White Paper: Memony F$ash
gizmo, Most gadget, every whatsit, whosit and uses this technology. Here's
NAND I'loR vs. flash memory cells

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is Elash momory on6olth€ mostLrs€ful, I andubiqlitous, t€ch nv€niionsorth€ lasi 25 yea6. lt's becomoth6 podablestorag6m€dia cholco emald€vio€ssuch oi for aBUSBthumb dnv€s, dlgitalcam€fas, o€ll phon€s, digitalm€da play€rc, t and and pols€d f€plac6 spinnlng looks to tho hard drivos lapiops. in Although Toshba Inv€rt6dth6 t€ohnotogy,Ints wasthe ilrst oompany niroduc€ to a commercidflash momorychip, it cur and l€rtly holdethe lion'sshar€oi th6 mafk€i (tollowed Samsung). t€chnology by Thb wasdubb€d"tlash"bocause prccossof lh€ oiaEing conbnts 6vok€dlmsg€eotnash itg phoiogEphy. Flashmsmoryls a nonvolatilE (m6anhgn do63not requllselectdcal pow6r to r€laintho intormailon slorcd li it)typo ot (E EEPBOIV eclically E|asebl€ Prcgrammable y Fsad-on M€mod lhai can b6 6ras€d and prcgEmmedi la€e blocks.Othff typ€sof EEPFIOI'/S, as thoseusedio storoa suoh BIOS, mustb6 6Esed in iho r sntlBty b€loE newdatacan b€ wdtt6n.Flashmemory sto6s datain an aray ot c6llswith a uansistor at 6achlnt6€6ctionof a rcw and column.t erases wit€s dala ln chrfks, instsadof and ono byt6at a iime, so it doss nol sufferJpm the samelimitation iypica or EEPBOI,IS. FlashmemorysiorBsdaia in an arrayof c€ ls consistingoi two transistoF-a iloating gai€ and a conirol gat€-sgparated by athin layorofoxld6 insulation, When s!fncient vo[ageis applied the contro] gat€, to excit€delectronsare pushedihroughthe oxids ayd(in a pbcessknown iunas neling") accumulate and inside floatirs th6 gate.When happens, ceilchang€s this the its stored b i valueirom 0 to 1. Undernormal conditions, elecirons the trapped the on gatswon'tdisotherside oJtheioating


€r.Forth€s6 f6asons, NOAfla6hmamory is oil€nd6ploy6d handhsld in dsvlcEB, as slch Slngl€'lev6l (SLC) c6ll d€vicos slo€ one cellphon€s, n 6mb6dded and sysl€ms. bli ot daiain 6achcell.Muliil€vel (l/LC) call Toshlba d€v€op€dNAND tlashr.smory d6vc6s6af sio€ rnof6than bit of data on€ laier,but t lacksih€ random-accsss narur6 in sachc€ | by accumulatlng dltf6r6nil6v€ls oi NOAm€moryThatprcdudes it ffom us6 or oloovloal gat€. chargE in5ido tloatlng lh6 as a cplacerilent tor syst€mROI\,4. rho On A hvo-blt , torinstancs, dEtinguish otherhand, c6l can NAND boasts much iast€r sras€ beiw€€n distnotvotiag€s. low andwdtsllm€s, andlt pbvid€sgr€al€r sloraged€nsityand a loweroosi psr blt oi IT'S LOGICAL sto€96. NANDcannol b6 partition€dand ^4emory-chlp us€ ottwo designors ons data musl b6 f€adflorn il ono s€gm€ntat mgthods d6tamapplng, of NAND NOR or a I mo.Th€s€ charactor rond€f stics NAND r€ms dBscibe iyp€ of logicgat6s simil lo olhsltyp€sof E€coidary tho {thos6 sionge, deploy€d), int€rconn6ct io mBmory cells. suchas had dives andopucaldiscs. You'll N€th€r approach univorsally is supghor rindNAND (CD, momoryln Compact Flash raiher,eachls bst suiledior a partlcular M6mory (Ml,lc), Siiok, l',{ultllvl€dlaoard al applical NOR on. (SD), flashmomoryc6llsaf€ tormsoi SeoureDlgilal andxD-Pciure conn6ct€d parallol, €achIndividualcell Cad modia.Ih€ in so t€chnology alsob€6n has canbe readandprcgEmmed individually. tapped foruseinsolld-statg d/ves. had NAND cellsareconnect€d s€desand in must be r6adfrom and wdnento in s6ri€s, FLASHFILESYSTEMS Theupshot ihat datacanbe readtbm ls Mosl removable flashmediahasan 6mb€dNOFflashin much sam€ lhs waythai ii! ded mlcrocontro Thisenables 16r SD, f€adrrcm Gndom-access mgmory(MlV). CompaslFlash, USBthumb and drivs io be Thanks10this attribute,most microproces- romatied usingth6 familiarFAT system file solscan useNORfash m€mory execuie- thatlvllcrcsoft opedfor MS,DOS. d deve (XlP) in-place memoryInoiherwords, NOB Flash memory d€vicos dor t have that tlash memorycan storeand sx€cutesoflan embeddsd crccontrcl iypicaily m er use wa€ programs witholr wfiting the instrucFTL(Flash TEnslationLay€r), Jilesysiem a tionsintoFAMf rst,NoF nashmemory can that makes aflashmemory devicslook alsobepaditioned, an applicaiion (Fll€ so can likea FAT Allocaiion Table) to tho disk runin onepartition whiledata simultane- operatingsyst€mbut that also pe'Joms is ously read,writtenio, or erasedlrom anoth- wearlev€ring. (Joumaling JFFS2 Fl6h Fil6

