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Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Civil Engineering

Worked Example 1: Stage 1 Engineering Surveying (CIV_1010) Tutorial - Transition

curves and vertical curves.

Worked Example 1 draws from CCEA Advanced Subsidiary (As) and Advanced GCE (A2) Mathematics

modules;

Module M2- Mechanics 2, topic 5 in relation to motion in a horizontal circle

Module C2- As core Mathematics 2, topic 1 in relation to the co-ordinate geometry of a

circle including use of circle properties

Module C2- As core Mathematics 2, topic 3 in relation to radian measure including use for

calculation of arc length

A transition curve is a curve of gradually varying radius used in highway design to join a straight

section of road to a circular curved section. Transition curves are used to reduce the shock lateral

loading imposed on the vehicle by allowing the radial force to build up slowly rather than

instantaneously.

Source: Whyte, W. and Paul, R. (1997, 4th Edn.). Basic Surveying, Elsevier, London, pp. 289-291.

Question:

It is required that two intersecting straights are joined by a circular arc and transition curves. Use the

following data to select a suitable road alignment:

0

I=43 2010

Rate of change of radial acceleration, r= 0.3m/s3

Deflection angle between 2 tangents, I= 4302010

Equation relating length of transition curve to angle;

L

Design Speed of Road, V= 80km/hr

Solution:

Change design speed into m/s (M1.1);

= 22.2m/s,

V=22.22 m/s

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Calculate L, where L is total length of each transition curve (M1.1; M2.3; M2.4; M2.5);

Calculate , corresponding to the total angle traversed by each transition curve (i.e. angle

corresponding to L) (C3.2; M2.4; FP2.5):

Use transition curve equation;

Rearrange to make

the subject

Therefore

or

Or

Calculate total arc length if curve totally transitioned (C2.1; C2.3; FP1.6; FP3.7);

If curve totally transitioned

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Worked Example 2 draws from CCEA Advanced Subsidiary (As) and Advanced GCE (A2) Mathematics

modules;

Module M1- Mechanics 1, topic 4 in relation to the equilibrium of a particle

Module M1- Mechanics 1, topic 7 in relation to mass and acceleration

Stable equilibrium of a floating body, such as a ship, depends on the relative lines of action and

resulting moment of the upthrust force (acting upwards) and weight of the body (acting

downwards). The weight of the body acts through its centre of gravity which is fixed. Whereas, the

upthrust force acts through the centre of buoyancy of the floating body which can move relative to

the body.

Question:

An oil tanker in a state of stable equilibrium can carry 0.5x109 kg of oil of relative density 0.85. The

ship can be considered as a rectangular in shape, length 380m and width 55m. The mass of the ship

is 190x106 kg. Calculate the draught of the fully loaded ship in seawater. (

,

the draught of a vessel is the depth to which it is immersed in the water).

When the ship is unloaded, it is necessary to carry seawater ballast in order to keep the propeller

submerged. A minimum draught of 20m must be maintained. What volume of seawater must be

added to meet this requirement, and what fraction of the ships capacity will be filled with seawater

ballast?

Solution:

For the ship to float (M1.4; M1.5; M3.1);

W

d

U

55m

Calculate upthrust;

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

But

, therefore;

The fraction of the total capacity occupied by the seawater ballast is;

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Worked Example 3: Adapted from Stage 1 Solids & Structures 1 (CIV 1001 ) 2004 Exam

Paper Question 4

Worked Example 3 draws from CCEA Advanced Subsidiary (As) and Advanced GCE (A2) Mathematics

modules;

Module C2- As Core Mathematics 2, topic 5 in relation to the integration of xn and related

sums and differences

A cantilever is a beam rigidly secured at only one end. The applied load is carried to the fixed

support where it is resisted by bending moment and shear stress.

