STEALTH TECHNOLOGY

A

Seminar Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of

Bachelor of Technology 
LQ

Electronics & Communication Engineering

by

RAMA KRISHNA.Y (06H71A0495)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Devineni Venkata Ramana & Dr. Hima Sekhar

MIC College of Technology ABSTRACT
Kanchikacherla, Krishna Dist, A.P., India.

2009-10

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ABSTRACT
Stealth ai aft are aircraft t at use stealt technology to make it harder to be

detected by radar and other means than conventional aircraft by employing a combination of features to reduce visibility in the visual, audio, infrared and radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Well known examples include the United States' F-117 Nighthawk (1980s-2008), the B-2 Spirit "Stealth Bomber," and the F-22 Raptor. While no aircraft is totally invisible to radar, stealth aircraft limit current conventional radar's abilities to detect or track them effectively enough to prevent an attack. Stealth is accomplished by using a complex design philosophy to reduce the ability of an opponent's sensors to detect, track and attack an aircraft. Stealth, or anti detection, technology is applied to vehicles (e.g., tanks), missiles, ships, and aircraft with the goal of making the object more difficult to detect at closer and closer ranges thus providing an element of surprise in the attacks. Attacking with surprise gives the attacker more time to perform its mission and exit before the defending force can counterattack. Modern stealth aircraft first became possible when a mathematician working for Lockheed Aircraft during the 1970s adopted a mathematical model developed by Peter Ufimtsev, a Russian scientist, to develop a computer program called Echo 1. Echo made it possible to predict the radar signature an aircraft made with flat panels, called facets. In 1975, engineers at Lockheed Skunk Works found that an airplane made with faceted surfaces could have a very low radar signature because the surfaces would radiate almost all of the radar energy away from the receiver. Reduced radar cross section is only one of five factors that designers addressed to create a truly stealthy design. Designers also addressed making the aircraft less visible to the naked eye, controlling radio transmissions, and noise abatement. F-117s bombed a Panamanian defense Force Barracks in Rio Hato, Panama. In 1991, F-117s were tasked with attacking the most heavily fortified targets in Iraq and were the only jets allowed to operate inside Baghdad's city limits.

CONTENTS
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1. INT

D CTION.

04-05 06-07 07-09 10 11-12 13 14 14-15 15 16 17-20 21 22 23 24 25

2. STEALTH TECHNOLOGY. 3. HISTORY OF STEALTH. 4. RADAR PRINCIPLES 5. RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS). 6. MINIMISATION OF RCS. 7. STEALTH TECHNIQUES. i. VISUAL STEALTH. ii. ACOUSTIC STEALTH. iii. INFRARED STEALTH. iv. RADAR STEALTH. v. PLASMA STEALTH. 8. AWCT. 9. ADVANTAGES. 10. CONCLUSION. 11. REFERENCES.

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INTRODUCTION
Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology) is a technologies which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods.

From the late years of World War II to today's computer enabled design changes, Stealth has been a major factor in the improvement of reconnaissance and attack aircraft. The term ³Stealth" is thought to have been coined in 1966 by Charles E. "Chuck" Myers, a combat pilot and later an exec at Lockheed. When we think of Stealth today, immediately images of the B-2 bomber or the F-117A Nighthawk fighter comes to mind.

"Stealth", a buzzword common in defense circles since the early 80s, only became a mainstream reference in the nineties, after the second Persian Gulf War in 1991.Night-enhanced images of the otherworldly-shapedF-117s taking off in the night and striking high-value targets with scarcely believable precision and seeming invulnerability to thick air defenses were widely televised and etched in the memories of TV viewers worldwide. The subsequent exposure of stealth aircraft and their participation in numerous air operations in the 90s, in combination with the loss of at least one F-117 in Kosovo, has peeled off some of the mythical cloak surrounding stealth. However, a lot of misconceptions about the abilities and limitations of this technology still remain, even amongst people in posts of high professional responsibility. It is therefore useful to take a broad look at how stealth works, what it can and what it cannot do. This seminar will examine strictly the application of stealth in air assets. Different technologies and strategies for stealth are the province of land, naval and underwater forces. First of all, although it is common to discuss the principles of stealth technology (only as relevant to a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum (radar emissions), stealth as a design practice applies a wide range of signatures. Ben Rich, the leader of the Lockheed team that designed the F-117, has stated: "A stealth aircraft has to be
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stealthy in six disciplines: radar, infrared, visual, acoustic, smoke and contrail. If you don't do that, you flunk the course."

