development

Calculation and Simulation

The Virtual Vehicle transient Simulation in the diesel engine development process
Concerning the topic “Motor Process Simulation in Realtime – Basics and Application Possibilities”, a dissertation was worked out at the Technische Universität Berlin, which received the “Hermann Appel Preis 2008” in the area powertrain development. This paper reports about the continuation of the scientific work in the current activities of modelling and simulation at IAV GmbH: Straight forward high-fidelity system simulation delivers solutions from module concept evaluation up to real-time application for controls testing ahead of the experiment on the engine dyno or vehicle.
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1 Introduction
IAV uses a modelling software environment for the advanced diesel development. The environment consists of commercial and in-house developed hard- and software as well as model libraries in order to handle the growing complexity. The library is intensely supported by measurement data sources from engine and module test benches as well as by the controls development departments, Figure 1. The simulation activities are embedded in the advanced development infrastructure which consists of single cylinder and fullsize engine test benches as well as vehicle and component test benches. As in reality a virtual test cycle has to consider all effects that are emission relevant as cold start (friction, warm-up) including the appropriate control strategies. The modelling platform is flexible concerning degree of detail, calculation speed and connectivity. The various test data sources in conjunction with the controls development make a fast and efficient simulation of a test cycle possible. Typical overall vehicle simulation studies focus on: – exhaust raw emission reduction and exhaust gas aftertreatment system layout – turbocharger (TC) matching in conjunction with different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems [1] – examination of energy flow and energy recuperation systems [2].

The Authors
Dr.-Ing. Ingo Friedrich is team manager Ad­ vanced diesel engines in the business area powertrain mecha­ tronics at IAv GmbH in Berlin (Germany).

Dr.-Ing. Ralf Buchwald is technical consultant thermodynamics Ad­ vanced diesel engines in the business area powertrain mecha­ tronics at IAv GmbH in Berlin (Germany).

Dr.-Ing. Eckhard Stölting is team manager diesel engine Control design in the business area powertrain mecha­ tronics at IAv GmbH in Gifhorn (Germany).

Dipl.-Ing. Ansgar Sommer is head of department Advanced diesel engines in the busi­ ness area powertrain mechatronics at IAv GmbH in Berlin (Germany).

Figure 1: R&D environment supporting modelling and simulation mtZ 12I2009 volume 70 27

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Figure 2: Possible degrees of detail exemplary for five vehicle subsystems

Prerequisites here are a physics-based plant model and an appropriate model parameterisation as well as the parameterisation of the necessary controls model.

2 Identification of Software Tools
The analysis of the overall vehicle behaviour in conjunction with a high level of detail of single components causes unacceptable calculation times. Fast calculating models allow a high number of parameter variations in a limited time frame. Applications for the validation of ECU functionalities in a software in the loop (SiL) or hardware in the loop (HiL) environment have even higher demands on calculation speed up to real-time cap-

ability for the latter. Today physics based models replace more and more mapbased models for these applications because of their superiority in terms of mapping transient behaviour or causal relationships between in- and outputs. Increasing calculation power of today’s CPUs allows a fast execution of rather detailed engine models [3]. For a flexible simulation of the combustion engine in the overall vehicle environment in terms of degree of detail, calculation performance and connectivity a couple of questions concerning model depth and choice of simulation tools have to be answered. One possible way of model classification can be done with a level of abstraction. Early stages of engine development demand a high

degree of abstraction. Figure 2 assigns a model type for different vehicle subsystems to a degree of abstraction with one example of application. The degree of detail can individually be chosen for each subsystem depending on the project definition, the available modelling data resources and the calculation time constraint. In that way the optimum simulation quality and efficiency can be reached. For example the combustion engine can be simulated in less than real-time using a 0D-gas exchange calculation combined with a meanvalue model-based on an artificial neural network for the in-cylinder process. If the energy and heat management simulation is the main scope, a high degree of detail can be chosen here – for example for subsystem specific concept or parametric studies – at minimised overall calculation time. Figure 3 shows an exemplary segmentation into subsystems and the appropriate software tool in the chosen tool chain for an overall vehicle simulation. The software tools are linked together via the vehicle simulation software VeLoDyn (Vehicle Longitudinal Dynamics) based on Matlab/Simulink which serves as integration platform since most of today’s offthe-shelf tools offer this interface. Furthermore Matlab/Simulink is the adequate software for controls development and for compiling hardware-independent code with the real-time workshop. Depending on the application GTPower or Themos is used for the engine process, Dymola/Modelica for energy management, cooling system, powertrain and electric system and AxiSuite or KATSim [4] for exhaust gas aftertreatment.

