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Mechanism of Anisotropic Lamellar Fractures

HUNG-CHI CHAO

Texture banding is common in sheet steels, especially in highly alloyed steels. Aniso- tropic plastic flow during tensile straining is known to cause cold-rolled and annealed ferritic-stainless-steel sheet to exhibit "ridging" or "roping" in the plane of the sheet even though there is no banding due to grain size, carbides, or inclusions. It has been ob- served that groups of grains having a common crystallographic orientation can appear in ribbon-like form and can result in anisotropic banding. In ferritic stainless steel, such bands frequently consist of the cube-on-face texture component imbedded as layers in a cube-on-corner matrix. In the present study, it was demonstrated that in tensile defor- mation, such "texture" banding results in anisotropic plastic flow, causing thin sheet to ridge on the surface, and thick sheet to develo p cracks that propagate in planes parallel to the sheet surface. In this study, room- and low-temperature tension tests were conducted at low and high strain rates on samples of thin and thick AISI Type 430 ferri- tic-stainless-steel sheet, and room-temperature impact tests were conducted on the thick sheet. The results showed that, at low temperature or high strain rates, the banded cube-on-face texture component imbedded in other matrix orientations, such as the cube- on-corner texture, or a purely cube-on-face textured matrix, tends to cause lamellar fracture of the sheet. This was especially true in thick sections. The proposed mecha- nism is a generalized crystal-plasticity phenomenon that is applicable to any material in which texture-orientation banding or clustering effects occur and the mechanism may be one of several possible causes of "splitting" which is sometimes observed in high- strength alloy-steel plates, such as line-pipe plates, when fractured dynamically.

TEXTURE banding is common in sheet steels, es-

ducted at

a

were

mm) sheet, and the other from cold-rolled and an-

 

pecially in highly alloyed steels. ''~ Anisotropic plas-

nealed 0.020-in.-thick (0.5 mm) sheet.

The composi-

tic flow during tensile straining is known to cause

tion of each sample is shown in Table I.

 

cold-rolled and annealed sheet of ferritic stainless

Room-temperature tension tests

were used to strain

steel to exhibit "ridging" or "roping" (a corrugated

both sheets, and tension tests at - 320~

(- 196~

were

surface) in the plane of the sheet,' even in the absence of banding from grain size, carbides, or inclusions. It

used to strain the thicker

strain rate

sheet.

Both tests

were Also, a high strain

con-

of 0.167 s-'.

has been observed that anisotropic banding may appear

rate of 200

s-' was used to break some samples of thin

in layered or ribbon-like form ',~ when the cube-on

sheet at- 100~ (-73~ The low-temperature tests

face (CF) texture component is imbedded as layers in

used to lower the ductility of the

steel and thus

a cube-on-corner (CC) matrix, Fig. l(a). 2,3 In a re-

to ensure that lamellar fracture would occur if the

 

cent discussion on the ridging phenomenon, 4 it

was

suggested that this type of anisotropic banding may cause interracial splitting or delamination in the plane of the sheet when strained at low temperature or at high speed. In the present investigation, an anisotropic texture analysis and metallographic study was performed on light- and heavy-gage AISI Type 430 stainless-steel sheet to demonstrate that the anisotopic plastic flow which causes thin sheet to ridge on the surface may also cause cracks to initiate and to propagate parallel to the sheet surface, resulting in lamellar fracture of plate product. It is believed that this mechanism con- tributes to the "splitting" which is sometimes ob- served in alloy-steel plates.

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK

The two Type 430 stainless-steel sheet samples used in this investigation were produced from two dif- ferent commercial heats. One sample was obtained from hot-rolled and annealed 0.120 in.-thick (3.05

Mechanism of Anisotropic Lamellar Fractures HUNG-CHI CHAO Texture banding is common in sheet steels, especially in

HUNG-CHI CHAO is Research Consultant, United States Steel Cor- Fig. 1--Schematic diagram depicting anisotropic plastic-

poration, Monroeville,PA 15146. Manuscript submitted July 22, 1977.

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONSA

flow of ribbon-like cube-on-face texture component imbedded within cube-on-corner matrix under external force.

