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You are on page 1of 18

By

Pratik Upadhyay and Harsh Sharma

Supervisor

Anne Schauble

Contents

1 Notations

2 Introduction

2.1

2.2

2.3

3.1

3.2

Algorithmic Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

12

4.1

12

4.2

13

4.2.1

Cooks Membrane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

4.2.2

14

15

4.3.1

Curved Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.3.2

16

4.3

17

6 References

17

Notations

Symbol

Meaning

Total Strain

Ec

Compatible Strain

e

E

Enhanced Strain

eb

Body forces

e

t

Traction forces

Cauchy Stress

b S

S,

Ni

Material Matrix

Gij

Interpolation Matrix

Jacobian Matrix

W0S

f ext

External force

f int

Internal force

Residual

Stiffness Matrix

Introduction

This report deals with the problem of locking in finite elements and various methods to overcome it.The

methods are briefly discussed in the following sections and one of the methods viz. Enhanced Assumed

Strain Method is presented in detail. The implementation of an EAS 8 noded Hexahedral element is

carried out for a Non-Linear problem.

2.1

Locking means the effect of a reduced rate of convergence for coarse meshes in dependence of a critical

parameter. In simpler terms, locking occurs when a finite element behaves too stiffly during deformation,

due to the way its shape functions are defined. The discretization of the variational principle gives rise

to parasitic shear stress terms ,which cause the formation of hour glass modes in the element. Nearly

all first order FE except Bernoulli beams and Kirchhoff-love shell elements show this kind of behaviour.

This problem is very pronounced in cases of bending. It is also exacerbated with an increasingly

slender element.The kind of locking problems considered here are :

Shear Locking

Volumetric Locking

Volumetric locking is less pronounced in case of compressible materials (i.e Poisson ratio 0)

2.2

In this section various possible approaches used to eliminate locking are described briefly.

1. Selective Reduced Integration

This is a kind of reduced integration scheme which establishes a good compromise between

efficiency and stability. The strain energy is split into different parts and integrated with different

rules. Reduced integration leads to rank insufficiency for example for Q1 - it is also possible and

used, but with hourglass stabilization. Selective reduced integration is possible to reduce shear

locking by 2x2 integration for normal part, 1 Gauss Point for shear part. It is capable of removing

all kinds of locking.

2. Method of Incompatible modes

This is one of the first non-conforming finite element methods. It removes both shear and

volumetric locking by use of incompatible displacement modes added to the standard element.In

effect,local degrees of freedom are added to the element which do not interact with the global

system.These DOFs are eliminated by Static Condensation

3. Assumed Natural Strain Method

The above described methods dont perform so well with distorted meshes or with plate and shell

elements.As a result the ANS method based on the Hu-Wazishu principle is used. At its core

the method is a collocation method, where certain sampling points are selected and strain values

within the element are interpolated from these points.

3

These methods are based on the Hellinger Reisner Variational principal. The idea is to make stress

a free parameter rather than dependent on displacements. As a result we can simply choose not

to approximate the parasitic terms. This method requires inversion of the material matrix, which

is not always possible with non-linear material behaviour.

5. Enhanced Assumed Strain Method Formulations(EAS)

This method is derived from the Hu Wazishu Principle. These are the most popular elements in

commercial codes due to the computational efficieny.However it is not so good for shell elements

as it cannot elimnate trapezoidal locking. More about this method is discussed in the following

section.

2.3

The EAS Method is an alternative to the hybrid stress formulation. It is capable of eliminating shear

and volumetric locking. In the hybrid stress formulation, the shear stresses are simply removed. In

the EAS formulation we add free parameter strain components, also called (enhanced strains).

The added quantities are removed with the help of a variational constraint and static condensation.

As a result, the stiffness matrix is the same size as a standard element. Furthermore, the material

matrix need not be inverted, making it preferable for non-linear material behaviour.

The starting point for the EAS method is the Hu-Wazishu principle.

Z

HW (u, , ) =

u P d

T nT (u u)d (1)

du

Instead of immediately discretizing the principle, we Re-Parametrize the strain tensor as follows

= c + e = Lu + e

(2)

= u + e = Lu + e

(3)

The stresses are eliminated from the variational principle by use of an orthogonality condition. Thus

R

R

the enhanced assumed strains e

, mustsatisf ythef ollowingcondition. T ed = T ed = 0

The free parameters (i ) that control the enhanced strains are statically condensed out during the

discretization.