3 Engine Modelling
Engine modelling mainly focuses on the two following points: – the gas exchange including the turbo/ supercharging and EGR system – the combustion process with energy flow analysis and engine out emission evaluation. Both should be calculated with high accuracy for transient operation – ideally in real-time and three dimensional. However three-dimensional overall engine modelling is still far away from reasonable

Figure 3: Typical segmentation into subsystems for an overall vehicle simulation 28 mtZ 12I2009 volume 70

calculation time for overall vehicle simulation making a reduction of the degree of detail unavoidable. GT-Power is used here for engine modelling supplemented by zero-dimensional single and two-zone combustion and exhaust emission calculation models developed and experimentally validated in-house. These models are also used for online as well as for realtime cylinder pressure data analysis on the test bench and moreover for control algorithm development or for real-time combustion model development. Figure 4 shows the environment being used in typical projects. The single cylinder engine delivers engine data at an early stage of development to IAV’s OpenTDA for detailed combustion analysis. The results of the calculation and the component test bench data (that means turbocharger, heat exchanger, fuel injector etc.) serve as input parameters for the GT-Power engine and the AxiSuite exhaust gas aftertreatment model with heat release curves, exhaust emission data, valve discharge coefficients etc. After model adjustment and verification the virtual fullsize engine with exhaust gas aftertreatment model is ready for performing parameter variations or concept studies. For the development and calibration of advanced control functions the “Modular Prototype Engine Controller” (IAVMPEC) [5] is used. It can be run in rapidprototyping or full-path mode. Its components are: – TRA (Thermodynamic Real-Time Analysis) for thermodynamic cylinderpressure analysis – MBCAP (Model-based Controlled Air Path) for the transient TC and EGR system control – FI2RE (Flexible Injection and Ignition for Rapid Engineering) for all types of ignition and fuel injection system control – AC3 (Advanced Closed Loop Combustion Control) – HyWaCoS (Model-based Injection Control) – Model-based SCR control. To use synergetic effects IAV-MPEC is strongly linked to the IAV simulation tools TR-Sim (Thermodynamic Real-Time Simulation) and Themos (by IAV and Tesis) for combustion process simulation. Through the repeated interchange and comparison of simulated and meas-

Figure 4: Modelling process

ured data the engine simulation quality evolves step by step to a high level concerning precision, reusability and calculation time. On this basis of system understanding the extrapolation of the engine behaviour can be extended. For an overall vehicle simulation vehicle, driver, power train and auxiliary systems have to be modelled with adequate precision, too.

4 Vehicle and Auxiliary Systems Modelling
The graphical user interface shown in Figure 5 represents the modular architecture of the integration platform VeLoDyn with its basic submodels and the signal

and control bus connections. The main parts are drive train (including engine, clutch and transmission), vehicle, driver and road profile supplemented by vehicle and control models (SoftECU). Within this system each submodel can be replaced by another software tool via its Matlab simulation interface. Other features are the options to compile a realtime capable vehicle model with Matlab’s real-time workshop and/or to transfer the vehicle model to the engine test bench for emulating different drive cycles by controlling engine torque and speed with different parameter sets for gear ratios or gear shift strategies in order to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. The aim of the SoftECU shown in Figure 6 is not to copy the functionality of

Figure 5: Modular structure of the Matlab-based integration tool VeLoDyn mtZ 12I2009 volume 70 29

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Figure 6: SoftECU structure

a real ECU or to display prototype functions, but rather to control all virtual actuators as fuel injectors, VTG, EGR valves, intake throttle, VVA etc. during transient simulation in an optimal way, using all the information available from the simulation model. In order to obtain variables of interest as for example oxygen amount and peak pressure in the cylinder, EGR mass flow, or DPF loading the real ECU code has complex observers implemented since this information can not be measured directly with sensors. Since the SoftECU has access to all this information directly, the complexity of the SoftECU is rather small in comparison to the real world ECU or even prototype functions.