Fig 1:

F-117 NIGHT HAWK

That said, not all disciplines are equally important when discussing any given platform category. Underwater warfare will naturally hand dominance to the acoustic spectrum (though on acoustic sensors can and do exist . Land combat will emphasize visual, infra red and acoustic signatures. Radar and (to a lesser extent infrared bands dominate the scene of airspace surveillance, and so they have to be given higher priority whenthinking the applications in air warfare.

Fig 2: B-2 BOMBER

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STEALTH TECHNOLOG

Stealth technology also known as LO technology (low observable technology) is a sub discipline of military electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships, submarines, and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.

Stealth principles:
Stealth technology ("Low Observability") is not a single technology, but it is a combination of technologies that attempt to greatly reduce the distances at which a vehicle can be detected; in particular radar cross section reductions, but also acoustic, thermal, and other aspects.

Stealth technologies aim at minimizing signatures and signals, and prevent/delay detection and identification, thus increasing the efficiency of the vehicles own countermeasures and sensors. Ben Rich, the leader of the Lockheed team that designed the F117, pretty much sums up stealth technology when he say: ³A stealth aircraft has to be stealthy in six disciplines: radar, infrared, visual, acoustic, smoke and contrail. However, not all disciplines are equally important when discussing any given platform category. Underwater warfare will naturally hand dominance to the acoustic spectrum. However, land combat will emphasize visual, infrared and acoustic signatures. Radar and infrared bands dominate the scene of airspace surveillance.

Whatfs the need for Stealth? :
It¶s a matter of fact that the rapid development of stealth technology occurred due to the pronounced improvement of the detection techniques like radar¶s as they were the most commonly used detection methods in the 1930¶s & 40¶s. There are some key strategies that triggered the development of the Stealth technology like the use of Radar Aided-Anti aircraft systems and the use of Sonar¶s for detecting the Submarines by the Ships etc. Thus the rapid development was the need of time to reduce causalities. And that still remains so as Stealth technologies touching new heights day by day in the other side Anti- Stealth
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technologies are also in full momentum to outdate the Stealth technologies. Thus stating the need of STEALTH TECHNOLOGY.

HISTORY OF STEALTH
In the late 1930¶s and 1940¶s Radar technology was commonly used for detecting aircrafts. Since radar technology was developed during the Second World War, it should not be surprising to learn that the first attempts at stealth technology occurred during this period also. It might be surprising to learn, however, that it was the Germans, not the Allies, who worked on the project. The Germans were responding to the success the Allies were having with the early radar sets. Not only was their radar very effective at spotting incoming enemy bombers, but it was also very important in the battle for the Atlantic. The Germans developed a radar absorbing paint. While this ferrite-based paint was much too heavy for aircraft, it could be used on submarines. The United States first stealth development was totally accidental and quickly forgotten. Shortly after the war, Northrop Aircraft developed an experimental bomber called the YB-49 Flying Wing. As the name implies, the aircraft had no body or tail; it was simply a large flying wing. The aircraft was assigned to perform a normal test flight over the Pacific. When the test was completed, they turned and headed for home, pointing the slim wing edge directly at the base radar station. The radar crew was shocked to see the aircraft suddenly appear almost overhead because they had seen no evidence of it on the radar screen. Interest in the project quickly faded after the bomber crashed in the Mojave Desert in 1948. The plane was very unstable in flight and this stability problem was listed as the cause of the crash.

