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FINAL PAPER

Introduction
The use of project management in businesses is steadily growing around the world. The
benefits of using project management in business have helped much business to deliver quality
projects that are within the set budgets. Currently, businesses are handling large projects that
require careful planning due to limitations of resources, time and costs. Projects management life
cycle is being followed closely by organizations to ensure that the projects become a success. As
the technology advances, project management software has been developed to ensure accuracy,
efficiency and reliability in project management. Project management involves a myriad of
activities enhances its benefits to organizations.
Definition and Importance of Project Management
Project management refers to the process and activities of planning, motivating,
controlling and organizing the resources, protocols and procedures to achieve particular goals. A
project is an endeavor designed to produce a unique service or product with a beginning and an
end. It is usually defined by constrained by scope, resources and time in meeting its goals and
objectives of bringing an added value or beneficial change. A project is a distinctive, transient
endeavor that is undertaken to achieve strategic objectives that can be defined in terms of
benefits, output or outcomes. According to Project Management Institute (2008), a project is
deemed to be a success if it achieves the set goals according to the predetermined acceptance
criteria, within the budget and agreed timescale. The achievement of the goals of a project is
determined by how the project is managed.
Project management is increasingly being used in businesses of all sizes around that
world. As company executives and entrepreneurs deal with the daily organizational management

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responsibilities, it is important to have dedicated project managers to supervise projects from


beginning to completion. Understanding of effective techniques of project management helps
organizations to carry out projects on budget, time and with nominal disruptions to other
business activities. Since a project is a temporary and a unique venture, it has no steps or
blueprints that are in place to develop the required service of product (Richman, 2002). The
expertise and the required experience lie with the project managers who help to integrate the
resources of the business and utilize planning, budgeting skills, and communication to achieve
the project objectives. Many business projects are large-scale their planning affects all aspects or
departments of a business.
Implementing such projects may mean dealing supply, human resources budgetary
constraints. Accredited project managers possess the required project management techniques
skills that are specific to one-time projects. Organization that use project management to control
and monitor their processes and schedules can complete their projects on budget and on time.
Project management helps to create a timeline that requires coordination of the project activities
with the ongoing business activities. A project manager identifies the details of all the activities
that are required in each projects phase and lead the teams with the businesss staff members in
carrying out each phase. Project management enables the business staff members to work within
project management plan parameters. The timeline of the project is directly correlated to the
projects scope. Project management is important to the businesses implementing comprehensive
projects. Carrying out a comprehensive business endeavor requires cautious coordination to
ensure the minimum possible impact on ongoing production and sales. Project managing helps to
keep the projects on a budget.
Project life-cycle management and the benefits of project management to an organization

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Project life-cycle management involves managing the four phase of the project namely
initiation, planning, execution, and closure. The first three phases are vital to the project because
they involve the vital activities of the project. The phases are interlined to one another meaning
that they depend on one another. For example, if there is no planning phase, there could be
nothing to execute (Richman, 2002). Project life cycle management is crucial because it ensure
each phase is completed as required to pave the way for the next phase. The closure that is the
final phase depends on all the other three phases. The closure phase is only reached by projects
that are completed.
Project management benefits the organization by ensuring that the risk in that the project
may face are predetermined and managed. Projects just like any other organizations activities
involve risk. Some projects undertaken by the organizations are too big and involve high risks
that may threaten their completion. The risks may lead to high projects costs that may lead to the
inevitability of the project. Through project management organizations can get quality projects.
A project must meet the standards that are set by the sponsor for it to be termed as successful.
Projects management ensures that all the activities are carried out as planned thus guaranteeing
quality projects (Westland, 2007).
Projects management involves working with a project manager and the project team. A
project manager has all the necessary qualifications to lead the project team and ensure that there
is efficiency in delivering the projects objectives. A project manager helps to balance the three
projects requirements namely time, quality and cost. With these parameters under control, the
organization has no need to worry of the project deliverability. Project management helps the
organization to manage two of its important needs that are to be organized, predictable and
structured and to adapt to the ever changing circumstances.

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Concepts of planning in the project life-cycle and how research and critical thinking is
mandatory in planning
Planning involves developing of the project solution by digging into the project details
and outlining the steps to meet the project's objectives. The three project planning fundamental
components are work identification, cost estimation and preparation of the project schedule. The
project team identifies all the work to be done.The projects resource requirements and tasks are
also identified along with the strategy that will be used to produce them (scope). A project plan
outlining tasks, timeframes, activities and dependencies is created. The project manager
coordinates projects budget preparation by providing material and equipment costs and labor
cost estimates. Once the three fundamental planning components are identified, the team then
identifies the projects risks and categorizes them, according to severity. A communication plan
describing the information required and delivery method is established to keep the stakeholders
informed (Westland, 2007).
Critical thinking and research are mandatory in the planning phase. The rationale behind this is
because the planning phase determines the quality of the project to be delivered. If poor planning
is done the execution phase will execute a rogue plan, hence we will have a project of poor
quality at the end. The project manager and his team must think critically of the quality that the
customer expects from them. They also must think critically to establish all the possible risks to
ensure that the project does not stall during its implementation. Research must be carried out to
establish the best materials that will meet the expected quality and standards of the project. The
team has to carry out a research to find out the challenges that were faced by a similar projects
and how they were handled.