5 Vehicle Model for Evaluating Euro-6 Diesel Car Concepts
In the following example NOx tailpipe emission and fuel consumption for a Diesel-powered vehicle in the NEDC are computed and optimized. The target variables are to be optimised with: – engine-based measures (single and two-stage turbo charging combined with high/low pressure EGR, matching and warm-up optimisation) and – emission aftertreatment measures (matching, calibration and control of the DeNOx (SCR) and oxidation catalyst system) in order to find the optimal solution for the overall system. In this case offline computation of the type described in Figure 7 can be seen as
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the state-of-the-art methodology: The engine variations are simulated offline at steady-state operating points in the representative map area of the driving-cycle. The scope is the simulation of the input variables for the exhaust gas aftertreatment system: exhaust temperature and mass flow as well as exhaust gas composition, particularly NOx. Here, NOx raw emission is computed using a semi-empirical model based on measured data. The resulting maps are implemented in VeLoDyn in order to perform the drivingcycle simulation in conjunction with the Dymola model for the parallel computing of the transient engine warm-up process, including its gas-exchange components. The resulting time-based profiles for exhaust gas temperature, mass flow and gas composition downstream of

the turbine now serve as input for the AxiSuite model which computes the thermodynamics and reaction kinetics in the exhaust gas aftertreatment system with differing degree of detail. The AxiSuite results include the time-based curves for gas temperatures at relevant positions in the exhaust system as well as for NH3 and NOx mass flow. In an iterative process the GT-Power, VeLoDyn and AxiSuite model parameters have to be recalibrated until the optimal solution for engine, gear box and catalytic system is found. Above the offline method there is the option of running all involved software tools synchronous in an adequate step size. This online simulation offers the advantage that optimization procedures concerning engine parameters and aftertreatment design parameters can be done during runtime. The realisation of an online simulation environment using the named software tools requires: – an adequate selection of the degree of model detail – a subsystem specific choice of solver step size in order to secure numeric stability – a feedback control concept. The control concept is implemented in the SoftECU described before. Figure 8 shows the simulation result for turbine outlet temperature, NOx conversion rate as well as urea and fuel consumption in the NEDC for the single- and two-stage TC engine. The latter is matched to a 20 % higher rated power compared to the single-stage engine both aiming at the same exhaust emission and fuel con-

Figure 7: Methodology for serial simulation of tailpipe exhaust emission in the driving cycle using GT-Power, VeLoDyn, Dymola and AxiSuite

sumption level. For comparability the configuration of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system is kept identical. Immediately apparent in the case of the two-stage turbocharger system is the less steep temperature rise and the significantly lower temperature level downstream of the turbine, resulting in less favourable conditions for the downstream exhaust gas aftertreatment components. The two-stage turbocharger system emits a significantly higher level of NOx because of a much lower SCR conversion rate (65 % for single-stage, 39 % for twostage) which doesn’t meet the development aim of 70 % of the Euro 6 level anymore. Fuel consumption for the singlestage turbocharger system is also about 8 % lower. Already at the simulation stage, the altogether lower level of NOx conversion, particularly with the twostage turbocharger, demonstrates the problem of optimising the layout of the EGR-, turbocharger- and SCR system. This is because of the relatively low exhaust gas temperature level throughout the test cycle. Further optimisation is necessary here, for example by adapting engine calibration with the aim of shortening the light-off phase and achieving a higher exhaust gas temperature. Figure 9 depicts the simulation result for engine heat-up acceleration by means of a retarded start of fuel injection, a deactivation of the piston cooling and a post injection in order to raise engineout gas temperature in the first 180 s of the test cycle. However, these measures

Figure 8: Simulation results – comparison of turbine outlet temperatures for single and dual stage turbo charging

lead to a higher fuel consumption, which means that for this application the use of engine-based improvement measures must be weighted against improvement measures on the exhaust gas aftertreatment side.

