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Source-Free RC Circuit

Source-Free RL Circuit

Singularity Functions

Step Response of an RC Circuit

Step Response of an RL Circuit

First-Order Op Amp Circuits

Transient Analysis with PSpice

Applications

SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT

Problem 7.1

10

iC(t)

+

vC(t)

1/5 F

Figure 7.1

Carefully DEFINE the problem.

Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.

PRESENT everything you know about the problem.

This is a source-free RC circuit. The natural response of this source-free RC circuit is

v C ( t ) = V0 e -t ,

where V0 = v C (0)

and

= RC

We know the initial voltage across the capacitor. To find the capacitor voltage for any time

greater than zero, we need to calculate the time constant of the circuit.

Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the

greatest likelihood of success.

The three solution techniques that can be used are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, and basic

circuit analysis. Basic circuit analysis can be used to solve this problem.

V0 = v C (0) = 10 V

v C ( t ) = 10 e

-t 2

= RC = (10)(1 5) = 2 s

or

i C (t) = C

- v C (t)

R

i C (t) =

and

dv C ( t )

dt

i C ( t ) = - e -t 2 A

In either case,

Using KVL,

10 i C ( t ) + v C ( t ) = (10)(-e -t 2 ) + 10 e -t 2 = 0

Our check for accuracy was successful.

Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not,

then return to ALTERNATIVE solutions and continue through the process again.

This problem has been solved satisfactorily.

[7.23]

Problem 7.2

functions.

v2(t)

v1(t)

1

2

1

(a)

(b)

v3(t)

v3(t)

2

t

2

0

(c)

(d)

Figure 7.1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Problem 7.3

v1 ( t ) = u ( t + 1) u ( t ) + [ u ( t 1) u ( t )]

v1 ( t ) = u(t + 1) 2 u(t ) + u(t 1)

v 2 ( t ) = (4 t ) [ u ( t 2) u ( t 4)]

v 2 ( t ) = -( t 4) u ( t 2) + ( t 4) u ( t 4)

v 2 ( t ) = 2 u(t 2) r(t 2) + r(t 4)

v 3 ( t ) = 2 [ u(t 2) u(t 4)] + 4 [ u(t 4) u(t 6)]

v 3 ( t ) = 2 u(t 2) + 2 u(t 4) 4 u(t 6)

v 4 ( t ) = -t [ u ( t 1) u ( t 2)] = -t u(t 1) + t u ( t 2)

v 4 ( t ) = (-t + 1 1) u ( t 1) + ( t 2 + 2) u ( t 2)

v 4 ( t ) = - r(t 1) u(t 1) + r(t 2) + 2 u(t 2)

10

+

i(t)

vc(t)

1/5 F

Figure 7.1

v C ( t ) = 30 e -t 2 V

Problem 7.4

10

+

vc(t)

1/20 F

Figure 7.1

10

v C (t ) = -2 e -2t V

e

SOURCE-FREE RL CIRCUIT

Problem 7.5

10

i(t)

+

vL(t)

5H

Figure 7.1

Carefully DEFINE the problem.

Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.

PRESENT everything you know about the problem.

This is a source-free RL circuit. The natural response of this source-free RL circuit is

i L ( t ) = I 0 e -t ,

where I 0 = i L (0)

and

=L R

We know the initial current through the inductor. To find the current through the inductor for

any value of time greater than zero, we need to calculate the time constant of the circuit.

Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the

greatest likelihood of success.

The three solution techniques that can be used are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, and basic

circuit analysis. Basic circuit analysis can be used to solve this problem.

ATTEMPT a problem solution.

I 0 = i L (0) = 4 A

and

= L R = 5 10 = 0.5 s

or

v L (t) = L

i( t ) = 4 e -2 t A

v L ( t ) = -10 i( t )

di( t )

dt

In either case,

v L ( t ) = - 40 e -2 t V

Using KVL,

Our check for accuracy was successful.

Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not,

then return to ALTERNATIVE solutions and continue through the process again.

This problem has been solved satisfactorily.

i( t ) = 4 e -2t u(t ) A

Problem 7.6

v L ( t ) = - 40 e -2t u(t ) V

and

20

i(t)

+

10 H

vL(t)

Figure 7.1

L R = 10 20 = 0.5 s

i( t ) =

1

v ( ) d

L L

but it is also

i( t ) =

Problem 7.7

- v L (t )

= - e -2t u(t ) A

R

and w 10 (total energy dissipated by the 10 ohm resistor) for the circuit in Figure 7.1.