ISSN 0360-2133/ 78 / 0410-0509500.75/0 9 1978 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR METALS AND

VOLUME 9A, APRIL 1978 509

THE METALLURGICALSOCIETY OF AIME

Table I, Chemical Composition of AISI Type 430 Stainless Steel Investigated-Pct

 

Thin

Sheet,

Thick Sheet,

0.02 in. (0.5 mm)

0.120 in. (3.05 ram)

C

0.071

0.069

Mn

0.43

0.46

P

0.024

0.025

S

0.0O4

0.003

Si

0.42

0.47

Cu

0.05

ND

Ni

0.17

ND

Cr

17.10

16.40

Mo

<0.05

0.16

N

O.050

O.O58

Ti

0.017

ND

ND - Not determined. Conversion Factor: 1 in. = 25.4 ram.

Table I, Chemical Composition of AISI Type 430 Stainless Steel Investigated-Pct Thin Sheet, Thick Sheet, 0.02

Fig. 2--Pole figures of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 ram) sample.

Table I, Chemical Composition of AISI Type 430 Stainless Steel Investigated-Pct Thin Sheet, Thick Sheet, 0.02

Fig. 3--Pole figures of 0.120 in. thick (3.05 ram) sample.

steel was prone to lamellar fracture.

Room-tempera-

ture Charpy V-notch impact tests were conducted on the thicker sheet. X-ray pole figures were obtained near the surface and at the midthickness of both sam- ples. Both samples were examined metallographically by using both light and scanning-electron microscopy

(SEM).

Deep-etching techniques 1 were

used to delineate

the CF bands

in both samples.

 
 

RESULTS

As

shown in Figs.

2

and

3, the pole figures

reveal

 

that

a strong

(100) texture

is present

along with the

(111) type orientation matrix

in both

the thin and

thick

samples. For the thicker sheet, notice that the (100)

  • 510 VOLUME 9A, APRIL 1978

intensity is extremely high at the midthickness and is lower than random toward the surface. For both ma- terials, Figs. 4 and 5 show that the dark-etching (100)-type oriented grains are clustered in patches or bands parallel to the surface. The tensile fracture surfaces of both materials ex-

amined with the SEM are shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8.

Figure 6 shows the ductile fracture

across

the thin

sample tested at room temperature (this sample ex-

hibited surface ridging). In contrast, the dominant

failure

mode in the thick sample

tested

at

-

320~

(-196~ was quasicleavage fracture, as shown in Fig.

7. More importantly, numerous lamellar fractures ap-

peared on the fracture surface of both the thick sample

tested

at

-

320~

(- 196~

Fig.

7,

and the

thin

sample

tested

at

-

100~

(- 73~

with ductile

fracture

at

a high

strain rate, Fig. 8. For the thick sample, the lamellar fractures oc- curred mostly near the midthickness of the sheet (Fig. 7), where both the intensity of CF-oriented grains is

extremely high (Fig. 3), and the constraint due to thick-

ness is greater. There

is almost no evidence of lamel-

lar fracture toward the surface, where both the in- tensity of the CF texture is lower than random and the contraint is less.

Figure 9 shows fracture surfaces of both the tensile specimen and the Charpy V-notch impact specimens of the thick material tested at room temperature.

Several relatively large lamellar cracks are evident in Fig. 9 rather than the multitude of small cracks shown in Fig. 7. The difference in fracture mode be- tween the room-temperature tests (Fig. 9) and the low-temperature tests (Fig. 7) is presumably due to the greater ductility of the specimen tested at room temperature as compared with the ductility of the specimen tested at low temperatures. Note that the appearance of the lamellar cracks in the impact speci-

mens

(Fig.

9)

is

very

similar

to the splitting which

has been observed in control-rolled steels, such as high-strength line pipe, when fractured dynamically.

DISCUSSION

Crystal-Plasticity

Consideration

Crystal-plasticity calculations and experimental evidence indicate that, when strained in tension, CF-

oriented crystals will exhibit more thinning than CC-

oriented

crystals. 5'~ This

can be

seen

in Fig.

10,

in

which the effect of straining in the longitudinal direc- tion at any given angle from the rolling direction is presented in the form of thickness and width strains as a fraction of longitudinal strain. Plotting the thickness and width strains as a fraction of the longitudinal strain is a different way of presenting the well-known strain ratio (r value), which is defined as the ratio of the width strain to the thickness strainJ As shown in Fig. 10, for the (lll)-oriented matrix, an externally imposed plastic tensile strain in any direction in the plane of the sheet, El, will be mostly manifested as a width shrinkage strain, e~, (0.67

~J ew/elL

~ 0.80), whereas

for bands

of the

(100)-

oriented material,

strain

will be mostly

manifested

as

a thickness

shrinkage

strain,

~t,

(0.50 -<

] s163l ]

-< 1.00).

