You are on page 1of 25

MSc Programme in Railway Systems

Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

m
a
h
g
in

Vehicle Suspension Systems

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

January 2013

m
r
i
B

Presented by Bridget Eickhoff, RSSB

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Contents of Presentation

n
i
irm

Suspension elements & modes of vibration


Primary & secondary suspensions
Vehicle ride & passenger comfort

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 1

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Contents of Presentation

m
a
h
g
in

Suspension elements & modes of vibration


Primary & secondary suspensions
Vehicle ride & passenger comfort

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Simple Vehicle - Track System

n
i
irm

Vehicle Body

B
f
o

Suspension

y
t
i
rs

Wheelset

n
U

ive

Cont act St if f ness


Rail
Track Support

Page 2

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Stiffness Characteristics

m
a
h
g
in
Non-Linear

Force

m
r
i
BDisplacement

Linear

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Viscous Damping Characteristics

n
i
irm

Force

Linear

o
y
t
i
s
r
e

fB

Non-Linear

Velocity

v
i
n

Page 3

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Friction Characteristic

mN

m
a
h
g
in

Force

True Force
Ideal Force

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

Velocity

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Hysteresis Loops

n
i
irm

Linear Stiffness in Parallel with :(a) Viscous Damping (b) Friction


(c) Rubber Hysteresis
Force

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Displacement

Page 4

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Single degree of freedom

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e
k

m
r
i
Bc

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Effect of Damping

n
i
irm

1.0

(m/s2)2/Hz

0.1

0.01

o
y
t
i
s
r
e

0.001

fB

200%

100%

50%
20%

0.0001

v
i
n

5%

0.00001

10

12

Frequency (Hz)

Page 5

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Series Stiffness

m
a
h
g
in

y
t
i
rs

of

m
r
i
Bk

ks
c

e
v
i
n

m
a
gh

Two-axle Vehicle

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 6

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Two-axle vehicle pitch

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

2 Stage Suspension

n
i
irm

y
t
i
s
r
e

B
f
o

v
i
n

Page 7

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Effect of Bogies

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Vehicle Modes of Vibration

Longitudinal
Vertical / Bounce
Pitch
Lower Sway
Upper Sway
Yaw

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

n
i
irm

B
f
o

Page 8

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Bounce and Pitch Modes

m
a
h
g
in

m
r
i
B

Bounce Mode

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

Pitch Mode

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Vehicle Bounce Mode

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 9

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Vehicle Pitch Mode

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Sway Modes

n
i
irm

y
t
i
rs

e
v
Lower Sway
i
n

B
f
o

Upper Sway

Page 10

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Lower Sway Mode

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Upper Sway Mode

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 11

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Yaw Mode

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Yaw Mode

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 12

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Typical Frequencies Passenger Vehicle

Lower Sway
Yaw
Bounce
Pitch
Upper Sway

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

0.6Hz
0.9Hz
1.0Hz
1.4Hz
1.6Hz

m
a
h
g
in

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Contents of Presentation

n
i
irm

Suspension elements & modes of vibration


Primary & secondary suspensions
Vehicle ride & passenger comfort

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 13

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Viscous Damped Primary Suspension

m
a
h
g
in

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

Guide Post
Sleeve
Bearing

Rubber
Bush

Viscous Damper

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Trailing Arm Primary Suspension

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 14

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Leaf Spring Primary Suspension

m
a
h
g
in

m
r
i
B

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Y25 Bogie - Lenoir Link

n
i
irm

Pusher
Clearance

Tare Spring

Laden Spring

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

Axlebox

B
f
o

Spring Carrier
Lenoir Link

Friction Surfaces

Page 15

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Friction Wedge Suspensions

m
a
h
g
in

RL

RR

m1RL

m
r
i
B

m1RR

FL FR

m2FL m2FR

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

Fc

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Airspring Suspension System

n
i
irm

Surge Pipe

B
f
o

Surge
Reservoir

Damping Orifice
Air Spring

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

Series Stack

Page 16

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Contents of Presentation

m
a
h
g
in

Suspension elements &modes of vibration


Primary & secondary suspensions
Vehicle ride & passenger comfort

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 17

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Variation of Acceleration with Time

m
a
h
g
in

m
r
i
B

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Vertical Ride Effect of Track Quality

Ride Acceleration (mg)

