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AUTO ELECTRICAL BASICS


Battery Maintenance Services

The battery in your car is the source of energy for all the
electrical components that your vehicle has.
One of the main functions of the battery is to provide energy to
the starter and ignition, but all of the other electrical equipment
in your car relies on the battery as well.

A vehicle battery has several important functions,


such as:

Providing power to the starter motor,


Ignition system,
Fuel system and other electrical devices during engine starting
Storing energy

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Providing power to electronic components as required when the


vehicle is of
(Example: Digital radios, clocks, door locks, alarms, vehicle
computers, etc.)
When the engine starts running, the charging system takes over to
provide electricity to the various vehicle electrical systems. The battery
cable terminals connect the battery to the electrical system.
To achieve optimal performance and avoid possible damage to your
vehicles electrical system, you need to maintain your battery in good
condition.\
The following procedures will help to ensure your battery is
maintained in good condition:

Checking the alternator belt tension


Checking the wear of the alternator belt
Checking the electrolyte level
Tightening loose hold-down clamps and terminals
Removing any visible corrosion

Battery Diagnostics
The service includes testing of vehicle starting and charging system
components:
Using testing equipment to check cranking amp capacity of the
battery
Testing the electrical draw of the starter
Testing the electrical output of the alternator

Battery Replacement
The service procedure includes:
Visually inspecting the battery

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Using test equipment to check cranking amp capacity of the


battery
Connecting an external electrical power source to the system
when necessary, to prevent loss of electric memory in digital
radios, clocks, door locks, alarms and other systems
Removing old battery and replacing with a new one

Battery Terminal Cleaning


The service procedure includes:
Visually inspecting the battery cable terminals
Connecting an external electrical power source to the system
when necessary, to prevent loss of electric memory in digital
radios, clocks, door locks, alarms and other systems
Removing the battery cable terminals from the battery
Cleaning the battery posts and cable terminals
Reconnecting the battery cable terminal to the battery
Coating the battery posts and cable terminals with a protective
spray or Petroleum jelly

Battery Terminal Replacement


The service procedure includes:
Visual inspection of the battery cable terminals
Connecting an external electrical power source to the system
when necessary, to prevent loss of electric memory in digital
radios, clocks, door locks, alarms and other systems
Removing the battery cable terminals from the battery
Cleaning the battery posts
Replacing the battery terminals
Reconnecting the battery cable terminals to the battery

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Coating the battery posts and cable terminals with a protective


spray

Light Bulb Inspection and Replacement


Why is it important?
Your exterior lights and headlights, taillights, brake lights, turn signals,
backup lights and marker lights are essential parts of your vehicles
safety equipment. They are the main ways that you see the road and
are seen by other drivers.
What is the service?
Checking and testing all of your exterior lights, any malfunctioning
bulbs can be replaced.

Starter motor or self starter or starter motor:


The electric starter motor or starting motor is the most common type used on
gasoline engines and small Diesel engines.
The modern starter motor is either a permanent-magnet or a series-parallel
wound direct current electric motor with a starter solenoid (similar to a relay)
mounted on it.
When current from the starting battery is applied to the solenoid, usually through
a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a lever that pushes out the
drive pinion on the starter driveshaft and meshes the pinion with the starter
ring gear on the flywheel of the engine.
The solenoid also closes high-current contacts for the starter motor, which begins to
turn. Once the engine starts, the key-operated switch is opened; a spring in the
solenoid assembly pulls the pinion gear away from the ring gear, and the starter
motor stops.

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Exploded diagram of a starter motor


1. Main Housing (yoke)
2. Overrunning clutch
3. Armature
4. Field coils
5. Brushes
6. Solenoid

Alternator (automotive)
Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the
electrical system when its engine is running.

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The starting system includes the battery, starter motor, solenoid, ignition
switch, and in some cases, a starter relay.
A typical charging system contains an alternator (generator), drive belt,
battery, voltage regulator and the associated wiring.
The charging system, like the starting system is a series circuit with the
battery wired in parallel. After the engine is started and running, the
alternator takes over as the source of power and the battery then
becomes part of the load on the charging system.

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Basic automobile electrical wiring