As

a result,

the

top and bottom interfaces

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A

q Rolling Direction Fig. 4--Micrographs of midthickness of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 mm) sample. Electrolytic polish.

q

Rolling

Direction

Fig. 4--Micrographs of midthickness of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 mm) sample. Electrolytic polish. Vilella's-reagent etch, 1 min. (a) magnified 5.4 times; (b) magnified 385 times.

*l I* Rolling Direction
*l
I*
Rolling
Direction

Fig. 5--Micrographs of midthickness of 0.120 in. thick (3.05 ram) sample. Electrolytic polish. Vilella's-reagent etch, 1 rain. (a) magnified 22 times; (b) magnified 385 times.

separating the (100) bands from the surrounding (111) matrix, as welt as inclusion and carbide bands of weak interface, lying parallel to the sheet surfaces, will be subjected to a separation force because of the differ- ing strain behaviors of the two textures. There is strong resistance to thhnning by the (111) matrix, whereas thinning is the predominant flow mode for the (100) bands. The banding of these textures and carbides, and unavoidable inclusions along the rolling direction produced directionally weak interfaces be- tween the bands. The severity of lamellar fractures will vary with both the direction of the weak interfaces and the differences in strain ratios between textures.

Force For thin sheets

for

Lamellar

Fracture

strained at a temperature

above the

brittle transition temperature, ridging will appear on the sheet surface 1,2 because of the continuity require-

ment imposed by this anisotropic plastic flow. The

ridging occurs

because the rigidity in the thickness

direction of thin sheet is very minimal and because

METALLURGICAL TRANSACT1ONSA

ductile material can withstand straining without frac- turing. For thick material, such as thick sheet or

plate, under impact or other modes of high-rate strain- ing in the plane of the sheet or plate, or for thin sheet strained at low temperature, the rigidity imposed by the thickness or by the low ductility at low tempera- ture prevents the appearance of ridging on the surface. However, the tensile force in the thickness direction

induced by the

plastic flow of the

(lll)

and (100) com-

ponents is well beyond the capability of the material

to maintain continuity, Thus, splitting or lamellar fracture results, particularly at the relatively weak interfaces of banded regions in the rolling plane along the rotting direction resulting from the segregation of inclusions, carbides or elongated grains.

Cleavage Fracture

Lamellar

fracture

can occur

when high normal

strains

and shrinkage forces

fracture

along the inter-

faces of banded regions, but lamellar fracture due to cleavage is particularly prevalent when material has

VOLUME 9A, APRIL 1978-511

Fig. 6--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 ram) sample tested at room

Fig. 6--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 ram) sample tested at room temperature. (a) mag- nified 58.2 times; (b) magnified 1455 times.

low ductility, as at very low temperatures,

especially

since the

(100) plane is a favorable cleavage plane

for body-centered-cubic steels.

It

is

known that be-

cause of elastic energy conservation, the dislocation

mechanism for nucleating cleavage cracks form

takes the

[ i11 101

+

[111]/10i

-

a[0011 100t

for two

intersecting {110} slip bands in bcc material, s

Because all {110} planes in the {100} orientations are

45 deg 0r/4 rad) to the sheet plane containing the

load-

ing direction, this orientation tends to initiate cracks. With this cleavage-nucleation mode, a CF band, as schematically shown in Fig. l(b), should be able to

512-VOLUME 9A, APRIL 1978

Fig. 6--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 ram) sample tested at room

Fig. 7--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.120 in. thick (3.05 mm) sample tested at -320~ (-196~ Arrows indicate lamellar fractures. (a) magnified 57.6 times; (b) magnified 1440 times.

split into layers

as

if the

CF band is thick enough.

Also,

shown in Fig.

10, severe

splitting or lamellar

fracture should occur if the CF texture is the pre- dominant orientation through the thickness of the ma- terial, because the thinning tendency is extremely high; no other orientation has such a high thinning tendency. Splitting of this type can be avoided if the CF orientation and its banding is prevented.