Question:

A diver of mass 75 kg stands on the end of a fibre glass (Youngs Modulus, E=8Gpa) diving board, 3 m

in length. By modelling the diving board as a simple cantilever calculate the deflection at the free

end of the diving board. Repeat the calculation for two other divers with masses of 50 kg and 100 kg.

Solution:

b=300mm

d=40mm

Beam Section

x

L

x

-P

Shear Force Diagram; where shear force is plotted against length, x, from free end

x

-PL

Bending Moment Diagram; where bending moment is plotted against length, x, from free end

Use equation;

Where E and I correspond to the youngs modulus and second moment of area, specific properties of

the diving board

5

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Integrate to get deflected slope of board (C2.5; C4.5);

Apply boundary condition when x=L, slope is fixed =0 (FP2.7);

Integrate again to get an equation for displacement, v in terms of distance, x from free end of

board (C2.5; C4.5);

=0

Substitute diving board properties into deflection equation to determine tip deflection;

P=75g N

L= 3 m

b=300x10-3 m

d=40x10-3 m

E=8x109 kN/m2

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Worked Example 4: Stage 1 Solids & Structures (CIV 1001) Tutorial- Pin jointed frames

Worked Example 4 draws from CCEA Advanced Subsidiary (As) and Advanced GCE (A2) Mathematics

modules;

Module M4- Mechanics 4, topic 3 in relation to the analysis of light pin-jointed frameworks

Module M1- Mechanics 1, topic 2 in relation to the resolution of component forces

Module M1- Mechanics 1, topic 5 in relation to the calculation of the sum of moments about

a point

6.0m

4.0m

1.0m 2.0m

A

Question:

The car has mass 1750 kg and the bridge can be taken to have a self mass of 250 kg per unit length

of section for the members making up the deck of the bridge and 100 kg per unit length for the

other members. The structure is to be analysed as a pin jointed truss and consequently the loads

have to be applied at the joints of the structure. Apply the loads in the usual manner and calculate

the resultant horizontal and vertical forces at the restraints.

Solution (M4.3):

Deck members

Other horizontal members

Diagonal members

Length/m

6

5

5

Weight/kN

15

6

5

1.0m

2.0m

1.0m

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

8.75kN

8.75kN

RC

Resolve (M1.2; M1.5; M1.6; M4.2);

RD

Therefore;

5+3

5+3

7.5+5

5+3

7.5+5

5+3

7.5+5

2.5+7.5

2.5+7.5

10.21

7.29

RA

RB

8

12.5

8

22.71

10

RA

8

19.79

10

RB

Therefore;

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Worked Example 5: Stage 1 Mathematics (CIV 1015) Mathematics 2C Exam May 2004,

Question 1

Worked Example 5 draws from CCEA Advanced Subsidiary (As) and Advanced GCE (A2) Mathematics

modules;

Module M1- Mechanics 1, topic 1 in relation to the application of differentiation to

kinematic problems

Module M1- Mechanics 1, topic 7 in relation to the application of Newtons second law of

motion

Module M3- Mechanics 3, topic 4 in relation to analytically modelling the motion of elastic

springs

Module FP1- Further Pure Maths 1, topic 1 in relation to the addition and multiplication of

matrices

Question:

For one dimensional simple harmonic motion, the motion for the system can be represented by a

second order differential equation (presented below). The equations can be obtained using

Newtons second law of motion (F=ma, where; F- Force acting, m-mass, a-Acceleration) and Hookes

Law (F=-ku, where; F-Force acting, k-Rate of spring constant, u-Displacement of spring) (C1.6; C4.4;

M1.7; M3.4);

Where; m= mass, u= displacement, k= Rate of spring constant and subscripts 1 and 2 denote

particles 1 and 2 respectively

Given that k=1 and m=1, show that the natural frequencies of vibration are given by;

Civil Engineering, David Keir Building,

Queens University, Belfast, BT9 5AG

Solution:

Represent the two systems of differential equations in matrix form;

Where

denotes the second order differential equation of displacement, u with respect to time, t

Where

10

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