10

i(t)

5H

Figure 7.1

i( t ) = 2 e -2t A

p10 = 40 e -4t W

w 10 = 10 J

SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS

Problem 7.8

Solve for

(a)

du ( t )

dt

(a)

0 t < 0

u (t ) =

1 t > 0

dr ( t )

dt

(b)

0

t<0

d

u ( t ) = undefined t = 0

dt

0

t>0

(b)

0 t 0

r(t ) =

t t > 0

0 t 0

d

r(t) =

dt

1 t > 0

Problem 7.9

d

u ( t ) = (t )

dt

d

r ( t ) = u( t )

dt

iC(t)

vC(t)

1/10 F

Figure 7.1

iC (t ) = C

d

v (t)

dt C

i C (t) =

1 d

1 d

d

[ 5 u ( t ) + 6 r ( t )] = 5 u ( t ) + 6 r ( t )

10 dt

10 dt

dt

i C (t) =

Problem 7.10

1

[ 5 (t ) + 6 u(t )] A

10

Solve for

(a)

( t ) dt

(b)

u ( t) dt

(a)

u( t )

(b)

r(t )

Problem 7.11

10

iC(t)

v(t)

vc(t)

1/20 F

Figure 7.1

1 1

= RC = (10) = s

20 2

v C ( 0) = 0 V

v C () = 20 V

i C (t) = C

dv C ( t ) 1

= (-20)(-2 e -2t ) = 2 e -2t u(t ) A

20

dt

[7.37]

Problem 7.12

circuit of Figure 7.1

12

7

i(t)

+

vs

0.5 F

v(t)

Figure 7.1

For t < 0 ,

v s = 5 u (t ) = 0

v(0) = 0 V

For t > 0 ,

vs = 5 V ,

v() =

4

5

(5) = V

4

4 + 12

R eq = 7 + 4 || 12 = 10 ,

= R eq C = (10)(1 2) = 5 s

v( t ) = 1.25 ( 1 e -t 5 ) V

dv 1 - 5 - 1 -t 5

= e

dt 2 4 5

i( t ) = 0.125 e -t 5 A

i( t ) = C

Problem 7.13

10

i(t)

+

v(t)

2i(t)

vc(t)

1/10 F

Figure 7.1

Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit at the terminals of the capacitor. This will simplify

the circuit, forming an RC circuit with a voltage source.

Use the following circuit to find the open circuit voltage.

10

i(t)

v(t)

2i(t)

Voc

i( t ) = 0 A .

To find the short circuit current,

10

i(t)

v(t)

2i(t)

I sc = i( t ) + 2 i( t ) = 3 i( t )

I sc =

Isc

where i( t ) =

v( t )

10

3

v( t )

10

Thus,

R Th =

Voc 10

=

I sc

3

10/3

v(t)

1/10 F

Using the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the capacitor as the load, we can see that

10 1 1

= R th C = = s

3 10 3

For t < 0 ,

v( t ) = 0 V ,

v C (t ) = 0 V

v C (0) = 0 V , v C () = 0 V

v( t ) = 10 V ,

v C (0) = 0 V , v() = 10 V

v C ( t ) = (10)(1 e -3t ) V

v( t ) = 0 V ,

For 2 < t ,

v C (2) = (10)(1 e -6 ) V ,

v C () = 0 V

Combining these cases,

v C (t ) =

Problem 7.14

10

iL(t)

v(t)

vL(t)

5H

Figure 7.1

L 5 1

=

= s

R 10 2

i L (0) = 0 A

i L ( t ) = (4)(1 e -2t ) u(t ) A

v L (t) = L

di L ( t )

= (5)(4)(2) e -2 t u ( t ) = 40 e -2 t u(t ) V

dt

[7.55]

Problem 7.15

6

+

+

10 V

vo

4H

2

t=0

Figure 7.1

Let i be the inductor current. For t < 0, the inductor acts like a short circuit and the 2 resistor is

short-circuited so that the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (a).

10

10

For t > 0,

3

2

(a)

i = i(0) =

io

(b)

10

= 1.6667 A

6

R th = 2 + 3 || 6 = 4 ,

L

4

= =1s

R th 4

10 v v v

10

V

= +

v =

6

3 2

6

v 5

i = i() = = A

2 6

5 10 5

5

i( t ) = + e -t = (1 + e - t ) A

6 6 6

6

di 10 10 -t

10 10 - t

5

=

+ e + (4) (-1) e - t =

e

6

dt 6 6

6 6

v o ( t ) = 1.6667 ( 1 e -t ) V

v o (t ) = 2 i + L

Problem 7.16

10

iL(t)

v(t)

+

10 H

vL(t)

Figure 7.1

v L ( t ) = 20 e -t u(t ) [20 e -t + ( 20)( 2 e -1 ) e - (t 1) ] u(t 1) V

Problem 7.17

1 k

1 mF

va

v(t)

vb

io(t)

+

vo(t)

10

Figure 7.1

v a v( t )

d

+ 1m [ v a v o ( t )] = 0 ,

1k

dt

where v a = v b = 0 V .

