You are on page 1of 13

Assignment No.

Research Methodology (Mgt 602)

Submitted to

Madam Razia Sultana

Submitted by
Khurram Saeed (Fa14-RPM-381)

Q No.1: For each situation, decide whether the research should be

exploratory, descriptive or causal. Support you answer with the
concepts studied in the course.
a) Establishing the functional relationship between advertising
and sales.
Ans: This is a causal relationship. It attempts of what types of advertising
cause to motivate people to buy and they buy.
b) Investigating reactions to the idea of a new method of define
Ans: An example of descriptive research that to paint a picture of the variety
of logical and emotional responses people feel about changes in the defense
budget without determining why they feel as they do.
c) Identifying target-market demographics for a shopping Centre.
Ans: Exploratory it is still uncertain if there is indeed a market for the
shopping center's products, or what type of market may be interested in when
the center is built.
d) Estimating prices for IBM stock 2 years in the future.
Ans: Descriptive because estimating prices is speculative or future-seeking,
and must project and determine a variety of possible economic scenarios that
could potentially affect IBM stock and the company's fortunes.
e) Learning how many organizations are actively involved in justin-time production.
Ans: Descriptive. The research does not determine that the production is
effective, the cause of its efficacy or lack thereof, or if it will be used in the
future, it merely attempts to identify a phenomenon and describe new extent
of research use at the present time, in comparison to other methods of

f) Learning the extent of job satisfaction in a company.

Ans: Exploratory Study as it involved interviews. This technique, however, can
yield important insights and more often than not is well worth the effort.
Casual study can also be used be used in this case as we are going to explore
what different users say about the case of job satisfaction

Q No. 2:
Write an extensive literature review on the hypothesis stating:






employees performance. Literature review:

In a statement, "career commitment has a positive relationship with the
employee's performance" hypothesis stated that the employee's performance
strongly influenced the career commitment and set their organization.
Analytical and theoretical reviews of many researchers have agreed to test
this hypothesis. Definition of career commitment to literature as inferred
career development of staff.
In simple language, and a commitment to mean "a sense of intellectual
adherence to some part of the work," Which include the relationship between
one people to others. In the work environment and we always see these bonds
between Staff and the organization associated where affection measured in
terms of employee performance and organizational policies and procedures
provided. The organization provides legal profession to work with, or
sometimes building strategies and regulations that are committed to
employees who were hired, and should follow the staff of this commitment to
the efficient organization that appoints them.
Over the years, the career commitment and measure in many different ways
Can be a balancing force that works to maintain and stimulate behavioral
trend of employees.
Force courteous which requires a person honors the commitment.
Can determine the strength of the individual physiological and attachment felt
by the person in Organization and so on.
Career commitment in the organization:
Before diving into the depth of the employee's behavior and we focus on the

actual career commitment that has been provided. The physical environment
in the core and external organization and keep hold of their employees.

Is based on the staff's commitment to the reception and an estimate of the

performance of the temptation to match this contribution may also be
rewarded interview with this project. One factor is the physiological or
emotional attachment employee is responsible for the positive responses of
the organization through loyalty, and warmth, and property and pleasure etc.
All in all, supports career commitment to the goal of the organization. To prove
this statement, many of the analytical reviews, models, theories have been
circulated, but we emphasize and highlight the Meyer and Allen visualization
It is scheduled functional organizational commitment to a large extent and
strategic actions under the control of one wave and the mean of the entire
administration. Behavioral characteristics are mainly in the work done in the
recital to continue the improvement in the current job mobility and function of
attention environment.
Relationship commitment to employee performance:
Employee work behavior scale correlates positively with career commitment.
Many exciting changes that have occurred in the past few decades in a new
retail format that can be seen in large organizations. It is important for
retailers to understand why staff performance through motivation and job
satisfaction, and organizational commitment. It can measure the performance
of staff in terms of motivation and satisfaction. Now we can say there is no
statistically significant difference between motivation and job satisfaction and
career commitment to a positive relationship.
These variables are determined by the education and employment of the
person's experience. He said research indicates that the employee's role
changes with reference to the career opportunities member. It is true that if
employees bear less responsibility than others. Stakeholders need to control
and work to promote and maintain employment. In this two-changing
There are many supervisors concerned officials to pay up the entire system.
Company policies or institution plays an important role in the provision of
career commitment, as we said before. In a way or other policies should have
emerged after the old application. It seems that the organization may benefit
from enhanced Commitment at all levels that cause reduced absenteeism and
performance clearly seen. Early researchers tend to focus on job satisfaction
key position on the staff performance, such as job performance and rotation.
But now new research said with confidence that the career and commitment is
an important indicator of attitudes staff and intentions performance.

