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Geo-Referencing & Geo-Coding


Need for Geo-referencing

Types of Geo-referencing
Steps for Geo-referencing

Difference between the two

Geo-referencing for digitization

Geo-referencing is the process of scaling, rotating, translating and
de-skewing the image to match a particular size and position

To Georeference means to associate something with locations

in physical space.
The term is commonly used in the geographic information
systems field to describe the process of associating a physical
map or raster image of a map with spatial locations
Georeferencing may be applied to any kind of object or
structure that can be related to a geographical location, such as
points of interest, roads, places, bridges, or buildings

Need for Geo-referencing

Geo-reference is used when establishing the relation between raster
or vector images by determining the spatial location of the
geographical features
This procedure is mandatory for data modeling in the field of
geographic information systems (GIS)
When data from different sources or time periods (like time series
satellite images) need to be combined and then used in a GIS
application, (e.g. for change detection, assess damages after a
natural disaster etc.), it becomes essential to have a common
referencing system

Types of Geo-referencing
Two types:
1.Geo-referencing Raster Images
2.Geo-referencing Vector Data

Geo-referencing Raster Images

A crucial element of any mapping project is registering a map with the correct
real world coordinates. This procedure is called geo-referencing. If the maps
are not geo-referenced, no other information can be displayed over or
positioned under the map coverage.
Depending on the source materials and the specifications of the project, maps
can be registered to either a coordinate system or to another base map such as
a digital ortho photo.

Geo-referencing Vector Data

Vector data can be geo-referenced (or rubber sheeted) to
real world coordinates. Vector data can be either rubber
sheeted to match existing base maps or the data may be
projected into a specific coordinate system.

Geocoding is the conversion of Geo-refencing (spatial information)
into digital form
Geocoding involves capturing the map, and sometimes also
capturing the attributes
Assigning spatial coordinates to point data

Geocoding Methods for Maps


Field Data Collection

Vector and Raster

In ArcView Feature Data Source, Image Data Source

Often involves address matching

Difference between the two






Geo-coding: Matching addresses to geographic coordinates

(latitude & longitude)

Geo-referencing for Digitization

What is digitization?
Capturing data by converting features on a paper map or (digital) aerial
photograph into digital vector format

Manual digitising

Coordinate entry via keyboard
Digitising tablet with cursor
Mouse cursor on the computer
monitor: on screen digitising (heads-up)
Digital photogrammetry

Automatic digitising

Scanner and line-following software


Georeferencing: What to do?

The image is a photo of the 3D model
Data are not yet structured into classified
and coded objects
Image data has to be vectorised and structured first

Used to convert the entire map onto a real-world co-ordinate system

With Georeferencing you can align geographic data to a known coordinate

system so it can be viewed, queried, and analyzed with other geographic data
Geocoding is a GIS operation for converting street addresses into spatial data
that can be displayed as features on a map, usually by referencing address
information from a street segment data layer