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Project organizations and the importance of leadership and sponsorship


Project organization refers to the projects human infrastructure. It defines the project
team members relationship and responsibilities. Project organization structure clearly pinpoints
the responsibilities of every position augmenting the existing definitions of those roles to cover
all the responsibilities. Leadership is crucial in project management (Morris & Pinto, 2010).
Leadership helps to give a sense of direction to the project. The senior-most leader in the project
is the project sponsor. A project sponsor is normally at the highest possible organizational level.
Project sponsors normally are people with the interest in the project and are determined to see
that a project becomes a success. They support the project and will do anything within their
powers to ensure that success is achieved. However, a project should have other leaders
especially a steering committee which should be operational from the commencement of the
project. The steering committee is composed of organizations senior managers and is tasked
with making key decisions about the project (Morris & Pinto, 2010). The project manager is the
tasked with implementation of the project as stipulated in the project charter. Leadership ensures
smooth running of activities hence efficiency in project delivery
Project team building, including techniques of successful team building
Project team building involves a project focused process that helps to build and develop
common goals, trust, accountability, interdependence and commitment among team members.
Team building techniques are methods used to build strong and effective teams. The five stages
of an effective team are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning (Egolf &
Chester, 2007). The norming stage involves a meeting of members where they learn about the
project and their roles and responsibilities. In the storming stage, the team begins to discourse the

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project work, project management approach, and technical decisions. In the norming stage, the
project team members start working together and adjust to behaviors and work habits that
support the team. In performing stage, the team members work through challenges smoothly and
effectively. In adjourning which is the last stage, the team completes the project and disperse
(Egolf & Chester, 2007).
How to create a work breakdown structure and how a project manager breaks down the
overall project into packages
Creation of a WBS enables a project manager to specific and comprehensive when
managing a project. The process of creating a WBS require inputs that include scope
management plan, project scope statement, requirement and documentation, enterprise
environmental factors and an organization process assets. In creating a WBS, a project manager
can use decomposition or expert judgment tools and techniques. Decomposition involves the
subdivision of the project deliverables into smaller and manageable components until the
deliverables, and the work are defined to package level (Nagarajan, 2005). The package level is
usually the lowest level of the WBS. It is the point at which activity and cost can be estimated
and managed reliably. The detail level for the work package varies with complexity and size of
the project. Decomposition of the total project work involves identification and analysis of
deliverables, structuring, and WBS organization. It also involves decomposition of upper WBS
levels into lower levels detailed components and verifying whether the work decomposition
degrees are sufficient. The WBS development process involves the determination of the major
deliverables, dividing the major deliverables into smaller components and dividing each of the
workpieces into smaller components (packages) (Nagarajan, 2005).

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Need for project management software in large integrated programs and the benefits to the
overall project management organization
Large integrated programs are complex to handle manually. However, project
management software is not only efficient but also accurate and reliable. It is also fast thus
helping to save time. The project management software gives the team a way to cooperate on the
project by sharing status updates, documents, and timeline. It also helps in delegating tasks to
appropriate employees (Wysocki, 2013). By assigning the responsibilities using the system,
every employee can access the necessary information and knows who to communicate with in
case of concerns or questions. Project management software help to track the progress as well as
communicate with vendors, clients, and employees.
Conclusion
Project management involves a myriad of activities enhances its benefits to organizations.
Project management is increasingly being used by businesses around the world. Project
management life cycle lays down the phases that are involved in project management that
include initiation, planning, execution, and closure. The phases are interlinked and depend on
one another. Project management involves team building to enable the members to achieve the
common goals of the project. In project management, leadership and sponsorship are very vital
to ensure that it has a sense of direction. A project manager has the responsibility initiating and
completing the project. Additionally he develops a WBS to ensure that work is subdivided into
small into packages. As the projects become large and complex, the need for project management
software in large integrated programs has arisen. Businesses of all sizes have realized the
importance of project management.

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Egolf, D. B., & Chester, S. L. (2007). Forming, storming, norming, performing: Successful
communication in groups and teams. New York: IUnverse.References

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Morris, P., & Pinto, J. K. (2010). The Wiley Guide to Project Organization and Project
Management Competencies. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Nagarajan, K. (2005). Project management. New Delhi: New Age International.
Project Management Institute. (2008). A guide to the project management body of knowledge:
(PMBOK guide). Newtown Square, Pa: Project Management Institute.
Richman, L. L. (2002). Project management step-by-step. New York: Amacom.
Wysocki, R. K. (2013). Effective software project management. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Westland, J. (2007). The project management lifecycle: A complete step-by-step methodology for
initiating, planning, executing and closing a project successfully. London [etc.: Kogan
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