A complete derivation for a 3-D Geometrically Non-Linear Element is done in the next section

In this work, we introduce three independent variables as Second Piola Kirschoff Stress, Enhanced

Strains and Displacements into weak form via Hu Washizu mixed finite element formulation. Further,

the Second Piola Kirschoff stress will be eliminated via Orthogonality condition.

The main idea is to split the total strain field into compatible and enhanced parts as follows:

E := Ec + E

(4)

Where, compatible strains Ec are defined as geometrically non-linear Green-Langrangian strains for

are interpolated via a

displacement based iso-parametric 3D element. The enhanced strains E

interpolation matrix in iso-parametric space, which will be mapped to real physical space. Compatible

strain parts Ec are given as follows:

T

1

I + Gradu I + Gradu I

(5)

2

Further, with the Hu-Washizu priniciple, we introduce the following three field variational function:

Ec =

S) = int (u, E,

S) + ext (u)

= (u,

E,

(6)

Assuming the material to be homogenous and hyper-elastic, following expressions for internal and

external potentials are introduced:

Z

S:E

dV

W0S Ec + E

int =

(7)

Where W0S is the internal stored energy for the reference confiiguration. Further, the potential

corresponding to external conservative forces is give as

Z

Z

e udV

0 b

ext =

et udA

(8)

Now, to obtain the weak form, we make first variation of the total Potential function equal to zero

=

Z

W0S

E + E S : E dV

c

Z

e udV

0 b

et udA MIN

(9)

= 0

(10)

S u, E,

S = d u , E

, S = 0

= D u, E,

d =0

(11)

u = u + u

(12)

= E

+ E

(13)

Where,

S = S + S

(14)

=! 0

u +

: S +

: E

u

S

E

As mentioned in paper from S.Klinkel and W.Wagner, above equation can be simplified to

=

Z

B

W0S

: Ec dV

E

e udV

0 b

B

et udA +

B

W0S

S : EdV

(15)

S : EdV

= 0 (16)

Ec =

T

1

GradT u I + Gradu + I + Gradu Gradu

2

(17)

we get following

Since, the first variation has to vanish for any arbitrary variations u and E

relations

Z

S : EdV

=0

(18)

Z

B

W0S

E

W0S

S : EdV

=0

E

B

Z

Z

c

e

et udA = 0

: E dV

0 b udV

B

(19)

(20)

From the above equations we get the following Euler Langrangian equations

=0

E

(21)

W0S

=S

E

Div FS + 0 b = 0

(22)

(23)

:=

In the previous expression for funtional variation, we introduce stress term S

S =

u, E,

Z

B

: Ec dV

S

Z

e udV

0 b

W0S

E

et udA+

Z

S : EdV

S

S : EdV

(24)

Above equation = 0 is a system of Non-Linear equations which needs to be solved via Newton

Raphson Iteration scheme. We expand around current iteration level k to get

k+1 , Sk+1 = uk , E

k , Sk + D uk , E

k , Sk uk+1 , E

k+1 , Sk+1 = 0

uk+1 , E

Where the second term in the above expression can be extended as

(25)

3.1

c W0S

W0S

k , Sk uk+1 , E

k+1 , Sk+1 =

D uk , E

E

E dV +

Ec

EdV +

EE

EE

B

B

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

W0S

W0S

W0S

c

c

: SdV

E dV +

E

EdV +

E

E dV

S : EdV

E

E

EE

EE

B

B

B

B

B

(26)

To describe the compatible strains Ec we use the standard shape function for a 8 node element in

isoparametric space, such that NA B = BA . Using these shape functions we can describe geometry

and displacement fields as

xe =

nX

elem

NI xI

ue =

nX

elem

NI uI

(27)

I=1

I=1

c

E =

nX

elem

BI uI

(28)

I=1

displacements u. Further, we introduce the discretization of enhanced strains in Isoparametric space

at an element level as

e = M , , e

(29)

Where, M is interpolation matrix for enhanced strains in isoparametric space. e is internal strain

parameter vector, whose size could be larger than enhanced strain vector. However, this strain in

isoparametric space has to be transformed into real physical space with Jacobian matrix of

isoparametric element evaluated at center of element.

kl =

detJ

ij Jlj0

Jki0 E

detJ0

e = detJ0 TT

E

detJ 0

Where, J0 is Jacobian matrix evaluated at center of the isoparametric element

(30)