With the ³cold war´ and the Soviet Union well under way in the early 1950s, it became imperative that the U.S. should learn about military developments deep inside the country. Old bombers were converted to spy planes, but they soon proved to be very vulnerable to attack. In order to plug this intelligence gap, a new plane was designed. The idea was to create a plane that could cruise safely at very high altitudes, well out of the reach of any existing fighter. The design specification required that ³consideration is given«to minimize the delectability by enemy radar.´
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The task of making this plane a reality fell upon the Advanced Development Projects team at Lockheed in California. This was a small team of highly qualified and highly motivated engineers and pilots. This highly secret facility became known as the ³Skunk Works´ and has been on the leading edge of stealth technology since the early aircraft they developed became known as the U , and it was highly successful. After much effort they were successful in building an aircraft that could evade the enemy RADAR s called the F-117A nicknamed as the ³Nighthawk´, developed by Lockheed Martin in . s. The

Fig 3: F-117 A Nickname as NIGHT HAWK
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There is a boat the Skunk Works developed shortly after the called the "Sea Shadow" and was built in $ million dollars. The Sea Shadow was first unveiled on April , months and operated secretly in the late

A. It is for

. The barge used for the

program was the Hughes Mining Barge (HMB-1); a vessel was originally built for a secret STEALTH TECHNOLOGY 8|Page

CIA project in the early '

s, and had been in mothballs for years. The CIA project, it has

since come out, was an attempt to recover a Soviet nuclear sub that sank off the coast of Hawaii in 1968. The project included two ships, the Gosimir Explorer which was basically a ship capable of deep Sea mining, and the HMB-1 which actually submerged under the Gosimir Explorer. The HMB-1 had a claw to retrieve the USSR submarine, which was operated by the drill on the Gosimir Explorer. (The operation was partially successful with half of the ill-fated Soviet sub and crew being brought up from the ocean bottom.) The Sea Shadow's stats are: Length: 160 ft. Width: 68 ft. Draft: 1 . ft. Displacement: 60 tons (full load). In May 1999, the Sea Shadow was reactivated by the Navy for a year

program in order to "research future ship engineering concepts and to serve as a host vessel for companies to demonstrate advanced naval technologies." The Sea Shadow is currently operation out of San rancisco Bay.

Fig 4: SEA SHADOW

RADAR PRINCIPLES

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RADAR is abbreviated as Radio Detection and Ran in which is one of the most useful technologies in the present day warfare. This is used to launch the missiles based on the target and also counter attack the missiles launched by other countries. All radar systems, from an AWACS to police speed radar, work on the same principle: A certain amount of electromagnetic energy is transmitted through a directional antenna, which focuses it into a conical beam. When a reflective target blocks part of the beam, that part of the beam is reflected in many different directions, or "scattered." If the scattering is fairly random, as is usually the case, some energy will be reflected in the direction of the radar antenna. Most radar transmits this energy in pulses, thousands of them every second. In the gaps between the pulse transmissions, the radar becomes a receiver, and the gaps are carefully chosen to be just long enough for the signal to make its way to the target and back at the speed of light1. The time interval between the transmission and reception of the pulse gives the range from the radar to the target. The radar antenna moves at a pre-determined regular rate, so the time at which the target moves in and out of the beam can be tied to the position of the antenna, giving the target's bearing from the location of the radar. The radar can detect a target ONLY when its antenna captures enough energy to rise above the electronic noise that is invariably present in the receiver. All the variables in the transmission-scattering-reflection sequence affect the maximum range at which this can happen. These variables include:  The strength of the outgoing signal.  The width of the beam.  The size of the antenna.  The reflectivity, or RCS, of the target. The radar beam, it is important to remember, is a cone. The greater the range, the greater the area illuminated by the radar, and the smaller the proportion of the energy which will be scattered by a target with a given RCS. The same effect results in the scattered energy returning to the radar. Therefore, at a longer range, the already-reduced energy hitting the target is scattered over a wider area and less of it will be captured by the antenna.