Splitting Phenomenon

In studying the fracture behavior of materials, we generally pay most attention to the effects of inclusions and other phases. The present investigation illus-

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONSA

Fig. 8--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 ram) sample tested at 200

Fig. 8--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.020 in.

thick (0.5 ram) sample tested at 200 in.fin./s at -100~

(-73~

Arrows indicate lamellar fractures.

(a) magnified

112 times; (b) magnified 558 times.

trates that the crystallographic texture of the matrix is also an important variable, particularly with re- spect to anisotropic tamellar-fracture behavior. For example, finish hot rolling of line-pipe steels at low temperatures caused the development of elongated duplex grains with an unfavorable (100) texture that was observed to promote splitting fractures. 9 In a recent paper, 1~ Pickering reported that the com- monly observed CF texture in high-strength low-alloy steels is [100](011), which causes delamination paral- lel to the plane of the sheet. However, some investiga- tors discounted the crystallographic-texture effect as the cause of splitting and lamellar fracture of high- strength low-alloy material. 9,n-~3 Without considering the orientation effect, however, it is hard to explain why splitting also occurred in an inclusion-free sim- ple iron-carbon system without alloying. 9 Even low-

Transverse Longitudinal Longitudinal Impact Impact Tensile
Transverse
Longitudinal
Longitudinal
Impact
Impact
Tensile

Fig. 9--Micrographs of fracture surface of impact and tensile specimens of 0.120 ino thick sheet {3.05 ram) tested at room temperature. Magnified 2.7 times.

Fig. 8--SEM micrographs of fracture surface of 0.020 in. thick (0.5 ram) sample tested at 200

Fig. 10--Amount of induced thickness and width strains as re- lated to longitudinal strain of (100) and (111) orientations.

metalloid iron plates without any addition of alloy will also show fissures in the fracture surface parallel to the sheet plane. 9 The fact that massive cleavage frac- ture or quasicleavage fracture is associated with the splitting surface parallel to the sheet plane strongly suggests that the mechanism of anisotropic splitting outlined in the present work plays a dominant role. Since anisotropic fracture is related to microscopic orientation banding and since this type of orientation variation cannot be detected by conventional macro- scopic X-ray analysis, such as pole figures, crystal- life orientation distribution function analysis, 14 or in- tegrated intensity values, it is not surprising that the texture effect was discounted as the cause of splitting. However, the pole figures and inverse pole data 9'n documented by previous investigators do show high (100) orientation along with (111) intensities for steels

prone

to

splitting but not for steels

which are not

prone

to

splitting. 9

Microstructure Effect

It should be noted that alloy partitioning due to soli- dification and subsequent thermomechanical process- ing can also result in the formation of segregated bands, 3 and that the banded alloy-rich and alloy-poor

layers

could provide additional lamellar-fracture sites

because such bands further promote banded crystallo-

graphic structures as well as form

layers of different

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONSA

VOLUME 9A,APRIL 1978-513

strengths and stiffnesses. That stronger crystallo-

(100) habit plane

in ferrite,

will serve to enhance split-

are

strained

at

room

temperature.

graphic banding is promoted by alloying is evidenced

The

mechanism

proposed

to explain

 

this

behavior

by the increases in massive cleavage-type splitting

is

a

generalized

crystal-plasticity

phenomenon

that

is

with larger through-thickness shrinkage in the highly

applicable

to

any

material

in which texture-orienta-

 

alloyed specimens than in the low-metalloid speci-

tion banding

or

clustering

effects

occur.

 

mens. 9 Furthermore, microstructural variations, such as low-temperature-aged carbide precipitates having a

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

S

ting. Alternatively, the high-temperature-aged carbide

 

The

author

acknowledges

his

indebtedness

 

to

K.

G.

precipitates are either at the grain boundaries 13 or on

Brickner,

M.

Kotyk,

W.

J.

Murphy,

and

L.

F.

Porter

(110)(111) 1~ habit planes

in

the

ferrite

phase.

The

for

their

critical

discussions

and helpful

assistance

grain-boundary precipitates as well as inclusions will

in

the

preparation

of this

paper.

Special

thanks

is

due

weaken the grain boundaries. The (110)(111) precipi-

to

W.

E.

Spang,

D.

A.

Gomrick,

and

J.

M.

