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# CHAPTER 7 - FIRST-ORDER CIRCUITS

## List of topics for this chapter :

Source-Free RC Circuit
Source-Free RL Circuit
Singularity Functions
Step Response of an RC Circuit
Step Response of an RL Circuit
First-Order Op Amp Circuits
Transient Analysis with PSpice
Applications

SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT

Problem 7.1

## For the circuit in Figure 7.1, find v C ( t ) and i C ( t ) given v C (0) = 10 V .

10
iC(t)

+
vC(t)

1/5 F

Figure 7.1
Carefully DEFINE the problem.
Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.
PRESENT everything you know about the problem.
This is a source-free RC circuit. The natural response of this source-free RC circuit is

v C ( t ) = V0 e -t ,

where V0 = v C (0)

and

= RC

We know the initial voltage across the capacitor. To find the capacitor voltage for any time
greater than zero, we need to calculate the time constant of the circuit.

Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the
greatest likelihood of success.
The three solution techniques that can be used are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, and basic
circuit analysis. Basic circuit analysis can be used to solve this problem.

## ATTEMPT a problem solution.

V0 = v C (0) = 10 V
v C ( t ) = 10 e

-t 2

= RC = (10)(1 5) = 2 s

or

i C (t) = C

- v C (t)
R

i C (t) =

and

dv C ( t )
dt

i C ( t ) = - e -t 2 A

In either case,

## EVALUATE the solution and check for accuracy.

Using KVL,

10 i C ( t ) + v C ( t ) = (10)(-e -t 2 ) + 10 e -t 2 = 0
Our check for accuracy was successful.
Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not,
This problem has been solved satisfactorily.

[7.23]

Problem 7.2
functions.

v2(t)

v1(t)
1

2
1

(a)

(b)

v3(t)

v3(t)

2
t

2
0

(c)

(d)

Figure 7.1

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Problem 7.3

v1 ( t ) = u ( t + 1) u ( t ) + [ u ( t 1) u ( t )]
v1 ( t ) = u(t + 1) 2 u(t ) + u(t 1)
v 2 ( t ) = (4 t ) [ u ( t 2) u ( t 4)]
v 2 ( t ) = -( t 4) u ( t 2) + ( t 4) u ( t 4)
v 2 ( t ) = 2 u(t 2) r(t 2) + r(t 4)
v 3 ( t ) = 2 [ u(t 2) u(t 4)] + 4 [ u(t 4) u(t 6)]
v 3 ( t ) = 2 u(t 2) + 2 u(t 4) 4 u(t 6)
v 4 ( t ) = -t [ u ( t 1) u ( t 2)] = -t u(t 1) + t u ( t 2)
v 4 ( t ) = (-t + 1 1) u ( t 1) + ( t 2 + 2) u ( t 2)
v 4 ( t ) = - r(t 1) u(t 1) + r(t 2) + 2 u(t 2)

## Given i( t ) = 3 e -t 2 A , find v C ( t ) for the circuit shown in Figure 7.1.

10
+

i(t)

vc(t)

1/5 F

Figure 7.1

v C ( t ) = 30 e -t 2 V

Problem 7.4

## Given v C (1 ) = 10 V , find v C ( t ) for all t > 0 in Figure 7.1.

10
+
vc(t)

1/20 F

Figure 7.1

10
v C (t ) = -2 e -2t V
e

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

SOURCE-FREE RL CIRCUIT

## For the circuit in Figure 7.1, find i( t ) and v L ( t ) given i(0) = 4 A .

Problem 7.5

10

i(t)
+
vL(t)

5H

Figure 7.1
Carefully DEFINE the problem.
Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.
PRESENT everything you know about the problem.
This is a source-free RL circuit. The natural response of this source-free RL circuit is

i L ( t ) = I 0 e -t ,

where I 0 = i L (0)

and

=L R

We know the initial current through the inductor. To find the current through the inductor for
any value of time greater than zero, we need to calculate the time constant of the circuit.
Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the
greatest likelihood of success.
The three solution techniques that can be used are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, and basic
circuit analysis. Basic circuit analysis can be used to solve this problem.
ATTEMPT a problem solution.