6 Model-based Controls Algorithm Development Process
The development of automotive control algorithms is done according to the Vprocess, Figure 10. In the first step a concept has to be set up followed by the specification and finally the realisation and

Figure 9: Simulation results – measures for system heat-up of exhaust-gas aftertreatment

implementation respectively. In the right branch the implementation will be integrated into the overall system followed by the test against the specified target values from the left branch. The final calibration brings out whether the process can be verified. While working through the Vprocess complexity grows due to the steadily increasing degree of detail. If an error has been made at the beginning and has been taken all the way through the process, its localisation and correction requires a large amount of time. For the purpose of early detection of errors simulation is advantageous. Physics based models are well suited for the concept phase, since they are able to represent the basic geometric attributes for an at least rough study of the system’s characteristics. Data driven black-box models mostly can’t be used in that early phase because generally no data source is yet available. The developed models can also be used for studying system behaviour, which is of great importance for the definition of advanced solutions. The engine model from the concept phase is also used in the specification phase for the layout of the control algorithms. This is done by continuous tests under pre-specified conditions against the engine model (MiL). In the phase of code generation the graphics-based specification of the software will be ported to a basic computer language, for example Ccode. Errors that may occur during this
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integration platform based on Matlab/ Simulink. With this software environment it is additionally possible to find solutions for real-time applications with specialized tools as Themos and KATsim.

References

Figure 10: Controls algorithm development process

transformation will be corrected by iterative tests in short loops (SiL). In that phase the model based development is unique by making a testing against the reference test cases from the specification phase possible. When the integration phase is reached it can be assured that the modules fits the specification due to the MiL and HiL tests. Accordingly the tests in the integration phase can be focused on the correct interaction between the modules. A stimulus and monitoring of the modules can only be done via the I/O interface of the ECU. Therefore the ECU is driven in combination with the engine model (HiL). For these tests the calibration from the specification phase as well as those test cases that are related to the overall system can be used. Concerning the calibration phase model-based development not only provides a higher degree of maturity but also a basic system calibration ready for the detailed optimisation. Through this the time to system launch can be remarkably shortened. Although model-based system development shows significant advantages it is not (yet) completely accepted. The main obstacle is seen in the effort necessary to built and parameterize a suitable engine model. Providing the parameter set of an existing model combination from the engine and aftertreatment concept or design phase (GT-Power and AxiSuite) to a physics based real-time capable engine
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model environment (Themos and KATSim) can be very efficient, since for both applications most of the necessary parameters are compatible. The contradicting demands for real-time simulation concerning model stability and the numerical error at large time stepping are still a challenge. Typically a compromise has to be found between step size and accuracy.

[1] Birkner, C.; Jung, C.; nickel, J.; offer, t.; von Rüden, K.: durchgängiger einsatz der Simulation beim mo­ dellbasierten entwicklungsprozess am Beispiel des ladungswechselsystems – von der Bauteilausle­ gung bis zur Kalibration der Regelalgorithmen. Hdt­ tagung Simulation und Aufladung, Berlin, 2005 [2] Kitte J.; tietze, t.; Jänsch, d.; Bals, R.: model­ lierung und Simulation in dymola/modelica als Basis zur entwicklung innovativer Wärmemanage­ mentstrategien. In: Wärmemanagement des Kraft­ fahrzeugs vI. S. 252 ff., ISBn 978­3­8169­2820­1, expert­verlag, Renningen, 2008 [3] Friedrich, I.: motorprozess­Simulation in echtzeit – Grundlagen und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. dissertation, tU Berlin, Shaker­verlag 2008 [4] langeheinecke, K.; dusemund, S.; Schneider, H.; Bank, R.: KAtSim – ein Werkzeug zur numerischen Simulation von Abgaskatalysatoren. In: mtZ 70 (2009), nr. 11, S. 858 – 863 [5] Stölting, e.; Seebode, J., Gratzke, R.; Behnk, K.: emissionsgeführtes motormanagement für nutzfahrzeuganwendungen. In: mtZ 69 (2008), nr. 12, S. 1042 – 1049

7 Summary and Conclusion
The increasing demands on Diesel combustion engines concerning exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and power density lead to a growing complexity of all involved systems. The contradictory need for further reducing the development time can therefore only be reached by an adaptation and improvement of the development methodology. The IAV’s approach focuses on a physics-based system view beginning at a very early state of development and attending to the series production. For this purpose the simulation environment has to be easily adaptable, scalable in terms of degree of detail and of high connectivity. The described hard- and software environment for the overall vehicle simulation has a heterogeneous structure based on off-the-shelf and in-house developed software. It can be adapted also to future requirements through the usage of an

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