Heffernan

tates located just at the highly stressed slip bands of

for

obtaining

many

of the

micrographs

 

in this

investi-

the (100) texture then serve to promote cleavage frac- ture.

gation.

 

The

proposed

mechanism

for

lamellar

fracture

is

REFERENCES

based on a generalized crystal-plasticity phenomenon that is applicable to any material in which texture or

1.

H. C.

Chao:

Trans. ASM,

1967, vol.

60, pp. 37-50.

 

orientation banding or clustering effects occur. All

2.

H. C. Chao: Trans. ASM,

1967, vol. 60,

p. 549.

commercially

produced

materials

with highly

aniso-

3.

J. D. Defilippi and H. C. Chao: Met. Trans., 1971, vol. 2, pp. 3209-16.

 

tropic crystal structures-steel, nonferrous metals,

 

4.

5.

H.

C. Chao: Met. Trans. A, 1977, vol. 8A, pp. 1009-10.

R. W. Vieth and R. L. Whiteley: "Influence of Crystallographic Orientations

or plastics-have a tendency toward orientation band-

on Plastic Anisotropy in Deep Drawing Sheet Steel," Anisotropy and Tensile

ing and all are potentially subject to anisotropic lamel-

Test Properties and Their Relationship to Sheet Metal Forming, Proceedings,

lar fracture

under

certain

conditions

of straining.

 

IDDRG, London, 1964.

 

This proposed mechanism is just one of many failure

6.

7.

M. Fukuda: Jap. Inst. Met., 1968, pp. 68-77.

W. T. Lankford,

S. C. Snyder, and

J. A. Bauscher: Trans. ASM, 1950, voh 42,

modes;

it does

not rule

out other

modes

of lamellar

     

fracture

such

as

severe

carbide or inclusion banding.

8.

pp. 1197-1232.

A. M. Cottrell: Trans. TMS-AIME, 1958, voh 2I 2, pp. 192-203.

 

The mechanism

proposed

 

here

suggests

that

the

9.

G. R.

Speich and D. S. Dabkowski: "Effect of Deformation in the Austenite

banded anisotropy of prone-to-thinning orientations produce high normal shrinkage strains and forces, which cause the weak interfaces between banded re- gions to be prone to lamellar fracture.

SUMMARY

 

For

ferritic-stainless-steel

sheet,

the

banded

cube-

on-face texture

component

imbedded

in other

matrix

orientations,

such

as

the

cube-on-corner

texture

or

a

purely cube-on-face

textured

matrix,

tends

to

cause

lamellar fracture

of the

sheet

at

low temperatures

or

at

high strain

rates,

 

or

both,

especially

in thick

sec-

tions.

This

phenomenon

is

related

to

the

ridging

ob-

served

when thin

sheets

of ferritie

stainless

steels

and Austenite-Ferrite Region on the Strength and Fracture Behaviorof C, C-Mn, C-Mn-Cb, and C-Mn-Mo-CbSteels," The Hot Deformation of Austenite,

AIME Symposium, 1977, pp. 557~

  • 10. F. B. Picketing: "High-StrengthLow-Alloy Steels-ADecade of Progress,"

Micro Alloying 75 Session 1-History and Theory, October 1, 1975, pp. 3-24.

  • 11. B. L. Bramfitt and A. R. Marder: "The Influence of Microstructure and Crystal- lographic Texture on the Strength and Notch Toughness of a Low-Carbon Steel," Processing and Properties ofLow-Carbon Steel, MetallurgicalSociety

of

AIME, New York, 1973.

  • 12. D. S. Dabkowski, P. J. Konkol, and M. F. Baldy: MetalEng. Quarterly,

February 1976, pp.

22-32.

  • 13. DeArdo: Met.

A.

J.

Trans. A, 1977, vol. 8A, pp. 473-86.

  • 14. Davies J. S. Kallend, and P. P.

G.

J.

Morris: "The Influence of Hot Deforma-

tion of Austentite on the Properties of Ferrite Through the Development and Inheritance of Texture," The Hot Deformation ofAustenite, AIME Symposium,

1977, pp. 599-626.

  • 15. A. S. Keh and W. L. Leslie: Material Science Research,

1963, vol. 1, pp. 208- 50.

514-VOLUME 9A, APRIL 1978

METALLURGICAL TRANSACTIONS A