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Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
ISOLATION AND SCREENING FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF CULTURABLE MESOPHILIC Streptomyces STRAINS FROM NORTH CYPRUS SOILS
Mustafa Oskay1*, Abdurrahman U. Tamer1 and İsmail Karaboz2
1 Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey Basic and Industrial Microbiology Section of Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey
ABSTRACT A total of 249 different Streptomyces strains were isolated from different sites of the North Cyprus habitats for their antimicrobial potential. Out of these, 66 isolates exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the tested microorganisms. Approximately, 51% isolates produced antibacterial substances against Gram-positive bacteria, 6% against Gram-negative bacteria, and 23% against both Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas 18% of isolates showed antifungal activity. According to the spectrum of broadness, the two most active isolates were selected, and designed as KGG13 and KVK11. A great variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical features of selected strains were determined for their taxonomic position, and obtained data strongly suggested that these strains belong to the genus Streptomyces, confirmed by their antimicrobial activity in batch culture. In order to standardize the antibiotic production, some cultural conditions, such as the effect of different temperatures, nature of carbon sources, pH value, and time incubation in h, were determined. The highest antimicrobial activities were obtained when glucose and glycerol at 1% (w/v) was used as sole carbon source, at pHs 7.3 and 7.5 for the strains KGG13 and KVK11, respectively.
comycin, amphotericin), cancer (e.g., daunorubicin, doxorubicin, mitomycin, bleomycin), transplant rejection (e.g. cyclosporin, FK-506, rapamycin), and high cholesterol (e.g., statins such as lovastatin and mevastatin) . The genus Streptomyces of actinomycete group, common in soil and relatively easy to isolate, has long been recognized as the prolific source of industrially useful metabolites, notably antibiotics, and continues to be screened for new bioactive compounds . Over the past 60 years, antibacterial drug development was generally focused on two main strategies: (i) the discovery of compounds from natural sources (in particular actinomycetes and fungi) and (ii) the development of synthetic antimicrobial molecules. Most of the antibiotics including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, aminocoumarins, tetracyclines, ionophores, glycopeptides and their semi-synthetic derivatives used today were discovered in the middle of the last century. These natural products represent the building blocks for the majority of clinically and agriculturally applied antibiotics and are the foundation of modern anti-infective chemotherapy. However, the rate of discovery of new antibiotic classes has been remarkably decreased over the past 35 years . The discovery of novel antibiotics from natural sources became more important, in particular from soil bacteria. Soil is the most common habitat for streptomycetes. After the initial few decades of intensive screening, a number of new streptomycete strains that generate active compounds have been isolated from novel sources, such as rhizosphere of plants [4, 5], desert habitats , marine [7, 8], agricultural soils [9, 10] and feces of wild animals . These facts clearly indicate that valuable streptomycetes can be isolated if soil is screened using the appropriate sample. Presently, there is no documented information on antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces sp. in the North Cyprus soils, and their potential as a novel source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds. In screening for microorganisms able to produce bioactive compounds, the exploration of new habitats has been recommended. Such unexplored environments may be critical for new strains of strepto-
KEYWORDS: Antimicrobial activity, fermentation, isolation, North Cyprus, Streptomyces.
INTRODUCTION In recent decades, natural-product screening programs devoted an enormous effort for discovering new microbial secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities. Microorganisms produce some of the most important drugs, such as antibiotics, which are the source of lifesaving treatments for bacterial and fungal infections (e.g., penicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, van-