I 0 = i L (0) = 4 A

and

= L R = 5 10 = 0.5 s

or

v L (t) = L

i( t ) = 4 e -2 t A
v L ( t ) = -10 i( t )

di( t )
dt

In either case,

v L ( t ) = - 40 e -2 t V

Using KVL,

## 10 i( t ) + v L ( t ) = (10)(4 e -2t ) 40 e -2t = 0

Our check for accuracy was successful.
Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not,
This problem has been solved satisfactorily.

i( t ) = 4 e -2t u(t ) A

Problem 7.6

v L ( t ) = - 40 e -2t u(t ) V

and

## For the circuit in Figure 7.1, find i( t ) given v L ( t ) = 20 e -2 t V .

20

i(t)
+
10 H

vL(t)

Figure 7.1

L R = 10 20 = 0.5 s
i( t ) =

1
v ( ) d
L L

but it is also

i( t ) =

Problem 7.7

- v L (t )
= - e -2t u(t ) A
R

## Given i(0) = 2 A , find i( t ) , p10 (power absorbed by the 10 ohm resistor),

and w 10 (total energy dissipated by the 10 ohm resistor) for the circuit in Figure 7.1.

10

i(t)

5H

Figure 7.1

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

i( t ) = 2 e -2t A
p10 = 40 e -4t W

w 10 = 10 J

SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS

Problem 7.8

Solve for

(a)

du ( t )
dt

(a)

0 t < 0
u (t ) =
1 t > 0

dr ( t )
dt

(b)

0
t<0

d
u ( t ) = undefined t = 0

dt

0
t>0

(b)

0 t 0
r(t ) =
t t > 0
0 t 0
d
r(t) =

dt
1 t > 0

Problem 7.9

d
u ( t ) = (t )
dt

d
r ( t ) = u( t )
dt

iC(t)

vC(t)

1/10 F

Figure 7.1

iC (t ) = C

d
v (t)
dt C

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

i C (t) =

1 d
1 d
d

[ 5 u ( t ) + 6 r ( t )] = 5 u ( t ) + 6 r ( t )

10 dt
10 dt
dt

## Using Problem 7.8, it is clear that

i C (t) =

Problem 7.10

1
[ 5 (t ) + 6 u(t )] A
10

Solve for

(a)

( t ) dt

(b)

u ( t) dt

(a)

u( t )

(b)

r(t )

Problem 7.11

10
iC(t)
v(t)

vc(t)

1/20 F

Figure 7.1

1 1
= RC = (10) = s
20 2
v C ( 0) = 0 V

v C () = 20 V

## v C ( t ) = ( 20)(1 e -2t ) u(t ) V

i C (t) = C

dv C ( t ) 1
= (-20)(-2 e -2t ) = 2 e -2t u(t ) A
20
dt

## Find the step responses v( t ) and i( t ) to v s = 5 u ( t ) V in the

[7.37]
Problem 7.12
circuit of Figure 7.1

12

7
i(t)
+

vs

0.5 F

v(t)

Figure 7.1
For t < 0 ,

v s = 5 u (t ) = 0
v(0) = 0 V

For t > 0 ,

vs = 5 V ,

v() =

4
5
(5) = V
4
4 + 12

R eq = 7 + 4 || 12 = 10 ,

= R eq C = (10)(1 2) = 5 s

## v( t ) = v() + [ v(0) v()] e -t

v( t ) = 1.25 ( 1 e -t 5 ) V
dv 1 - 5 - 1 -t 5
= e
dt 2 4 5
i( t ) = 0.125 e -t 5 A
i( t ) = C

Problem 7.13

10
i(t)
+
v(t)

2i(t)

vc(t)

1/10 F

Figure 7.1

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit at the terminals of the capacitor. This will simplify
the circuit, forming an RC circuit with a voltage source.
Use the following circuit to find the open circuit voltage.