- v( t ) =

dv o ( t )

dt

v o ( t ) = - v( ) d = -0 10 u ( ) d = -10 t V

t

i o (t) =

[7.59]

Problem 7.18

v o (t)

= - t u(t) A

10

t=0

+

4V

10 k

10 k

+

25 F

vo

Figure 7.1

This is a very interesting problem and has both an important ideal solution as well as an important

practical solution. Let us look at the ideal solution first. Just before the switch closes, the value

of the voltage across the capacitor is zero, which means that the voltage at both input terminals of

the op amp are zero. As soon as the switch closes, the output tries to go to a voltage such that the

inputs to the op amp both go to 4 volts. The ideal op amp puts out whatever current is necessary

to reach this condition. An infinite (impulse) current is necessary if the voltage across the

capacitor is to go to 8 volts in zero time (8 volts across the capacitor will result in 4 volts

appearing at the negative terminal of the op amp). So v o will be equal to 8 volts for all t > 0 .

What happens in a real circuit? Essentially, the output of the amplifier portion of the op amp

goes to whatever its maximum value can be. Then, this maximum voltage appears across the

output resistance of the op amp and the capacitor that is in series with it. This then results in an

exponential rise in the capacitor voltage to the steady-state value of 8 volts.

For all values of v C ( t ) less than 8 V,

where Vop-amp -max is the maximum value of the op amp and R out is the real output resistance of

the practical op amp.

When t is large enough so that the 8 V is reached,

v C (t ) = 8 V

[7.69]

The switch in Figure 7.1 moves from position a to b at t = 0 .

Problem 7.19

Use PSpice to find i( t ) for t > 0 .

6

4

t=0

108 V

i(t)

6

2H

Figure 7.1

(a)

When the switch is in position a, the schematic is shown below. We insert IPROBE to

display i. After simulation, we obtain,

i(0) = 7.714 A

(b)

When the switch is in position b, the schematic is as shown below. For inductor L1, we

let IC = 7.714 A. By clicking Analysis/Setup/Transient, we let Print Step = 25 ms and

Final Step = 2 s. After Simulation, we click Trace/Add in the probe menu and display

I(L1) as shown below. Note that i() = 12 A , which is correct.

We now know the initial and final values of the current through the inductor.

i(0) = 7.714 A

i() = 12 A

To find the current through the inductor for any value of time, we need to know the time constant

of the circuit. Using the circuit from part (b),

R eq = 3 || 6 + 4 = 2 + 4 = 6

= L R eq = 2 6 = 1 3 s

Therefore,

i( t ) = 12 + [7.714 12] e -3t = 12 4.286 e -3t A

APPLICATIONS

[7.73]

Figure 7.1 shows a circuit for setting the length of time voltage is

Problem 7.20

applied to the electrodes of a welding machine. The time is taken as how long it takes the

capacitor to charge from 0 to 8 V. What is the time range covered by the variable resistor?

100 k

to 1 M

Welding

control

unit

2 F

12 V

Electrode

Figure 7.1

Carefully DEFINE the problem.

Each component is labeled completely. The problem is clear.

PRESENT everything you know about the problem.

This is an RC circuit with a dc voltage source. When the welding machine is activated, the

dc source supplies power to the RC circuit. To find the time in which it takes the capacitor to

charge from 0 to 8 V, we need to find the response of the RC circuit, written as

where v(0) is the initial voltage across the capacitor, v() is the steady-state value of the

voltage across the capacitor, and is the time constant of the RC circuit.

Establish a set of ALTERNATIVE solutions and determine the one that promises the

greatest likelihood of success.

The three solution techniques that can be used are nodal analysis, mesh analysis, and basic

circuit analysis. Basic circuit analysis can be used to solve this problem.

ATTEMPT a problem solution.

and

v(0) = 0 V

-t

v( t ) = (12)(1 e )

v() = 12 V

v( t 0 ) = 8 = (12) (1 e - t 0 )

8

= 1 e- t 0

12

t 0 = ln (3)

e- t 0 =

1

3

For R = 100 k ,

t 0 = 0.2 ln (3) = 0.2197 s

For R = 1 M ,

t 0 = 2 ln (3) = 2.197 s

Thus,

EVALUATE the solution and check for accuracy.

For R = 100 k ,

v(0.2197) = (12)(1 e - t ) = (12)(1 e -0.2197 0.2 ) = 8 V

For R = 1 M ,

v(2.197) = (12)(1 e - t ) = (12)(1 e -2.197 2 ) = 8 V

Our check for accuracy was successful.

Has the problem been solved SATISFACTORILY? If so, present the solution; if not,

then return to ALTERNATIVE solutions and continue through the process again.

This problem has been solved satisfactorily.

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