql awwal: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of sixteen naqart in
the form Tanan Tanan Tananan Tan Tananan.
Thaql thn: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of sixteen naqart in
the form Tanan Tanan Tan Tanan Tanan Tan.
Ts: gsheh in Mhr.
d: lute.
Umayyad: Arab dynasty which ruled the Empire of the Caliphate
(661-750).
Vatad: duration in poetic metre equivalent of a pair of two voweled
consonants and a one consonant, as in de+la+m.
Wazn: weight; rhythm.
Zbol: gsheh in Segh and Chahrgh.
Zang-i Shotor: gsheh in Segh and Homyun.
Zanjr-zan: chain beating; ceremony of mourning.
Zarb fat: ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of fifty naqart in the
form Tanan Tanan Tananan Tananan Tanan Tanan Tananan
Tanan Tanan Tananan Tananan Tananan Tananan Tananan.
Zarb Jadd: an ancient rhythmic cycle consisting of fourteen naqart
in the form Tananan Tananan Tanan Tanan.
Zef: name referring to each of the varied forms of bohr in Persian
and Arabic poetry.

People Index
Alizdeh, oseyn 86
Aristotle, 49
Arom, Simha 52
Brbad, 106
Bar-Yosef, A, 57, 58
Benjamin, William E. 59
Bergson, 50
Berlioz, Hector 145, 146
Binesh, Taghi xi, xii, xiii, xx,
103, 110, 115, 116, 118, 122,
123, 124, 126, 127, 130, 132,
133, 245, 268, 332, 341, 342
Bregman, Albert, S.66
Brown, Edward G 71, 256
Caron, Nelly 226
Caton, Margaret Louis xviii, 35,
255, 258, 259, 265, 267
Clark, Eric ii
Clayton, Martin 52, 54, 71, 72
Cone, Edward T. 65
Cooper, Grosvenor W. 255, 58,
66, 67, 68
Darvishi, Mohammad Reza 64
Dehlavi, oseyn x, xxxiii, 35, 78,
84, 211, 254, 278, 282
Dowling, W. 39
Dunstan, 120
During, Jean xiii, xiv, xv, xvi,
xvii, xviii, xix, 68, 202, 206,
214, 219, 233, 246, 250, 257,
258, 270, 290, 319
Ellingson, Ter 74
Elwell-Sutton, Laurence Paul 79,
81, 91, 213
Epstein, David 58
Fakhreddini, Farhd xx, 35, 123,
188, 282, 341, 342
Fakhr, 145

Farhat, Hormoz 35, 36, 77, 150,


151, 175, 188, 212, 222, 239,
242, 246, 257, 266
Farmer, Henry George xx, 35,
36, 79, 106, 107, 341, 342, 343
Fassler, M. 48
Ferand, Ernst 144, 145
Handel, George Frideric 66
Harwood, 67
Hasty Christopher, Francis 50,
51, 52, 54, 96
Hauptmann, N. 54
Haydn, x, 59, 60, 64
Heusler, Andreas 49
Hirsh, I. 66
Ibn Abd Rabbih, 79
Ibn Sina, 36
Imbrie, Andrew 56
Isfahani, 79, 346
Jaeger, Werner 48
Johnson-Laird, P. 54
Kamien, R. 218
Kerbage, Toufic x, 62
Khleqi, Ruh-Allah xvii, 240,
241, 256, 260, 282
Kolinski, Mieczyslaw 54
Komar, Arthur J. 56
Kouhestni, Masoud 257
Kramer, Jonathan D. x, 58, 59,
60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 74
Kuckertz, Josef. x, 64, 71
Lerdahl, Fred 51, 56, 57, 58, 66,
67, 74
Lester, Joel 56, 57
Levin, Theodore 258
List, George 72
Lomax, Alan 145

380
London, Justin ii, x, 51, 52, 53,
54, 55, 65, 66, 67
Lussy, 51
Mallh, Hoseyn Ali 35, 77, 117,
255
Malm, William P. 144
Mansuri, Parviz 211
Massoudieh, Mohammad Taghi
x, xiii, xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xxx,
xxxiv, 64, 160, 161, 167, 169,
174, 183, 184, 185, 189, 190,
204, 207, 214, 215, 220, 230,
232, 270, 271
Meshktian, Parviz 270, 271
Meyer, Leonard B. 55, 58, 66,
67, 68
Miller, Lloyd 35, 77, 348
Minuvi, 108
Molavi, 70
Najib-ullah, 79
Nettl, Bruno 35, 77, 144, 146,
147, 152, 157, 158
Neumann, F. 54
Nicholson, Reynold A. 79
Nim Youshij, 85, 87
Nooshin, Laudan 144, 148, 152,
158
Pacholczyk, Jzef 265
Pyvar, Farmarz xiv, xvii, xxi,
xxii, xxv, 44, 177, 178, 191,
202, 226, 242, 248, 251, 252,
261
Plato, 49, 77
Pressing, Jeff xi, 96, 103, 104,
146
Prophet Mohammed, 63
Racy, Ali Jihad 145, 146, 147,
240
Repp, B. 66

People Index
Roederer, Juan G. 66
Rouanet, Jules 78
Rycroft, David 144
Sachs, Curt 48, 49, 50, 67, 77
Sanyal, Ritwik 71, 72, 74
Schachter, Carl 52, 211, 218
Schoenberg, Arnold 145
Sepant, Ssn 268
Sepehri, Sohrab 87
Shajarian, Mohammad Reza xvi,
xvii, xxiv, xxv, 86, 207, 208,
209, 227, 234, 257, 261, 262
Shamissa, Cyrus 79, 88
Sheyd, xvii, 254, 255, 259, 260,
262, 263, 324
Slobin, Mark 258
Sloboda, John. A. 72
Stock, Jonathan. ii, x, 71
Tagore, 72
Tehrani, oseyn xviii, 282, 283,
285
Touma, asan Habib 61, 79
Tsuge, Genichi 35, 36, 37, 38,
39, 40, 77, 187, 188, 191, 209,
211, 213, 226, 237, 259, 266,
325
Van Noorden, 66
Wallaschek, R. 67
Westergaard, 66
Whinfield, Peter 69, 70
Widdess, D. Richard. 71, 72, 73
Wright, Owen 36, 79, 105, 106,
107, 108, 340
Zaryb, 78
Zonis, Ella 35, 79, 99, 148, 150,
153, 211, 246, 256, 335
Zuckerkandl, Victor , 56, 86,
138, 139.