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Systemvers.2) was developedror using both wth Lnuxiit supports Iash devlces {iPEED ANN UURJ\AILN'ff prodliash-memory Theetailpice ofNAND ucts sD, cF,xD,andso on is deierrnined capacrty sPeeo ano largely two iactorsr by to Thefrst concopts easy lndersianditlie thaniishouldbe coniusng is second rnore m€6ureperlor manufactureF b6cause in mance d ifsferl ways. Etes lhe for Patrioltr,l€mory instance, card speedof lts 2GBCompactFlash (pad slreet PSF2G5oCE prce$2r)as number the be ng "50x-"Read specsheot,howevei lind andyou'lL lhat ths 50x relerson y lo the readsp6€d;no Eting s q venfof w.l6 speed. 1 Assumins x s 150KB/s(withKB/sderined per the as 1,024 byt6s second, datatfanssc fer speedoi the f rst compact-d drvd), of cardis capabl€ transfedngdatato Patriot's its hostdeviceat a rat€of 7.32[,lB/s. l hand,stssepa' on SanDisk, lheother iof rale€ad andwrilesp€eds ils Ut|a ll card 2GBCompactFlash (slrealpr oe$36)or 1olvB/sand 9[48/s,Bpecllv€ly But since as me*u€s 1tr48 onsrnilion 1ssp€cchart you'llneedto do a I ttle mathto obtan bj,,ies, (usis Patdois teminol atruscomparison. €ad spo€dsol sk's ogy,SanD dsv c€ doLivec ot 9.53148/s wit€ spe€ds 8.58M8/s.) and bothhavo lash m€mory NoF andNAND cycl€s-anyoi a I n te numb€r €ras€-wite and 10,000 on€mllllon-but wh6€ batw€€n lhis imitaion s tyPcallyolfsetby wear n lev€Llng nstruciions iimwareihal couni for of the number writscycles 6achcel rernap bocksso thai lhe anddynamically evenly erasufas Ml€s aredishibutsd and memory d€vceshav€ NANDllash l\,4any 6r an embedded microconirol lhat p€riorms as a rolt ne known bad blockmanagement ih€ lla wrte op€raiioniails, mcrocontror6r ol can€map th€ datalo aspafesector are dsvices faci,mostNAND memoryLn whoniheyeave to known havebad blocks lhosebad b ocksare but thefactory, sinc€ sotheydonigei ihey're mapped known, and increaseyield hold wrttento. Ths helps component nolevery downcostsbecause as needstobe perlect longasthedevice its of at th€ delivefs least amouni storage clalms it. lor manlfacturer w6af bad blockmanagement, Thanksio ng ol leveling, theabs€nce anyrnov and o!tpaf6,moslf ashmemory media should ast any devicathat us6 ii. Thal'snot io say lsing t to stoe howeveri anyone it s inialllbLe, woud valuable conlent or d gtalpholos other m8 io be w€ | advised makebackupcopies.

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