10
i(t)

v(t)

2i(t)

Voc

## Voc must be equal to v( t ) , since i( t ) + 2i( t ) = 0

i( t ) = 0 A .
To find the short circuit current,

10
i(t)
v(t)

2i(t)

I sc = i( t ) + 2 i( t ) = 3 i( t )
I sc =

Isc

where i( t ) =

v( t )
10

3
v( t )
10

Thus,

R Th =

Voc 10
=

I sc
3

## which leads to the following Thevenin equivalent circuit.

10/3

v(t)

1/10 F

Using the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the capacitor as the load, we can see that

10 1 1
= R th C = = s
3 10 3

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

For t < 0 ,

v( t ) = 0 V ,
v C (t ) = 0 V

v C (0) = 0 V , v C () = 0 V

## For 0 < t < 2 ,

v( t ) = 10 V ,

v C (0) = 0 V , v() = 10 V

v C ( t ) = (10)(1 e -3t ) V
v( t ) = 0 V ,

For 2 < t ,

v C (2) = (10)(1 e -6 ) V ,

v C () = 0 V

## v C ( t ) = (10)(1 e -6 ) e -3(t -2) V

Combining these cases,

v C (t ) =

Problem 7.14

## Given v( t ) = 40 u ( t ) V , find i L ( t ) and v L ( t ) in Figure 7.1.

10
iL(t)
v(t)

vL(t)

5H

Figure 7.1

L 5 1
=
= s
R 10 2

i L (0) = 0 A
i L ( t ) = (4)(1 e -2t ) u(t ) A

v L (t) = L

di L ( t )
= (5)(4)(2) e -2 t u ( t ) = 40 e -2 t u(t ) V
dt

## Find v o ( t ) for t > 0 in the circuit of Figure 7.1.

[7.55]

Problem 7.15

6
+
+

10 V

vo

4H
2
t=0
Figure 7.1
Let i be the inductor current. For t < 0, the inductor acts like a short circuit and the 2 resistor is
short-circuited so that the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (a).

10

10

For t > 0,

3
2

(a)
i = i(0) =

io

(b)

10
= 1.6667 A
6

R th = 2 + 3 || 6 = 4 ,

L
4
= =1s
R th 4

10 v v v
10
V
= +

v =
6
3 2
6
v 5
i = i() = = A
2 6

## i( t ) = i() + [ i(0) i()] e - t

5 10 5
5
i( t ) = + e -t = (1 + e - t ) A
6 6 6
6

## v o is the voltage across the 4 H inductor and the 2 resistor

di 10 10 -t
10 10 - t
5
=
+ e + (4) (-1) e - t =
e
6
dt 6 6
6 6
v o ( t ) = 1.6667 ( 1 e -t ) V
v o (t ) = 2 i + L

Problem 7.16

10
iL(t)
v(t)

+
10 H

vL(t)

Figure 7.1

## i L ( t ) = ( 2)( 1 e -t )[u(t ) u(t 1)] + [-2 + ( 4 2 e -1 ) e - (t 1) ] u(t 1) A

v L ( t ) = 20 e -t u(t ) [20 e -t + ( 20)( 2 e -1 ) e - (t 1) ] u(t 1) V

Problem 7.17

## Given v( t ) = 10 u ( t ) V , find i o ( t ) for the circuit in Figure 7.1.

1 k

1 mF

va
v(t)

vb

io(t)
+
vo(t)

10

Figure 7.1

v a v( t )
d
+ 1m [ v a v o ( t )] = 0 ,
1k
dt

where v a = v b = 0 V .

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

- v( t ) =

dv o ( t )
dt

v o ( t ) = - v( ) d = -0 10 u ( ) d = -10 t V
t

i o (t) =

[7.59]

Problem 7.18

v o (t)
= - t u(t) A
10

## Obtain v o for t > 0 in the circuit of Figure 7.1.

t=0
+

4V

10 k

10 k

+
25 F

vo

Figure 7.1
This is a very interesting problem and has both an important ideal solution as well as an important
practical solution. Let us look at the ideal solution first. Just before the switch closes, the value
of the voltage across the capacitor is zero, which means that the voltage at both input terminals of
the op amp are zero. As soon as the switch closes, the output tries to go to a voltage such that the
inputs to the op amp both go to 4 volts. The ideal op amp puts out whatever current is necessary
to reach this condition. An infinite (impulse) current is necessary if the voltage across the
capacitor is to go to 8 volts in zero time (8 volts across the capacitor will result in 4 volts
appearing at the negative terminal of the op amp). So v o will be equal to 8 volts for all t > 0 .
What happens in a real circuit? Essentially, the output of the amplifier portion of the op amp
goes to whatever its maximum value can be. Then, this maximum voltage appears across the
output resistance of the op amp and the capacitor that is in series with it. This then results in an
exponential rise in the capacitor voltage to the steady-state value of 8 volts.
For all values of v C ( t ) less than 8 V,