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RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS):
Radar cross section is the measure of a target's ability to reflect radar signals in the direction of the radar receiver, i.e. it is a measure of the ratio of backscatter power per steradian (unit solid angle) in the direction of the radar (from the target) to the power density that is intercepted by the target. RCS is the one single variable that is out of the radar designer's control. The relationship of RCS to the detection range is not in direct proportion, because of the aforementioned conical beam and radial scattering effects. Detection range is in proportion to the fourth root of RCS.

A conventional aircraft has a complex external shape, full of curves, flat panels and edges. While its shape agrees with the laws of aerodynamics and the principles of engineering, it is entirely random in terms of the way it scatters radar energy. As the airplane moves (rapidly, relative to a radar which is pulsing energy toward it), it throws off a constantly changing, scintillating pattern of concentrated reflections.

The measurement called RCS was originally developed by radar engineers, as they tried to measure the performance of their creations against a common reference point. RCS is determined by first measuring, or calculating, the amount of radar energy reflected from a target toward an observer. RCS is based on the size of a reflective sphere that would return the same amount of energy. The projected area of the sphere, or the area of a disk of the same diameter, is the RCS number itself.

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The most important point to be made about RCS is that a small, efficient reflector (such as a flat plate) can reflect as much energy as a very large sphere, and will have a very large RCS. A 10x10cm square plate, for example, has an actual physical area of 0.01 square meters. Its RCS however, when it is normal to the radar beam, is 1 square meter, or

100 times as large as its physical area. Composite or complex shapes can be even worse. Reflective surfaces at ninety degrees to one another (as, for example, the tail-mounted rough two horizontal and vertical stabilizers of numerous aircraft) can turn a radar signal th right angles and fire it back to the receiver in full intensity.

Many modern aircraft are full of such reflectors, and the resulting RCS figures are almost staggering. Viewed from the side, a typical fighter, such as the -15, may have a projected area of 5 square meters. Because of the aircraft's design, however, the broadside RCS may be sixteen times as large, at 400 square meters, or the size of a very large house. Typical frontal-aspect RCS figures for modern aircraft run around -10 square meters for fighters, and up to 1,000 square meters for a bomber such as the B or a transport aircraft -52 like the Boeing 4 .

Fig 5
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Fig 6 OEING 747

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MINIMISING RCS
There are two broad aspects of RCS minimization techniques. One falls under the effort to shape the airframe, and covers the geometric design considerations that are taken into account when aiming for a low RCS. The other principle is referred to as ³radar absorbent materials´ and is concerned with the materials that help to reduce the reflectivity of the airframe, as well as the structures that will support these materials and integrate them into the airframe (often referred to as ³Radar-absorbent structures´. These two axes are of course not taken in isolation during the design; trade-offs often have to be made between them.

ig
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STEALTH TECHNIQUES
Stealth Technology is used in the construction of mobile military systems such as aircrafts and ships to significantly reduce their detection by enemy, primarily by an enemy RADAR. The way most airplane identification works is by constantly bombarding airspace with a RADAR signal. Other methods focus on measuring acoustics disturbances, visual contact and infrared signatures. Stealth technologies work by reducing or eliminating these telltale signals. Panels on planes are angled so that radar is scattered and no signal returns. Planes are also covered in a layer of absorbent materials that reduce any other signature the plane might leave. Shape also has a lot to do with the invisibility of stealth planes. Extreme aerodynamics keeps air turbulence to a minimum and cut down on flying noise, Special low noise engines are contained inside the body of the plane. Hot fumes are then capable of being mixed with cool air before leaving the plane. This fools the heat sensors on the ground. This also keeps heat seeking missiles from getting any sort of lock on their targets.
VI UAL 