Theoretical perceptions on job commitment and performance:

Can be seen to the model in Figure 1 summarize the various concepts and
theories in one box, the theoretical framework in that an employee who he is
committed to work, work colleague who worked with him and the regulatory
environment where he did not hesitate, but loyal salary and

the most important and promotion done by the struggle for personal needs
and the performance of the organization. The availability of these variables for
satisfaction employee to perform well with higher positive commitment to the
organization [1].
Theory of motivation:
Motivation is the process that is the individual intensity, direction, and
continued efforts towards
Accomplish the goal.
Density means to measure the labor force for a person
There is a trend that benefits the organization
Continuation tell us that the employee gives the quality of work and effort
over a long period of time
On the basis of the above definition came many researchers gave their
theories supporting the motivation [10]. Herzberg's theory, such as hygiene,
McClelland's theory of need, expectation theory Fromm, and or Hackman and
his colleagues model design and function [11]. Motivation is only the first
step that can produce a particular behavior of an employee who is related
Herzberg's hygiene theory:
Herzberg suggested two factors, i.e. hygiene and motivation in his theory that
people need for accountability progress and linked to all the attractive,
challenging work, safety, holidays and currency system preference salary. This
system is established to highly motivated people to give the best output.
Theory professional motivation in London:
I have studied the effects of individual and situational variables and extra
work on job commitment. There is a need for these three types of specific
factors, interests, and personal variables relevant to a career. Work
environment factors can influence career motivation, such as "employment
policies and procedures, leadership style, job design, group cohesion, career
development programs, and compensation system "[12].
Maslow's theory of motivation theory:
This theory states that the hierarchy of needs theory, which has been proved
that individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all requirements in
the current (lower) level are satisfied. He packed many of the needs in the five
basic factors. Perhaps, for globalization and competitive pay these days staff
about their professional lives and careers. Organizations, that can help

employees to develop in areas of their lives, may lead to not only improve
their performance, but her facility of the organization, and perhaps to change
the future of a very

individual incentive to more logic contributor in the organization, because they

already satisfy the need of self-realization, and respect for, physiological,
safety and other needs Maslow suggested [13].
Commitment to the theory of organization:
The concept of commitment Meyer and Allen Organization, there are three
general themes of commitment; affection, and its continuation, the standard
can be seen in the figure (2), and when this is coupled together produce the
highest positive staff behavior [14].
Emotional attachment to the organization:
It refers to the emotional attachment to the identification and involvement in
the organization. Employee with a strong emotional commitment to continue
working with the organization. Affectionate can become through personal or
structural characteristics, work experience and career related theme.
Continued attachment of the organization:
It refers to an awareness of the cost related with leaving the organization.
Cost includes the threat of leaving wasting time and effort to acquire nontransferable skills and the advantages or the presence of family and personal
relationships. Employees who are is based on the fundamental asset to any
organization on the career commitment to stay because they need it.
Standard facility of the organization:
A high level of employee commitment to the performance feel they must
remain with organization. I've included a bonus in advance in terms of money,
reward, or any tangible. These things feel employee to feel an obligation to
reciprocate by committing themselves to the organization.
Reinforcement theory:
It focuses on the affiliation between behavior (performance) and
consequences (pay) money or other cash incentives are an important feature
to increase the employee's performance. Basic and adequate salary structure
is very useful to motivate employees in the organization.

Conceptual model:
As discussed above, depending on the employee's behavior career and
commitment as well, so with the concepts career framework commitment is
the independent variable. It can be any policies, rules and formal organization
strategies or it may be an informal way Handling employee performance. But

in this relationship there moderators involved in this case, is that job

satisfaction is high or low affection will decide the level of production of the
employee in organization is also shown in Figure 1 .






Job Satisfaction

Figure 1: Relation between Career Commitment, Job Satisfaction and

Employee's Performance


1. Rehman K., Rehman Z., Saif N., Khan A.S., Nawaz A. and Rehman S., "Impacts
of Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment: A Theoretical Model for
Academicians in HEI of Developing Countries like Pakistan", Intl J. of Acad. Res.
in Acc., Fin. and Manag. Sci., 3(1), 8089 (2013)
2. Jaros S.J. "An assessment of Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model
of organizational commitment and turnover intentions", J. of vocat. Behav.,
51(3), 319-337 (1997)
3. Arnold J., "Managing careers into the 21st century", Sage.
4. Becker E.T. and Billings R.S., "Foci and bases of employee commitment
implications for job performance", Acad. of manag. J., 39(2), 464-482 (1996)
5. Robert E. and Robin E., "Perceived organizational support", J. of appl.
physiology, 71(3), 500-507 (1986)
6. Kriflik G., Zanko M. and Jones M., "On the antecedents of career commitment",
Faculty of Commerce Paper, 1-22 (2006)
7. Kossek E. E., Roberts K., Fisher S. and Demarr B., "Career self-management: a
quasi experimental assessment of the effect of a training intervention",
Personnel Psychology, 51, 935
962 (1998)
8. Arnold J. and Davey K. M., "Graduate work experiences as predictors of
organizational commitment: what experiences really matter?", Applied
Psychology: An International Review, 48, 211238 (1999)
9. Kumar A., "An Empirical Study: Relationship between Employee Motivation,
Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment", Int. J. Manag. Bus. Res., 4(2),
81-93 (2014)

Werner J. and DeSimore R., "Human Resources Development" 5Th ed.

South-Western Cengage Learning, (2009)


Ramlall S. "A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their

Implications for Employee Retention within Organizations", J. of Am. Acad. of

Bus., 5(1/2), 52-63 (2004)

Goulet L. R. and Singh P., "Career Commitment: A Reexamination and an

Extension", J. of Vocat. Behav., 61, 73-91 (2002)


Andrea M., Riveros M. and Shir T. T., "Career Commitment and

Organizational Commitment in forProfit and non-Profit Sectors", Int. J. Emerg.

Sci., 1(3), 324-340 (2011)

Allen N. and Meyer J. P., "The measurement and antecedents of affective,

continuance and normative commitment to the organization", J. of Occup.

Psych., 63(1), 1-18 (1990)
Jones M. L., Zanko M. and Kriflik G., "On the Antecedents of Career
Commitment", Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of
Management Conference, 1-22 (2006)