## v C ( t ) = Vop -amp -max (1 e -t (R out C ) ) V

where Vop-amp -max is the maximum value of the op amp and R out is the real output resistance of
the practical op amp.
When t is large enough so that the 8 V is reached,

v C (t ) = 8 V

## TRANSIENT ANALYSIS WITH PSPICE

[7.69]
The switch in Figure 7.1 moves from position a to b at t = 0 .
Problem 7.19
Use PSpice to find i( t ) for t > 0 .

6
4

t=0
108 V

i(t)
6

2H

Figure 7.1
(a)

When the switch is in position a, the schematic is shown below. We insert IPROBE to
display i. After simulation, we obtain,

i(0) = 7.714 A

## from the display of IPROBE.

(b)

When the switch is in position b, the schematic is as shown below. For inductor L1, we
let IC = 7.714 A. By clicking Analysis/Setup/Transient, we let Print Step = 25 ms and
Final Step = 2 s. After Simulation, we click Trace/Add in the probe menu and display
I(L1) as shown below. Note that i() = 12 A , which is correct.

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

We now know the initial and final values of the current through the inductor.

i(0) = 7.714 A

i() = 12 A

To find the current through the inductor for any value of time, we need to know the time constant
of the circuit. Using the circuit from part (b),

R eq = 3 || 6 + 4 = 2 + 4 = 6
= L R eq = 2 6 = 1 3 s

Therefore,

## i( t ) = i() + [ i(0) i()] e - t

i( t ) = 12 + [7.714 12] e -3t = 12 4.286 e -3t A

## Problem Solving Workbook Contents

APPLICATIONS

[7.73]
Figure 7.1 shows a circuit for setting the length of time voltage is
Problem 7.20
applied to the electrodes of a welding machine. The time is taken as how long it takes the
capacitor to charge from 0 to 8 V. What is the time range covered by the variable resistor?

100 k
to 1 M

Welding
control
unit

2 F

12 V

Electrode

Figure 7.1
Carefully DEFINE the problem.
Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.
PRESENT everything you know about the problem.
This is an RC circuit with a dc voltage source. When the welding machine is activated, the
dc source supplies power to the RC circuit. To find the time in which it takes the capacitor to
charge from 0 to 8 V, we need to find the response of the RC circuit, written as

## v( t ) = v() + [ v(0) v()] e- t

where v(0) is the initial voltage across the capacitor, v() is the steady-state value of the
voltage across the capacitor, and is the time constant of the RC circuit.
Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the
greatest likelihood of success.
The three solution techniques that can be used are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, and basic
circuit analysis. Basic circuit analysis can be used to solve this problem.
ATTEMPT a problem solution.

## v( t ) = v() + [ v(0) v()] e- t

and
v(0) = 0 V
-t
v( t ) = (12)(1 e )

v() = 12 V

## Let the voltage at an unknown time, t 0 , be equal to 8 V.

v( t 0 ) = 8 = (12) (1 e - t 0 )

8
= 1 e- t 0
12
t 0 = ln (3)

e- t 0 =

1
3

For R = 100 k ,

## = RC = (100 103 )(2 10-6 ) = 0.2 s

t 0 = 0.2 ln (3) = 0.2197 s
For R = 1 M ,

## = RC = (1 106 )(2 10-6 ) = 2 s

t 0 = 2 ln (3) = 2.197 s
Thus,

## 0.2197 s < t 0 < 2.197 s

EVALUATE the solution and check for accuracy.
For R = 100 k ,

## = RC = (100 103 )(2 10-6 ) = 0.2 s

v(0.2197) = (12)(1 e - t ) = (12)(1 e -0.2197 0.2 ) = 8 V
For R = 1 M ,

## = RC = (1 106 )(2 10-6 ) = 2 s

v(2.197) = (12)(1 e - t ) = (12)(1 e -2.197 2 ) = 8 V
Our check for accuracy was successful.
Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not,