AL H: 

stealth aircraft. Stealth aircrafts like the F-117 and the B-2 Spirit were painted black and were supposed to fly only during the night time for effective camouflaging. However, the concept of day-time stealth has been researched by Lockheed Martin, such a plane would need to blend into the background sky and also carry antiradar and infrared stealth technology. Researchers at the University of Florida are in the process of developing an µelectro chromic polymer¶. These thin sheets cover the aircraft¶s white skin and sense the hue, color and brightness of the surrounding sky and ground. The image received is then projected onto the aircraft¶s opposite side. When charged to a certain voltage, these panels undergo color change. At the Tonopah test range airstrip in Nevada, another system was tested; as claimed by a technician working at the base, an F-15 equipped with this technology took off from the runway only to disappear from sight 3 Km away. Yet another similar ³skin´ is being tested at the top-secret Groom Lake facility at Area 51 in Nevada. It is composed of an electro magnetically conductive polyaniline-based radar absorbent composite material. The system also disposes photo-sensitive receptors all over the plane that scans the surrounding area;
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Low visibility is desirable for all military applications and is essential for

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subsequently the data is interpreted by an onboard computer which outputs it much like a computer screen. Perhaps one day, in the very near future, one may fly in a completely invisible aircraft. B-2 Spirit bomber, Boeing s Bird of Prey and the -35 Joint Strike ighter represent the pinnacle of

modern day advancements in this particular field of human endeavor.

Fig 8: F-22 Raptor
INFRARED STEALTH
Infrared radiation are emitted by all matter above absolute zero; hot materials, such as engine exhaust gasses or wing surfaces heated by friction with the air, emit more infrared radiations than cooler materials. Heat seeking missiles and other weapons zero in on the infrared glow of hot aircraft parts. Infrared stealth therefore requires that aircraft parts and emissions, particularly those associated with engines must be kept as cool as possible. Embedding jet engines inside the wings is one basic design step towards infrared stealth. Other measures include extra shielding of hotter parts, mixing of cooler air with hot exhausts before emission, splitting the exhaust stream by passing it through the parallel baffles so that it mixes cooler air very quickly, directing of hot exhausts upward, away from ground observers. The application of special coating to hotspots to absorb and diffuse heat over larger areas. Active countermeasures against infrared detection and tracking can be combined with passive stealth measures; these include infrared jamming (i.e., mounting of flickering infrared radiators near engine exhausts to confuse the tracking circuits of heat-seeking missiles) and the launching of infrared decoy flares. Combat helicopters, which travel at low altitudes and at low speeds, are particularly vulnerable to hear seeking weapons and have been equipped with infrared jamming devices for several decades.

ACCO STIC STEALTH 

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Although sound waves move too slowly to be an effective locating signal for anti aircraft weapons, for low altitude flying it is still best to be in audible to ground observers. Several ultra quiet, low altitude reconnaissance aircraft, such as Lockheed s QT-2 and YO-3A have been developed since the 1960¶s. Aircraft of this type are ultra light, run on small internal combustion engines quieted by silencer suppressor mufflers, and are driven by large, often wooden propellers. They make about as much sound as gliders and have very low infrared emissions as well because of their low energy consumption. The US F -117 stealth which is designed to fly at high speed and low altitudes also incorporates acoustic stealth measures and engine intake and exhaust cowlings. This acoustic stealth is mainly used in naval forces in the form of sound navigation and ranging. Here are some acoustic techniques which are used for the application of stealth. A thermo cline is a layer of water where the temperature gradient is greater than that of the warmer layer above and the colder layer below. When the temperature gradient is greater, a sound wave rapidly bending towards the sea bottom. The sound wave goes to the sea bottom and ³stay there´. The sound wave is useless. If a submarine is submerged at the layer of thermo cline or immediate below the layer, the submarine will not be ³captured´ from the wave and she will stay undetected. This is a shown in the figure. Fig 9:
HULL MOUNTED SONAR

During the summer, at afternoon, if weather conditions are good, a submarine couldnot be detected from standard (hull mounted) ship¶s sonar. In the same time, the depth is good for observing and torpedo launching. If the surface ship wishes to detect a submarine, the ship has to be fitted with towed Fig 10: Tower type SONAR sonar. In that case, the sonar must be submerged below the thermo-cline. Picture shows situation when the submarine is submerged below the layer of thermo cline and the surface ship is fitted with towed sonar.