(31)

x, y, z,

J0 = x, y, z,

=0,=0,=0

x, y, z,

and T0 can be referred to Paper by Andelfinger and Ramm. Further, to determine the interpolation

Matrix M, we consider a patch test with element-wise constant stresses S0e and satisfy the following

equation

Z

S0e Ee dV = 0

(32)

Z

S0e

detJ0 T

T detJddd = 0

detJ 0

(33)

All the constant quantities like S0e , detJ0 and T0 can be taken to right side giving a useful relation

for interpolation matrix M

Z

M , , e ddd = 0

(34)

One possible choice for M which satisfy the above patch test can be obtained from Andelfinger and

Ramm. Thus, we can represent the interpolation function GE , , for Enhanced Green Strains in

e as

real physical space E

detJ0 T

GE , , =

T0 M , ,

(35)

detJ

Now, we use the interpolation functions presented so far to describe the variational formulation. We

assume a hyperelastic material such that elasticity tensor could be represented as

W0S

(36)

EE

Considering that E is symmetric and W0S has potential properties, we can represent C in a 66

matrix form. Further, we define a stress field as

C=

= W0S

S

E

(37)

= S11 , S22 , S33 , S12 , S13 , S23

S

T

(38)

Now we make use of the orthogonality condition between enhanced strains and discontinuous stresses

Z

S : EdV

=

S : EdV

=

S : EdV

=

: SdV = 0

E

(39)

: EdV

S

+

: E dV

S

c

BZ

B

Z

0 b udV

et udA+

Z

c

c

c

+

E : C : E + S : E dV +

Ec : C : EdV

B

Z

Z

c

: C : EdV

E : C : E dV +

E

= 0 (40)

B

Now making use of the interpolation functions for compatible and enhanced strains as introduced

before

c

E =

nX

elem

e = GE e

E

BI uI

I=1

(41)

nX

elem

I=1

uTI

Z

BTI SdV

NTI 0 bdV

nX

elem Z

J=1

Te

NTI etdV +

BTI CBJ

+ GIJ dV uJ +

BTI CGE dV e

Z

GTE SdV

nX

elem

GTE CBJ dV

Z

uJ +

J=1

GTE CGE dV e = 0 (42)

R

Where, the part B GIJ dV is the so called Geometric or Initial-Stress stiffness matrix.

Here we introduce the following quantities

f

int

BTI SdV

(43)

ext

NTI 0 bdV

=

B

Z

+

NTI etdV

BTI CBJ + GIJ dV

k=

(44)

(45)

BTI CGE dV

(46)

GTE SdV

(47)

GTE CBJ dV

(48)

GTE CGE dV

(49)

h=

B

Z

=

B

Z

H=

B

using above terms we can re-write the discretized consistent linearization of weak form as follows

uT f int f ext + ku + T + T h + u + H = 0

(50)

which should be satisfied for any arbitrary values of uT and T , thus we get following system of

equations

"

# "

#"

#

f int f ext

k T

u

+

=0

h

H

(51)

= H1 h H1 u

(52)

f int f ext + ku + T = 0

(53)

f int f ext + ku T H1 h T H1 u = 0

(54)

k T H1 u = f int f ext + T H1 h

(55)

KT u = R

(56)

We then perform the following update procedure

uk+1 = uk + u

(57)

k+1 = k H1 h + u

(58)

= C Ec + E

10

(59)

3.2

Algorithmic Box

11

4

4.1

Description of Test Cases

To verify that the formulation of the element is stable and gives correct results, first we performed a

test study on a standard cantilever arrangement meshed with a single element and compared tip

displacement from 3 different sources: NumPro Implementation, Maple and ABAQUS. We obtained a

good similarity in the results, which verifies that our NumPro FE implementation works fine. The

cantilever beam is modeled in ABAQUS with xxxx element. Total tip load applied is 1280 N

distributed equally on all the 4 nodes.

Tool

Tip Displacement

ABAQUS MAPLE

0.0198

0.018

NumPro

0.0188

The closely approximated solutions for tip displacement confirms the validity of our Element

formulation against commercial FE code ABAQUS. The element used in ABAQUS is C3D8R with

enhanced hourglass formulation.

12

4.2

To study the Linear behaviour of Hexaeder8-EAS element we first take up the Standard Cooks

Membrane test for a varying mesh density to perform the convergence study. Further, we perform a

distortion test study to check the behaviour of Hexaeder8-EAS element with increasing trapezoidal

locking.