20
15

o
y
t
i
s
r
e

10
5

v
i
n
0

Track A

n
i
irm

25

Track B

fB

Vehicle
Suspension

Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Option 4

Track C

Page 18

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Human Response to Vibration

m
a
h
g
in

Health - Physical Damage/Psychological Deterioration


Impaired Performance
Comfort
Perception

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Effect of Vibration on Health

n
i
irm

ISO 2631-1:1997
Basic Evaluation Method

B
f
o

weighted root mean square

Maximum Transient Vibration Value

y
t
i
s
r
e

Maximum weighted rms value over one second

Vibration Dose Value

v
i
n

1/ 4

T 4

VDV a w t dt
0

Weighted root mean quad integrated over time

Page 19

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Railway Vibration Health Limits

m
a
h
g
in

EU Physical Agents Directive


GB Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005

Whole Body Vibration Daily Exposure Limit Value 1.15 m/s 2


Whole Body vibration Daily Exposure Action Value 0.5 m/s 2

Machinery Directives

m
r
i
B

For on-track machines in Working Mode

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

Previous Limits

Vertical Weighted Acceleration Peak Value < 6.0 m/s 2


Lateral/Longitudinal Weighted Acceleration Peak Value < 3.5
m/s2
Vibration Dose Value < 15 m/s1.75

v
i
n

See UK Guidance Note GM/GN 2460

m
a
gh

EN 12299 Method - Passenger comfort

n
i
irm

Vertical, lateral and longitudinal accelerations


Simplified - measurements at floor
Complete - at seat interface

B
f
o

5-minute sections
Weighted rms - sixty 5-second blocks
95th percentile (57th highest)
Combine directions

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

Page 20

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Lateral Weighting Filter

m
a
h
g
in

10

0. 1

0.01

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

0.001

0.0001

0.00001
0.1 Hz

m
r
i
B

1 Hz

10 Hz

100 Hz

Unit response of lateral filter Wa*Wd

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Vertical Weighting Filters

n
i
irm

VAMPIRE FREQUENCY RESPONSE


10

0.1

LOG
0. 01

0.001

ive

0.0001

0.00001
0.1 Hz

n
U

y
t
i
rs
1 Hz

B
f
o
LOG Freq

10 Hz

100 Hz

Unit response of vertical ride filter Wa*Wb ( D5, UIC, CEN )


Unit response of vertical ride filter Wa*Wb ( BS, ISO )
Unit response of vertical ride filter Wa*Wk (ISO)

Page 21

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Passenger Perception of Curves

m
a
h
g
in

Quasi-static lateral acceleration

Passenger response to lateral vibration


Dissatisfaction measure for discrete events PDE

m
r
i
B

Change in quasi-static lateral acceleration

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

Passenger response to transition curves


Dissatisfaction measure for transition curves PCT

v
i
n

m
a
gh

Lateral

Carbody Acceleration

Discrete Events

n
i
irm

..

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

Ym

B
f
o

..

Yp

time
2 seconds

Page 22

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Curvature (1/km)

Curve Transitions

y
t
i
rs

of

m
a
h
g
in

m
r
i
B

e
v
i
n

m
a
gh

Passenger Activities

n
i
irm

Test Results from BR Research

Reading
Writing
Sitting
Drinking
Standing
Walking

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 23

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

CUMULATIVE PROBABILITY

Cumulative Distributions for a Passenger


Rating of Various On-train Activities

m
a
h
g
in

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e
0

v
i
n

100

200

m
r
i
B
300

400

Reading
Writing
Sitting
Drinking
Standing
Walking

500

PASSENGER RATING

m
a
gh

Acceleration Frequencies

Activity
Sitting
Drinking

B
f
o

0.5 - 8.0

y
t
i
s
r
e

Spillage

Standing

v
i
n

Writing

n
i
irm

Acceleration Frequency R ange (Hz)


Vertical
Lateral
0.4 - 16
0.4 - 2.0

1.0 - 20

3.3 - 3.95
0.2 - 2.0
1.0 - 20

Page 24

MSc Programme in Railway Systems


Engineering and Integration

Suspension Systems

University of Birmingham

Summary of Presentation

m
a
h
g
in

Suspension elements & modes of vibration


Primary & secondary suspensions
Vehicle ride & passenger comfort

f
o
y
t
i
s
r
e

m
r
i
B

v
i
n

m
a
gh

n
i
irm

e
v
i
n

y
t
i
rs

B
f
o

Page 25