RADAR STEALTH
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This technology is the use of reflected electromagnetic waves in the microwave part of the spectrum to detect targets or map landscapes. RADAR first illuminates the target, that¶s it; transmit the radio pulses in its direction. If any of the energy is reflected by the target, some of it may be collected by the receiving antenna. By comparing the delay times of various echoes the information about the geometry of the target can be deriv and an image is ed formed if necessary. RADAR stealth requires that a craft absorb incident radar pulses, actively cancel them by emitting inverse waveforms, and deflect them away from receiving antennas. Absorption and deflection are the most important pr erequisites of RADAR stealth. A SORPTION: 

Metallic surfaces reflect RADAR; therefore, stealth aircraft parts must either be coated RADAR absorbent materials or use radar absorbent panels. The latter is preferable because an aircraft whose parts are intrinsically radar absorbing derives aerodynamic as well as stealth function from them where as a radar absorbent coating is aerodynamically speaking dead weight the f117 stealth aircraft is built mostly out of RADAR observant material termed fibaloy , which consists of glass fibers embedded is plastic end of carbon fibers. These are used mostly for hot spots like leading wing edges and panels covering the jet engines. RADAR A SORBENT S RFACES (RAS): RAS or radar absorbent surfaces are the surface on the aircraft, which can deflect the incoming radar waves and reduce the detection range. RAS works due to the angles at which the structure a fuselage is or the fuselages itself are placed. These structure s can be anything from wings to be fueling boom on the air craft. The extensive use of RAS is clearly visible in the F117 NIGHTHAWK. Due to the facets on the fuselage most of the incoming radar waves are reflected to another direction. Due to these phasets on the fuselage, the F117 is a very unstable aircraft. The concept behind the RAS is that of reflecting a light beam from a torch with a mirror. The angle at which the reflection takes place is also more important. When considering a mirror being rotated 0 to 90o, the amount of light i.e. reflected in the direction STEALTH TECHNOLOGY 18 | P a g e Fig 11: REFLECTION ON WAVES BY RAS 


of the light beam is more. At 90o max amount of light that is reflected back to same direction as the light beams source. On the other hand when the mirror is tilted above 90 degrees and as it proceeds to 180 o, the amount of light reflected in the same direction decreases drastically. This makes the aircraft like F117 stealthy.
RADAR ABSORBENT ATERIALS (RA ):

Radar-absorbing materials (RAMs) are used to dissipate the energy of the radar wave so to prevent the reception of a reflected signal by an antenna. Usually, the dissipation process converts the radio frequency (RF) energy to a negligible quantity of heat. RAM has a coating that contains carbonyl iron ferrite. When a radar wave encounters this coating, it creates a magnetic field within the metallic elements of the coating. The field has alternating polarity and dissipates the energy of the radar signal. There are three types of RAM they are Resonant, Non resonant magnetic and Non resonant large volume. Materials used for Making Radar Absorbent Materials are carbon fiber composites or magnetic ferrite based substance. RAM reduces the RCS by making the object appear smaller. Radar Absorbent Materials Absorb the incoming radar waves rather than deflecting it in another direction. RAS totally depends on the material with which the surface of the aircraft is made, though the composition of this material is a top secret. The F117 extensively uses the RAM to reduce its radar signature or its RCS. Many RADAR absorbent plastics carbon based materials, ceramics and blends of these materials have been developed for use on stealth aircraft. Combining such materials with RADAR absorbing surface geometry enhances stealth. For example wing surfaces can be built on a metallic substrate that is shaped like a field of pyramids with the spaces between the pyramids filled by a RADAR absorbent material. RADAR waves striking the surface zigzag inward between the pyramid walls, which increase absorption by lengthening signal path through the absorbent material. Another example of structural absorption is the placement of metal screens over the intake vents of JET engines. These screens used, for example, on the F117 stealth fighter absorb RADAR waves exactly the metal screens embedded in the doors of microwave ovens. It is important to prevent RADAR waves from entering JET intakes which can act as resonant cavities and so produce RADAR reflections.