4.2.1

Cooks Membrane

In first test, we take up the popular Cooks Membrane to check the antilocking behaviour of

Hexaeder8-EAS elements in the geometrically linear setting. We compare the solutions with standard

Hexaeder8. We observe that Hexaeder8-EAS gives good antilocking response in geometrically linear

case. Following is the Cooks membrane used for the study.

Mesh Desnity

Hexaeder8

44

66

1515

18.577 22.008

24.363

25.129

As expected, the Hexaeder8-EAS already gives a stabilized converged solution. Following is the

graphical representation for the convergence study:

13

4.2.2

distortion test study. We check the cantilever tip displacement for Hexaeder8 and Hexaerder8-EAS

elements with increasing distortion parameter s. Following is the model used for distortion test study:

As the distortion parameter s is increased, it will cause increase in the locking and it is expected that

the solutions for standard Hexaeder8 element will be worse then Hexaeder8-EAS element. The reason

being the capability of Hexaeder8-EAS element to tackle locking problem better than Hexaeder8

element. However, in this case, increasing the distortion parameter increases the trapezoidal locking.

As it is well known fact that EAS method is sensitive to trapezoidal locking, the displacements for

Hexaeder8-EAS element decreases at a higher rate than Hexaeder8 element. But, the solution

accuracy is still much better for Hexaeder8-EAS element. Following Table summarizes the results for

the distortion test study:

Distortion

Hexaeder8

Hexaeder8-EAS 0.020001

0.017935

0.015909

0.013849

0.012013

Further, to get a quantitative understanding, we calculate the Displacement Ratio w(s)/w(0), with

w(0) as the tip displacement for the case of Hexaeder8-EAS element. Following table shows the

displacement ratios:

Distortion

Hexaeder8

Hexaeder8-EAS 100

Following two figures are the graphical representation of the above tables:

14

4.3

We perform the non-linear testing in two parts: first we study the convergence behaviour for a curved

cantilever beam with tip load and varying mesh density. Further, we perform a distortion test study

to understand the antilocking behaviour of Hexaeder8-EAS elements in non-linear setting.

4.3.1

Curved Beam

To test the anilocking behaviour of Hexaeder8-EAS element for geometrically non-linear problems, a

45-degree bend cantilever with a tip concentrated load is used. The cantilever has a radius of 100cm

and a cross-section of 1cm1cm. A convergence study was performed on this cantilever beam with

increasing number of elements from an initial mesh of 16 elements. Following picture shows the

contour plots for tip displacement for the case of 16 element mesh.

Following table summarizes the convergence study done for the curved cantilever beam with varing

mesh density.

Mesh Density

16

Hexaeder8

Hexaeder8-EAS 0.4681

25

40

50

As expected, the Hexaeder8-EAS element gives much better and converged solution as compared to

Hexaeder8 element. Following is the graphical representation of the above table:

15

4.3.2

In this section we try to understand the antilocking behaviour of Hexaeder8-EAS elements towards

increasing trapezoidal locking. We perform simulation on a curved beam with 10 elements and

varying radius of curvature R. Reducing R increases the curvature and thus will create an effect of

increased trapezoidal locking. Following table summarizes the test results.

Radius(cm)

80

60

40

20

Hexaeder8

Further, as expected, the displacements for Hexaeder8 Element is smaller as compared to

Hexaeder8-EAS when Radius is small, due to higher locking in Hexaeder8 element. The following

figure shows the graphical representation of the above table.

16

The EAS element implemented here eliminates the problems of Volumetric and Shear locking, thus

making it usable for bending problems.

The next step would be to make it capable of being used in thin structures as a substitute for shell

elements. For this purpose Trapezoidal locking must be eliminated from the element. We suggest

looking into the DSG (Discrete Strain Gap) method for this purpose.

Also the current element implements a mathematically inconsistent stress calculation method. This

can be changed to a variationally consistent formulation as described in [1].

References

1. A Geometrical Non-Linear Element Based On The EAS Method. institut f

ur Baustatik,

Karlsruhe mitteilung 5 (1997): n. pag. Print.

2. Belytschko, Ted, W. K Liu, and B Moran. Nonlinear Finite Elements For Continua And

Structures. Chichester: Wiley, 2000. Print.

17

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