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The inherently high cost of RADAR absorbent in airframe worthy material makes stealth aircraft expensive. Each B2 bomber costs approximately $2.2 billion, while each F117 costs $45 million. Fig 12: Properties if RAMs based on angle of incidence.

DEFLECTION:
Most RADAR¶s are monostatic that is for reception they use either the same antenna as per sending or a separate receiving antenna collocated with the sending antenna. Deflection therefore means reflecting RADAR pulses in any direction other than the one they came from this in turn requires that stealth aircraft lack flat, vertical surfaces that could act as simple RADAR mirrors. RADAR can also be strongly reflected where ever three planar surfaces meet at a corner. Planes such as the B52 bomber which have many flat ,vertical surfaces and RADAR reflecting corners, are notorious for their RADAR reflecting abilities .stealth aircraft in contrast, tend to be highly angled and streamlined, presenting no surfaces at all to an observer that is not directly above or below them B2 bomber, for example , is shaped like a boomerang. SHAPING OF THE AIRCRAFT: Most conventional aircrafts use a round shape cone as it is the most important principle of aerodynamics. The planes are constructed according to the principles of aerodynamics which are approved worldwide. This type of construction makes it a very efficient RADAR reflector. When the radar signal hits the plane no matter where it hits the plane, some amount of radar signal is reflected back.

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A stealth aircraft on the other hand is made up of completely flat surfaces and very sharp edges. When a radar signal hits a stealth plane the signal reflects away at an angle as shown.

Aircraft shaping is useful over a wide range of radar frequencies but over a limited range of aspect angles. The forward cone is of greatest interest and hence, large returns can be shifted out of this sector into the broadside directions. Fig 13: Effect of radar signal on F117

Another trick, similar but antipodal to the first one in principle, is to shape the airframe in such way that, instead of having the reflected energy scatter in all directions (and thus a portion of it being always picked-up by the enemy radar), it will bounce back on a very limited number of directions, maybe only one or two. This means that an enemy radar will get only one strong reflection when the spatial geometry is ³just perfect´, but virtually no reflection at all in any other instance. Unless the radar beam makes two ninety-degree angles to one of the surfaces, the aircraft may remain undetectable. A good example is the frontal wing surface of the B-2. A radar which illuminates the B-2 from anywhere in the front quadrant would produce only two strong "glint" reflections, one from each wing, and these two spikes are impossible to generate concurrently. This method is extensively used in numerous stealthy and semi-stealthy.

PLASMA STEALTH:
The Russian academy of sciences however developed a low budget RADAR stealth technique, namely the cloaking of aircraft in ionized gas(plasma). Plasma absorbs Fig 14 STEALTH TECHNOLOGY 21 | P a g e

radio waves, so it is theoretically possible to diminis the RADAR reflectivity of a no h stealthy aircraft by generating plasma at the nose and leading edges of the aircraft. The Russian system is supposed to be a light weight (>220 lb i.e 100 kg) and retrofittable to existing aircraft. The disadvantage is that it makes the plane glow in the visible part of the spectrum. Plasma technology can be also called as ³Active Stealth Technology´ in scientific terms. This technology developed by the Russians is a milestone in the field of Stealth Technology. In plasma stealth, the aircraft injects a stream in front of the aircraft. The plasma will cover the entire body of the fighter and will absorb most of the electromagnetic energy of the radar waves, thus making the aircraft difficult to detect. The same method is used in Magneto Hydro Dynamics. Using this aircraft can propel itself to higher speeds. Plasma Stealth will be incorporates in MiG-35 ³Super Fulcrum/ Raptor killer´. This is a fighter which is an advanced derivative of MiG-29. Initial trails have been conducted on these planes and the results appear to be fruitful.

THE ADAPTIVE WATER C RTAIN TECHNOLOGY (AWCT)
Fig 15 MiG 35 supersonic aircraft The Adaptive Water Curtain Technology (AWCT) is intended to deflect and scatter enemy radar waves thus reducing the ship¶s radar cross section (RCS). It consists of (highly conductive) sea water sprayed in a fashion that effectively creates an angled radarreflective curtain around the ship.

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To reduce the ship¶s remaining RCS, the water curtain can be "modulated" such that the returns appear as "Sea Clutter." This could be done by determi ing the n surrounding Sea State either locally, or from satellite Sea State data, i.e., deriving the Sea Clutter Spectrum; or applying the appropriate coefficients to the modulating process for optimum mimicry. This approach is suggested as an "Add -On" to existing surface ships, an interim measure until the next generation DD(X) of stealthy surface ships has replaced this class. The Arleigh Burke class Destroyer--which has rudimentary stealth technology, is used as an example of a recipient ship for this technology This technology can reduce a surface . ship's vulnerability to Radar cross-section (RCS), Infrared signature (IR), and Visual signature reduction.

Fig 16

ADVANTAGES:

Adaptive Water Curtain Technology (AWCT)

A smaller number of stealth vehicles may replace fleet of conventional attacks vehicles with the same or increased combat efficiency. Possibly resulting in longer term savings in the military budget. A Stealth vehicles strike capability may deter potential enemies from taking action and keep them in constant fear of strikes, since they can ever know if the attack vehicles are already underway. STEALTH TECHNOLOGY 23 | P a g e

The production of a stealth combat vehicles design may force an opponent to pursue the same aim, possibly resulting in significant weakening of the economically inferior party. Stationing stealth vehicles in a friendly country is a powerful diplomatic gesture as stealth vehicles incorporate high technology and military secrets. Decreasing causality rates of the pilots and crew members.

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CONCLUSION:
The Detection and Stealth Technology has improved significantly more advanced in the last fifty years or so. This trend is likely to continue as these two oppose each other. Till date stealth aircraft have been used in several low and moderate intensity conflicts, including operation Desert Storm. Operation Allied Force and the 2003 invasion of Iraq .In each Case they were employed to strike high value targets which were either out of range of conventional aircraft or which were too heavily defended for conventional aircraft to strike without a high risk of loss. In addition, because the stealth aircraft aren¶t going to be dodging surface to air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery over the target they can aim more carefully and thus are more likely to hit the high value targets early in the campaign (or even for it) ,Before other aircraft had the opportunity to degrade the opposing air defense. However, given the increasing prevalence of excellent Russian-belt Surface ± to-air missile (SAM) system on the open market, stealth aircraft are likely to be very important in a high intensity conflict in order to gain and maintain air supremacy. Stealth technology .in future, would be required for clearing the way for deeper strikes , which conventional aircraft would find very difficult .For example ,China license-builds a wide range of SAM systems in quantity and would be able to heavily defend important strategic and tactical targets in the event of some kind of conflict .Even if anti radiation weapons are used in an attempt to destroy the SAM radars of such systems, these SAMs are capable of shooting down weapons fired against them. The development and the deployment of the Visby¶s- the first commissioned Stealth ships has raised new threats in the maritime boundaries. The sudden appearance of sea clutters on the radar at a region may be these ships. The plasma stealth technology raises new hopes of engineering brilliance. As plasma is said to absorb all electromagnetic radiation the development of a counter stealth technology to such a mechanism will be a strenuous task. Well to concl e the current scenario appears something similar to the

col war both si es are accumulating weapons to counter each other and each side can be termed as ³Stealth Technology´ and the other as ³Anti-Stealth Technology´. It¶s an arm race except it isn't between specific countries. ³It¶s a fight between Technologies´.

REFERENCES
STEALTH TECHNOLOGY

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1. http://www.aerospaceweb.org/ 2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21433027/Stealth-Technology-Presentation 3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/19119629/Seminar-report-on-stealthtechnology-in-aircrafts 4. http://en.wi ipedia.org/wi i/Stealth_technology 5. http://en.wi ipedia.org/wi i/File:Lockheed_F-117_Nighthawk.ogv 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-22_Raptor 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-117_Nighthawk 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MiG-35_airliners_net.jpg 9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=goPki_V34xA 10. http://www.world-war-2-planes.com/go-229-jet-aircraft.html

STEALTH TECHNOLOGY

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